(Control of Acute Respiratory Infection)

Symptoms may be more severe in infants and young children, and may include fever

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This is also known as Acute Viral Nasopharyngitis or Acute Coryza In lay man’s term, it is otherwise known as common cold Commonly caused by picornviruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses It is common in children age under five (5) The agents primarily attack the UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACK Common symptoms are as follows: o o o o o o o o o o Sore throat Runny nose Nasal congestion Sneezing Coughing Pink eye Muscle aches Fever Exhaustion Loss of appetite

Complications  opportunistic coinfections or superinfections acute bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, strep throat. People with chronic lung diseases such as o o o asthma COPD Colds may cause acute exacerbations of asthma, emphysema or chronic bronchitis.

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o o o Prevention 

Transmission The common cold virus is transmitted between people by one of two mechanisms: In aerosol form generated by coughing, sneezing. • From contact with the saliva or nasal secretions of an infected person, either directly or from contaminated surfaces. The symptoms of a cold usually resolve after about one week, but can last up to 14 days.

The best way to avoid a cold is to avoid close contact with existing sufferers; to wash hands thoroughly and regularly; to avoid touching the mouth and face

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 The common cold is caused by a
large variety of viruses, which mutate quite frequently during reproduction, resulting in constantly changing virus strains. Thus, successful immunization is highly improbable.

do not have any beneficial effect against the common cold. although the magnitude of the effect The Young Infant (Age Less than 2 months) VERY SEVERE . leukocytes destroy the virus through phagocytosis and destroy infected cells to prevent further viral replication. Antibiotics have no effect on viruses. as part of the cell-mediated immune response. Additionally. Within a few days. The common cold is self-limiting. chlorpheniramine.      DISEASE CLASSIFICATION The Child’s Age is 2 months up to 5 years VERY SEVERE A child with any danger sign is classified as having VERY SEVERE DISEASE. and the host's immune system effectively deals with the infection. immunocompetent individuals. showed no consistent effect on either duration or severity of symptoms. especially in children who have not entered these trials. Second-generation anti-histamines do not have a useful effect on colds. the common cold resolves in seven days on average Antibiotics. the body's immune response begins producing specific antibodies that can prevent the virus from infecting cells. More therapeutic trials are necessary to settle the question. diphenhydramine and clemastine (which reduce mucus gland secretion and thus combat blocked/runny noses but also may make the user drowsy). In healthy. was so small its clinical usefulness is doubtful. targeted primarily to microorganisms like bacteria and fungus. as well as localized versions targeting the throat (often delivered in lozenge form) nasal decongestants such as pseudoephedrine or oxymetazoline which reduce the inflammation in the nasal passages by constricting dilated local blood vessels cough suppressants such as dextromethorphan which suppress the cough reflex.  Therapeutic trials of high doses of vitamin C starting after the onset of symptoms. The danger signs are:  Not able to drink  Convulsions  Abnormally sleepy or difficult to wake  Stridor in calm child  Severe undernutrition   Over-the-counter symptom medicines • • • • • analgesics such as aspirin or paracetamol (acetaminophen).[31] Vitamin C  Prophylactic use of vitamin C has no effect on common cold incidence but reduces the duration and severity of common cold symptoms slightly. first-generation anti-histamines such as brompheniramine.

SEVERE CHEST INDRAWING or DANGER A young infant with any danger sign is classified as having VERY SEVERE DISEASE. is classified as having NO PNEUMONIA: COUGH OR COLD  Young infants classified as having NO PNEUMONIA: COUGH OR COLD should not be given antibiotics symptoms. refer it urgently nearest hospital to prevent death SEVERE  A young infant who breathes 60 times per minute or more has fast breathing  A young infant who has fast breathing or severe chest indrawing is classified as having SEVERE PNEUMONIA  The young infant classified as having SEVERE PNEUMONIA should be referred urgently to a hospital NO PNEUMONIA: COUGH OR  A young infant who is breathing less than 60 times per minute. The danger signs are as follows:  Stopped feeding well  Convulsions  Abnormally sleepy or difficult to wake  Stridor or Wheezing  Fever of low body temperature  If the infant has the signs to and the SIGNS. and has NO .