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AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
wO 2-4155 TLLS.vO392 WO 3-6925
RELEASE NO: 69-79
SUNDAY June 1,
PROQJECT: BIOSATELLITE D
GENERAL RELEASE---------------------------------------------1-7 THE BIOSATELLITE D SPACECRAFT-------------------------------8 Tht- Adapter-----------------------------------------------8 Reentry Vehicle and Primate Capsule----------------------8 On-Orbit Stabilization and Reentry Attitude--------------8-9 Separation and Entry Systems-----------------------------9 Recovery System------------------------------------------10 Command, Programming, Entry Timing-----------------------10-11 Telemetry and Data Return--------------------------------11-12 Tracking--------------------------------------------------12 El.ctric Power-------------------------------------------12 Temperature Control--------------------------------------12-13 PRIMATE SUPPORT---------------------------------------------14 Capsule Atmosphere---------------------------------------14 Water-----------------------------------------------------14 Food-----------------------------------------------------14-15 Urine and Feces Collection------------------------------15 Restraint, Day and Night Lighting, Camera, Othei---------15 Behavioral Tasks-----------------------------------------16 SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTERS-----------------------------------17-21 THE DELTA LAUNCH VEHICLE------------------------------------22 23-25 LAUNCH WINDOW AND FLIGHT SEQUENCJ --------------------------RECOVERY OPERATIONS-----------------------------------------26 TRACKING AND DATA RETRIEVAL-------------------------------22 BIOSATELLITE PROJECT TEA-29
NATIONAL AEROJWLTICS AND SPACt ADMINISTkATION WASHINGTOND.C. 20546
H L .
June 1, 1969
BIOSATELLITE ORBIT PRIMATE
The United Statea will launch its third bio).ogical a highlyresearch spacecraft, the Biosatellite D, carrying no instrumented pigtail monkey, from Cape Kennedy, Fla.,
earlier than June 18. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration of satellite Is designed to use the weightless environment about space as & research tool to answer basic questions a man-like mental, emotional, and physiological proces3es in of 30 days. mammal two weeks or more in orbit--up to a maximum (macaca At flight's end, it will return the pigtail monkey by aircraft Nemestrilna) to the atmosphere for midair retrieval and flight to Laboratories in Hawaii.
-2The 14-pound adolescent male monkey will be carefully instrumented so that during the flight scientists can monitor wave patterns from ten areas of hi3 brain. They also will.
record heart action and respiration, take meaaurements at four circulatory system sites, make three urinary measurements and observe performance on two selected behavioral tasks. After the flight, they will look for bone density changes by X-ray at 17 skeletal points. They will seek changes in body
and blood cell mass, in fluid balance, and in the reproductive system. Experimenters believe the mission will be one of the most intensive studies ever made of a complex living organism. It will be the most exhaustive study ever wade of an organism in weightlessness--far more so than could be made with a man. Detailed physiological studies so far have not been possible in manned space flights. The instrumentation is painless and will not harm the primate. Plans call for his return to Earth in good condition
for several months of further study of flight effects. Twenty-four physical measurements will be recorded simultaneously during the periods in which the monkey carries out scheduled actv'ities during the mission.
The detailed etud'ep.
will be thihe first ever mate.
during per'ods of sleep, viakeflresed(Yrd,
during two difficult tasks,
i,}e mnokey I s rewarded.
One task tests his short-;;e-n iremr,'j. coordir.nation. Food utiliz~a,1 Or:,
will be studied. Eighty per cent of' the experilmenta3 da'-a x1lJ be radioed
data bits per second) to Earth by high-speed telemetry (22,'.OO from 18 to 26 timres a day. 1ridlcated that Manned flights and otIher reseiarr) :)a-e short periods of red blood cell volume has declined during known to produce losses weightlessness. Prolonged bed rest is Soine sc.9entists think of bone calcium and reduced muscle ize. Russian effietis. r ;mj; that prolonged weightl-issneesq twl:y -rij mi eggest that GJ 2' e 5j studies of dogs during a sp.,ce flix1,t, 3ma have increased fluid in the smooth muscles of the int;,estr-res and liver malfunctions may have- ',oc.urred. The Biosate].lite primate exoeritment these findings to learn whether 6u il seek to verify
corioltiions bocome more
pronounced in prolonged weightlessnesr3.
PRIMATE SUPPORT SYSTEMS
WATER DISPENSER FOOD DISPENSER
ATMOSPHERE CONTROL SYSTEM (OUTLEP
DELAYED MATCHING TASK /9\ VISUOMOTER TASK BUTTON )CAMERA
TRANSPORT SYSTEM /
18-SECS LATER 0
1 * 0C .K
0 AN S'8.0
' t D,5St
-4The 1,5.16-pound, seven-foot-long Biosatellite D spacecraft will be launched into a 220-mile circular orbit. It
wil] be the first U.S. orbiting spacecraft to provide a twogas atmosphere resembling tne Earth's air (20 per cent oxygen,
80 per cent n:itrogen),
Sea level pressure of 14.7 pounds per-
square-inch anllo a "shirtsleeve" temperature oi1 75 degrees will be maintained. Equipment aboard the spacecraft will dispense food as a ,eward for morning and afternoon work, and during one "free rood" peiiod. It will supply water and will collect feces and
urine, providing a completely controlled laboratory environment in space orbit. Like previous Biosatellites, the spacecraft will maintain communications, power and stable attitude in orbit. Electric power and drinking water will be produced by a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell, similar to that on Gf mini spacecraft. The one successful previous Biosatell te was recovered from orbit in September 1967. It carried a payload of plants
and lower animals and demonstrated that plants require gravity o maintain their orientation. Results showed further that
in some organisms. radiation effects are far more severe in the weightless condition than on Earth. In some young and rapidly
dividing cells, weightlessness slows growth, allowing time for repair of radiation damage. -more-
-5Instrumentation implanted in the monkey's body Includes: ten electroencephalographic (EEG) leads, extremely thin stainless steel wires. These are surgically placed in the parts
of his brain associated with planning, recent memory, alertness,
long-term drives (fear, rage, sex), sleep and others. An eleventh brain sensor will monitor brain temperature. Two sensors will monitor eye motion. Two sensors in neck and Two
back muscles will monitor muscle tension and activity.
sensors under the skin on each side of the chest will provide electrocardiogram (EKG) and respiration data. Four catheters will monitor blood pressure in the -principal veins and arteries, and one in the bladder will collect urine continuously for three types of analyses, four times a day. Pre and post-flight analyses of blood, urine, and feces will permit about 50 different kinds of measurements of biochemical metabolic effects. Blosatellite D, third of the U.S. biological satellites, will be launched by the two-stage, "long-tank" Delta vehicle.
