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4062

Results for
87 Airfoil at
s Numbers in

Unclas
_II02 015oiC6
NASA Technical Memorandum 4062

Experimental Results for


the Eppler 387 Airfoil at
Low Reynolds Numbers in
the Langley Low-Turbulence
Pressure Tunnel

Robert J. McGhee, Betty S. Walker,


and Betty F. Millard
Langley Research Center
Hampton, Virginia

National Aeronautics
and Space Administration

Scientific and Technical


Information Division

1988
Contents

Abstract
...................................

Introduction
................................. 1

Symbols ................................... 1

Model, Apparatus, and Procedure ........................ 2


Instrumentation
...............................
Tests and Methods
..............................

Presentation of Results
............................

Discussion of Results
.............................

Concluding Remarks .............................

Tables
....................................

Figures ................................... 12

Appendix A Uncertainty Analysis ....................... 86

Appendix B Section Characteristics ...................... 90

Appendix C---Spanwise Drag Coefficients ................... 106

Appendix D--Chordwise Pressure Coefficients ................. 113

Appendix E--Spanwise Pressure Coefficients .................. 204


References
................................. 228

¢)RECEDING PAGE BLANK NOT FILMED

,°°
III
Abstract This report presents only the pressure model re-
sults obtained from this research program. Tests
Experimental results have been obtained for an on a pressure model of the Eppler 387 airfoil have
Eppler 387 airfoil in the Langley Low-Turbulence been conducted over a Mach number range from 0.03
Pressure Tunnel (LTPT). The tests were conducted to 0.13 and a chord Reynolds number range from
over a Mach number range from 0.03 to 0.13 and a 60000 to 460000. Lift and pitching-moment data
chord Reynolds number range from 60 000 to 460 000. were obtained from airfoil surface pressure measure-
Lift and pitching-moment data were obtained from ments, and drag data were obtained from wake sur-
airfoil surface pressure measurements, and drag data veys. Oil flow visualization was used to determine
were obtained from wake surveys. Oil flow visualiza- laminar-separation and turbulent-reattachment loca-
tion was used to determine laminar-separation and tions. Comparisons of these results with data on the
turbulent-reattachment locations. Comparisons of Eppler 387 airfoil from two other facilities, as well
these results with data on the Eppler 387 airfoil from as with predictions from the Eppler airfoil code, are
two other facilities, as well as with predictions from included. A discussion of the most pertinent results
the Eppler airfoil code, are included. from this test is reported in reference 5. The data
are presented herein in both tabulated and plotted
Introduction formats.

Recent interest in low Reynolds number aerody- Symbols


namics has increased for both military and civil ap- The symbols in parentheses are those used in
plications with emphasis on providing better vehi- computer-generated tables in the appendixes.
cle performance (ref. 1). Reynolds numbers below
500 000 are usually identified as being in this classifi-
cation. Applications are varied and include remotely b (B) airfoil span, in.
piloted vehicles, ultralight human-powered vehicles,
Cp pressure coefficient,
wind turbines, and propellers. qoo

Although the design and evaluation techniques for c (C) airfoil chord, 6 in.
airfoils at Reynolds numbers above 500 000 are well Cc section chord-force coefficient,
developed, serious problems related to boundary-
f cp
layer separation and transition have been encoun-
tered at lower Reynolds numbers. Presently avail- ¢d (CD) section profile-drag coefficient,
able design and analysis methods generally do not fwake Ctd d(h/c)
adequately model flow phenomena such as laminar point-drag coefficient (see
separation bubbles. Experimental results obtained appendix A)
on an Eppler 387 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers
in the Model Wind Tunnel at Stuttgart (ref. 2) and Cl (CL) section lift coefficient,
c ncOsO_- C csinOl
the Low-Turbulence Tunnel at Delft (ref. 3) have
shown large differences in airfoil performance. This Cm (CM) section pitching-moment
is not surprising because of the sensitivity of the coefficient about quarter-
airfoil boundary layer to free-stream disturbances, chord point, - f Cp(x/c -
model contour accuracy, and model surface rough- 0.25) d(x/c) + f Cp z/c d(z/c)
ness. Also, the model forces and pressure differences
c12 section normal-force coeffi-
are small and difficult to measure accurately.
NASA Langley Research Center has initiated cient, -f Cp d(x/c)

a research program to develop test techniques to h vertical distance in wake


determine performance characteristics of airfoils profile, in.
at low Reynolds numbers (R _< 500000) (ref. 4). M free-stream Mach number
This experimental program uses the Langley Low-
Turbulence Pressure Tunnel and consists of perfor- P static pressure, psi
mance evaluation of both force and pressure models pt (PT) total pressure, psi
of an Eppler 387 airfoil. Oil flow visualization and
q dynamic pressure, psi
surface-mounted thin-film gages were used to deter-
mine laminar-separation and turbulent-reattachment R Reynolds number based on
locations. Also, test-section turbulence and acoustic free-stream conditions and
measurements were obtained. airfoil chord of 6 in.
R/ft unit Reynolds number fabrication tolerance was maintained except on the
model upper surface between chordwise locations of
ratio of fluctuating velocity to
x/c = 0.60 and z/c = 0.80. A surface finish of 64 #in.
mean velocity in streamwise
(rms) was specified.
direction
Grooves were machined in the surface of the steel
x (x) airfoil abscissa, in. model and pressure tubing was routed through the
grooves for orifice locations. The grooves were filled
y (Y) spanwise distance along model
with epoxy resin. Orifices were drilled through the
from centerline, in.
metal surface into the tubing with their axes per-
Z airfoil ordinate, in. pendicular to the local surface. Each orifice had a
diameter of 0.020 in. except at x/c = 0.95 where a
(ALPHA) angle of attack, deg diameter of 0.010 in. was used. The locations of both
Subscripts: upper and lower surface orifices are indicated in ta-
ble II. The orifices were staggered to alleviate mu-
des design
tual interference, as illustrated by the photograph of
diff difference figure 4.

max maximum
Wind Tunnel
meas measured
The test was conducted in the LTPT. This fa-
cc (INF) free-stream conditions
cility is described in detail in reference 6, and dy-
Abbreviations: namic flow quality measurements are reported in ref-
erence 7. The LTPT is a pressurized, closed-circuit,
LS laminar separation from flow continuous-flow wind tunnel with an operating pres-
visualization
sure from approximately 0.10 to 10 atm. The test
LTPT Low-Turbulence Pressure section was designed for two-dimensional testing of
Tunnel airfoil sections and is 7.5 ft high, 7.5 ft long, and
3 ft wide. The contraction ratio is 17.6:1, and 9 anti-
NT natural transition from flow turbulence screens are installed in the settling
visualization chamber.
This facility was selected to develop test tech-
rms root mean square
niques for low Reynolds number aerodynamics be-
sep. separation cause of its good flow quality, precision pressure in-
turbulent reattachment from strumentation, and variable pressure capability. The
TR
flow visualization tunnel operating envelope for a 6-in-chord airfoil
model is shown in figure 5; test conditions for the
Eppler 387 model are also indicated. In order to en-
Model, Apparatus, and Procedure chance the resolution of model forces and pressure
differences, it is desirable to operate at the higher
Model
end of the dynamic pressure envelope.
The airfoil model was machined from stainless To supplement the turbulence measurements for
steel. To provide structural integrity and room for the LTPT (see ref. 7) in the low Reynolds number
pressure tubing, the trailing edge of the model was range, additional test-section turbulence was mea-
thickened from 0 to 0.01 in. The additional thick- sured with a hot-wire anemometer by Gregory S.
ness was blended into the Eppler 387 coordinates at Jones of the Langley Research Center. These prelim-
x/c = 0.95. (See table I.) The basic camber distri- inary results, shown in figure 6, indicate that free-
bution of the Eppler 387 airfoil was retained. The stream turbulence is increased for a constant unit
model had a chord length of 6 in. and a span of 36 in. Reynolds number as the tunnel total pressure is de-
A drawing of the Eppler 387 section shape is shown creased. For example, at a unit Reynolds number
in figure 1. A photograph of the model mounted in of 200000 per foot, the test-section turbulence level
the LTPT is shown in figure 2. The model design (frequency bandpass from 1 to 50000 Hz) increases
contour accuracy was within +0.001 in. The differ- from about 0.06 percent to 0.18 percent as the to-
ences between the design and measured coordinates tal pressure is reduced from 15 psi to 3 psi. It is
are shown in figure 3 as a function of both chord- well known (ref. 1) that boundary-layer receptivity
wise and spanwise locations. In general, the specified is strongly affected by the frequency content of the

2
disturbance environment
aswellasby themagnitude Instrumentation
of both velocityandpressurefluctuations.
Measurements of pressure on the model sur-
faces, wake-rake pressures, and basic tunnel pressures
Wake Survey Rake
were made with variable-capacitance precision trans-
The wake survey rake (fig. 7) was mounted on ducers. These transducers have an accuracy of
the tunnel survey apparatus and located 1.50 chords -t-0.25 percent of reading. An automatic pressure-
scanning system was used to record the model
behind the trailing edge of the airfoil. The rake con-
tained seven total-pressure tubes, each 0.063 in. in pressures. The following full-scale ranges of pres-
diameter, which were flattened to 0.020 in. (inter- sure transducers were used: Pt, 1000 mm Hg; q,
nal height) over a length of 0.25 in. from the tip of 10 mm Hg; wake rake, 10 mm Hg; model upper
the tube. The rake is equipped with both standard surface, 50 and 10 mm Hg; model lower surface,
10 mm Hg.
and disc-type static-pressure probes. The standard
probes were used to measure the static pressure in Model angle of attack was measured by a cali-
the wake for the present test. The static probes brated digital shaft encoder driven by a pinion gear
were 0.125 in. in diameter with eight flush orifices and rack attached to the pitch mechanism. Data
(0.018 in. diameter) drilled 45 ° apart and located were obtained by a high-speed data acquisition sys-
8 tube diameters from the tip of the probe. The rake tem and recorded on magnetic tape. Real-time data
also contained two claw-type flow-angularity probes, displays on cathode-ray tubes were available for tun-
which consisted of two open-ended probes inclined nel parameters, model pressures, and wake profiles.
90 ° with respect to each other. These probes were
used to obtain the mean flow direction of the wake. Tests and Methods

The pressure model was tested at Reynolds num-


Survey Apparatus
bers based on airfoil chord from approximately 60 000
to 460000 and Mach numbers from 0.03 to 0.13. The
The wake rake was positioned at various spanwise
model was generally tested in a smooth condition ex-
stations behind the model by means of the remote-
cept for a strip of turbulator tape used at a Reynolds
controlled survey apparatus (fig. 8). The apparatus
number of 100 000. This tape was 0.008 in. thick and
basically consists of an articulating arm mounted on
an arc strut. Movement of the arm enables the wake 0.08 in. wide. The leading edge of the tape formed
a zig zag pattern and was located at 0.22c on the
surveys to be made for various angles of attack.
model upper surface.
The arm is composed of three movable compo-
Laminar-separation and turbulent-reattachment
nents: a main boom, an offset boom, and a forward
locations were determined using the oil flow tech-
pivoting head. Each component has a position con-
trol device. The main boom is mounted on the strut nique reported in reference 8. These results are
shown in table III and a typical result for a Reynolds
with a pivot point allowing rotation in the vertical
number of 300 000 is illustrated in the photograph of
plane. Its motion is controlled by the linear actuator.
The offset boom can be rotated about the main boom figure 9.

by the roll actuator. This allows survey positions to The static-pressure measurements at the model
be made at distances up to 12 in. from the tunnel surface were reduced to standard pressure coeffi-
centerline. The forward pivoting head is mounted at cients and numerically integrated to obtain section
the end of the offset boom and may be rotated in normal-force and chord-force coefficients and sec-
the vertical plane by the (internally mounted) pitch tion pitching-moment coefficients about the quarter-
adjustment mechanism. Figure 8 shows the survey chord point. Section profile-drag coefficients were
apparatus with the wake rake mounted on the for- computed from the wake-rake total and static pres-
ward pivoting head assembly. In addition, the en- sures by the method of reference 9.
tire apparatus can be positioned vertically in the Standard low-speed wind-tunnel boundary cor-
wind tunnel by using the movable strut that moves rections (ref. 9) have been applied to the section data.
within the confines of fixed leading- and trailing-edge Corrections were applied to the free-stream dynamic
fairings. Positioning and rate of movement of the pressure because of solid and wake blockage and ap-
rake are controlled by a microprocessor controller. plied to lift, pitching moment, and angle of attack be-
In general, wake surveys using this apparatus pro- cause of the effects of floor and ceiling constraints on
vided good drag results with a survey rate of about streamline curvature. No blockage corrections have
0.10 in/sec or less. been applied to the pressure coefficient data. The
magnitudeof these corrections for the Eppler 387 Effect of tunnel environment on
airfoil are chordwise pressure distributions
for R = 60 000 ............. 14
a corrected = a + 0.0083(c/+ 4Cm)
Spanwise pressure data for c_ = 5°;
ct corrected = c/(0.9988 - 0.0333Cd) R = 60000 and 100000 ......... 15
Cm corrected = Cm(0.9997 - 0.0333Cd) + 0.0002ct
Effect of Reynolds number on
Cd corrected = Cd(0.9995 -- 0.0333Cd) section data .............. 16

