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(An Autonomous institute)









This is to certify that the following students of third year
Diploma in Electrical Engineering have successfully
submitted &presented the project entitled, “ECO CAR” at
Government Polytechnic Mumbai during academic Year



Principal Head of the Department (Prof. S.D.Deshpande)
(Dr. P.N.Padghan)

------------------------- ----------------------------
External Examiner Project Guide
(Dr. M.S.Narkhede)

It is indeed a matter of great pleasure and proud privilege to be able to

present this project on "ECO CAR". The completion of the project work is

a millstone in student life and its execution is inevitable in the hands of

guide. We are highly indebted the project guide DR.M.S.NARKHEDE for

his invaluable guidance and appreciation for giving form and substance to

this report. It is due to his enduring efforts; patience and enthusiasm,

which has given a sense of direction and purposefulness to this project

and ultimately made it a success.

We would also like to express our deep regards and gratitude to the

PrincipalProf. S.D.DESHPANDE.

We would like to express our deep regards and gratitude to the


We would wish to thank the non - teaching staff and our friends who have

helped us all the time in one way or the other.

Really it is highly impossible to repay the debt of all the people who have

directly or indirectly helped us for performing the project.


We take an opportunity to present this project report on "ECO CAR" and

put before readers some useful information regarding our project.

We have made sincere attempts and taken every care to present this

matter in precise and compact form, the language being as simple as


We are sure that the information contained in this volume would certainly

prove useful for better insight in the scope and dimension of this project

in its true perspective.

The task of completion of the project though being difficulty was made

quite simple, interesting and successful due to deep involvement and

complete dedication of our group members.



1.1 Literature Survey

1.2 Aim ofthe Project

1.3 Objectives


2.1 Block Diagram

2.2 Block Diagram Description


3.1 Solar Panel

3.2Solar Charge Controller

3.3Battery Charge by using SCR

Chapter 4:-BATTERY

Chapter 5:- MOTOR DRIVES

Chapter 6:- BLDC MOTOR


6.1 Benefits of Project

6.2 Conclusion

Chapter 1



Nowadays, people start to concern the problem of global warming

and this problem really serious to next generation. And then the
exhaust gas of currently regular car is one of reason which cause the
temperature was rising. So the development of environment-friendly
car is a trend in the future. There are many different type of
environment-friendly cars such as Hybrid-electric car, Electric car, Fuel
cell car and solar based electric car.

I believe solar cars can be a big help for the environment. They
create less pollution and reduce the amount of oil drilling needed. Most
important is the battery. Since batteries only have a limited life it will
reduce how much people want them. However, people who live in
areas with a lot of sunlight will find them very useful. It is only a
matter of time before a way is found to store the energy for longer and
make it easier for everyone to use them. I also think the things
advance quickly and now that people see pollution as a problem more
money will be spent to improve the technology. I think it is time for
electric cars because the more people drive and buy them the more
they will work to fix the problems. Besides, people are learning how
bad pollution is, so they want to fix it and these cars could help.


1. To use solar, wind and piezoelectric energy as source of power to

drive the motor, and the motor power is transmitted to the wheels
and the vehicle to move.
2. To build a model solar car that has the energy efficiency of solar
energy resources in optimal condition.
3. To use scientific theory in designing the solar car
4. To apply mechanical and electronic skills in making solar car
5. To investigate the relationship between speed, force and load
6. To attach the students about the way to design a solar car
7. To introduce people about the car that use alternative energy (solar
8. To reduce the usage of non- renewable energy.


a) To explore the application of renewable energy such as solar

b) To use the renewable solar energy in building model cars.
Chapter 2

3.1 Block Diagram:-

Solar Foot
Panel Accelerator

2 DC
Batteries Motor Geared Transmission
Controller Motor
24 V Controller
12 Ah

AC to DC
Charger Break

3.2 Block Diagram Explanation:-

From outside most electric carslook exactly like fossil fuel-powered
cars. An electric car lacks a tailpipe and gas tank, but the overall
structure is basically the same. Under the bonnet, instead of a huge
engine all you will see is an electric motor and its controller. The electric
motor needs no oil, no tune-ups, and since there is no tailpipe emissions,
it does not necessitate any smog checks.

The electric vehicle power source is the battery which acts as a "gas tank"
and supplies the electric motor with the energy necessary to move the
vehicle. This gives the car acceleration. When the vehicle is idle there is
no electrical current being processed, so energy is not being used up. The
controller acts as a regulator, and controls the amount of power received
from the batteries so the motor does not burn out. This battery powers all
of the electronic devices in the car, just like the battery in a gas-powered
car. Everything else in the electric car is basically the same as its gas-
powered equivalent: transmission, brakes, air conditioning, and
airbags. Since electric vehicles use an electric motor, the driver can take
advantage of the motor's momentum when pressure is applied on the
brakes. Instead of converting all the potential energy in the motor into
heat like a fossil fuel-powered car does, an electric car uses the forward
momentum of the motor to recharge the battery. This process is called
regenerative braking.