The spacecraft consists of three main sections -the
adapter section which remains in orbit; the reentry vehicle which carries the retro-rocket and heat shield; and the primate capsule. -more-
-6The reentry vehicle will carry the primate capsule into the Earth's atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean. The Plans
capsule will deploy a parachute and radio its position.
call for the capsule to be recovered it mid-air by a U.S. Air Force aircraft, and flown to temporary NASA laboratories at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii. It aerial recovery is not successful, the capsule will land in the ocean and send radio signals to search ships and aircraft. At least four important advances have been made in preparing the experiment. other applications. All have immediate medical or
These are an "error-free" teaching system,
a shoe-box-sized automatic urinalysis laboratory, a new method of surgically implanting and securing a permanent urinary catheter, and new techniques that make the computer a patternrecognizer of complex physiological data. The Biosatellite Program is managed by NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications. Project management is by The Delta
NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif.
launch vehicle is managed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., and is launched by Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
REENTRY HEAT SHIELD
'0 NA110N*& AQRONA.
irA. I grea..tP"'
-7Primary communications and tracking d.11 be by NASA's
Network (STADAN), satellite Tracking and Data Acquisition operated by Goddard. Electric The Biosatellttes are built by the General Co., Reentry Systems Dept., Philadelphia. The Delta is built
Santa Monica, Calif. by the McDonnell Douglas Aatroaautics Corp,, by a team The primate experiment isi being conducted investigator, of six scientists headed lby the principal W. Ross Adey, UCLA Brain Research Institute. Prof.
FOLLOWS) (END OF GENERAL RELEASE; BACKGROUND INFOROATION
THE BIOSATELLITE D SPACECRAFT The seven-foot-long, 1,536-pound Biosatellite spacecraft divides into the adapter, which remains in orbit, and the reentry vehicle, which returns the primate capsule into the atmosphere.
The 965-pound adapter is a four-foot-long cylindercone from 40 to 57 inches in diameter, which houses all systems needed in orbit only. These are the attitude control system, main radio transmitter and telemetry system, radio receiver, command decoder, programmers, power controller, fuel cell, batteries, tracking beacon, and tanks for liquid hydrogen and oxygen, gaseous nitrogen, and waste water. Reentry Vehicle and Primate Capsule The four-foot-long, 570-pound reentry vehicle is a 40-inch-base-diameter blunt cone. It contains the 315-pound primate capsule and separation and entry systems. Its aft
thrust cone nests into the adapter and carries a retro-rocket
and spin nozzles. Its oup-ehaped, fiberglass forebody encloses the primate capsule, and is completely covered by a phenolic nylon heat shield. An aft thermal cover, under the thrust cone, protects the recovery parachutes and their deployment mechanisms fronm entry heat. The primate capsule is an aluminum blunt cone, slightly smaller than the reentry vehicle, with nine cubic feet of inIt orovides life support tor the primate, ternal volume. houses experimental equipment and carries recovery parachutes.
On-Orhit Stabilisation and Reentry Attitude
0 AAB26 -2
COMPONENT INSTALLATION, PRIMATE MISSION 3 2 1
1. HORIZON SENSOR 9 2. CRYOGENIC TANKAGE 3. POWER CONTROLLER 10 4. ANTENNA-TM (RE-ENTRY) 11 5. SIGNAL CONDITIONER 6. RADIATION DOSIMETER 12 7. WATER DISPENSER 8. CAPSULE URINE SYSTEM 13 9. TAPE RECORDER 10. RE-ENTRY BATTERY 11. LIFE SUPPORT CONTROLLER 14 12. PROGRAMMER-TIMER 15 13. BEHAVIORAL PANEL / 14. RECOVERY PROGRAMMER 16 17 18 19 20 21 15. CAMERA 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 16. RE-ENTRY VEH!CLE 17. FOOD DISPENSER 26. RADIATOR 22. GAS MANAGEMENT ASSY 18. RECOVERY CAPSULE 27. WATER ACCUMULATOR 23. RECOVERY PARACHUTES 19. FECES COLLECTOR 28. ATTITUDE CONTROL NOZZLE 24. RETRO ROCKET 20. BLOOD PRESSURE SENSOR 29. MAGNETOMETER BOOM 25. FUEL CELL 21. ANTENNA-RECOVERY (FOLDED) BEACON
The in-orbit stabilization system consists of stored high-pressure nitrogen gas, six cold-gas thruster Jets, and three motion-sensing gyros. The gyros sense tiny motions in three perpendicular axes. The jets fire selectively to damp out or eliminate unwanted motions. They produce accelerations of less than 1/10,000 G. Slight spacecraft decelerations are caused by atmospheric drag of seven-millionths G at orbital
For reentry, the spacecraft must be aligned precisely to its orbital path, facing backward, and pitched downward 36 degrees. Two infrared horizon scanners provide data to align the spacecraft in pitch and roll to the deorbit attitude. For yaw, ground stations transmit data on the direction of the Earth's magnetic field at the geographical point of retro-fire. The spacecraft magnetometer then senses the direction of the field as a reference to line up the spacecraft in yaw with its orbital path. With the required deorbit attitude in all three axes, the reentry vehicle can separate and the retro-rocket can fire. Separation and Entry Systems Separation is controlled by programmed switches wrhich first transfer electric circuits from the fuel cell in the adapter to batteries in the capsule. They then order physical disconnect of electric and fluid lines. They fire explosive pinpullers. This allows spring actuators to drive the adapter and reentry vehicles apart at about one foot-per-second. Two seconds after separation, two cold-gas jets spin up the reentry vehicle to 60 rpm. The solid rocket in the thrust cone ignites, producing 1,000 pounds of thrust for ten seconds, and slowing the vehicle by 420 mph. A second pair of gas jets despins the vehicle to 12 rpm. Explosive bolts separate the thrust cone and spin-up system from the reentry vehicle. The slowed vehicle then descends and enters the atmosphere. Aerodynamic forces turn it heat-shield-forward, and the ablative heat shield dissipates reentry heating.
