1.Calculation of Uplink path loss 1.

Up link frequency Up link frequency is frequency at which Ground Station is communicating with Satellite. For C band up link frequency is in the order of 6 G Hz 2. Up link path loss Up link path loss depend on up link frequency & distance between satellite and ground station Up-link path loss=10 log(4dC/f)2…(dB)………[1] Here ‘d’ is the distance between satellite & ground station ‘f’ is the frequency; C is the velocity of light Example: Distance between satellite & earth station is ‘d’= 37,000 Km Up link frequency ‘f’= 6.175 G Hz uplink loss or free space loss= 10 log(4*37000*C/f)2 = 20 log(4*37000*C/f) = 20log(4**37000*3*108/f) = 199.61 dB

2.Calculation of Transmit antenna gain 1.Antenna diameter Diameter of parabolic reflector antenna is referred as antenna diameter. It is denoted by ‘D’ 2.Antenna efficiency Antenna efficiency is the ratio of input power to the radiated power of the antenna. It is denoted by ‘’. The value of ‘’ lice between 0.55 to 0.73 3.Antenna gain GT The isotropic power gain of the antenna, GT, is defined as the power density in the maximum direction, denoted here by PD , to the power density archived by a 100% efficient isotropic radiator. Thus GT=PD/(PT/4) PT is the total power radiated. Antenna gain in GT = 10 log (2D2/(2*100)) = 10 log (2D2/((C/f)2*100)) =10 log (2D2/((3/10*f)2*100)) =10 log (2D2/(3/f)2)……………(dB)………..[2]

Example Calculation of the gain of a 3.80-m parabolaidal antenna operating frequency of 6.175 G Hz & aperture efficiency of 0.55

Satellite operating flux density = Transmitter EIRP –Up link Rain attenuation – . antenna feeder loss-1.00 dB. Such losses will occur in the connecting wave-guides.Transmit EIRP This is the product of actual power given to transmitting antenna and antenna power gain of transmitting antenna.[3] Example Calculation of transmit EIRP for an antenna having the following data.28)-1 + 45. Let Pt be in Watts then EIRP = [PT]+[GT] dBW If we consider transmitter feeder loss & antenna pointing loss in to account Transmitter EIRP= 10 log (Transmitter power per carrier )-Transmitter Feeder loss + Transmitter antenna gain – antenna pointing loss ………(db W)…………. The off axis loss at the satellite is taken in to account by designing the link for operation on actual satellite antenna contour.0. The off axis losses at the earth station is referred to as the antenna pointing loss.21 dB 3. Antenna pointing losses are usually only a few tenths of a decibel. It’s range lice in the watts. Solution Transmit EIRP = 10 log (0.70 = 37. antenna pointing loss-0. the ideal situation is to have the earth station and satellite antennas aligned for maximum gain. filters and couplers.Antenna pointing loss When a satellite link is established. There are two possible sources of off axis loss .98 dB 6. 5.. Transmit power –per carrier It is the power given to the antenna at the Earth station to radiate power. one at the satellite and one at the earth station .21. 3. 4. 2.21dB.28 W. or dBW. Transmit power per carrier. The flux density required in the receiving antenna to produce saturation of the TWTA istermed the saturation flux density. Transmitter feeder loss Losses will occur in the connection between the transmitting antenna and the transmitter proper.70 dB And transmitter antenna gain 45. That the equivalent isotropic power (EIRP) may be defined as EIRP=PTGT EIRP is often expressed in decibels relative to 1 watt. No of carriers By frequency multiplexing scheme we can transmit any number of carriers through an antenna.Calculation of Transmit EIRP (in dB W)&operating FD 1.GT=10 log (2D2/(3/f)2) Hence GT=45.Satellite operating flux density (dB /Sq m) The traveling tube amplifier in a satellite transponder exhibits power output saturation.0.