There are many environmental benefits and personal benefits for having
an electric car:

Most electric motors can travel up to 150 – 180 km before they need to
be chargedNo tail pipe exhaust means no greenhouse gases such as CO2,
NOx and PM10sNo oil consumption means less reliance on fuelCars can be
recharged whenever is convenient to the userMore cost-effective than
regular cars because of long-lasting battery useCheaper to maintain
because they have fewer moving partsCreates less noise pollution
because the engine is silent
Chapter 3

3.1 Solar Panel:-

Photovoltaic modules use light energy (photons) from the Sun to generate
electricity through the photovoltaic effect. The majority of modules
use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells. The structural
(load carrying) member of a module can either be the top layer or the
back layer. Cells must also be protected from mechanical damage and
moisture. Most modules are rigid, but semi-flexible ones are available,
based on thin-film cells. The cells must be connected electrically in series,
one to another. Externally, most of photovoltaic modules use MC4
connector’s type to facilitate easy weatherproof connections to the rest of
the system.
Modules electrical connections are made in series to achieve a desired
output voltage and/or in parallel to provide a desired current capability.
The conducting wires that take the current off the modules may contain
silver, copper or other non-magnetic conductive [transition metals].
Bypass diodes may be incorporated or used externally, in case of partial
module shading, to maximize the output of module sections still
Some special solar PV modules include concentrators in which light is
focused by lenses or mirrors onto smaller cells. This enables the use of
cells with a high cost per unit area (such as gallium arsenide) in a cost-
effective way.

3.1.1Construction of Solar Cell

Although this is basically a junction diode, but construction ally it is little

bit different form conventional p - n junction diode. A very thin layer of p
- type semiconductor is grown on a relatively thicker n - type
semiconductor. We provide few finer electrodes on the top of the p - type
semiconductor layer. These electrodes do not obstruct light to reach the
thin p - type layer. Just below the p - type layer there is a p - n junction.
We also provide a current collecting electrode at the bottom of the n -
type layer. We encapsulate the entire assembly by thin glass to protect
the solar cell from any mechanical shock.


When light reaches the p-n junction, the light photons can easily enter in
the junction, through very thin p-type layer. The light energy, in the form
of photons, supplies sufficient energy to the junction to create a number
of electron-hole pairs. The incident light breaks the thermal equilibrium
condition of the junction. The free electrons in the depletion region can
quickly come to the n-type side of the junction. Similarly, the holes in the
depletion can quickly come to the p-type side of the junction. Once, the
newly created free electrons come to the n-type side, cannot further cross
the junction because of barrier potential of the junction. Similarly, the
newly created holes once come to the p-type side cannot further cross the
junction became of same barrier potential of the junction. As the
concentration of electrons becomes higher in one side i.e. n-type side of
the junction and concentration of holes becomes more in another side i.e.
the p-type side of the junction, the p-n junction will behave like a small
battery cell. A voltage is set up which is known as photo voltage. If we
connect a small load across the junction, there will be a tiny current
flowing through it.


3.1.4 Material Used In Solar Cell

The materials which are used for this purpose must have band gap close
to 1.5ev. Commonly used materials are-
1. Silicon.
2. GaAs.
3. CdTe.
4. CuInSe2

3.1.5Types of Solar Cell

A solar cell (also called photovoltaic cell or photoelectric cell) is a solid

state electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into
electricity by the photovoltaic effect. The following are the different types
of solar cells.

 Amorphous Silicon solar cell (a-Si)

 Biohybrid solar cell
 Buried contact solar cell
 Cadmium telluride solar cell (CdTe)
 Concentrated PV cell (CVP and HCVP)
 Copper indium gallium selenide solar cells (CI(G)S)
 Crystalline silicon solar cell (c-Si)
 Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)
 Gallium arsenide germanium solar cell (GaAs)
 Hybrid solar cell
 Luminescent solar concentrator cell (LSC)
 Micro morph (tandem-cell using a-Si/μc-Si)
 Monocrystalline solar cell (mono-Si)
 Multi-junction solar cell (MJ)
 Nanocrystal solar cell
 Organic solar cell (OPV)
 Perovskite solar cell
 Photo electrochemical cell (PEC)
 Plasmonic solar cell
 Plastic solar cell
 Polycrystalline solar cell (multi-Si)
 Polymer solar cell
 Quantum dot solar cell
 Solid-state solar cell
 Thin-film solar cell (TFSC)
 Wafer solar cell, or wafer-based solar cell (synonym for crystalline
silicon solar cell)

3.1.6 Types of Solar PV Setup

Each solar setup has its own benefits and limitations, and it is important
to gain a real understanding of these before you invest in a potentially
expensive solar PV system, to help avoid disappointment further down the

3.1.7 Maximizing Your Solar PV Return

It goes without saying that the bigger your solar array the more
electricity it will produce, but how else can you be sure you are
maximising your return?