Recovery System The recovery system is part of the primate capsule. It consists of a two-parachute system and radio beacon.
About 17 minutes after retro-fire, at 80,000 feet
altitude, explosive bolts eject the reentry vehicle's aft thermal cover, deploying a 19-square-foot drogue chute. The chute slows the capsule, causing the reentry vehicle's forebody to fall away. Ten seconds later, the reefed main chute deploys to 72 square feet. Cutters disreef the main chute, opening it to 505 square feet. At about 10,000 feet, the main chute has slowed descent of the capsule to 19.5 mph. For sea landing, a recovery radio beacon operates for 12 hours. Command, Programming, Entry Timin&i
Commands for spacecraft and experiment operations come from the ground, or from one of six onbodrd programzmertimers in the reentry vehicle. Ground commands cannot be received by the reentry vehicle once it separates from the adapter. All entry and recovery commands are from two programmer-timers. Each programmer measures time intervals and contains logic circuits to originate commands in timed sequence. The main programmer-timer provides regular time pulses. It commands heaters, tape recorder, and most other systems. The main life support controller and associated equipment command water and food dispensing, urine flow, primate tasks, camera and other systems. The separation timer has the key job of commanding separation and retro-fire at the precise time in orbit to It is started by ground reach the planned recovery point. command, timed to 1/10 second, which orders an exactly-calculated time delay (40 minutes to 7.5 hours) before the beginning of separation commands. The separation timer has the key job of commanding separation events by timed ground command.
-11The deorbit timer in tne reentry vehicle sends the recovery commands for spin-up, retro-fire, and de-spin. The switch, and issues recovery timer starts by deceleration commands. Ground commands are received by one of two redundant These sets of command receivers and decoders in the adapter. route commands to: tracking beacon; telemetry transmitters; infrared programmers; separation programmer; attitude gyros, tape horizon scanners, magnetometer, fuel cell, water boiler, urinalysis recorder, camera, food and water systems, task unit,
The ground command system yes a varying-tone digital of the technique to deliver 70 separat,- .ommands. Frequency command receivers is 148.93 megacycles. Telemetry and Data Return The higgh-speed (22,400 bits-per-second) telemetry system data before will return an estimated 80 per cent of experimental primate recovery. The spacecraft carries two sets of two-watt telemetry One transmitters, plus digital sampling and coding equipment. The set in the adapter sends data to the ground during orbit. other in the primate capsule sends data after separation. A signal conditioner amplifies the many extremely weak and signals from the experiments as much as 10,000 times, to numerical the multicoder converts these analog signals ground. values from one to 60 for transmission to the Sample data on the entire mission is stored by the which seven-channel, 87-hour tape recorder in the capsule, and force data, collects experiment, engineering,
the Orbital telemetry is sent at 136.68 megacycles in code modulation mode. Data swords" reliable, low-power pulse
12.5 have seven data bits each, and are sent at a rate of allocated The 256 data words are 256-word frnmes-per-second. readouts and 65 per cent to reporting the 24 primate biomedical support systems other experimental data, five per cent to primate operation. (foods water, etc.) and 30 per cent to spacecraft Data returned includes reports of spacecrat't attitude; gas storage, temperature and pressure, tbenper .tures thmughout capsule the spacecraft; voltage levels And current di3tribution; feeding and watering. air supply and temperature; primate -more-
-12Deorbit telemetry is sent At 240.2 megacycles in an FM-FM mode. It reports spinup, retro-fire, and de-spin. Tracking The spacecraft reports its position by tracking beacon, with a continuous signal at 136.05 megacycles. One of two redundant beacons is selected by commend to radiate 100 milliwatts via an omni-directional antenna. Tracking stations measure position of the spacecraft, and this information is used to calculate the spacecraft orbit. The homing beacon in the primate capsule has an average power of .4 watts and frequency of 242 megacycles. Electric Power The electr'ec power subsystem consists of a fuel cell, batterles, inverters, converters, regulators, and distribution circuits. The fuel cell produces electric power through the combination of hydrogen and oxygen into waters For a 30-day flight, it requires ten pounds of hydrogen and 80 pounds of oxygen, for a continuous output of 135 watts, plus a quart and a half of water per day. Pressurized liquid hydrogen and oxygen are stored in 21-inch And 24-inch spherical titanium tanks in the adapter. A large silver-zinc 345 ampere-hour, 28-volt storage battery in the adapter can run the spacecraft a full day without the fuel cell. Small batteries are: two thermal batteries in the thrust-cone for retro-fireD four silver-zinc batteries in the capsule to provide power during recovery--including six hours of life support and up to 12 hours of radio beacon. Temperature Control The temperature control consists of circulating liquid to cool or heat spacecraft components. Heat. load varies with primate day and night cycles, cold orbits, etc. More cooling than heating is reqruired, and excess heat (mainly from the capsule atmosphere system and the fuel cell) is normally dissipated by the radiator (tubing wound around the outside of the adapter). With a very heavy heat load, the water boiler is activated. Rapid evaporation of water into space quickly cools the circulating liquid which is piped through the boiler. -more-
-13The system includes boiler, radiator, heat exchangers, pumps and thermostats. Warmed are: urinalysis experiment, fuel cell controller, liquid hydrogen and oxygen to turn them into gases, water accumulator and storage tanks, all in the adapter. A passive system holds internal temperatures in the adapter between 0 and 100 degrees F. It consists of a 28layer aluminized Mylar insulation blanket, attached to the vehicle skin. Cutouts in the blanket allow dissipation of internal heat by radiation. Reflective exterior coatings provide further passive control of temperature. During entry, capsule temperatures may reach briefly 100 degrees F, and insulation prevents them from rising higher. Low-power heaters in the spacecraft batteries and in the infrared sensors of the horizon, scanners prevent them frot freezing. Ten-watt heaters can bring the sensors to operating temperature of 50 degrees F. for deorbit in about one orbit.
