# 1.Calculation of Uplink path loss 1.

Up link frequency Up link frequency is frequency at which Ground Station is communicating with Satellite. For C band up link frequency is in the order of 6 G Hz 2. Up link path loss Up link path loss depend on up link frequency & distance between satellite and ground station Up-link path loss=10 log(4dC/f)2…(dB)………[1] Here ‘d’ is the distance between satellite & ground station ‘f’ is the frequency; C is the velocity of light Example: Distance between satellite & earth station is ‘d’= 37,000 Km Up link frequency ‘f’= 6.175 G Hz uplink loss or free space loss= 10 log(4*37000*C/f)2 = 20 log(4*37000*C/f) = 20log(4**37000*3*108/f) = 199.61 dB

2.Calculation of Transmit antenna gain 1.Antenna diameter Diameter of parabolic reflector antenna is referred as antenna diameter. It is denoted by ‘D’ 2.Antenna efficiency Antenna efficiency is the ratio of input power to the radiated power of the antenna. It is denoted by ‘’. The value of ‘’ lice between 0.55 to 0.73 3.Antenna gain GT The isotropic power gain of the antenna, GT, is defined as the power density in the maximum direction, denoted here by PD , to the power density archived by a 100% efficient isotropic radiator. Thus GT=PD/(PT/4) PT is the total power radiated. Antenna gain in GT = 10 log (2D2/(2*100)) = 10 log (2D2/((C/f)2*100)) =10 log (2D2/((3/10*f)2*100)) =10 log (2D2/(3/f)2)……………(dB)………..[2]

Example Calculation of the gain of a 3.80-m parabolaidal antenna operating frequency of 6.175 G Hz & aperture efficiency of 0.55

Satellite operating flux density = Transmitter EIRP –Up link Rain attenuation – . antenna feeder loss-1.00 dB. Such losses will occur in the connecting wave-guides.Transmit EIRP This is the product of actual power given to transmitting antenna and antenna power gain of transmitting antenna.[3] Example Calculation of transmit EIRP for an antenna having the following data.28)-1 + 45. Let Pt be in Watts then EIRP = [PT]+[GT] dBW If we consider transmitter feeder loss & antenna pointing loss in to account Transmitter EIRP= 10 log (Transmitter power per carrier )-Transmitter Feeder loss + Transmitter antenna gain – antenna pointing loss ………(db W)…………. The off axis loss at the satellite is taken in to account by designing the link for operation on actual satellite antenna contour.0. The off axis losses at the earth station is referred to as the antenna pointing loss.21 dB 3. Antenna pointing losses are usually only a few tenths of a decibel. It’s range lice in the watts. Solution Transmit EIRP = 10 log (0.70 = 37. antenna pointing loss-0. the ideal situation is to have the earth station and satellite antennas aligned for maximum gain. filters and couplers.Antenna pointing loss When a satellite link is established. There are two possible sources of off axis loss .98 dB 6. 5.. Transmit power –per carrier It is the power given to the antenna at the Earth station to radiate power. one at the satellite and one at the earth station .21. 3. 4. 2.21dB.28 W. or dBW. Transmit power per carrier. The flux density required in the receiving antenna to produce saturation of the TWTA istermed the saturation flux density. Transmitter feeder loss Losses will occur in the connection between the transmitting antenna and the transmitter proper.70 dB And transmitter antenna gain 45. That the equivalent isotropic power (EIRP) may be defined as EIRP=PTGT EIRP is often expressed in decibels relative to 1 watt. No of carriers By frequency multiplexing scheme we can transmit any number of carriers through an antenna.Calculation of Transmit EIRP (in dB W)&operating FD 1.GT=10 log (2D2/(3/f)2) Hence GT=45.Satellite operating flux density (dB /Sq m) The traveling tube amplifier in a satellite transponder exhibits power output saturation.0.

2 = -124. Power rating of ground transmitter can be expressed as Power rating of ground transmitter =10((10 log (Number of carriers * Power per carrier)+amplifier backoff)/10) ……………………………. 8.98 dB and no rain attenuation .2 ………(dB /Sq m)……………………….Calculation of uplink to noise ratio 1.1. Solution Power rating of ground transmitter = 10((10 log (Number of carriers * Power per carrier)+amplifier backoff)/10) = 0.28 W. Amplifier back off To reduce inter-modulation distortion.28 W 4.[4] Example : calculate satellite operating flux density (dB /Sq m)for the satellite having EIRP 37.Up link rain attenuation (dB) Rain fall results in attenuation of radio waves by scattering . and by absorption . the power around saturation. the operating point of the TWT must be shifted to the linear portion of the curve. . Amplifier back off-0 dB.162. Studies have shown that the rain attenuation for horizontal polarization is considerably greater than for vertical polarization. and saturation input that would be required for single carrier operation.0.162. for any carrier.Satellite G/T (dB/k) G/T ratio indicates figure of merit. Power per carrier. Solution Satellite operating flux density dB/Sq m = 37. of energy from the wave.Power rating of ground transmitter It the power delivered by the ground transmitter. Number of carriers. is somewhat less than the achieved with single carrier operation. G/T ratio depends on the satellite components. The input back-off is the difference in decibels between the carrier input at the operating point. the reduction in input power being referred as input back off. Rain attenuation increases with increasing frequency and in worse at Ku band compared to C band. When multiple carriers present.98.21 dB/Sq m 7.[5] Example : calculate power rating of ground transmitter operating at following conditions. 2. G/T ratio is the ratio of gain of the satellite to the thermal noise temperature of the satellite.