Orientation of the panels

Solar panels in the northern hemisphere perform best when facing due
south, as this ensures that they receive the maximum exposure from the
sun as it travels east to west. There is little point putting solar panels on a
north-facing roof, so you may need to install them on a solar array
mounting on the ground to ensure you can get the panels angled in a
southerly direction.

There are different types of solar array mounting, but you can get fully
automated tracking solar mounts. These mountings track the movement
of the sun to ensure that at all times the angle of the solar array is
maximising exposure to sunlight. These are expensive, but they are also
by far the most efficient

Casting Shadows on your Solar PV array

It is important to ensure that shadows won’t fall on the solar panels
during the peak sunlight hours, as this will obviously adversely affect the
output of your solar system.

The effect of shadowing is amplified if your solar PV array has been set up
with string inverters. In this setup, each panel is connected to the next
panel in a series of strings, with each panel feeding a DC current to the
inverter. When a cell underperforms, bypass diodes reroute the current
around the underperforming cells. The problem is that rerouting the
current loses not only the potential energy from these cells, but also
lowers the entire strings voltage.

The inverter then has to decide whether to optimise the voltage of the
underperforming string or maximise the energy harvest from the
unaffected strings. Normally the inverter chooses to optimise the voltage
of the underperforming string, causing the performance of the whole
string of panels affected to drop significantly. Just 10% shading of a solar
PV panel can result in a 50% decline in output in this type of setup.

Solar arrays with micro inverters do not suffer anywhere near as badly
from shading compared to the arrays with string invertors.

As a result of the shading issue though, it is important to ensure that

shadows won’t fall on the solar cells during the peak sunlight hours as this
will obviously adversely affect the output of your solar system. It is also
important to have the foresight to predict tree growth in the coming
years, as solar panels should go on producing electricity for 25 years,
therefore trees that are currently of no concern could very easily grow to
sufficient size in 15 years to cast shadows diminishing the power
producing capability of the solar photovoltaic system.

Keeping your Solar panels clean

The operating efficiency of a solar PV panel is dependent on the amount
of sunlight that hits it, so if you panels are covered in dirt they are going
to produce less electricity. We cover the various techniques for cleaning
your solar array here.

Ambient temperatures of the panels

One of the key factors impacting the amount of electricity your solar
panels produce is the temperature at which they operate. It is easy to
presume more sun and therefore heat results in more electricity but this
is wrong. Different solar panels react slightly differently to the operating
ambient temperature, but in all cases the efficiency of a panel will
decrease as the temperature increases.

The negative impact of temperature on solar panel efficiency is known as

the temperature coefficient.

Solar panels are power tested at 250C, so the temperature coefficient

percentage illustrates the change in efficiency as it goes up or down by a
degree. For example if the temperature coefficient of a particular type of
panel is -0.5%, then for every 10C rise, the panels maximum power will
reduce by 0.5%.

So on a hot day, when panel temperatures may reach 450C, a panel with
a temperature coefficient of -0.5% would result in a maximum power
output reduction of 10%. Conversely, if it was a sunny winter’s morning,
the panels will actually be more efficient.

It is therefore really important to maximise airflow around the panels to

try to keep them cool so their efficiency isn’t negatively impacted.

Use more of the electricity

As mentioned in the solar PV costs section, it is best to use the electricity
you produce from your solar PV array, since that means you don’t need to
buy it at 15p from the electricity company. Selling the electricity back to
the grid means you are eligible for the export tariff which is only 4.5p /
Therefore in an effort to maximise the amount of electricity during the
day, it is worth changing some of your energy usage behaviour. For
example, it is better to run washing machines and dishwashers during the
day – so set them to start as you leave for work.

The other way to use all the electricity you produce is by incorporating
batteries into your solar PV array. Batteries will increase the upfront cost
of your array and they will require maintenance, but it means that any
electricity you produce during the day can be stored in the batteries and
then used as and when you require it.