It is important when measuring performance Effect of angle of attack on chordwise


characteristics of airfoils to provide some indication pressure distributions;
of the data accuracy. There are several areas in two- R = 60 000 to 460 000 .......... 17
dimensional airfoil testing at low Reynolds numbers
Effect of Reynolds number on
that contribute to the overall uncertainty of the re-
chordwise pressure distributions;
suits: tunnel flow quality, experimental apparatus,
R = 60 000 to 460 000 .......... 18
and instrumentation accuracy.
The major errors introduced by the apparatus are Variation of drag coefficient with
confinement effects of the wind-tunnel walls, sidewall Reynolds numbers ........... 19
boundary-layer interaction, and large-scale vortices
Variation of maximum lift coefficient
in the wake if wake-rake surveys are used to deter-
with Reynolds number ......... 20
mine drag. For the present tests, the confinement ef-
fect of the wind-tunnel walls was minimized by test- Separation and reattachment
ing a model with a chord-to-tunnel-height ratio of locations from oil flow data;
about 0.07. The sidewall boundary-layer interaction R -- 100 000 to 300 000 ......... 21
effect was reduced by using a pressure model with
Comparison of pressure data with
orifices near the center of the model and a model
oil flow results illustrating
span-to-chord ratio of 6. To survey the spanwise
laminar-separation and turbulent-
flow structure in the wake, the wake rake was tra-
reattachment locations;
versed in the spanwise direction. However, the wake-
R = 100 000 to 300 000 ......... 22
rake technique of determining drag is still subject to
errors related to the changing flow direction in the Hysteresis effects on section data;
unsteady wake. Figure 10 illustrates typical wake R = 60 000 to 300 000 ......... 23
profiles where two different total-pressure probes
Hysteresis effects on chordwise pressure
traversed through the complete wake. Note the un- distributions for R -- 60 000 ....... 24
steady wakes for R < 100000. (See ref. 1.) The
degree of uncertainty associated with the instrumen- Hysteresis effects on chordwise pressure
tation accuracy was minimized by using precision distributions for R = 100 000 ...... 25
pressure transducers.
Effect of turbulator tape on section
An estimate of the uncertainties in the section
data; R = 100000 ........... 26
data for a = 4 °, using the technique of reference 10,
is shown in appendix A. Effect of turbulator tape on chordwise
pressure distributions; R = 100 000 .... 27
Presentation of Results
Data from LTPT and other facilities;
The results of this investigation have been re-
R = 60 000 to 200 000 .......... 28
duced to coefficient form and tabulated in appen-
dixes B through E. Selected results are presented in Experimental data and predictions from
the following figures: Eppler airfoil code; R -- 60 000 to
Figure 460 000 ................ 29
Effect of tunnel environment on section
data; R = 60000 and 100000 ...... 11 Discussion of Results
Spanwise drag data; R = 100 000
to 300 000 ............... 12 Experimental Results

Effect of tunnel environment on chordwise Effect of tunnel environment. Figures 11 through


pressure distributions for 15 illustrate the effect of tunnel environment. It is
R = 100 000 .............. 13 well known (ref. 1) that boundary-layer phenomena,
suchaslaminar-separationbubbles,canbe affected tivity of the airfoil boundary-layer characteristics at
by the tunnel environment.The effectsof several R = 60 000.
free-streamconditionson the airfoil sectiondata Reynolds number effects. Figures 16 through 25
at R = 100000 are shown in figure ll(b). The illustrate Reynolds number effects. The effects of in-
measured turbulence levels (fig. 6) vary from about creasing Reynolds number from 60 000 to 460 000 on
0.06 percent at Pt = 15 psi and M = 0.03 to the airfoil section data are shown in figure 16. The
about 0.16 percent at Pt = 5 psi and M = 0.08. data presented are for the free-stream environment
Increasing the tunnel turbulence level at constant where the lowest disturbance levels were measured
Reynolds number showed no effect on the lift and (fig. 6). Increasing the Reynolds number results in
pitching-moment data. However, some effect on large improvements in airfoil performance because of
the drag data did occur as illustrated by the drag the decrease in size of the laminar-separation bub-
polar of figure l l(b). Increasing the turbulence ble. The pressure data of figure 18 illustrate this
level of the tunnel would be expected to have a favorable Reynolds number effect. For example, for
beneficial effect on the bubble characteristics, similar -- 4 ° (fig. 18(d)), a decrease in the extent of the
to that observed for surface roughness (ref. 1), and upper surface laminar-separation bubble from more
hence, cause a reduction in drag. However, this than 0.50c to about 0.10c is indicated for an increase
result is not clearly indicated. Significant spanwise in Reynolds number from 60 000 to 460 000. A cor-
variations in cd are shown (fig. 12(a)) at R = 100000 responding decrease in c d of 0.0310 is indicated. As
for these free-stream conditions. The lowest values
discussed earlier, two flow regimes (laminar separa-
of c d were measured at span station 3 in., which tion with and without turbulent reattachment) oc-
is where the model surface pressure orifices were curred at R ----60 000 for several angles of attack. For
located. Large improvements in spanwise variations Reynolds numbers greater than 60 000, when laminar
of cd are shown (fig. 12(b)) at Reynolds numbers of separation occurred, turbulent reattachment always
200000 and 300000. The pressure data of figure 13 resulted. The pressure data (fig. 18) also indicate
illustrate the effect of the tunnel environment on the
the changes in airfoil loading because of increases in
bubble characteristics for several angles of attack. Reynolds number (R = 60000 to 200000) and the
The main effect of different free-stream conditions
resulting decrease in the magnitude of the pitching-
is the location of flow reattachment on the upper moment coefficients. Figures 19 and 20 summarize
surface of the airfoil. These results illustrate the
the effects of Reynolds number on drag coefficient
sensitivity of the bubble phenomena to the free- and maximum lift coefficient.
stream environment.
A more detailed effect of Reynolds number and
Figure ll(a) illustrates the effects of two free- angle of attack on the upper surface bubble charac-
stream conditions on the section data at R = 60 000. teristics from the oil flow results is shown in figure 21
The tunnel turbulence levels were about 0.16 per- for Reynolds numbers from 100 000 to 300 000. The
cent for pt = 5 psi and M = 0.05, and 0.20 per- pressure data and oil flow results are shown in com-
cent for Pt = 3 psi and M = 0.09. For the data parison in figure 22. A decrease in bubble length is
taken at Pt = 5 psi and M = 0.05, two differ- shown for either an increase in angle of attack at a
ent flow phenomena (laminar separation with and constant Reynolds number or an increase in Reynolds
without turbulent reattachment) were observed at number at a constant angle of attack. Increas-
the same angle of attack. This unsteady flow oc- ing the Reynolds number resulted in only a small
curred for angles of attack between about 3 ° and effect on the location of laminar separation com-
7 ° . The pressure data of figure 14 illustrate the two pared with turbulent reattachment. For example, for
flow regimes for several angles of attack, and span- a = 4 ° , increasing the Reynolds number from 100 000
wise pressure data are shown in figure 15 for a = 5 °. to 300000 produced only about 0.05c movement in
It should be noted that the pressure data were ob- the laminar-separation point compared with about
tained using an automatic pressure scanning system; 0.15c movement in the turbulent-reattachment loca-
thus each pressure was measured at a different time. tion. At Reynolds numbers of 200 000 and 300 000
The data at Pt = 3 psi and M = 0.09 for the angle- and angles of attack between 7 ° and 8 ° , the flow
of-attack range where the two flow regimes were ob- remained attached and natural transition occurred.
served always resulted in laminar separation without This condition generally resulted in the best lift-to-
flow reattachment. Consistent flow reattachment oc- drag ratio for the airfoil.
curred at a = 7.5 ° (fig. ll(a)) for both tunnel con- The importance of hysteresis phenomena for air-
ditions. Large increases in drag are shown in the foils at low Reynolds numbers is pointed out in ref-
angle-of-attack range where flow reattachment did erence 1. The presence and extent of these phe-
not occur. These results illustrate the extreme sensi- nomena are generally determined by the location of
separationand/ortransitionin the boundarylayer. 100000 and 200000 (figs. 28(b) and 28(c)), generally
Hysteresis datawereobtainedat Reynoldsnumbers good agreement between the LTPT and Delft data
from60000to 300000by increasing the angleof at- is shown; the major discrepancy is in the lift data in
tackfrom-3 ° to stall andthendecreasing the angle the high-angle-of-attack range where the LTPT data
of attack from stall to about 0°. Figure23 illus- show higher values of lift coefficients. This difference
tratesthe hysteresis effecton the sectiondata and may be attributed to the flow interference effects be-
figures24 and25showthe effectson the chordwise tween the tunnel sidewall and model end plates, since
pressuredata. Generally,no hysteresisloopswere a balance was used for the Delft tests. However, large
observed;however,aspreviouslydiscussed, two flow differences are shown between the Stuttgart data and
regimes werepresentforasmallangle-of-attack range data from the LTPT or Delft. The Stuttgart lift data
for R = 60 000. are generally lower, particularly at the higher angles
Effect of turbulator. Figures 26 and 27 illustrate of attack, and large differences in drag data are indi-
the effect of the turbulator. Performance character- cated. The Stuttgart drag data, compared with the
istics of airfoils at low Reynolds numbers are domi- other tunnels, indicate lower values of cd at lift coef-
nated by laminar-separation bubbles. One approach ficients where the bubble has a large influence on Cd,
to provide improvements is the introduction of suit- and generally higher values of cd in the low lift co-
able disturbances in the boundary layer such that efficient range. (See fig. 28(b), R = 100000.) These
transition occurs ahead of where laminar separation differences in drag data may be attributed to tunnel
would normally occur. Thus, a boundary-layer dis- flow quality, or perhaps model contour accuracy and
turbance or turbulator was employed. A spanwise surface roughness effects.
The data from the three facilities at R = 60 000 is
strip of tape was placed at 0.22c on the model up-
per surface, and the results for R = 100000 are il- shown in comparison in figure 28(a). As previously
lustrated in figures 26 and 27. The turbulator was discussed, the LTPT data displayed two flow regimes
effective in reducing drag up to a lift coefficient of at several angles of attack and showed extreme sensi-
about 1.0, as shown by the drag polar of figure 26. tivity to the tunnel environment at R -- 60 000. The
LTPT and Delft data both indicate that laminar stall
The pressure data for _ = 4 ° (fig. 27(h)) show typ-
ical effects on the laminar-separation bubble due to near c l ,_ 0.6 occurred with large increases in Cd, and
the turbulator. The turbulator tape did not elim- flow reattachment occurred near c I = 1.0. However,
inate the bubble; however, turbulent reattachment the Stuttgart data do not display these phenomena.
occurred further forward on the airfoil upper surface,
Comparison of Results With Eppler Airfoil
as indicated by the forward movement of the aft pres-
Code
sure recovery. A reduction in cd of about 17 percent
resulted. For a = 7 ° (fig. 27(k)), transition occurred The Eppler airfoil code (ref. 11) has been one
ahead of the turbulator tape (because of the adverse of the most useful codes for the design and analy-
pressure gradient near the leading edge) and as ex- sis of low-speed airfoils. The most important and
pected, no reduction in c d resulted. difficult part of the boundary-layer calculations for
low Reynolds numbers is to account for the laminar-
separation bubble. This code contains a bubble ana-
Comparison With Results From Other
Facilities logue that is evaluated from conventional computa-
tional methods based on the integral momentum and
The results of the present experiment are com- energy equations.
pared with data obtained on an Eppler 387 air- Lift and pitching-moment coefficients are deter-
foil model in the Model Wind Tunnel at Stuttgart mined from the potential flow. Viscous corrections
and the Low-Turbulence Tunnel at Delft, where the are applied, including a correction for boundary-
free-stream turbulence levels are 0.08 percent and layer separation. Drag coefficients are obtained by
0.03 percent, respectively. Data shown for the LTPT applying a modified Squire-Young formula to the
are for the environment where the lowest turbulence boundary-layer characteristics at the trailing edge.
levels were measured (0.06 percent for R = 100000 The prediction of separation is determined by the
and R = 200 000, and 0.16 percent for R = 60000). shape factor based on energy and momentum thick-
The lift data for the LTPT tests were obtained from nesses. The prediction of transition is based on an
surface pressure measurements while the data from empirical criterion that contains the Reynolds num-
the other facilities were obtained from force-balance ber (based on local conditions and momentum thick-
measurements. Drag data for all three facilities ness) and the shape factor. The code predicts the ex-
were obtained from pressure measurements by us- istence of significant laminar-separation bubbles and
ing a wake survey rake. For Reynolds numbers of provides a warning to indicate that the predicted