2 = -124. Power rating of ground transmitter can be expressed as Power rating of ground transmitter =10((10 log (Number of carriers * Power per carrier)+amplifier backoff)/10) ……………………………. 8.98 dB and no rain attenuation .2 ………(dB /Sq m)……………………….Calculation of uplink to noise ratio 1.1. Solution Power rating of ground transmitter = 10((10 log (Number of carriers * Power per carrier)+amplifier backoff)/10) = 0.28 W. Amplifier back off To reduce inter-modulation distortion.28 W 4.[4] Example : calculate satellite operating flux density (dB /Sq m)for the satellite having EIRP 37.Up link rain attenuation (dB) Rain fall results in attenuation of radio waves by scattering . and by absorption . the power around saturation. the operating point of the TWT must be shifted to the linear portion of the curve. . Amplifier back off-0 dB.162. Studies have shown that the rain attenuation for horizontal polarization is considerably greater than for vertical polarization. and saturation input that would be required for single carrier operation.0.162. for any carrier.Satellite G/T (dB/k) G/T ratio indicates figure of merit. Power per carrier. Solution Satellite operating flux density dB/Sq m = 37. of energy from the wave.Power rating of ground transmitter It the power delivered by the ground transmitter. Number of carriers. is somewhat less than the achieved with single carrier operation. G/T ratio depends on the satellite components. The input back-off is the difference in decibels between the carrier input at the operating point. the reduction in input power being referred as input back off. Rain attenuation increases with increasing frequency and in worse at Ku band compared to C band. When multiple carriers present.98.21 dB/Sq m 7.[5] Example : calculate power rating of ground transmitter operating at following conditions. 2. G/T ratio is the ratio of gain of the satellite to the thermal noise temperature of the satellite.

3. Carrier to noise ratio of up link is given as [C/No]U = [EIRP]U + [G/T]U .Calculation of satellite operating down link EIRP 1. When multiple carriers present.00-199. 2. for any carrier.Operating flux density (dB /Sq m) The traveling tube amplifier in a Earth station transponder exhibits power output saturation.Uplink C/No(dB Hz) The up link of a satellite circuit is the link in which the earth station is transmitting the signal and the satellite is receiving it .6 =Transmitter EIRP.3.Output back off Where in put back off is employed corresponding output back off must be allowed for the satellite EIRP. the power around saturation. satellite G/T(dB/K)-5.62 dB. Amplifier back off To reduce inter-modulation distortion.[6] Example : calculate power rating of ground transmitter operating at following conditions Transmitter EIRP37.Satellite operating downlink EIRP(dB W) Satellite operating down link EIRP can be calculated as follows Satellite operating downlink EIRP(dB W)= Satellite operating flux density + ((Saturated EIRP –Output back-off )-(Saturation flux density –Input back-off)) ………………………………[7] Example Calculate satellite operating downlink EIRP (dB W) for the satellite operating flux dencity-124. Up link rain attenuation-0. is somewhat less than the achieved with single carrier operation. The flux density required in the receiving antenna to produce saturation of the TWTA is termed the saturation flux density.92+228.[losses] U + 228.23 dB satellite EIRP 32 dB out put back off 6 dB saturation flux density –83 dB input back off 9 dB .Saturated EIRP (dB W) It is the EIRP of the satellite.00 Solution: [C/No]U = 37. the reduction in input power being referred as input back off..97 dB W. at which ground station amplifier goes in to saturation. Up link path loss 199.6 = 61. and saturation input that would be required for single carrier operation.(Up link path losses + Up link rain attenuation) + Satellite G/T + 228. the operating point of the TWT must be shifted to the linear portion of the curve from nonlinear portion.97 –5.6…………(dB)………………………. The input back-off is the difference in decibels between the carrier input at the operating point. 4.0 dB. 5.65 dB 5.