Final thoughts on investing in a Solar PV system

Having received quotes for your solar PV installation, you need to run the
numbers to see if it makes financial sense for you to invest. It is
important to bear in mind though, that solar photovoltaic arrays are
modular, therefore new panels can be introduced at later dates as
finances allow, further increasing the electrical output potential of your

Installing a solar photovoltaic array on your property should not solely be

a financial decision though; you should also take into account energy

As demand for electricity in the UK continues to increase, the supply side

is not keeping up. Over the next 3 years, 8 of the UK’s coal power plants
are going to close due to EU legislation on emissions, and by the end of
the decade some of our nuclear capacity is also due to be
decommissioned. OFGEM recently predicted the UK could suffer from
blackouts as soon as 2015.

A solar photovoltaic system can therefore reduce your reliance on energy

companies, helping to minimise the impact of energy scarcity on you and
your family in the future.

3.2Solar Charge Controller :-

A charge controller, charge

regulator or battery regulator limits the
rate at which electric current is added to
or drawn from electric batteries.[1] It
prevents overcharging and may protect
against overvoltage, which can reduce
battery performance or lifespan, and may pose a safety risk. It may also
prevent completely draining ("deep discharging") a battery, or perform
controlled discharges, depending on the battery technology, to protect
battery life. The terms "charge controller" or "charge regulator" may refer
to either a stand-alone device, or to control circuitry integrated within a
battery pack, battery-powered device, or battery charger.

3.2Battery Charge by using SCR :-

An automatic battery charger circuit using SCR is implemented

in this project. It can be used to charge 12V batteries. Batteries with
different potentials like 6V and 9V can also be charged by choosing
appropriate components. The working of the circuit is as follows.
The AC supply is converted to 15V DC with the help of transformer and
bridge rectifier and the Green LED is turned on. The DC output is a
pulsating DC as there is no filter after the rectifier.
This is important as SCR stops conducting only when the supply voltage is
0 or disconnected from supply and it is possible only with pulsating DC.
Initially, SCR1 starts conducting as it receives a Gate voltage via R2 and
D5. When SCR1 is conducting, 15V DC will flow through the battery and
the battery starts to charge. When the charge on the battery is almost
full, it opposes the flow of current and the current starts to flow via R5.
This is filtered with C1 and when the potential reaches 6.8V, Zener ZD1
starts conducting and supplies enough Gate voltage to SCR2 to turn it on.
As a result, the current flows through SCR2 via R2 and SCR1 is turned off
as both gate voltage and supply voltage are cut off. The Red LED is
turned on indicating a full charge on the battery.
Battery Charging :-


2. for indoor use only. Do not expose charger to rain or snow.
3. Use of an attachment not recommended or sold by the battery charger
manufacturer may result in a risk of fire, electric shock, or injury to
4. To reduce risk of damage to electric plug and cord, pull by plug rather
than cord when disconnecting charger.
5. An extension cord should not be used unless absolutely necessary. Use
of improper extension cord could result in a risk of fire and Electricshock.
If extension cord must be used make sure that:
a) Pins on plug of extension cord are the same number, size and shape as
those of plug on charger.
b) The extension cord is property wired and in good electrical condition,
c) The conductor wire size is large enough for the AC ampere rating of the
charger as specified in the table below.
Equal to or greater than but less than
2A 3A 25 (17.6)
50 (15.2)
100 (30.5)
6. Do not operate charger with damaged cord or plug - replace the cord
or plug immediately.
7. Do not operate charger if it has received a sharp blow, been dropped,
or otherwise damaged in any way; take it to a qualified serviceman.
8. Do not disassemble charger; take it to a qualified serviceman when
service or repair is required.
Incorrect reassembly may result in a risk of electric shock or fire.
9. To reduce risk of electric shock, unplug the charger from outlet before
attempting any maintenance or cleaning.
Turning off controls will not reduce this risk. Clean only with slightly
moist, not wet, cloth. Do not use solvents.
b) To reduce risk of battery explosion, follow these instructions and those
published by the battery manufacturer and manufacturer of any
equipment you intend to use in vicinity of the battery. Review cautionary
marking on these products and on engine.
a) Someone should be within range of your voice OR close enough to
come to your aid when you work near a lead-acid battery.
b) Have plenty of fresh water and soap nearby in case battery acid
contacts skin, clothing or eyes.
c) Wear complete eye protection and clothing protection. Avoid touching
eyes while working near battery.
d) If battery acid contacts or enters eye, flood eye with cold running
water for at least 10 minutes and get medical attention immediately. If
battery acid contacts skin or clothing, wash immediately with soap &
water. If acid enters an eye, immediately flood eye with running cold
water for at least 10 minutes & get medical attention immediately.
e) NEVER smoke or allow a spark or flame in vicinity of battery or engine.
f) Be extra cautious to reduce risk of dropping a metal tool onto battery.
It might spark or short-circuit battery or other electrical part that may
cause explosion.
g) Remove personal metal items such as rings, bracelets, necklaces, and
watches when working with a lead-acid battery. A lead-acid battery can
produce a short-circuit current high enough to weld a ring or the like to
metal, causing a severe burn.
NEVER charge a frozen battery. Deep-discharged for an extended period
may develop permanent damage in one or more cells. Such batteries may
heat up excessively during high current charging.
Monitor the battery temperature during the first hour, then hourly there-
after. Check for unusual signs, such as bubbling or leaking electrolyte,
heightened activity in one cell compared to others, or hissing sounds. If at
any time the battery is uncomfortably hot to touch or you notice any
The power converter switches to ECO mode when the charger is not
connected to a battery resulting in a very low power draw of less than
0,5W, equivalent to power consumption of 0,012 kWh per day. When a
battery is connected to the charger power consumption depends on the
current demand of the battery and its connected vehicle / electronic
circuitry. After the battery has been charged and the charger is in long
term maintenance charge mode (to keep the battery at 100% charge) the
total power consumption is estimated to be 0,060 kWh or less per day.
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6