PRIMATE SUPPORT Capsule Atmosphere Capsule atmosphere is made from nitrogen (80 per cent) and oxygen (20 per cent) provided from storage tanks in the adapter. Pressure sensors and valves maintain normal atmospheric Two thermostatically-controlled, low-flux pressure of 14.7 psi. 0 on capsule walls keep atmosphere temperature at 75 F. heaters The gas management assembly in the capsule removes water vapor (sweated and breathed out) from the capsule atmosphere by cooling and condensing it onto a wick from which tt is forced into storage tank. Carbon dioxide is removed from the air by Air Cooling is by heat two lithium hydroxide absorbers. control loop. exchanger to the temperature Beds Particles (hair, nails, dust, etc.) are filtered out. beds remove of activated charcoal remove odor. Other chemical ammonia, carbon monoxide, and noxious and toxic gases produced from feces and other sources. Water The monkey's water supply is manufactured in the fuel It is pumped cell by combination of oxygen and hydrogen gas water accumulator tank and from there from the fuel cell to the The monkey to a small (30 cc) tank with steel nipple attached. on rhe nipple, and the tank fills empties the tank by stle'ng automatically once an hour during the 12-hour day and once every three hours at night, for a 24-hour maximum of 480 cc (about one pint). Ground commands can increase sater supply to 720 cc (a pint Ingoing water is metered, and the primate's and a half) per day. is radioed to the ground continuously. water consumption Food The monkey's meals come in the form of square pellets, He gets up to 60 pellets (120 each weighing about two grams. grams) per day. Food serves as a reward for behavioral tasks. The primate does these tasks twice a day and can earn a maximum of 20 pellets In addition, during a free period, each session, or 40 per day. he gets additional- pellets beyond those earned, up to the day's total of 60.
BIOSATELLITE ATMOSPHERE, WATER, AND ELECTRIC POWER
LIQUID OXYGEN TANK NITROGEN TANK ATMOSPHERE CONTROL SYSTEM LIGHT WATER DISPENSER
LIQUID HYDROGEN TANK
CELL WATER AND
METABOLIC WATER STORAGE URINE PUMP AND COLLECTOR EXCESS WATER STORAGE URINALYSIS EXPERIMENT URINE STORAGE TANK WATER ACCUMULATOR
E*LD CAWON-A AWS RISIARC. CINh1t tMOMEEII
ADOWISItAIION AND SPACE AR@ONAUJICS
-15-The monkey is alerted that a food pellet Is available by a green light. He pulls a handle on the pellet feeder (located to his right), and a pellet pops up in one or eight feeder slots. When the monkey has failed to take 2 total of four pellets, the feeder ceases to work until he takes one. Some 18b1' pellets are stored on eight reels of perforated tape. Pellet consumption is counted and radioed regularly to the ground. Urine and Feces Collection Urine (about 400 cc per day) goes directly from bladder through a catheter which passes out between and the rectum and is routed to the storage tank in En route, a portion of it passes through the UC-JPL A small (100 cc) urine tank in the capsule device. urine collection during recovery. the primates the genitals the adapter. urinalysis will allow
Primate stools (about 40 grams per day) pass through a hole in the bottom of the couch arid are transported in zero gravity tv a flow of air to the storage bin under the couch. Gases are passed out of the bin through a bacteria filter, and are then processed by the atmosphere system. Restraint, Day and Night Lighting, Camera, Other
During the flight, the seated primate will occupy a space 26 by 10 by 10 inches, with some additional front and side alcoves up to five inches deep. He wears a vest-like nylon-cotton jacket, which has an apron extending down over his legs. This suit is a zipped to a hammock-like couch, laced to side rails. There is headrest, and the couch is about 27 inches long. This restraint system maintains the monkey in position during hIgh-G launch and reentry periods. It has no pressure points which could cause sores on a long flight. It allows motion of arms and legs but prevents him from tampering with urinary and blood pressure It allows him to easily operate food catheters and other sensors. and water dispensers and to perform tasks. The restraint suit was provided by USAF clothing Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Day is proDay and night for the monkey are 12 hours each. light of six to 10 footctndles. vided by an incandescent white Night is a deep red light, 30 times dimmer than the daytime light. A camera with 13,000 frames of 16 mm film will use these lights to take one black and white photograph every 20 minutes, (day or night) from liftoff to deorbit. It will take movies at four frames per second for 20 minutes during launch, for seven minutes during capsule separation and reent-y, and for nine two*minute periods during orbit. Photographs will be made of' the read
of the monkey.
-morethe mon--key. of
Behavioral Tasks The monkey earns a portion of his food by performing two basic tasks, 15 minutes each, twice a day. These are part of the brain studies and will help prevent boredom during his long isolation. The primate will have been trained to perform these tasks over a period of only 18 weeks, using newly-developed, errorless training techniques. The tasks require skill, and the primates respond to them very satisfactorily. -i the delayed matching task, one of four symbols will first appear on a lighted button in the center of a nine-inch disc display, directly in front of the monkey. The primate then Then all four symbols pushes this button to turn off the symbol. (X, 0, triangle, and square) will appear on buttons around the edges of the disc with a time lag of from one to 20 seconds. The primate then pushes the lighted button bearing the symbol matching the one wnich first appeared alone. The second is a visuo-motor task requiring eye-hand coordination. Two discs rotate at different rates of speed. The top disc is transparent, andi through it the primate can see a green button in the bottom disc. Howevev, he can only push the button, when a hole in the top disc lines up with it momentarily. The top disc rotates at 55-104 rpm and the bottom one at a slower rate so that the hole and button line up only once every 56 revolutions. Mar, finds this task difficult, but pigtail monkeys do it four times in five on Earth. Two successful performances at either task earn one food pellet.
SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTS Macaca nemestrina, the primate species to fly on Biosatellite, has been studied extensively prior to the flight. The monkey, native to Malaya and Thailand, is similar to man in major ore-ran systems and in general aspects of brain organization and card-oHe is somewhat more resistant to stress, vascular function. more rapid healing, and is more of a vegetarian than exhibits man. The flight monkey will weigh 14 pounds and be 31 inches tall. The adolescent male monkeys are imported by the Ames Research They are health-checked at Ames and sent to UCLA, Center. principal experimental organization, for taek training and brain Catheter implants will be made at UCLA labs sensor implants. UCLA will deliver five fully-prepared flight at Cape Kennedy. monkeys, installed in couches, to the capsule assembly area at From these the flight Cape Kennedy, 12 hours before launch. primate will be chosen. During the flight, the other four primates will be maintained in environments approximating that of the primate capsule as controls for the experiment. Primate Brain Function and Behavioral Monitoring--University of California at Los Angeles Brain Research Institute, Dr. W. Ross Adey, Principal Investigator The purpose of this part of the experiment is to measure and interpret the electrical waves from the primate's brain, and relate them to his behavior, his physiological state, and Primate brain wave data will be analyzed to weightlessness. by computer. Brain waves are the sum of the individual electrical impulses emitted by each brain cell. The ten brain sensors are pairs of thin stainless steel wires which enter through small holes in the monkey's skull. They are permanently sealed tn place six months in advance of the flight by a molded cap of dental acrylic. They are painless, since the brain has no sensory nerves, and the primate quickly becomes accustomed to them. In weightlessness, all normal gravity inputs to the nervous system are absent. These include regular signals to the balance mechanism of the inner ear, signals from muscles, Absence of these stimuli may tendons, and internal organs. affect mental states such as Judgement, memory, concentration and coordination.
These Four types of brain waves have been identified. and less, associated with deep are: 1) Delta waves: three Hz second, associated with sleep. 2) Theta waves, 4-8 cycles per recent memory. They alertness, orientation, discrimination, bottom of the brain, originate in thie temporal lobe, near the the brain. 3) Alpha and spread as a carrier wave throughout attention and resting), waves, 8-13 cycles per second (focused 4) Beta waves, above 13 best developed in the vision centers. fear, sex, rage), Hz (planning and long-term drives: hunger, appear in the brain's frontal region. brain very The ten sensors in the pigtail monkey's report on the roughly follow this wave breakdown. They thinking, deciding, following areas: Frontoparietal: planning, irOntotemporal: recent memory, fine focusing attention. uspMpg5: attention focus. Occipal: visua cortex. long-term drives: scriminating. Amygdala alerting, orienti formation, hunger, fear, rage, sex. Mid-brain, Re-Tcular and wakerulness, Centrum medianum: consciousness, sleep, from eye, ear, inner ear, muscles, joints, influenced by inputs and higher brain centers. such states Dr. Adey uses EEG wave patterns to identify dreaming, as: sleep (deep, light, drowsy), wakefulness, fatigue, and anger. memorizing, success, failure, effort, anxiety, neck and back Data from eye motion, brain temperature, measurements, muscle sensors, plus all other physiological sensors in muscles will be correlated with brain data. The or under skin are very small. eye motion. Then two sensors in the eye muscles monitor dreaming.) (Rapid eye motion in sleep indicates by the UCLA An "error free" teaching system developed and delayed matching experimenters to teach the visuomotor for a variety of other tasks to flight primates shows promise teaching applications. of Southern California Cardio-Vascular Monitorin - Universit oivsrao
Lo6sAgls Dr. J. P. Plee anI..
also will Blood pressure, heart function, and respiration provide both sensors be monitored continuously. The two chest data. and respiration electrocardiogram readings
arterv leaving Blood pressure is monitored in the central lungs, the to the heart; the puLmonary artery, from heart the tibial artery central vein, returning to the heart; and in the thigh.
-19Readings are taken via four open-ended catheters which enter the monkey at mid-thigh. Pressure of this fluid column is taken continuously by external pressure transducers. The .0055-inch-diameter catheters are kept clear by a salineheparin anti-clotting solution, pumped through them at .005 cc per minute. Pressure sensors, heparin pumps and containers are located on the back of the primate's couch. Urinalysis and Mineral-Protein-Liquid Balance - University of California, Berkeley-Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Drs. Nello Pace, U.C. and Joon Rho, JPL, Co-investigators The body has mechanisms for maintaining normal fluid content, protein and mineral percentages. These mechanisms may depend on gravity to function properly over long periods of time. Manned flights have shown that bones appear to lose density and muscles to lose mass in space. This portion of the experiment monitors automatically the monkey's loss or gain of calcium, and of the nitrogen-containIng compounds creatine and creatiniae. Loss of bone density is shown by loss of calcium. Since tissue is the principal nitrogen-containing part of the body, nitrogen loss is a clear indicator of muscle wasting. Creatinine is excreted at a regular rate, related to total muscle mass, but creatine shows a large increase in muscle-wasting diseases. Losses or gains of calcium and nitrogen are determined precisely by comparing input to outgo. The monkey's intake will be known exactly by a count of the number of food pellets of a known composition he eats. Calcium is excreted in feces (80 per (20 per cent). Nitrogen compounds go out All feces will be returned in the urine. analyzed after the flight for calcium and cent) and urine almost entirely to Earth and many other compounds.