6
dragcoefficientis probablytoo low. However,the to develop test techniques for low Reynolds number
codedoesnot accountquantitativelyfor the influ- aerodynamics. The tests were conducted in a man-
enceof the bubbleon drag. ner as to minimize both experimental apparatus and
The LTPT data andpredictionsfromthe Eppler instrumentation uncertainties. The following results
code are shown in comparisonin figure 29 for were determined from this investigation:
Reynoldsnumbersfrom 60000 to 460000. For
Reynoldsnumbersof 200000or larger,agreement 1. The performance of the Eppler 387 airfoil is
betweentheoryandexperimentis considered good. dominated by laminar-separation bubbles at
Bubblewarningsoccurredonlyat the extremitiesof Reynolds numbers below 200 000.
the dragpolar. For R = 100000 (fig. 29(b)), good 2. The wind-tunnel test-section environment had
agreement between theory and experiment is indi- a measurable influence on the size of the
cated for the lift and pitching-moment data. How- laminar-separation bubble and, thus, on air-
ever, the experimental drag data are higher than pre- foil performance.
dicted except near a lift coefficient of about 1.06. 3. Two flow phenomena, laminar separation with
Bubble warnings appear for all lift coefficients except and without turbulent reattachment, were ob-
cl = 1.06. For R = 60000 (fig. 29(a)), bubble warn- served at the same angle of attack for a
ings appear at all conditions. The code does predict Reynolds number of 60 000.
laminar stall for a lift coefficient of about 0.6 with 4. A boundary-layer turbulator was effective in
flow reattachment occurring at a higher Cl, as is also decreasing bubble size and, hence, drag at a
indicated by the experimental results. Thus, even Reynolds number of 100 000.
though the code cannot account for the influence of 5. The comparison of results from the Langley
bubbles on the drag, the boundary-layer phenomena Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel with data
that occur at low Reynolds numbers are predicted from the Delft tunnel generally showed good
well. The code prediction of laminar-separation loca- agreement; however, the comparison with
tions and the oil flow data are shown in comparison in data from the Stuttgart tunnel showed large
figure 21 for different angles of attack and Reynolds differences.
numbers. Generally good agreement between theory 6. Comparison of the present results with pre-
and experiment is indicated. dictions from the Eppler airfoil code gener-
ally showed good agreement for the lift and
Concluding Remarks pitching-moment data. However, large differ-
ences between predicted and measured drag
Wind-tunnel tests have been conducted in the
occurred at Reynolds numbers below 200 000.
Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to deter-
mine the performance characteristics of the NASA Langley Research Center
Eppler 387 airfoil at Reynolds numbers from 60 000 Hampton, VA 23665-5225
to 460000. These tests are part of a research effort August 4, 1988

7
Table I. Design and Measured Airfoil Coordinates With Thickened Trailing Edge

=-014]
Upper surface Lower surface

Zd_

e
Zme_

c
(z)di. Zdes
C
Zme_

C (Z) diff"

0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000


.00043 ,00233 .00197 - .00037 .00092 -.00287 -.00288 - .00002
.00518 .00932 .00920 -.0O012 .00717 -.00682 -.00678 .00003
.01423 .01727 .01742 .00015 .01890 -.01017 -.01017 .00000
.02748 .02562 .02555 -.00007 .03597 -.01265 -.01278 -.00013
.04493 .03408 .03398 -.00010 .05827 -.01425 -.01430 - .OO005
.06643 .04238 .04233 -.00005 .08568 -.01500 -.01498 .00002
.09185 .05033 .05032 -.00002 .11800 -.01502 -.01497 .00005
.12093 .05775 .05772 -.00003 .15490 -.01442 -.01433 .00008
.15345 .06448 .06440 -.00008 .19598 -.01328 -.01318 .00010
.18907 .07037 .07025 -.00012 .24083 -.01177 -.01165 .00012
.22742 .07528 .07518 -.00010 .28892 -.00998 -.00987 .00012
.26813 .07908 .07903 - .00005 .33968 -.00803 -.00793 .00010
.31078 .08157 .08160 .00003 .39252 -.00605 -.00597 .00008
.35505 .08247 .08260 .00013 .44678 -.00410 -.00402 .00008
.40077 .08173 .08182 .00008 .50182 -.00228 -.00220 .00008

.44767 .07937 .07935 -.00002 .55693 -.00065 -- ,000_0 .00005


.49548 .07547 .07535 -.00012 .61147 .00073 .00077 .00003
.54393 .07020 .07005 -.00015 .66472 .00187 .00187 .00000
.59272 .06390 .06372 -.00018 .71602 .00268 .00265 - .00003
.64137 .05697 .05675 - .00022 .76475 .00320 .00317 -.00003
.68922 .04975 .04955 -.00020 .81027 .00342 .00333 - .00008
.73567 .04248 .04227 -.00022 .85202 .00337 .00323 -.00013
.78007 .03540 .03518 -.00022 .88943 .00307 .00317 .00010
.82183 .02867 .02845 -.00022 .92205 .00258 .00257 -,00002
.86035 .02242 .02227 -.00015 .94942 .00197 .00182 -.00015
.89510 .01678 .01673 -.00005 1.00000 -.00083 -.00098 -.00015

.92553 .01183 .01188 .00005


.95128 .00763 .00787 .00023
1.00000 .00083 .00147 .00063

8
Table I. Concluded

[A=0.56]
Upper surface Lower surface

Zd_ Zm_ Zde_ Zme_


(Z) diff
c c C (Z) diff
C

0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0,00000


.00043 ,00233 .00220 -.00013 .00092 -.00287 - .00268 .00018
.00518 .00932 .00912 -.00020 .00717 -.00682 -.00695 -.00013
.01423 .01727 .01715 -.00012 .01890 -.01017 -.01028 -.00012
.02748 ,02562 .02572 .00010 .03597 -.01265 -.01267 -.00002
.04493 ,03408 .03407 -.00002 ,05827 -.01425 -.01430 -.00005
.06643 .04238 .04230 -.00008 .08568 -.01500 -.01502 -,00002
.09185 .05033 ,05022 -.00012 .11800 -.01502 -•01498 ,00003
.12093 .05775 .05772 -,00003 .15490 -.01442 -.01435 .00007
•15345 .06448 .06432 -.00017 •19598 -.01328 -.01320 .00008
.18907 .07037 .07018 -.00018 ,24083 -.01177 -.01167 .00010
.22742 .07528 .07515 -,00013 .28892 -.00998 - .00987 .00012
.26813 .07908 .07900 -.00008 ,33968 -.00803 -.00793 .00010
.31078 .08157 .08153 -,00003 .39252 -.00605 -.00597 .00008
.35505 .08247 .08247 .00000 .44678 -.00410 -.00402 ,00008
.40077 .08173 .08172 -.00002 .50182 -.00228 -.00220 .00008
.44767 .07937 .07930 -.00007 .55693 -.00065 -.00062 .00003
.49548 .07547 .07535 -.00012 .61147 .00073 .00077 .00003
.54393 .07020 .07008 -.00012 .66472 .00187 .00187 .00000
.59272 .06390 .06380 -.00010 .71602 .00268 .00267 -.00002
.64137 .05697 .05688 -.00008 .76475 .00320 .00317 - .00003
.68922 .04975 .04967 -.00008 ,81027 .00342 .00337 - .00005
.73567 .04248 ,04237 -.00012 .85202 .00337 .00330 -.00007
.78007 .03540 .03535 -.00005 ,88943 .00307 .00295 -.00012
,82183 .02867 .02863 -.00003 .92205 .00258 .00243 -.00015
.86035 ,02242 .02243 .00002 .94942 .00197 .00190 -.00007
.89510 .01678 .01685 .00007 1,00000 -.00083 -.00090 -.00007
.92553 .01183 .01197 .00013
.95128 ,00763 .00788 .00025
1.00000 .00083 .00083 .00000

9
Table II. Model Orifice Locations, c = 6 in.

Upper surface Lower surface

Orifice z_
Orifice Zc b_2 Zc C C

102 0•0051 0.1055 -0.0062


Chordwise
103 .0100 .1111 -.0072
1 0.0000 O. 1667 0.0000
104 .0150 .1167 -,0092
2 .0047 .1722 .0095
105 .0201 .1222 -.0105
3 .0100 .1778 .0138
106 .0251 .1000 -.0113
4 .0150 .1556 .0180
107 .0307 .1056 -.0122
5 .0200 .1611 .0215
108 .0402 .1111 -.0132
6 .0250 .1667 .0245
109 .0499 .1167 -.0143
7 .0300 .1722 .0272
110 .0600 .1222 -.0143
8 .0400 .1778 .0320
111 .0750 •1000 -.0148
9 .0500 .1556 .0363
112 .1001 .1056 -.0150
10 .0600 .1612 .0402
113 .1500 .1111 -.0147
11 .0750 •1667 .0453
114 .2000 .1167 -.0130
12 .1000 .1722 .0527
115 .2500 .1222 -.0113
13 .1500 .1778 .0640
116 .3O00 .1000 -.0093
14 .2000 •1556 .0720
117 .3500 .1056 -.0077
15 .2500 .1611 .0775
118 .4000 .1111 -.0058
16 .3001 .1667 .0810
119 .4501 .1167 -.0040
17 .3500 .1722 .0823
120 .5049 .1224 -.0022
18 .4000 .1778 .0817
121 .5500 .1000 -.0008
19 .4500 .1556 .0792
122 .6000 .1056 .0005
20 .5000 .1611 .0750
123 .6500 .1112 .0015
21 .5500 •1667 .0695
124 .7001 .1167 .0025
22 .6000 .1722 .0630
125 .7501 .1222 .0032
23 .6500 .1778 .0557
126 .8000 .1001 .0035
24 .7000 .1556 .0482
127 .8500 .1056 .0034
25 .7500 .1611 .0402
128 .9000 .llll .0030
26 .8000 .1667 .0322
129 .9501 .1167 .0022
27 .8500 .1722 .0238
28 .9000 .1778 .0160

29 .9500 •1556 .0080

Spanwise

31 0.0500 0.2223 0.0363


32 .0500 .3334 .0363
33 .0501 .4445 .0363

34 .0500 .5556 .0363

35 .0500 •6667 •0363

36 .0500 .7778 •0363

37 .0500 .8890 .0363

38 .0501 •9446 .0363

39 .9000 .2222 .0160


40 .9000 .3334 .0160
41 .9000 .4445 .0160
42 .9000 .5556 .0160
43 .9000 .6667 .0160

44 .9001 .7778 .0160

45 .9001 .8889 .0160

46 .9000 .9446 .0160

10
Table III. Upper Surface Chordwise Locations (x/c) of Separation
and Reattachment From Oil Flow Visualization

R = 100 000 R = 200 000 R = 300 000

a, deg LS TR a, deg LS TR a, deg LS TR


-2.9 0.51 0.97 -2 0.53 0.80 -2 0.53 0.74
-2 .50 .90 0 .48 .74 0 .48 .69
0 .45 .87 2 .43 .67 2 .45 .62
2 .41 .79 4 .40 .62 4 .40 .58
4 .35 .73 5 .38 .59 5 .39 .55
5 .34 .67 6 .37 .55 6 .38 .50
6 .33 .62 7 .33 .48 6.5 .44
.38 i
7 .32 .56 8 (NT at .32) 7 (NT at .40)
8 .29 .47 8.5 .03 .18 7.5 (NT at .3o)
8.5 .03 .11 8 (NT at .20)
9 .02 .02 8.5 .12
.04 I

LS laminar separation
TR turbulent reattachment
NT natural transition

11
.1

z/o 0 _.

-.li I I I i I I I i I i I I I I I
.2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .9 1.0
0 .1
x/c

Figure 1. Section shape for Eppler 387 airfoil.

12
ORI_L P;_GE IS
OF FOOR QUALITY

I'-,.
oO
0'3

oO

'-o
C

t_
oO

""O

,-¢::I

t:u0
O

13
0

O
oOOo,
oO_,o
° cO
0
IO
[]
® [] P
I
bo
fJ
I-

D E)
II 0
-6 [] d_ (J
O,I = [] O
o x
Jo :.= DO
v

o4
0

,, I I
0

,,:t-o
0
J.q

(J (J C_l 0 ("4
O O O 0 0 0 O
"E'E O 0 0 0 O
:3:3 d o d o O o
I I _ o
I,.,. I,-
"Ul 'SaPz -- SDaUJz
(I.)
o.. 3
O.O 0 ""_
:D ...J ,._ el

O
On
o j °l
po° LJ_
00
0
i
. ,...,
E)
LO

2 _0
0
B O O I
u
04 = [] OI
o x
.O =O [] O I

gg, 0

("4
0

I I
, 2o_- I 0

',:1- ,,_.0
04 0
O (:3 (:3 0 0
O 0 0 0 0

(:3 o d 0 d
I I
"Ul 'saPz -- SDOUJz

14
_ O _ 0
I I
O] I 0 [] I
®
U
I U
I
C
'- O Ol -_ p 0 1
d
O
_ I o * I
I I
II .9 []
9> c4 II .9 DIO
_0
U U
o-O d .o
X a x o n I
>,, ,. i0

u_
- O -o
I I

I I
0 n O
I 0 DI 0
I I I I
O
0 0 0 0 O 0
0 0 0 0 O 0
o u 0 0 o d d 0
I I ,-d
"ET:

"Ul 'SaPZ -- 8D8LUz


L I,,=,

o._
O.o
:::)
..J

OD _ 0 _ 0
I I
.,,=_
I [] OI 0

.,,in cp _ LO 00 _ u_
O • 0 d
c4 _, I I
,- I I
" P q DO
C4 c_
_o_ (J U _o.
o J0 0 ..Q
v
X O 0 v
x o I []
_- 01 i.

uO
- 0 -0
I I

I I I I
OO
I I I I o I I I I jO

041 O c41 C4 0
O O o 0 0 0
O O o 0 0 0
O O d 0 0 d
I I

"U! 'SaPz -- SOaUJz

15
OF FOG;__L_.k,
LfTY

gO

gO

Q;

Q;

t_-
O0

.e

_J
q::

16
10 e
P t' psi
• 16 .20 15,0

q' psi .08


.03 .04 .0_,..__10.0

.0 5.0

F_ 10 5
.005 3.0

-_ Eppler 387 Test

4 t I t I t I t I
100.00 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16

U
Figure 5. Low Reynolds number operating envelope for LTPT for c = 6 in.