6.1BLDC Motor:-

6.1.1 Specifications:

 24V 350W electric motor with built-in

gear reduction transmission.
 Output shaft speed: 420 RPM.
 Includes 9 tooth sprocket for 1/2" x
1/8" bicycle chain. 11 and 13 tooth
sprockets are available for this motor.
 Powerful four brush permanent magnet
 100% ball bearing construction.
 22" long power leads.
 Shaft rotation reversible by reversing power leads.
 Three bolts on front side of motor for mounting.
 Mounting bracket dimensions: 4-3/8" long x 2-3/16" wide.
 Motor dimensions: 4-1/8" outside diameter x 4-5/8" long excluding
transmission and output shaft, 5-3/8" long including transmission
and output shaft.
 Weight 7.5 lbs.

a) Brushless DC electric motor (BLDC motors, BL motors) also known

as electronically commutated motors (ECMs, EC motors)
are synchronous motors powered by DC electricity via
an inverter/switching power supply which produces an AC/bi-
directional electric current to drive each phase of the motor via a
closed loop controller. The controller times commutation (hence
rpm) and creates current waveforms (hence torque). In this context
alternating current does not imply but does include
a sinusoidal waveform, with minimal restriction on waveform; it
must be periodic, and its frequency will determine motor rpm, and
the waveform does effect how smooth the generated torque is as
well as the motors efficiency at transforming electrical to
mechanical energy. In a well design PMSM the air gap magnetic flux
is spatial sinusoidal and the phase commutation currents are
sinusoidal, ninety degrees out of phase.
b) The motor structural elements of a brushless motor system is
typically permanent magnet synchronous motor, but can also be
a switched reluctance motor, or induction motor.
c) Brushless motors may be implemented as stepper motors as well;
however, the term "stepper motor" tends to be used for motors with
a radically different design and controlled with an open loop (hence
the controller cannot detect when the stepper does not stop due to
too high shaft load; there is not shaft position sensor). They are
frequently stopped with the rotor in a defined angular position while
still producing torque. A well design power supply/controller/PMSM
can also be held at zero rpm and finite torque.
Chapter 6

6.1 Benefits of Project:-

a) Gasoline independence: A solar based car is essentially gasoline

independent and along these lines it is easy on your pocket and the
environment. A traditional car adds to the already high air pollution
levels, whereas, a solar powered car does not produce any harmful
b) Solar cars are noiseless: A solar powered car is exceptionally
quiet and runs noiselessly, thereby, cutting the noise pollution that
comes complimentary with fuel-driven cars.
c) Longer life span: A solar car can easily last decades without any
expensive regular upkeep.
d) Low maintenance: The solar vehicles are specially designed to be
low maintenance and can be easily maintained to last years with
general cleaning of the solar panels.
e) Eco-friendly: One of the most significant benefits of a solar
powered vehicle is that it is highly nature-friendly. Solar powered
automobiles produce a negligible amount of greenhouse gasses that
are responsible for the depletion of the protective ozone layer.
f) Renewable and infinite source of energy: The sun is one of the
biggest renewable sources of energy and running solar powered
vehicles does not require any natural resources that are on the
verge of extinction.

6.2 Conclusion

a) The speed of the car depends on the material used as well as the
brightness of the sunlight.
b) The brighter the sunlight, the faster the car will move
c) The lighter the material used, the faster the car will move