Link overhead factor (% Worst case) It represents additional transmitting delay between message bits to avoid collision or inter-symbol interference of message bits.4 =(19.4 …………………………………[10] Example: calculate satellite operating band-width(kbps)per carrier for the satellite transmission rate 19.6. Satellite operating band-width (kbps) per carrier Satellite operating band width (kbps) per carrier = (Transmission rate/Bits per symbol)*1. And link overhead factor 0 %.Satellite downlink EIRP(dB W) = -124.2 bits per symbol =2 Satellite operating band width (kbps) per carrier = (Transmission rate/Bits per symbol)*1.9 )) = .5=19. Transmission rate(kbps) Transmission rate = In put data rate / F E C rate coding ………………………[9] Example: Calculate transmission rate (kb/s) for a satellite input data rate 9.[8] Example: Calculate effective input data rate (kb/s) for a satellite input data rate 9. 2. In put data rate (Kb/s) It is the number of actual message signals per second.6 K B/S.6/(1+0/100)= 9. Effective in put data rate = Input data rate (K B/S)/(1+ link overhead factor/100) = 9. 3.2 k B/S 7.50 .44 kB/S .6 KB/S 6.23 + (( 32 – 6 ) – (-83 . Effective in put data rate (kbps) Effective in put data rate (kbps) can be calculated by the formula Effective input data rate = Input data rate(kbps)/(1+Link over head factor/100) ……………………………….6/0.2/2)*1.FEC rate coding Forward error correction technique enables the receiver to both Detect and correct errors without needing to inform the transmitter 4. Bits/Symbol (m) It is defined as the number of symbols transmitted by the transmitter per bit 5.23 6.4=13.6 K B/S.calculation of satellite operating band width 1. FEC coding 0. Solution: Transmission rate= In put data rate/FEC coding =9.

Antenna efficiency Antenna efficiency is the ratio of input power to the radiated power of the antenna. 2.7.55 to 0.55 GR=10 log (2D2/(3/f)2) =41. 12 G Hz for Ku band.73. Thus GR=PD/(PT/4) PT is the total power radiated.Calculation of receiver G/T .95G Hz & aperture efficiency of 0.33 dB 9. Down link loss=10 log(4d/(C/f))2 Here ‘d’ is the distance between satellite & ground station ‘f’ is the frequency of the down link wave ‘C’ is the velocity of the light = 3 x108 m/Sec Down link loss = 20 log (4d/(3/10*f)………(dB)………………[11] Here f is in Giga hertz Example : calculate downlink path loss for the satellite located 37000 km far from the earth station and operating 3. The value of ‘’ lice between 0.[12] Example Calculation of the gain of a 3. is defined as the power density in the maximum direction. It is denoted by ‘D.Calculation of Downlink path loss 1. It is denoted by ‘’.Down Link frequency Down link frequency is frequency at which satellite is communicating with ground station. 2.8-m parabolaidal antenna operating frequency of 3.950 GHz frequency Down link loss = 20 log (4d/(3/10*f) = 195. 3. denoted here by PD .Calculation of receiver antenna gain 1. Antenna diameter Diameter of parabolic reflector antenna is referred as antenna diameter..Antenna gain GR The isotropic power gain of the antenna. For C band up link frequency is in the order of 4 G Hz .Downlink path loss Down link path loss depend on up link frequency & distance between satellite and ground station. GT. to the power density archived by a 100% efficient isotropic radiator.73 dB 8. Antenna gain in GR (dB) = 10 log (2D2/(2*100)) = 10 log (2D2/((C/f)2*100)) =10 log (2D2/((3/10*f)2*100)) =10 log (2D2/(3/f)2)……(dB)…………….

5. 6. It increases the antenna noise temperature. and scattering effect of the rain. It is a measured parameter. Effective noise temp of rain as Train =TA(1-(1/A)) Where TA is known as apparent absorber temperature.Antenna elevation angle (deg) Antenna elevation effects the antenna noise temperature.579 (dB/K) 10.System noise temp (k) antenna It is the sum of all noise temperatures at the receiving System noise temperature (k) = antenna noise temperature + increase in antenna noise due to rain + LNA noise temperature ……………………………(k)……………. LNA noise temperature means noise temperature of LNA. and the scattering effect of the cell on the thermal noise . Receiver G/T (dB/K) = Receiver Antenna gain – 10 log(system noise temperature) … (dB/k)…………………….Down link rain attenuation Rain fall introduces attenuation by absorption and scattering of signal energy.Antenna noise temp Antenna noise temperature is the sum of all noise sources at the antenna.[13] Example: Calculate system noise temperature of a satellite having noise temperature 25 K increase in antenna noise due to rain =0 K LNA noise temperature = 50 K Solution System noise temperature = antenna noise temperature + increase in antenna noise due to rain + LNA noise temperature = 25 + 0 + 50 = 75 7. including physical temperature of rain. 3. which is a function of many factors.Increase in Antenna noise due to rain Rain effects the antenna noise temperature.LNA noise temp LNA means Low Noise Amplifier.33. and the absorptive attenuation introduces noise. 2.10 log(75) =22.1. Antenna noise temperature decreases with increase of elevation. over all receiver noise temperature = 75 K Receiver G/T (dB/K) = Receiver Antenna gain – 10 log(system noise temperature) = 41.[14] Example: Calculate Receiver G/T (dB/K) of a satellite having antenna gain 41.33 .Calculation of link margin 1.Receiver G/T (dB/ k) Receiver G/T is the Figure of merit at the receiver antenna.