17
P t' psi M
- O 3 .050 to .208
[] 5 .050 to .215
10 .025 to .161
A 15 .018 to .133

"U/U,
I 0 -1

0 -2 i i i _ I , _ II I i i i i i _ I I

10 4 10 5 10 '
R/ft

Figure 6. Preliminary test-section turbulence levels for LTPT.

18
+ L _ -1_]-.....

Flow-angularity probes 2.0 in. _ \


X
\\/
type)
(Claw _._ _- Pivot assembly

Static-pressure probes \

(Standard typel ¢ ",,_ , .___

Total-pressure probes

(Tubes flattened} _

Static-pressure probes ._ __

7.5 in.
fT
(Disc type)

Airflow 0.50 in.

0.50i-_n. ( "
__t

1.0 in.

0.50 in.

0.50 in.
Y _
t

0.375 in.
t
I

1.5 in. --_ /- Support web

o / Outside dia. - 0.040 in.

Dia. - 0.437 in._ -1"0 in.--_---" _45" //f Inside di_- 0.024 in.
, /' _ ._" I IM"( 0.20 in.
___ d'__-----L^ Side view

oA+o/I
Dia. - 0.018 i_ view
_ 0.70 in.--------_
I- 0,094 in. Outside din. - O.063 in. Claw probe detail

I Inside dia. - 0.043 in.

Top view _- & ......... \ .


_ ^^ _'_0.07 in. Front view Outside dla. - 0.063 in,
Red. • 0.047 in. Disc probe detail u.uL tn_ nsde din. • 0.043 in.

Dia- 0.018 in. Outside dia. • O. 125


Inside dia. 01061 Side view
I I

_ad. - 0263 in. _0.04 in. -] _---0.25 in. ^ I


t------- I.0 in._r_---"l

_--1.0 in.-_-_'.O in. _V-_ Total-pressure probe detail


Front view
Side view
Static-pressure probe detail

Figure 7. Wake survey rake.

19
-Z

o
O

h0

Go
mD

or)

06

2O
t_"_" r,,lp_. ' F' ;

21
O0
O0
O_t-
o-O
_00
It
II 11

ID 0
O0
0 OrO
l-

oq
ID _-'0

ID II II o
_u

c_
0

OrO
0 _-
o o.
O4O

11 II

I I a

,,.- o
d o o

22
o

/
_n
E
_ ---.-_ r v I c_

o_
I

00

I f 0

/ 9 o
C

J
o_ _
..[3
0
_-_ _oc- 0

0 II

rY _

_0

c5
-0

(3_

0 []
0

23
O

E
o

k'N
I

o o
O ,_

._

c_
c_
00

©
O OO
d
°_

J_
o_
O
o_©

I
cO c.o O k'N
•_- e_ O

24
0.040
P t' psi M

0.035 0 5 .09
[] 10 .04
0 15 .03
0.030
0 o deg
0.025
°____o__o
_- %_ ooo ooo 5

c d 0.020

0
0.015

0.010

0.005

0.000
-15 -5 0 5 10 15

Span, in.

(a) R = IO0000.

Figure 12. Spanwise drag data.

25
a, deg

O 0

D 5

0.020 -

0.015

C) D D D D D rlrID Fl D D DID CIDD DD I-ID D D D D


Cd 0.010
OoOoOOOOOOOO OoOoOOoOOO OOO

0.005
R = 300,000 M = .08

I I I I ] I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ] I ' K I I I ' I I I
0.000
5 -10 -5 0 5 10 15

Span, in.

0.020 -

0.015 DD D D D D D D DID D 0 DD _ I-ID _ DID D DI_

Cd 0.010
oooooooooo oooooo8oOooo°o

0.005
R = 200,000 M = .06

I I I I l I I I I I , I ' I I _ I I l I I I I [ I , I , _ l
0.000
-10 -5 0 5 10 15

Span, in.

(b) R = 200 000 and 300 000.

Figure 12. Concluded.

26
-1.4

PV psi M cz cd cm
-1. Ct Cd Cm
0 5.47 .08 ,111 .0203 -.1012
[3 9.62 .04 .101 .0201 -.1005
14.79 .03 .102 .0217 -,1040
k

mm_,
--,8
-.._[

-.6 I

-.4

Cp -.2
Cp

" k P-IIL
P
J,-i r"_
.2 {z

.4 y
}

.6
.6

.8

1
0 .1
.2 .3 .4 :5 .6 .7 .8 ,9 1.0 0 .1 .2 ,3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c x/c

(a) a ,_ -3 °.
(b) a = -2 °.

-1.2
-1.2
Pt, psi M ct cd Cm
-1. p_ psi M cI cd Cm
0 5.43 .08 .287 ,0143 -.og5_ -1.0
0 5.08 .08 .391 .0156 -.0965
rq 9.66 .04 .289 .0155 -.0955
-.; _ 14.79 ,03 .294 .0159 -,0978 [] 9.66 .04 .392 ,0173 -,0971
-.8 _ 14.78 .03 390 .0173 -.097S

Cp
5 _., _> Cp "__.,. \_,

,4 9

.6[
[

1.0
0
.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

X/C X/C

(c) _ = -1 o. (d) ,_ = oo.

Figure 13. Effect


designates lowerof tunnel
surface. environment on chordwise pressure distributions for R = 100 000. Centered symbol

27
-I .2,
-1.2 t t Pt" psi M c! cd cm
Pr psi M c l cd cm
-1.0 0 5,10 .08 .591 .0221 -.1003
-I .0 o 5,26 08 .492 .0183 -.0963
r-I 9,69 .04 .589 .0216 -.0983
[] 9.68 .04 ,491 .0189 -.0972
-.8 _ 14.80 .03 .587 D211 -,0981
--,8 (> 14.80 .03 .487 ,0188 -.0967

,@
--.6 -.6 _ }-,
[_-- "'-(>,.j t
r"
-45 _t
(2

--.2
i Cp
Cp _,... r
0
r "" '_II_IIN L, ......
}.4 _-; _4 |

.4

16

.8
.8

I
1 .I .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0
.8 .9 1.0 0
.2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7
x/c
x/c

(f) _ = 2 °.
(e) _ ----- 1 °.

-1.4
-I .4
PV psi M c I ca cm
pr psi M Cl Cd Cm
-1.2
-I .2 0 5.29 .08 .692 .0236 -.0994 0 5.31 08 .787 0250 -.0970
[] 9.71 .04 .786 .0241 -.0943
[] 9.70 .04 686 .0238 -.09831
14.80 .03 .778 .0230 -.0920
0 14.80 .03 .694 .0227 -.0988 -1.0
-I .0

--.8

\
\ -.4
\.
Cp
Cp -.2 k
_J
0
0
_4
,,_ h,.4 _IHH_ _e4 _) .2
.2 .,d r

_r
.4 Re .4 |
|
.6' }

.8
J=
L l
1 I 1
.4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0
.6 .7 .8 .g 1.0 0 .1 .2 .3
0 .1 .2 3 .4 .5
×/c
x/c

(g) c_= 3°. (h) c_ = 4 °.

Figure 13. Continued.

28
-1.8 -1.8
p_ psi M cl cd cm
-1.6 | p_ psi M ct c d c m

0 5.13 .08 .881 .0248 -.090¢


0 5.35 .08 984 .0236 -.0846
[] 9,72 .04 .880 .0234 -.0879
[] 9,73 .04 .978 .0230 -.0835
-1.4 14.80 .03 .873 ,0240 -,0889 -1 .z 14.80 .03 .974 .0224 -.0829

-1. • L
-1 ._
,%

-1 -1.0
k

-.8 )
--.8
\
-.6 --,6
\
-.4

Cp Cp
\
-.2 t
-.4

,-(
0 }.
0

!
.2

Jlw
.4 .4
J r: _r
.6 _ t r
K
.8 _ .8 |
) r

1.2 1.2
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 0 .1 .2 ._ .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c x/c

(i) _ = 5 °. O) e = 6 °

-3.2
-3.2
p? psi M ct cd cm
-2.8 [ p_ p=i M c! ca c m

0 5.17 .08 1.083 .0213 -.0799


0 5.20 .08 1,186 .0215 -.0767
[] 9.76 .04 1.077 .0212 -.0786
[] 9,76 .04 1.179 .0212 -.0752
14.80 .03 1.072 .0206 -.0777
14.81 .03 1,172 .0210 -.0752
-2.4 _1_

-2.C
t
-2.( _
m
-1.6
_k
-1 .(

-1 % ),,,
-1
C
p Cp
-,8

-.4
•q ,,_

0 "- r-( L( )_; )

.4 H " HHH
.4

.8 j r y-
V
1
F
1.2
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 ,9 1.0 0 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0
x/c x/c

(k) e = 7 °. (l) _, = 8 °.

Figure 13. Concluded.

29
-1.4
-1.4
Pt" psi M ct cd cm Pt' psi M c i c d c m

-1.2 0 2.79 09 .351 .0263 -.1117 -1.2 0 2.81 .09 .582 .0316 -,1248

[] 4,81 .0.5 ,343 .0237 -.1104 [] 5.19 .05 .559 0322 -.1171
-1 0
-1 .o

-.8
-.8

i--.[l=ll:t]l=i i
-.6 -.6 _ ,-, lh c

-.Z
i_, 1-¢ _1.,>,_, ,_, >._, ,.1 i,I; =li=]l! :.l

.... cp -.2 _ "_


Cp
c
t ..... O_J
o_
L.I "-Irl-tl" )-tB'ID-I t-fl'l'l'l)'iT'=_-lt'l'_ ir - - ,.-_-, r-i;l-l_.lp.i 1._t-£l-i_,1 l.fl-¢
..L
.2_ .2 r
.4 _
,L
.6

i .8 I
1.C 1.0
.1 .2 ,3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1,0 0 .1 .2 .3 ,4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9
0

X/C X/C

(a) o_ ---- 0 0 •
(b) ol = 2°.

-1.4
-1.4
Pt' psi M c, L cd cm ] Pt" psi M cl cd cm

-1.2 0 2.83 .09 628 0368 -.1205 0 2.87 ,09 608 .0477 -.1132

[] 4.84 .05 .634 .0368 -.1199 [] 5.04 .05 643 D431 -.1180
-1 ,[ _ 4.87 ,05 .721 .04-00 -.1125
-1.0
_t_,<>-<>-,<, I
't
-8 _i.,, \
_'t_fl-i7"l I_ t. -.6 _tll_ "11_.FI <t
-.6 •_ ,_ ...<
>_>...... <>-<
K-I_
.ill _-., _ '" _ ,-'-1
I--_-c_-__:_l:_v-{;-,,-__ t..
_1 '_i_t:t_l:l 1=1 l:_l-(l'll "l j- __
-.4 ", \X ;'e

-.2
i \ Cp '_'-c
Cp
4>

),1 Ill i-_l-ti-I_-I i-_t-(.:l-ii- .),tI-IH-}-t i-lll-tl-I ,'" • .2 _.i-__, -i!-! !:Ii Jt-=ll_ l:tl:ll:ll_ _II-_ .-l_-, r_>--',,
II

.6

'
i 1 1
I 1.0
1'C0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 0 .1 .2 .3 ,4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9

×/c x/c

(c) a=3 ° . (d) a=4 ° •

Figure 14. Effect of tunnel environment on chordwise pressure distributions for R -= 60 000. Centered symbol

designates lower surface.

30
-1.4 -1.4
Pt" psi M ci cd cm Pt' psi M cl cd cm
-1.2 -1.
O 2.91 .09 .623 .0547 -.1099 O 2.94 .09 .665 .0637 -.1092
[] 5.06 .05 .638 .0439 -.1139 [] 5.11 .05 .661 .0639 -.1080
-1.0
7 %[ 1
-1 .I

"[
-.i
%[ ]_ _f
,_( D
-.6 -.6
5
_4 L \
) )-()-( _-()-()-()-i w() "()2 _-c i.C)_. %
-.4 _" )- )-I t-C 1-()-(3-i I-_ i-¢J-(3. I.( _.
J
\
Cp Cp -.2
)

C
_<.)-(4J
,.6>-()-( __[ .]-I -E •_ia-I I-t_ 1.( |.(__ ]-EI-f]-_=-'
.2 .2
A #, ;" r41-E H 3-1 I-I:]-t_-I _ _

.6"_

B D

8!
1
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 0 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c x/c

(_) _ = 5°. (r) ,_= 6°.

-3.," -3.2
Pt" psi M ct cd cm
p_ psi M c I c d c m
-2J
O 2.96 .09 .707 .0756 -.1099 -2.8 O 2.97 .09 1.097 .0319 -.0845
[] 5.15 .05 1.040 .0337 -.0876
[] 5.17 .05 1.097 .0310 -.0808
-2.4

5,
-2.0
-1.6 _ -1.6 It
)L
J'l
-1.2 "( )_,.
-1 .:
"E k r a. )-r
Cp Cp ,,-i )-i F=_)-|
_, ),.( ),, "- J" I-i "I-[]-[]-[3-F -.i {,
", )- )-< )-_ _-( )-( )-( )-q _-_lq( )-( )__ __(
-.4
-.4 %
J" I-[]_;_.(_
,_,__, ___.(.)-ib-_)-_)-(') -_ _-_ -,
_).!)-,_)-,
.... i [:t_-ii-i_-I i-la-[.]-IB-el-¢,-¢,-, , -
,-I_-4 I-{1-l}-I_-}'{
.4 ,_
P
8 | Ar
r F
1 1.2
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 ,5 .6 ,7 ,8 .9 1.0 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c x/c

(g) a = 7°. (h) _ = _.5°


Figure 14. Continued.