Most of the urine will be left in orbit but regular reports of urine quantities and total amounts of calcium, creatine and creatinine excreted will be made from the spacecraft. A highly a miniaturized automat4 urine analyzer, 5 x 6 x 10 inches has been developed by JPL engineers. The device will make three analyses four times per day, clean itself chemically between analyses of the primate urine, and reca.Librate itself once a day. Measurements of changes in fluorescence and color of light passing through a tiny urine sample (1/2500 ounce) will record amounts of calcium, creatine, and creatinine leaving the monkey.
-20-. This compact "urinalysis lab" has great promise for medical use. In post-flight tests, University of California scientists will compare the following with pre-flight levels: 1) Body cell mass - They will monitor the amount of naturally radioactve potassium in the monkey's body compared with the amount before flight. Since potassium concentrates in body cells, number of cells can be calculated. 2) Red blood cell volume - Injected radioactive chromium 51 attaches to red cells; per cent of cells so labelled in a given blood sample gives total volume of red cells. 3) Plasma volume - Experimenters will insect a blue belood stream and degree of dilution of the dye dye into t after thorough mixing tells total volume of blood plasma. 4) Total-body water - Experimenters will inject tritium will diffuse through all water in (radioactive watewhich the body. From the proportion of tritium in a blood sample, total body water can be calculated. 5) Extra cellular fluid (including plasma) - Sucrose labelled with radioactive carbon 14 is injecteC, Because sucrose is a large molecule, it enters all body fluid areas except the cells because it cannot pass through cell walls. Hence the proportion of carbon 14 sucrose in the blood after thorough mixing tells total extra-cellular fluid. 6) Intra-cellular fluid - Obtained by subtracting extracellular fluid from total body water. 7) Blood will be analyzed for hemoglobin content and plasma protein content. 8) More than 30 biochemical analyses of urine and feces will be made, including for steroids, calcium, and phosphorus. Bone Density Studies by X-ray - Texas Woman's University, Denton, Tex., Dr. Pauline B. Mack, Co-investigator
-21Esefore and after flight, the primate will be X-rayed at 17 skeletal sites for changes in bone density. Five sets of X-rays will be made periodically before the flight, beginning 14 days pre-launch, to obtain baseline data on skeletal mineral present in spine, hands, arms, feet, pelvis and leg bones. X-rays will be evaluated in a bone densitometer-computer developed She will obtain information about the amount of by Dr. Mack. skeletal mineral in 175 sections of the 17 skeletal sites. After flight the primate will be X-rayed again at four, seven, 14, 30, and 60 days to measure his rate of recovery of any bone mineral lost during the flight. In preliminary studies, rapid regain of lost mineral has taken place. In similar studies of the astronauts, before and after flight, Dr. Mack found decreases in mineral in the bones because of the inactivity imposed by weightlessness, both in the hands and feet, the parts of the body X-rayed in this case. After fli.ght there tas a regain in mineral density of bones of all astronauts tested. There is evidence that exercise during flight counters effects of bone mineral loss in weightlessness. Th',e primate, because of his size, can be X-rayed in all parts of his body, with emphasis on the spine, neck of the femur, and other locations where osteoporosis (bone wasting) occurs in humans. Reproductive System - Harbor General Hospital, Torrance, Calif.. Dr. A. T. Cockett, Co-investigator Post-flight studies of testicular tissue and spermatazoa will determine possible changes in tissue and several types of reproductive cells during the flight. Sperm and pre-sperm cells will be checked for numbers, motility, morphology, and viability. The permanent-implant urinary catheter method used on Biosatellite D was developed by Dr. Cockett. It shows promise for many similar catheterizations in infants and children. Measurements of the monkey's brain activity and physiology will continue for two weeks and longer after the flight. During the first two weeks, post-flight examinations will be made on a regular schedule with an extensive initial examination immedlately after recovery, removal of catheters at three days, and restraint suit at four days. Subsequent events in the monkey's life will be of interest for several years to see if the maturing process and development have been affected by the period of weightlessness.
-22Tr2 DELTA LAUNCH VEHICLE Biosatellite D, weighing 1536 pounds, will be the heaviest spacecraft ever launched by the outstandingly successful workhorse Delta rocket. It is 590 pounds heavier than Biosatellites I and !I, orbited by Deltas in 1966 and 1967. This launch will be the 70th for the reliable Delta which has orbited 66 satellites in 70 attempts. For this mission, the two-stage, "long tank" Delta N will be used. This vehicle will have a first stage 14.42 feet longer than normal. The first stage will burn an extra 1.5 minutes to launch the heavier Biosatellite D. The spacecraft will be launched from Launch Complex 17; Pad A, on an initial launch azimuth of 119 degrees into a 231-mlle circular orbit, with a period of 92 minutes, and inclination to the equator of 33.50. Delta is 106 feet high (including shroud). Its liftoff weight is about 100 tc} * Liftoff thrust is 252,000 pounds; maximum thrust, 363,00`. pounds, including thrust of three strapon rockets. Engines for the kerosene-liquid oxygen fueled first stage are built by the Rocketdyne Division, North American Rockwell The three solid rockets which strap on the first stage Corp. are by Thiokol Chemical Corp. The UDt4H-IRFNA fueled liquid engines of the second stage are by Aerojet General Corp. The first stage is eight feet in diameter, 65 feet high, weighs 93 tons (including strap-ons), and has 184,000 pounds of thrust. The second stage is 16 feet high, 4.7 feet in diameter, weighs seven tons, and has about 7,800 pounds of thrust. Major autopilot contractors for Delta are Honeywell, Inc., Texas Instruments, Inc. and Electro-Solids Corp. Guidance contractor is Western Electric Co.