The off axis loss at the satellite is taken in to account by designing the link for operation on actual satellite antenna contour.Receiver antenna pointing loss When a satellite link is established.58(dB/K) Solution Down link C/No(dB Hz) = Satellite operating EIRP . The value of the apparent absorber temperature lies between 270 and 290 K . It can be Down link C/No(dB Hz) = Satellite operating EIRP ..[16] Here (C/No)U = Up link C/N ratio.incident up on it.Receiving antenna pointing loss + Receiver G/T +228. one at the satellite and one at the earth station .6 = 48.32 .23 dB W.6.Downlink path loss . the ideal situation is to have the earth station and satellite antennas aligned for maximum gain.Down link C/No (dB Hz) calculated as follows.74 dB. The off axis losses at the earth station is referred to as the antenna pointing loss.Receiving antenna pointing loss + Receiver G/T +228.Eb/No required for BER of 1/ 107 It is Signal to noise ratio required to achieve Bit Error Ratio of 1 error bit per 107 message bits. Antenna pointing losses are usually only a few tenths of a decibel. It is the down link carrier to noise ratio. Down link rain attenuation=0 dB.70+22.23-195. ……………………………….51 Over all Downlink(C/N0) (dB Hz)= -10*LOG (10-(C/No)U+10-(C/No)D) = 48. 3.74-0-0. Total sky noise temperature is the clear sky temperature plus the rain temperature TSky= Tcs+TRAIN Where TCs is the clear-sky noise temperature 2.Down link rain attenuation . Downlink C/N ratio= 48. It can be calculated as follows Over all Downlink(C/N0) (dB Hz)= -10*LOG (10-(C/No)U+10-(C/No)D)…………. 4. = -6. Receiving antenna pointing loss = 0.Downlink path loss .Over all Down link C/No (dB Hz) It is the some of carrier to noise ratio at the down link and carrier to noise ratio at the up link.[15] Example : Calculate Down link C/No(dB Hz) for the Satellite operating EIRP =6.6. Downlink path loss =195.Down link rain attenuation . (C/No)D = Downlink C/N ratio.58+228.95.51 dB Hz 5.70 dB. It is the effective C/N ratio of the total system (Transmitter & receiver ) Find over all carrier to noise ratio of the satellite Up link C/N ratio = 61. Receiver G/T =22. There are two possible sources of off axis loss .

.………………………[17] Find Available Eb/NO (dB) for the satellite Over all downlink (C/No)(dB) =48. Available Eb/NO = over all downlink (C/No) / Input data rate Available Eb/NO (dB)= Over all downlink (C/No)(dB) ..63-6.32.32.10 log(9.63 and Eb/Norequired for BER of 1/ 107 (dB) = 6. Available Eb/NO (dB)= Over all downlink(C/No)(dB) – 10log (input data rate in KB*103 = 48. ……………. .6 KB/S.63 dB. It can be calculated as follows.Available Eb/No It is the ratio of signal to noise ratio of the system.5.[18] Find Available link margin for the satellite Available Eb/No(dB) =8. Available link margin It is the Difference between ‘Available Eb/No’ and ‘Eb/No required for BER of 1/107’ in dB. Available link margin = Available Eb/No(dB) – Eb/No required for BER of 1/ 107 (dB) = 8.6 * 103) = 8. Input data rate (dB)= 9.5 = 2 dB.Input data rate (dB) = Over all downlink(C/No)(dB) – 10log (input data rate in 3 KB*10 ). Available link margin = Available Eb/No(dB) – Eb/No required for BER of 1/ 107 (dB) ……………………………………….

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