31
-3.2
Pt* psi M cz c d cm

0 3.00 .09 1.158 .0287 -.0783

[] 5 19 .05 1,142 .0280 -.0756

-2.4

-2,0

%
-1 2 ,-q p. }-{)-(1
Cp
-.8
\
_z
"- I.{ )_f 'l

-I J- i.{ ].r _

}-( ,-! r-_

w
1.2
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c

(i) a = 8 °.

-3.2
Pt' psi M c?, cd cm
3
-2._ 0 278 ,og 1.217 .04.72 -.0614

E] 5 28 .05 1.208 .0471 -.0596

-2.' Ii1_

-2.0 _1

-1.6
\
-1.2 [l-z_l }=1_.,
Cp

t, I,,,
-.4

I-C
0
L-{
-t 1-1;

4
.l_-q

m-
1.2
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 ,9 1 0

x/c

(j)_ = 10°

Figure 14. Concluded.

32
-1.8 0 x/c = 0.05 -I .6 0 x/c = 0.05
[] x/c -- 0.90 [] xYc = 0.90

-_ .2 -_ .2

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

-.8 -.8
0 0 0 0 0 o Oo
0
Cp Cp

--.4 DD [] [] [] D --,4
[]

[]
D D D [] [] D []

.4 l I I I I .4 I I I l I

0 .2 .4 .6 .8 l.O .2 .4 .6 .8 J..O
y/(b/2) y/ (b/2)

(a) Pt = 3 psi; M = 0.09; R = 60000. (b) Pt = 5 psi; M = 0.05; R = 60000.

-1.6 0 x/c = 0.05 -_ .6 o x/c = 0.05


[] x/c = 0.90 [] x/c = 0.90

-i .2 -1.2 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O0

-.8 -.8

Cp Cp

-.4 -.4

D D [] D [] D D D DO O O [] D [] O

.4 I I I I !
.4 I I I I I

0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0 .2 .4 .6 .8 I 0
y/(b/2] y/(b/2)

(c) Pt = 5 psi; M = 0.08; R = 100000. (d) pt = 15 psi; M = 0.03; R = 100 000.

Figure 15. Spanwise pressure data for _ = 5°.

33
0

E
I 0

_v

c,l
I

CO
O

,- /q CO
O
/ /U
d
/ /

/ o" .o
> ," "Q-O.___O01) O
_ rlyO / )OC

<I. ___7 ml_ -_ O. c _--o_s / o


cs-cs--s-- q Od
O
,..o

O
©

CO o

,v i_D

(N

_ oO _-D _°
c- 04 .,-.-- "--
r.." _" o 0(3
0,1 ,--. "-

0
0
0
0
0
O
d
0 0 0
r',.- ddd
',.0 0 0
_.- o,1

omo O

I
_" C_ O Od
I

34
O

E
I O
n_

oq
I

w_
O

-O
\ O

.0

_=
o
O C0

_5

cO
/LJ °_

i--] j

c'q
y_v T--

09
w]
,- L6] % 00
O7
n- _-. rO
c_
-O

O O O
O O o
O O O
0_ dcSo" m.
O O
c,J w]
cO
_-
0<.
O
080

X_
I
Oq O o3 CD O4 O c'_

T-- _-- T-- I

35
-1.4
a,deg cz cd cm
-1.2 ' O -2.94 -.056 .0336 -.0757
D L2.00 .114 .0236 -.0941
.00 .348 .0243 -.1102
-1.0
_ 2.01 .559 .0322 -.1171

Cp
'_ )_'--L l-- J--[]--L |--C]--It

¢ JT"_>-,J !_I1-I
>--"
_H • I-Jl:l_-t'-_
_'-' l--i i.--__.-' ,
l--i i-- t,--t _--I i -lt-I --i i--t t--i --it----

.4
?_'
Oi
.6

0 .1 .2 .5 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

X/C

(a) R = 60 000.

Figure 17. Effect of angle of attack on chordwise pressure distributions. Centered symbol designates lower
surface.

36
-321
a.deg ct cd Cm
-2.8 I 0 4.00 •721 .0400 -.1125
13 4.99 •838 .0439 -.1139
0 6.01 •661 .0639 -.1080
-2.41 z_ 7.01 1.040 .0337 -.0876

-2. )_

161 , ,
-1.2 _"" '
L j

Cp \z_..,

-.l ",_ N;\ ""


/

4_,'-
ILt'
1.2r"
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

(a) R = 60 000. Continued.

Figure 17. Continued.

37
_3.2
=,deg cz cd cm

0 8.02 1.142 .0280 -.0756


[] 10.02 1.208 .0471 -.0596
<> 11.02 1.211 .0604 -.0548
-2. Zx 12.01 1.193 .0797 -.0528

%
-2.0 _J
) CL
J

o,
-1.6

-1.2
Cp
-,< _. ',
--.8
-,<__\
--.4

"'_ "__ _--'_4_ P=


0

.4

t_llr

1.2
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c
(a) R = 60000. Concluded.

Figure 17. Continued.

38
-1.4
ot,deg ct cd cm
-1.2 t
0 -2.98 •102 .0217 -.104.0
[] -1.99 .210 .0162 -.1069
-1.0 D 0 .oo .390 .0167 -.0978
Z& 1.99 .587 .0211 -.0981

C
P

)
0 .1 .2 .5 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c
(b) R = 100 000.

Figure 17. Continued.

39
-3.6
[I a,deg ¢l cd Cm

0 4.00 .778 .0230 -.0920


[] 6.00 .974 .0224 -.0829
0 8.00 1.172 .0210 -.0752
-2.8 10.06 1.200 .0413 -.0599

-2.4

3m,
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

(b) R = 100000. Continued.

Figure 17. Continued.

4O
-3.6

a,deg c/. cd cm

-3.' _ O 11.00 1.201 .0525 -.0550


[] 12.01 1.189 **** -.0517
O 13.01 1.160 **** -.0541
A 14.00 .84.2 **** -.1378

-2.4

-2.0 I_[
-1.6 I 1

Cp
-1.2 I 1_

R
__ L--,
"-" "_ _i-&-t_ _,
0 .._ ,-t_

.4 I I , ,--,,-'-"-' It-4_-4 -' '-"

.8
1.2 _-----
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c
(b) R = 100 000. Concluded.

Figure 17. Continued.

41
a.deg ct cd cm

O -2.84 .066 .0163 -.0813


O -1.99 .156 .0133 -.0814
O .01 .352 .0105 -.0782
-1 .o -.0794
A 2.04 .574 .0118

Cp

.4

.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

(c) R = 200 000.

Figure 17. Continued.

42
-4.0,

a,deg c/, Cd Cm
--,.3.
L_ 0 3.99 .785 .0133 -.0803
[] 6.04 .999 .014-4. -.0790
0 8.03 1.182 .0174 -.0751
Z_ 10.02 1.231 .0357 -.0643
,k
-2.8, ,_

- o°
-2.0 ],,i_:_

Cp
-1.2
].,.,..[

_r _;'--- )--..-()'( i J -......_


_-.-.-)_ _ _,_c]...
-.8)

-.4

0 '"-__'1_ ¢_

.4

.8

1.2
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c

(c) R = 200000. Continued.

Figure 17. Continued.

43
-4.4
a,deg ct cd cm

O 11.04 1.214- .0570 -.0606


Is El 12.09 1.174. **** -.0593
O 14,01 1.155 **** -.0727
-3.6 A 16.09 .851 **** -.1 463

-3.2

=t
-2.8 ,

-2.4

-2
"5.,
-1.6
"I k,,
Cp
"_&
-1.2
,\'t )..
-< 1)"'_# %

_.1_,_Ih ;_,
,,q

-1
-['"' '= )_f]=;I-_]-f_-I !-i_ .... _ 'lq#

1. _
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c
(c) R = 200 000. Concluded.

Figure 17. Continued.

44
-1.6_
a,deg c/, cd cm

0 -2.93 .051 .0140 -.0768


D -2.01 .146 .0118 -.0788

-1.2 .01 .352 .0089 -.0767


B 2.00 .573 .0099 -.0785

-1.0 i

Cp

0 •1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

X/C

(d) R = 300000.

Figure 17. Continued.

45
-4.4
a,deg cI cd cm

0 4.00 •792 .0109 -.0794


[3 6.01 1.009 .0118 -.0799
& <> 8.02 1.180 .0168 -.0756
-3.6 A 10.02 1.251 .0316 -.0661
r

-2.8

-2. _'

Cp -1.6 iba >-,,_,,,,.


J_[ "l_._.
--I.
,.__r_(_, '--r_ J"-L
,'%

--. 8" ,,/

-.1-

) -_h

1. 9
0 .1 .2 .3 .4. .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

X/C

(d) R = 300000. Continued.

Figure 17. Continued.

46
a,deg c/, cd cm

0 11.02 1.24.1 .0621 -.0670


13 12.01 1.215 **** -.0690
_,_I 14.01 1.179 **** -.0751
ITI A 16.00 .999 **** -.1693

__IJ.I

Cp

-1

11_, • "4 ,

211
0 .1 .2 .3 .4. .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c
(d) R = 300000. Concluded.

Figure 17. Continued.

47
Cp

El

0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

X/C

(e) R = 460 000.

Figure 17. Continued.

48
-4.4
a,deg ct cd cm

-4. k O 4.01 .803 .OO9O -.0801


ID 6.03 1.022 .0101 -.0807
O 8.01 1.179 .0161 -.0759
-3.6
A 10.00 1.275 .0276 -.0671

-3.
i,

-2.8 _

-2. _:_

-2.0' __<_kz

Cp -1.6

-1.2

.4

1.2
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c

(e) R = 460 000. Continued.

Figure 17. Continued.

49
-6

e_,deg c% cd cm

O 11.00 1.284 .0603 -.0685


0 12.02 1.264 **** -.0766
-4 0 13.00 1.240 **** -.0813

-3

Cp

-1
A A

2
0 .1 .2 .3 .4. .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c
(e) R--460000. Concluded.

Figure 17. Concluded.

5O
-I .'
-1.6 [
R cI cd cm R C_ Cd Cm
I -1.
0 60,000 .113 .0233 -.0941 0 200,000 .156 D133 -0814

[] 100,000 .210 .0162 -.1069 [] 300,000 .146 0118 -.0788

200,000 .156 .0153 -.0814 460,000 .153 .0103 -0774


-1.2[i
FI -I .0
-i II
I_l -,8
-.a_I
I
l_Ii
--61 _L L
_A _4._, t-4 ) },,.( T" r-_tN
_z

Cp
'" qb,-, Cp
-.2 V_
i,a
(
j'
...
°1 tg
"-I I -b f--_ _'1

r_

.8_
.8VI
©I 1
0 .1 .2 .5 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 0 .1 2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c ×/c

(a) o_ = --2 °.

-I.2 -1.2

R ct c d c m R Cl Cd Cm

-1.0 -1.0
0 60,000 .345 .0237 -.1104 0 200,000 .352 .0105 -.0782

[] 100,000 .390 .0167 -.0978 [] 300,000 .352 .0087 -.0768

200,000 .352 .0105 -.0782 --.8 460,000 356 0073 -.0785

-.6 --.6
,,,_
Y_!=_,',-t
!'I
t-,
-.4 --,4

)-_,- _ i-_:_'-
I .,.,
;( \ _,\
<Imp., ,, \
Cp Cp
0
'_""_'4)'4_-'4")-t_,%__ L,. -- =_ )

.2

.6 .6
-3

, )

0 .1 .2 3 .4 .5 .6 7 .8 .9 1.0 0 .1 .2 ..3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c ×/c

(b) e, = 0 °.

Figure 18. Effect of Reynolds number on chordwise pressure distributions. Centered symbol designates lower
surface.

51
-1.4 -1.4
R cz % cm R c_ cd c_

-1 2 -1.2
0 60,000 .559 0322 -.1171 0 200,000 .574 .0118 -.0794

I-I 100,000 .587 .0211 -.0981 [] 500,000 .573 o09g -.0785

-1 .l 200,000 .574. .0118 -.0794 -1.0 460.000 .580 .0078 -.0786

-.1 -.8
z:,,t p<_'¢
-,6 -.6
['C)-()

-,4- -.4-

2
C \ Cp
<\ k
P C ? J_

0
_L mt _b. _ i

.2
ill P-4p..4 _ I-{H_)-4 _l_),,_p-I
t
.}
.4

.6

.8

1.C
,1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.o .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.o

x/c x/c

(C) c_ ---- 2 °.

-1.4 -1.4
R cz cd cm R cz Cd ¢m
-1.2 -1.2
0 60,000 .721 .0400 -.1125 0 200,000 .785 .0133 -.0803

-1 I
[] 100,000 .778 0230 -.0920
-1 .(
Ik D 300,000 .792 .0109 -.0794
<_ 200,000 .785 ,0133 -.0803 460,000 .803 .0090 -.0801
_]-} L"<.
_>-,
,_ ir
-.t
'-'i
-_ .-..[ _
i-(
2- r
_C,.