-23LAUNCH WINDOW AND FLIGHT SEQUENCE Launch window for each day will begin at 11:10 p.m. EDT and continue for four hours to provide for daylight recovery near Hawaii every day. This window also allows for deorbit attitude positioning, most readily achieved during darkness, with reentry at daybreak. These are the planned events in the Biosatellite D mission: The main Delta engine and three solid strap-on motors fire together. The solid motors burn for 39 seconds, and their burned-out casings are jettisoned at 65 seconds after launch. at 11 miles altitude and 1641 mph. The main engine burns out after three minutes and 1h0 seconds at 77 mailes altitude, at 25 miles down range and 10,310 mph. Six seconds later, the Delta second stage ignites. The first stage separates and falls away. Altitude is 83 miles, speed 10,300 mph., and Biosatellite is 154 miles down range. The shroud covering the spacecraft is jettisoned at 3.85 minutes after launch. Second stage engines burn for 6.23 minutes with burnout at ten minutes after launch, spacecraft 231 miles high, 1311 miles down range, traveling 17,260 mph. Injection into the first of a planned maximum of 469 orbits occurs at second stage burnout. One minute later, separation of launch vehicle and spacecraft occurs. Orbital Events With separation, liquid hydrogen and oxygen tank wall cavities are opened to vacuum for perfect insulation; attitude stabilization system is turned on; boom for the reentry magnetometer is deployed; and the food pellet feeder is unlocked. At 11 minutes after launch, urine and fuel cell water lines are opened. At 13.3 minutes, the primate goes on the normal day-night cycle for the flight. Day begins at 6 a.m. EDT and night at 6 Prm. He will have task-with-food-pellet-reward periods each day from 9-9:30 a.m. and 1-1:30 p.m. arid 20 or more "free" food oe3llets from 4-6 p.m. daily. Fuel cell purge by flow-through of hydrogen and oxygen vented to space now occurs automatically every six hours, with the first one six hours after the final pro-launch purge. At 20 minutes, the camera is switched from movie format, and will now take one frame of the primate's head every 20 It will take nine twominutes for the rest of the flight. morning delayed matching task minute movie strips during the on days 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 29, and 30. -more-
At 32 minutes, the first Johannesburg, South Africa, pass occurs; first telemetry is read out. At 97 minutes, the first Fort Myers, Fla., pass occurs (end of orbit 1). Telemetry is read out and urinalysis experiient turned on. On this pass, spacecraft stabilization shifts to the low-power automatic system. The higher power stabilization system will now be commanded on twice a day for most of the rest of the mission. At 3.3 hours, Quito, Ecuador, first acquires the spacecraft. It commands the tape recorder from continuous record to automatic sampling. It now will operate daily from 8:55 to 9:30 a.m., 12:55 to 1:30 pem. during primate task periods, and from midnight
to 1 a.m.
At 4.94 hours, the first .ima, Peru, pass occurs. Telemetry is reported. Data now will be collected for about five minutes during one station contact each orbit. In addition, experiment data will be collected during 58 of the total of 59 primate For these passes, station coverage task periods on the flight. will be extended from horizon to horizon, up to ten minutes. At 18 hours, Fort Myers will command check-out of the deorbit attitude system for a possible early call-down. The deorbit timer will be operated on the following two orbits. A similar deorbit checkout sequence is planned six days before recovery. At 15 days, a switch will be made from one to both lithium hydroxide absorbers to continue the effective carbon dioxide absorption from the capsule atmosphere. Switch will be sooner if C02 levels warrant. During orbit 464, six orbits (nine hours) before planned separation, time--to-entry point is loaded into the separation timer from Fort Fkyers. On orbit 465, Fort Myers turns on horizon sensors. The magnetometer is turned on, and adjusted to the Earth's magnetic field direction. During orbit 466, Fort Myers commands the attitude for retrofire and deorbit, starts the separation timer, and turns off the urine experiment. Recovery Events On orbit 469, last before separation, ground command arms the separation sequence. (At 23 minutes before separation, in case the main timer fails, Johannesburg will order start of the back-up separation timer to insure reentry.)
BIOSATELLITE RECOVERY SEQUENCE
SEPARATION - 400 SFC I RECOVERY TELEMETRY ON 2. RESET RECOVERY PROGRAMMER
SEPARATION -15 SEC TO -1.35 SFC 1. SHIFT POWER TO CAPSULE 2. RECOVERY BEACON ON 3 FEEDLINE AND ELECTRICAL DISCONNECT 4. DEORBIT BATTERiES ON 5. DEORBIT PROGRAMMER STARTS TIMING
REENTRY VEHICLE AND ADAPTER SEPARATE
SEPARATION +2.05 SEC SP NUP
SEPARATIOrq +3.3 SEC RETRO ROCKET IGNITION (ROCKET ACTION TIME = 10 SEC)
SEPARATION + 14 SEC DESPIN
SEPARATION + 16 SEC THRUST CONE SEPARATION
SEPARATION + 175 MIN 1. GSWITCH OPENS 80,000 FT. ALTITUDE 2. RECOVERY TIMER STARTS
SEPARATION + 18 MIN !. RECOVERY PROGRAMMER TIMES OUT 2. AFT THERMAL COVER EJECTS, 55,000 FT.