\ <>. -.4

"%),
>\ c\ \
Cp -.2 Cp -.2

0
_f:_ 0 ),
-,,I

.2 .2 _4
p v v v w -_ ....

.4
F .4
ir

.8

1
0 2 3 .4 5 .6 .7 8 .9 10 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c X/C

(d) e = 4°.

Figure 18. Continued.

52
-2,4 -2.4

-2.1 I R c 2 Cd Cm R cz Cd Cm
0 60,000 .661 .0639 -.1080 -2.q iL 0 200,000 1.004 .0141 -0809

-1 I_ [] 100.000 974 .0224 -0829


[] 300.000 1.009 .0117 -.0799
_ 0 200.000 1.004 0141 -,0609 -1.6
460.000 1.022 .0101 ~.0807

-1.2 >.
-1.2

Cp &
r-(), )_()__ _-(_-()-( }.().()_q )-()-,_
)

0 0
k

_- .)-{ )-{.)-! !-_)-_)-I') -I )-, _,


H_-4
.4 P_P_
.4 J=4_
I j _P-

.8 r II
1.2
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 1.o
1.2
0
I
.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0
×/c ×/c

(e) e = 6°.

-3.1
-3.6
R ct cd cm
-3.: R c! cd Cm
0 60.000 1.142 .0280 -.0756 -3.:
0 200,000 1.180 .0175 -.0763
100.000 1,172 .0210 -.0752
-2._ [] 300.000 1.180 .0168 -.0756
! 200,000 1.180 .0175 -.0763 -2._
460.000 1.179 .0161 -.0759

-2_

-2.1
-2.0
_tt
-1 .t
-1.6
"tt

Cp -1.2
""l £h ko
Cp -1,2

--.8
I L
rk --.8

--.4
--.4
F_d

0
0

.4 H._ _ ,,_ r,,


.4 ,J _.4

1.2
0 1.2
.2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0
x/c
x/c

(f) _' = 8°.

Figure 18. Continued.

53
-5
-51 R c I cd c m
R ct Cd Cm

O 200.000 1,231 .0357 -,0643


O 60,000 1.208 .0471 -.0596
0 300,000 1.251 .0316 -,0661
[] 100.000 1.200 .0413 -.0599
460,000 1.275 .0276 -.0671
200,000 1,231 .0357 -.0643 t
q
-2 -2
Cp
Cp
Ib_. -1
-1 v-

O_
0 p(p4 _4 _HP4 p4HP4
_ L_ l _HH-:H P4HHP4 P4H_
1! F.,,

2
.2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7
L ,.8 .9 .0
2
0 1 ,2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0
0 ,1
x/c
x/c

(g) o_---- 10 °.

-6

-6I R c l c d c m
R Cl Cd Cm

O 200.000 1.174 **** -,0593


-5 0 60.000 1.193 .0797 -.0528
[] 300.000 1.215 **** -,0690
[] 100,000 1.189 **** -.0517
460.000 1,264 **** -.0766
200,000 1.174 **** -.0593
,f I 1
_ Jill3- I

q
i,4 X
Cp -2
t_-.;.\
-1 #,,
.... _ _HH_ r_HH_ m

0
_ _ZL _J
i. I_ ,.4:t'-' ' v

2 .2 ,3 .4 .5 ,6 ,7 .8 .9 .0
.5 .6 .7 .8 .9 .0 0 .1
0 ,1 .2 .3 .4
x/c
x/c

(h) a = 12 °.

Figure 18. Concluded.

54
0 O_ = 0 °
[] O_ = 4°
10 -1 1
8

4
[-4
\
\
\

2
(}. _3,,,

C d 10 -2 1 () []..
8
_.(,-,)
6

lO-S 1
1 2 4 6 8 1 2 4 6 8 1
10 4 10 5 10 6
R
Figure 19. Variation of drag coefficient with Reynolds number.

55
1.4

1.3 ..0
)J

--(
C ?,,max 1.2

1.1

1.0
2 4 6 8 1
1 2 4 6 8
10 5 10 6
10 4
R
Figure 20. Variation of maximum lift coefficient with Reynolds number.

56
o

oo
o

o 0

o
o,I
o

o
o.
o o
ii)

oo o

o C) u

o-- d
°
0
I L_

I 0i'-I0 n,.
0
o

_u
r_
oo
o _

_.D b.o

O4
1 "-
0

/ n_
z L i I l l I 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

I I

57
-.8 -.8
LS

.4 -.4

Cp Cp
\

0 0

.4 .4

.8 O( =0 °

.8 _ o_ = -2 °
____ 1 1 I I I
,].2 I I I I I I 1.2
0 .2 .4 .6 .B 1.0 0 ,2 .4 .6 .8 1.0
x/c x/c

-1.6 -'I ,6

-'I .2 -1.2

LS
-.8 -.B

-.4 -.4

Cp Cp
0000_
0 0

M., M/

.4 .4

0(_--4 °
.8 o¢= 2° .8

_.2 1 I I I --J 1.2 _--- 1 I I ]


0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 _.0
x/c x/c

(a) R = i00 000.

Figure 22. Comparison of pressure data with oil flow results illustrating laminar-separation and turbulent-
reattachment locations. Centered symbol designates lower surface.

58
t
-4 0 -4.0

-:3.0 0(=5 °
-3.0 O( ----6 °

-2.0 -2.0

P CD

-1.0 -i .0
TR

0000%

1.0 1.O I .... _ - J .2-.... J


0 .2 .4 .6 .B 1.0
0 .2 .4 .6 .8 '1.0
x/c x/c

-4.0 -4.0

-3.0 a='r -3.0

i
-2,0 __ G =8 °
-2.0

Cp P

-1.0 TR -I .0

1.0
J 1.O
0 .2 .4 .6 .B 1.0 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1.O
x/c x/c

(a) R = 100 000. Concluded.

Figure 22. Continued.

59
-I 6
-:1.6 F

-1.2

-I .2 i

-.8
-.B
LS

LS TR -.4

Cp

Cp-'4 __
0

.4

.B O_ = -2 °
4!
.8 _ = 0°

I
l 1.2 L---- ± .... ___ J_____ J .... 1
1.2 [..... L.... L.... L _ _t....
1.0 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0
0 .2 .4 .6 .8
x/c x/c

-_..6 -1.6 m
I
-12L
-1.2

LS - 8
-.8

- 4 - 4

Cp Cp

0 0

G(: 4°
0(=2 °

.... J. I L I I 1 .... ] .... _J_ ___ ±. __ I_ _d


I 2
1.0 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0
0 .2 .4 .6 .8
x/c x/c

(b) R=200000.

Figure 22. Continued.

60
-4.0
-4.0

-3.0 _ ___ 5 °
-3.0 0(----6 °

-2 0
-2.0
CD
CD
LS
-1 0
-1.0 TR

0 -- L .... 1 ..... I _ __ ..... j


1.0 -- -- iI _i t 1 J
0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1 .0
.2 .4 .6 .8 1.0
X/C
x/c

-4.0
-4.0

-3.0 a=/°
-3.0 I _=8o

-2.0
-2.0
P
Cp
-J..0
-i .0

1.O
1 0 ---L t I ..... _J.__ __j
.2 .4 .6 .B 1.0
0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0
x/c
X/C

(b) R = 200 000. Concluded.

Figure 22. Continued.

61
-1.6 F
I

-1 2 1
-1.6 i

Cp

.4

O( ---- -- 2°
.8

L - - [....... L .... .I
1.2 ___l_--
0 .2 .4 .6 .8 I .0
X/C

-1.6

-1
-1 2
[ LS

B _TR

4 X
LS

Cp
Cp
o s.%%

0_:4 °
0(---- 2 °

_[ . _J_ J J J _..2 L..... J_- _[ ____L ..... _L___ . J


.2 L-__r__
1.0 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 I .0
0 .2 .4 .6 .8
X/C
x/c

(c) R = 300000.

Figure 22. Continued.

62
-4.0
-4.0

-3.0 O( ----6 °
-3.0
I a = 6.5 °

)
-2.0
-2.0
Cp
Cp

-I[ .0
-1.0

_ _ _ _ .......

1.0 ...... _L_ .... _L ...... i J


1 0
.2 .4 .6 .8 _ .0
0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0
x/c
x/c

-4.0

i
-4.0

-3.0
_=7 °
-3.0 ._ a = 8°

-2.0
-2.0
P
CD
-i ,0
-1.0

1.0 ----L ..... ± .... ______ JL ...... _I


1.0 .... J _ ____L ___
.2 .4 .6 .8 I .0
0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0
X/C
x/c

(c) R = 300000. Concluded.

Figure 22. Concluded.

63
0

J
--tD
_r"

tOe-O-E

c_
I

O3
0
U

/
C d
A Yo_/ _/
_-C __'_0_
.o
_<g'_v-_ o_,:f _
BO
0

(n 00 c'_
c c,_ M')
n r--"
e" c.a _

o

I
1[ []
"_ _3 J
O

u- 0 C
0 j_

© ©
00
_D C_
0

_g

co
._go
"0.._ _.._, 0
0 []

I
O0 _ _- 0_1 0 c_
I

64
o

o_
I

r_
o

_ o
o

E_E ,-- ,._I _D


°_
TI

0 I._.0
o_
K_ J
c'q
o
_- o )
o
)
_ QJ
oO

o
s...

o
o []

I
O4 0 CO ,q.-
I

65
0

_-- E_ Q-- 0 -0- -0-0


E
I (J

t_a
cq
I

.i g O
-O

:N'"9"'"0"" "{_""O_- -0"


O

bO O
09 _--
c- C{
rY '---
o_
5
c)

cJ (N

4-
o
0 g
0
(5
c_
00
c o
o O7

-O
C -
}....
121 i....

N c_
© [] I.,F_ O

"0..
"0....
"0
I
C'4 0 00 _0 _- (N O c_
I

66
0

I.---{ )---I 0---{9---0-(;00- -0- -©

O4
I

1 t,q
0

,,( i©"

.-. bO _ 0

01 U'3
cZ3 _ 00

°_
_L O,
C j
0 _J
o o
o4
o C
N-.-
"- 0
0
0

o3
¢- o
o
©

._cm"_
0

a...
__c c_
"s...
0
© [] "0.(

..©
I
O4 0 00 cO _ c,4 0 cxl
I

67
-1.4 -1.4
Angle of attack cz cd cm Angle of attack cl cd cm

-1 0 Increasing -.056 .0336 -.0757 -1._, 0 Increasing .343 .0237 -.1104

[] Decreasing -.045 .0310 -.0767 [] Decreasing .342 .0227 -.1098


-1.0 -1 ._

ilR_4P -.t

-.8 I_
-.6
-.6 _ i t'

_-I I-r L
-.4, _r_C -.4 • _fc ,,tJ .... tJ, )"_'CJ-rL,
Cp "'" '" _-,_ Cp _lli_
2 "i I-_ D-qt-( }. B-i Lr .... 0 r '_'_ |-I a.,_

a-=j_=j_,j_j_._ -(

.2 ./ .2_
!
P

.6}"
.6 ,_
n
T
.8"_

1.£
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 0 1 .2 .3 ,4 .5 .6 .7 .8 9 1.0

x/c x/e

(a) a_-3 °. (b) a=O °.

-1.2 -1 2
Angle of attack c_ cd cm Angle of attack c 2 c= c m

-1.0 0 _ncreasing .559 .0322 -.1171 -1.0 0 increasing .643 .0431 -.1180

[] Decreasing 557 .0307 -.1179 [] Increasing .721 .0400 -.1125

-.8 -.8___ -_ L_L'[:,


_.) _-_]_- _ Decreasing .681 .0464-.1158

Cp _ c _-.
O,r, i_._1___ _........ o

.2 _ .... _-_,-_-_u-,_-_*-_H_-_-,,-_,-,"" 2 _--_=_=i_:-414_li=ll:_tr41_f_#t "__'_ _-"

.6

.8

1 1.£
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 ,9 1.0 0 1 .2 .3 ,4 .5 ,6 .7 .8 ,9 1.0

x/c x/c

(c) a:2 °. (d) a=4 °.

Figure 24. Hysteresis effects on chordwise pressure distributions for R : 60 000. Centered symbol designates
lower surface.

68
-1.8
Angle of attack
-_gLI
c z c d cm Angle of attack c_ c d cm
-1 .i
338 .0439 -.1139
0 increasing -1 5_J 0 increasing 685 .0684 -.1083
D Decreasing •628 .0533 -.1086 Decreasing .672 .0677 -.1075
-1.,
-1.4 I,_ 0[] Decreasing .985 .0375 -.0960

-1.2
- 1.2 I I'_>.
i " ,>

-1.0

/
'\().

-.6
]
].
;J..
" ).(
• • w v
\
\
'_ ]_[ 3-1 I-[1-[1-[3-1 i-[)~[] -
-,4 I-El- r
Cp Cp
-[
\ I \
_.2 [
\
(

0 ,ll
-i t-E1 . ,J _.-I l°1 ""

.2
_1 i-E] -_ 3-I
I-r.l-L-_-j-,
_'E-'°-'

I_>"

0
D
.1 .2 .5 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.o
.81_1
_li, I
.1 .2 .3 .4 .5
I
.6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c x/c

(e) o_ = 5 °. (f) c_ = 6.5 °.

-3.2 -3.2
Angle of attack cz cd cm Angle of attack Cz cd Cm
-2.E -2.,
0 Increasing 1.142 .0280 -.0756
0 increasing , 1.208 .0471 -.059_
3 r3 Decreasing 1.146 .0283 -.0762
17 Decreaeing 1.206 .0472 -.059,
-2.4 -2,,

-2.0
4k
-1 .e -1.6
\
\
-1.2 " "'( L,,
-1.2
\
C ]-(]. {)'[}- 3.,
P "1 Cp
--,8 '7: )...
\ 1
k, P"r i.
-.4

)-'L, _'_'- )- i_d


0

.4 .,_1_ |l| _-I _-_)-_B-_-eI-{|-(


.4 _._ _.1+1-1 t-I_'[) -I )-I_

,a Fr

m,
,_li _
IF
1.2 1.2
0 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c x/c

(g) _=8 °. (h) _ = 10 °.


Figure 24. Continued.

69
-2) = _j
Angle of attack C_ Cd Cm

-2., In ___ 0 Increa@ln9 1.193 .0797 -.0528

1.195 .0797 -.0530


[]
\ Decr easing

t
-2.0

-1.6
\
-1.2 -\
'l
"1 )_f' i_
Cp -{ 1" 1
"1 k()_.
-.4
'- 3- t-()-r__,2 m _"

0 _-I I-( -t

,_J k-I_)-I
.4
L-_ "(

m_
1.2
.2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 .0
0 .1

x/c

(i) a = 12 °.

Figure 24. Concluded.

70
-1.4

Angle of attack c z cd Cm
Angle of attack cI cd Cm
-1.2
0 Increasing ,3go .0167 -.0978
0 Increasing .778 .0230 -.0920
[] Decreasing .391 ,0169 -.0972
-1.0 [] Decreasing .780 .0238 -.og30

-8 ¸

-.6

/,
-.4
d
C & r
P

"'E L(
or_
9
LJ

.2:3

•4' I

.6
)

.8

0 .1 .2
.3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c x/c

(a) _ = 0a. (b) c_= 4°.

-3.6
-3.6
Angle of attack ct c d Cm
Angle of attack c= cd cm
0 Increasing 1.174 .0207 -.0755 -3.
0 Increasing 1.200 .0413 -.05gg
[_ Decreasing 1.175 .0207 -.0751
-2.1 -2. [] Decreasing 1.202 .0403 -.0607

-2.4 _1_
-2., b
-2.C "_
5. -2.o :_
-1.6
"eL_ -1,6 _1 }.
-[
Cp -1.2
Cp -1.2

--,8
--,8 "C k,,
},
--,4
• -.4

" )" L. LI. )._ ,


0 "'" }- :L, 0 _" ]" }-I

,. ,_t _-! _-( I-E ]-t _-| _-I


.4 , =_-i_-( I-l} "(}-('}-I I-_I-=T'
_( ,-I r'

_ il
Ill _
1.2 1.2
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0
x/c x/c

(c) c_= ,S°. (d) a = 10 °.

Figure 25. Hysteresis effects on chordwise pressure distributions for R = 100000. Centered symbol designates
lower surface.

71
-1
Angle of attack c_ cd c m

-1.0 0 increasing .842 ,*** -.1378


i
-.8 _ I-1 Decreasing .835 ***= -,1361

-.4

-.2

Cp
0

.2
I't -t "'v

.4

iml
.6
Ir
.8
J
E'
li'
.4 ,5 .6 .7 .8 1.0
.1 .2 ,3

x/c

(e) o_= 14 °.

Figure 25. Concluded.

72
0

.,¢
0

II

E)_'E]-_ 1=1.
" 3)._ ///[
-- U--u_-_E '_
.2
o

I
.--lib
j
o4 _
]I]

g
0 O_
O_
_ C
0 0

k-

0
0 []

1
oq <:D 0

(.P

73
-1.4 -1.4
Turbulator CZ Cd Cm Turbulator c l cd cm

-1.2 .102 .0217 -.1040


0 Off 0 Off .210 .0162 -.1069

[] On .095 0186 -.0914 [] On .167 .0152 -.0895

-1.'
L -1 .(

-.6 -.6
L
..l_li:{I-II.,_
-.4
-,4
k fl ['Cl-rl -
"1i-_{l =1= ]=1 'l_J k . • _ll.-r Fl-tl--tl:l}:! !-(

.J
Cp -.2
p -.2
J )-tL,. L-I k,.I \\
jt I-El. \ t_l,_.,,, \ \
- _" "E
)" )-I')-i I-tiJ .. o _p r'-i-J. I. _-i l., _....... !'-i
a "-I Y-I P=i I't

.4 g 5
.6 _ .6 ;[
£
)
.8

1 "l
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c x/c

(a) a_ -3 °. (b) a = -2 °.

-1.4 -1.4
Turbulotor cI c d cm Turbulotor cl cd Cm

-1,2 0 Off .294 .0156 -,0978 -1.2 0 Off .390 .0167 -.0978

[] On .242 .0136 -0789 On .351 .0145 -0815

-1.0 -1.0

-,8

i -.6 ,_ft,.t }'q i-(l.lL


"t )_ L..
-, 4 I_t ,<1 _ .... "( }_" -. 4 t
I.L,.4_- " }-, _=_..... ,.... , .. !::r
Cp -.2 _-V 1 '-'_ "_ Cp IN ,-, ,-[l_(). I t=Cl-().(_\

-( t_1l_J ill_ d
\
I''111- I=IIL._ ' 1- \ 0 i_
F,, I- t'I t= t,t i.= I .... "" !-_I
0 _ '--_ ''i _'l _'l t:l I:l l:U:,a__, •,][ }'i: 9

• _ _ Ir r--f PI 1"1 1"1 I'l

.2 _ .2
[
.4 ; ,4 •

t ,6

t L
1.C
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 0 .1 .2 •3 ,4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c x/c

(c) a = -1 °. (d) a = 0°.

Figure 27. Effect of turbulator tape on chordwise pressure distributions. R = 100000. Centered symbol
designates lower surface.

74
-1.4 -I .4
Turbutator cl cd cm Turbuletor c l c d c m

-1.2 -I .2
0 Off .487 .0188 -.0967 0 Off ,587 .0211 -.0981

[3 On .455 .0163 -.0819 [] On .556 .0155 -,0792

-1 .o -I .0

-.8 -.8

-.6
-.6 r #.

'<_;'- _=[:}-I b-[)-r__,,, -.4 _


-,4
"[ \
-.2
6 \ \
Cp Cp -.2 i \
\ ]. (
\

0
/it 3,,,\ "El. ]._
! L )-m

- -- v-_-_-q p-l:_-[_.
I i=lF-G)'I _'_'i_-ll)-d P-I)-I_-E1-l)-I}-| I-El-I_-I

.4

.6

.8 .8

1
.2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 o .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c x/c

(e) _ : 1 °. (f) e = 2°.

-1.4 -1.4
Turbulotor
Turbulotor c I ca cm Cl Cd Cm

-1.2 -1.2
0 Off .684 .0227 -.0968 0 Off ,778 ,0230 -.0920

[] On .665 .0175 -.0827 [] On .765 .0190 -.0804

-1.0 -1.0
a

|=F "i:L'Jk.
--.8 -.8
_{ )-:I F r'l: b.c_.
--.6 8 -, _L_l-l}._}.
_k!!-,_
? _" _1-'1I=()-[}-I

9 \\
--.4
3 \ -.4
\\
(
\\
C \
P Cp -.2 X \
El_(
k_

•, ] t_t: t-t I-_ tl.l I-¢ I-[ ._-I _-d _-_)-t |4 "_
.2
.2 ,,_-{.}-I#-I_l-t)-Ip-I I-i l-lP-t_-I i-(H.}-(._-I I-E }-{ '}-t ")

lr r

.4
.4

.6

.1

.1 .2 .3 ,4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 0 I .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c x/c

(g) e = 3 °. (h) o_ = 4 ° .

Figure 27. Continued.

75
-1.8 -1.
Tur bulator
Turbulator cZ cd cm Ct Cd Cm
-1.6 0 Off 373 .0240 -.0889 0 off .974 .0224 -.0829
-1.
[] On ,875 .0197 -,0825 [] on •971 .0210 -.0813
-1.4 -1.4 _k

-1.2
%
-1 .£ r_ Ix, _x
-1.0
]
t
--.8
"={I=c3-t_.j L-C
-.8 -r
;J:I_I=Et=f Lt _

--.6 -.6
\\
\\
\"
Cp --.4 Cp
\\
%
--.2 '1
-.2

_E L
0 0 L

_-Et-{
.2
'Lt _-I

.4 =f
]r .4 _
t_
.6 _1
.6 =_
.8 I
ft
I
0 .I .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c x/c

(i) a = 5° (j) c_ =6 °.

Turbulotor Cl Cd Cm

0 Off 1.072 ,0206 -.0777

[] On 1.071 ,0206 -.0779

-2.C

-1.6

L* t
-1
Cp
_-_]\
-.8
k

-.4

F-t,I-}-(3_.
0

• =__[}-|.}-I I-(_) -(}-IE}'I


.4
_3( ._.1
iz

1
0 ,2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 ,8 .9 1.0

x/c

(k) a = 7°.

Figure 27. Continued.

76
-3.6 -3.6
Turbuletor Cl Cd Cm Turbulotor C1 Cd Cm
-3.2 0 off 1,172 ,0210 -,0752 -3.:
0 Off 1.207 .0289 -,0671
[] on 1,166 ,0204 -,0747 D On 1A92 ,0301 -,0676
-2._
}
-2.4a -2.4

-2.£ -2.0
i
-1.6 -1.6
\

J" I,_ ),. -'t r_t' _,


Cp -1.2 Cp -1.2

r_._
-.8 -.8
)..,

-.4 -.4
"C). L..
•_- I, c ]., -'}" I-, )-t
0
_ i L_I; I-(
,_J I-El-E}-!i- )-I_}-E'}-I I-E ]-I_- 34
.4
.4 ",1
,(
B
1.2 1.2
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c x/c

(1) a = 8°. (m) a = 9°.

-3.6
Turbulotor
CI Cd Cm

-3._ 0 Off 1.200 .0413 -.0599

[] On 1,202 **** -,0601

-2._

-2.4

-2.0 C

-1.6

Cp -1.2
"" t_r

--.8
L

--.4

)-I
1-1
. =-I )-E)-IB'I_)-E )-E

sij
!
1.2
0 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0

x/c

(n) ex = 10%

Figure 27. Concluded.

77
O0
I 0
I1 : i
I /, i

p..,
i 0
'/ )'

' I
i A, / % I _O
C I I
0

]
' I
// I I
Lf3
0

( I _ ,'I I

i- _'_, o I
n _5
r/ 0
"13
I

I /
o
rn "O_ °_

o4
o

q i S
I

i I

r,D

( DR
cO ee'j °'+
c- CN ._ ,._:
O0
v,
13£ cN I'Y IR::

"1:3

+L
o
c-
c-

r- r-_2
._1 c"'l <1_
0
ocaO

I
'_- o4 0 GO
I

(.3

78
o

n
_o
0 ro

/ o

/ o

co
04
o

<
c_
o
o o_
g 7o

J o o

DN

,n_ _ -

00 o
o
o o o

II o6
o
o

_O

c.4
ffl
t-
CO
_D C_
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7O

o
C cr,
c
n_
p-
0o

0 n 0 0

_D

7g
",,0

(. 0

o,I

00

<,
I > C',,I
0

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0,1
0

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\ 0

b- .D._7. 9
00
0 .d
0

0 0 0
0

cO

I .o
0<> c_

ro r-0 c-,i 6 _
_ % 00
r..- "-. n,- rY • \\ C_
ol

• ,_. _'_-_

..j _ 09
0
ODO

8O
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-O
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o, 27__Oc-o-c -o_'_

CN
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c-
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¢J ¢)
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c / o'.n__, .% <_ <_>
e- o o yO" 0(" /0
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Z_ .J ,'CO" _._ - U'c'"_.--o _C 0

t_ 0
<] D> _ <.i--_ t.,,_.. ,_-- _---,___._-- 4;1>
¢J
O9

o3 )
c- C
F'-- ,+_
n," Oq O
r'Y

o3
C_
0
-"--+---9,-, -0
c-
o_
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0
ol
"0
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,r-..- I

¢,.J

81
0

E
b.r v s_. I (D
"0

(N
I

(-
C

r_)
0

o
_(3
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(
l
.0

(-
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.o
o _J

o 0 Q;
o_

(/I
o
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Q;

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j_O
O_

_Z 5
c
()
n-" ()

00

E -0

E
"__ _
cl el.
× _.
IM n,I

ol 0

I
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82
0

c'q
I

O
o_
c-
c-
L_
o
O
o o
o o

.o Xo_
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o <1 [>
O_
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O'3
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P
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O
c,4
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f
c (5 C
cr _
C
00

_g
c-
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E
"7__ _

x 12k
W W Q.-_.
O
ol

I
C,4 O

@3
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Lq__ )__ __-=_


___-=.o=
G= _ _- _o- -0
/ E
0 I 0

_(
c_
I

O
ol
c
c-

o 0 b0
O
u o

_Q k-
0
_13
k_ k- (0
c-
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D
o ( i0
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.,,-_
O
Q_
<3 > ,5 m
..=
CO
o
_o
O II o{

<0

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()
o,I
(,9 ao c
c- 0
,..q
Q_
rY

00

g (b
-O
£
E

o_
x
Q_
O_
__.>
W W

0 I O

"0
_- cq 0 I
00 <0 _ (N O

C)

84
O

_-.Q.0
_---:-_
_( --:-_ L__< )_-::..Q---:--Q-_---O;ll I]_--==O

(N
I

E
°--
E
L
ID
O
t,.)
0

..Q
L
:D
L
:D
\
:D .91

L L
oTM O
'D

.o _o_
o ::) --.J

O
u <1 D
el. "-_--(!--:-- :)---==-
o---=-o_-=_-_.ed;::
_ S-'_
0) c; ,'u
U'I

O •,_ r,.,)

(O

0
d o,I
c- 0
_ o,1 ,,,.2
C12 _ 0
C12

,% 00

_)
c-
-'D
E
"_- _
el_ Q-
× Q.
IM t_l_l

ol O

.,,¢
I
O4 0 O

85
Appendix A

Uncertainty Analysis
The method used for the uncertainty analysis is that of Kline and McClintock as reported in
reference 10. The basis for this method is the careful specification of the uncertainty associated with
each variable used in the given calculation. This method is straightforward and more accurate than
simple error combinations that determine maximum and minimum deviations from the nominal result of
a computation.
The uncertainty involved in determining the drag coefficient c d from wake surveys is as follows:

cd =
i=1

where

c'_= 2 (Aps--Apt)l/2
\ h_£ [l__ ( 1 Apo_
APt j j
_1/21

Thus, cd is a function of Aps, Apt, Apoo, Ah, and c. The uncertainty associated with each variable is

WAps = 0.25 percent of reading

WApt = 0.25 percent of reading

WApoo = 0.25 percent of reading


WAh = 0.005 in.