SEPARATION + 1825 MIN MAIN CHUTE RELEASES (REEFED)
SEPARATION + 18.3 MIN LINE CUTTERS DISREEF MAIN CHUTE
SEPARATION + ABOUT AERIAL RECOVERY
3. DROGUE CHUTE DEPLOYS 4. HEAT SHIELD FALLS AWAY
AND NATIKNAt AEROCNAUhICS SPACEA)MINISItRAIIN CINIEI MOCIF S4LD CAM.NIA AMES RESIARCH
-25From 400 to three seconds before separation, the separation programmer-timer turns on the reentry telemetry transmitter, and movie sets the recovery programmer, turns on tape recorder capsule, in the camera switches capsule systems to batteries disturns off task unit, turns on the recovery radio beacon; and thermal-control connects oxygen, nitrogen, water, urine, adapter fluid lines. It orders electrical disconnect of the batteries. and capsule, and activates capsule At; 1.B5 seconds., electrical disconnect of adapter and starts. retro-fire cone occurs and the deorbit progranmler At separation, the programmer orders separation; pin Two pullers fire; adapter and reentry vehicle move apart. spin-up of the reentry seconds later, the deorbit timer orders separation, vehicle for stable attitude; and 3.3 seconds after
retro-fire slows the capsule by 420 mph. At 14 seconds, de-spin occurs, and at 16 seconds, the burned At 16 out retro-fire cone separates from the reentry vehicle. the recovery programmer. minutes, deceleration switch starts reentry Twenty six seconds later, the programmer orders the deploys; to eject; drogue chute vehicle's aft thermal cover vehicle's lorebody falls away. Ten seconds later, the drogue chute pulls out the main disreef chute from the capsule, and five seconds later cutters does not the main chute. Aerial recovery then occurs. If it separation. occur, the capsule lands in the ocean 45 minutes after support Ten minutes later, recovery telemetry stops, Life to batteries operate for six hours. Radio beacon continues operate for about 12 hours after sea landing.
BIOSATELLITE COMMAND AND DATA RETURN COVERAGE NASA, DOD, AND INTERNATIONAL STATIONS
3 ORIS ORBITS 1,2,3,4'..2
A AI H WI E T QUITOR LM C~SAMOA
SINGAPORE CARNARVON WOOMERA
-- RECORD TELEMETRY ONLY STATIONS 0 REGULAR CDMMAND TELEMETRY STATIONS
-. ;, ,.i
LAUNCH AND RECOVERY STATIONS
RECOVERY OPERATIONS Force, Recovery of the primate capsule will be by U.S. Air as the with support of other agencies, by mid-air pickup on its parachute. Aerial recovery will be capsule descends agency. made by an aircraft of the designated USAF recovery search aircraft will locate the capsule by For a sea landing, Sea retrieval will be by helicopter and its radio beaofon. SCUBA divers or by Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Service hold would personnel erecting a balloon station. The balloon snatch from a line aloft, at1tached to the capsule, for aircraft agency will the water. If the capsule overshoots, USAF recovery begin remote area search. Air Other organizations taking part in recovery include: AFB; Federal Aviation Force Weather Forecasting Service; 1Hickam Agency; Western Test Range; and Pacific Missile Range. Facilities include: a recovery ship with helicopters. Guam, USAF Aerospace Rescue Service bases in the Phillipines, be alert in the event of an Florida, Bermida, and Azores will early call-down.
-27TRACKING AND DATA RETRIEVAL Tracking, command, and data readout for Biosatellite D will be by NASA's Satellite Tracking and Data Acquisition Network (STADAN), headquartered at Goddard Space Flight Center, and by the Manned Space Flight Network, and four foreign stations. Immediately after launch, spacecraft control will move from Cape Kennedy to the Biosatellite Operations Control Center at Goddard in Greenbelt, Md. Control will remain there until after the final deorbit command is sent to the spacecraft. Responsibility for retrieval of the capsule then shifts to the Recovery Force. Five STADAN stations will be regularly used throughout the mission: Fort Myers, Fla.; Rosman, N.C.; Quito, Ecuador; Lima, Peru; and Santiago, Chile. One or more of these will send commands and receive tracking and other data from five to ten minutes on each orbit. Additional stations at Guam; Canary Islands; Kauai; Mojave, Calif.; Singapore; Kashima, Japan; Woomera, Australia; and Tananarive, Malagasy, will record data only during primate tasks. Eighty to 100 minutes of data will be received from the spacecraft by all stations each day. On passes over Rosman, Quito, Santiago and Carnarvon, Australia, data will be returned to Biosatellite Control via high-speed data link. Computer facilities at Goddard will calculate orbits, and orbit data will be used to pinpoint recovery areas in mid-Pacific, and emergency recovery areas for each day. For recovery, voice links will join Biosatellite Control with Air Force Recovery Control, and the deorbit monitoring aircraft based on Okinawa. Reentry telemetry will be received by recovery stations, aircraft, and ships. After the mission, all recorded data will go to Goddard for processing.
-28BIOSATELLITE PROJECT TEAM NASA Headquarters, Washington, D. C. for Space Dr. John E. Naugle, Associate Administrator Science and Applications Programs Dr. Orr E. Reynolds, Di-ector, Bioscience Bioscience Programs Director, Col. George H. Duncan, Assistant Thomas P. Dallow, Biosatellite Program Manager FA. Zihlman, Biosa ellite Program Engineer Scientist Dr. Norman W. Weissman, Biosatellite Program Vehicles and Manager Small Launch R.W. Manville, Program International Projects Isaac T. Gillam, Delta Program Manager for Tracking Gerald M. Truszynski, Associate Administrator and Data Acquisition Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Cal. Dr. Hans Mark, Director John V. Foster, Director of Development Manager Charles A. Wilson, Biosatellite Project Systems Manager Bonne C. Look, Biosatellite Spacecraft Scientist Dr. Charles A. Winget, Biosatellite Project Operations Manager John W. Dyer, Biosatellite Assistant Engineering Thomas H. Harmount, Assistant Experiments Group Manager Center, Fla. John F. Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Dr. Kurt H. Debus, Director Launch Robert H. Gray, Assistant Director for Unmanned Operations Hugh A, Weston, Jr., Chief, Delta Operations 0 Idard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md, William B. Schindler, Delta Project Manager Data Systems Eldon A. Wolkmer, Biosatellite Tracking and Manager 6-neral Electric Co. (Spacecraft Prime Contractor a. Reentry Systems Department, Philadelpi Hilljard W. Paige, Aerospace Group Executive Mark A. Morton, Deputy Aerospace Group Executive Systems Otto Klima, Jr., General Manager, Reentry Space Reentry Systems Programs Walter D. Smith, Gen.Mgr, Manager Raymond A. Welsch, Biosatellite Programs Engineer, Biosatellite Programs Thomas E. Shaw, Chief
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