Wc = 0.001 in.

The uncertainty of c_ is

(wc'_)2= \oAps wAps + \oAw wart + \oApoo WApo_

where

0C_ 1 [_ ipc_3 ( Apoo Apt

\ Ap_ - Apt ] ]

04 1 ( - Ap, 1
Oapt - Ap_ \ _--S-_p_ ] - --
Apoo [(L\A_--_pt]
Apo¢ ,_1/2 - (Apoc)__
k--A_p_---_ptpt
Ap t ) 1/21

OCtd Aps -- Apt _1/2 [--Apt'_ ( Aps - Apt 1/2 [ ( Apoo -- Apt 1/2]

The uncertainty of _&___hh


is

86
where

0 _ 1 and -0-_ h - -Ah


OAh c Oc c2

Thus, the total uncertainty associated with c d is

4
(Wc_)2 k°4 kaY- w

Oc d Ah

c3c td c

c3cd

(e e)
Since at least two tubes on the rake independently measure the same wake,

The uncertainties in normal-force coefficient cn and pitching-moment coefficient Cm were calculated


in a similar manner and the results are shown in table A1. The main contributions to the uncertainty of
drag coefficient are the _&__hh
and Ap_ terms, as illustrated by table A2. The uncertainty in drag coefficient
is plotted against dynamic pressure for various Reynolds numbers in figure A1. The uncertainty in cd is
reduced to about -t-2 drag counts for dynamic pressures greater than about 0.08 psi.
The symbols used in appendix A are defined as follows:

Cd section profile-drag coefficient

4 point-drag coefficient

C airfoil chord

h vertical distance in wake profile


Ah incremental distance moved by rake
i step number

n total number of steps

Ps static pressure in wake

Pt total pressure in wake

Poo free-stream static pressure

Ptoo free-stream total pressure

Aps = Ps -- Ptoo

Apt = Pt - Pto¢
Apoo = Poc -- Ptoo
W uncertainty in measurement

87
e,i

XXXXXXXX

000_0

ooo_oo

XXXXXXXX

,I1,_
"o
,-t

XXXXXXXX

i=1

"_ o

0 ol _oooo_
".3 XXXXXXXX

i=1
0

.,< 8
0
¢ XXXXXXXX

ol

<1
XXXXXXXX

<1
XXXXXXXX
Q,.

88
R

.0010 O 60,000
[] 100,000
200,000
300,000
.0008 460,000

"13
0
.E .0006 0
4,J
c
0
[]
.0004 0
0
C []
[]
<>
A
.0002

I I I I I I I I
.0000 I

.00 .04 .08 .12 .16 .20

Dynamic pressure, psi

Figure A1. Uncertainty in drag coefficient for _ = 4 °.

89
Appendix B

Section Characteristics

This appendix contains a computer listing of the section characteristics for the Eppler 387 airfoil
section as measured in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (table B1). Standard low-speed
wind-tunnel boundary corrections have been applied to the data. Also included are the theoretical results
from the Eppler airfoil code (table B2) and experimental results from the Model Wind Tunnel at Stuttgart
(table B:_) and the Low-Turbulence Tunnel at Delft (table B4).

90
Table B1. Experimental Results From Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel

RUNS 3,4s5 PTINF - 15 PSI M - O.OQ P - 300pO00

ALPHA_ DEG CL CD CM

-2.93 .051 * 0140 -. 0768


-2•01 • 146 •0118 -°0788
-I.00 . 754 .0101 -. 0807
-, 75 ,277 ,0093 -,0708
-•50 • 300 .098q -.0781
• 00 .35, _ •0037 -.0768
• 00 • 351 .0089 -..076 8
• Ol . 392 • O089 -• 0767
1,01 .465 .0093 -,0784
2. O0 .573 • 0090 -. 078
3oDO .685 .0104 -.0795
4 •00 • 79 2 •0109 -. 079 4
5.01 .901 .0114 -. 0799
6,01 I, 009 .0118 -. 079q
6.0 1 1.009 .0117 -.0799
6.02 1. Ol 0 .0116 -. 0790
6,1Z 1,020 , 0119 -. 0799
6,26 I, 034 • 0119 -. 079 7
6o52 Io05g .0123 -o 0793
7.02 i .i06 .0129 -.0785
d. O2 1.180 .016_ -.OvS_
9.01 1.226 ..0228 -.0711
10.02 I. 2_I .0316 -. 0661
II •02 I, 241 .06_I -. 0670
IZ. Ol i. 215 **** -. 0690
13,01 I. 197 **** -.0689
14, 01 i• 179 #*** -, 0751
15.01 1.225 **** -. 118 4
16, O0 ,999 **** -, 1693

RUN 8 PTINF " 15 PSI M • 0•09 R • 300,000

HYSTERESIS (DECREASING ANGL, OF ATTAC_)

ALPrlAp DEG Ct CD CM

16,01 1.002 **** -.1649


14.02 1.173 **** -.0747
IZ,O0 I,214 **** -•0681
10.04 1.251 •0322 -•0659
7.95 1,174 .0166 -,0755
5•99 I,006 *OIIQ -•0797
4,03 ,797 ,0110 -.0796
_.O0 .574 .0098 -,0784
-.01 ,351 ,0090 -,0767

91
Table B1. Continued

RUNS 9,10,13 PTINF = 15 PSI M = 0,06 R = 200,000

ALPHA, DEG CL CO CM

-2.84 .065 , 0153 -.0813


-I,99 , 156 ,0133 -,081 t.
-, qq ,24q ,010'_ -,,0804
-,01 • 35 0 , Ol 06 -. 0780
• Ol ,352 ,0105 -, Or8 ?
1,04 ,466 ,0113 -,0796
2.04 ,574 ,0118 -, 079 4
2,99 ,680 , Ol ?7 -,080 7
3,99 o785 ,0133 -o0_03
5, O0 ,891 ,0138 -, 0809
5, 03 ,895 • 013g -,0807
5,06 , 894 , 0137 -. 078 5
5,06 ,897 ,0137 -,0"07
_. 52 ,948 .0142 -.0805
6,03 i, 004 • 0141 -.080 g
6,04 , 999 ,0144 -, 0790
6,51 1,052 ,0143 -, 0802
7.02 i, 103 ,0145 -. 0789
7, 06 i, i07 ,0144 -, 0782
7, 2 3 I, 127 ,0145 --,0791
7,57 1,155 ,0152 -,0783
7, 77 i ,166 ,0160 -,0777
0,01 I, 18 0 ,017_ -, 0763
a, 03 i, 182 ,0174 -. 0751
o, Ol 1,21 9 .0244 -,0701
10,02 i, 231 ,0357 -, 064 3
11,04 1,214 ,0570 -, 0606
i 2, 09 1 • 174 •••• l 05 q 9
,

13"02 I'170 W'**_ --'0633


14, Ol i, 155 **** -, 072 7
14,99 .882 **** -o1444
15,09 ,851 *W,** -,1463

RUN ii PTINF., 15 PSI M • 0 lO._ R • 200,000

HYSTERESIS (DECREASING _NGLE DP ATTAC k' )

ALPHAt DEG CL CD CM

16,0 q ,849 W**W,W, -, 1463


14.04 i, 156 ***_' -, 0735
12,03 I, 177 **** -, 0589
10, 05 1,231 , 0367 -,0636
8,02 1,179 ,0171 -,0754
5, C)8 ,999 ,0144 -, 051 5
4.03 ,79I ,0135 -, 0811
2, Ol ,574 ,0121 -.0802
• 03 ,359 .0197 -.0797
,03 ,356 ,0107 -.07P].

92
Table B1. Continued

PTINF • 15 PSI M - 0,03 • I00,000


RUNS 15e16

C0 CM
ALPHAp DEG CL

.I02 ,0217 -. 1040


-2.98
,210 ,0162 -.I069
-1,99
,0168 -. 106q
-1,99 ,210
.29a .0156 -.0978
-,98
.294 ,0159 -,0978
-,98
.0158 -,0972
-,52 ,338
.338 ,0160 -,0972
-.52
,390 ,0173 -.0984
-,02
,0171 -,0978
-,02 ,388
,0170 -.0987
-,01 ,391
,0167 -.0978
,00 .390
,390 .0173 -,0q78
,00
,_87 ,0188 -,0967
1,00
,5A7 ,0203 --,0981
1,99
,0211 -,0_81
1,99 ,5_7
.684 .0227 -.0968
3,01
,684 ,0229 -.0965
3,01
,778 ,0230 -.0920
4.00
.0234 -,0920
4,00 ,778
,0237 -,088o
5.01 ,873
,873 ,0240 -,0889
5.01
o974 .0224 -,0829
6.00
o974 ,0225 -.08_Q
b. O0
,0217 -,0800
6,55 1,028
.0225 -.0800
6.55 1,028
1,072 ,O20b -,0777
7,01
.0211 -,0777
7,01 1.072
.0?07 -.0783
7.26 1,104
1.104 ,0211 -.0783
7,26
1,130 ,0213 -,0777
7,51
1.130 ,0217 -,0777
7.51
1.157 ,0206 -.0779
7,74
1.157 .0215 -,077q
7,74
1,157 ,0211 -,0777
7.79
1,172 ,0204 -,0752
8,00
.0207 -,0755
8,00 1.174
,0210 -,0752
a,O0 1,172
1.194 ,0215 -.0738
_,27
I.I94 ,021b -,0738
8,27
1.190 ,0234 -.0704
8,50
1,190 .0237 -,0704
8,50
1,192 ,0250 -,0692
8.77
,0260 -,0692
8,77 1,192
,0289 -,0671
9,02 1,207
1,207 ,0292 -,0671
9,02
I. 200 .0413 -,059Q
i0,06
,0525 -.0550
II,00 1,201
-.0517
12,01 1,189
1,160 -.0541
13,01
.842 -.1378
14,00

93
Table B1. Continued

RUN 17 PTINF - 15 PSI M - 0,03 • I00,000

HYSTERESIS (DECREASING ANGLE DF ATTAC K)

ALPHA, DEG CL CD CM

14.00 .832 **** -.1353


14.00 • 835 **** -. 1361
13.01 I .165 **** -. 0560
II,99 1,191 **w,, -,0545
II. 02 i. 204 ,0538 -. 0556
i0,00 I, 202 ,0403 -, 0607
9,02 I, 202 ,0293 -,0674
d,01 1,175 ,0207 -,0751
7, Ol 1,082 ,,0209 -, 0778
6,02 ,976 ,0229 -,0834
4,01 ,780 ,0238 -,0930
2,00 ,589 • 0210 -, 0982
-,01 ,391 ,0169 -,0972

RUN 20 PTINF - 15 PSI M " 0,13 R - 460,000

ALPHAp DEG CL CD CM

-I, 99 ,153 , 0103 -,0774.


-, g 4 • 263 ,0090 -,,0797
-,,75 • 284. ,0085 -,0799
-, 50 , 309 • 0084 -, 0799
-,26 • 331 , 0076 -, 07gO
-, 01 , 356 ,0073 -, 078 5
1,01 ,%70 .0076 -,0783
2,00 , 580 ,0078 -,0786
3,00 ,693 ,0084 -, 0799
4,01 , 803 ,0090 -,0801
5,02 ,914 • 0093 -. 080 7
6, 03 I, 022 • 0101 -, 0807
6,51 1.066 , 0103 -,0801
7,01 I, I09 • 0120 -,0788
S,Ol i, 179 ,0161 -, 0759
9,03 1,236 ,02]5 -, 0719
i0, O0 1,275 , 0276 -, 0671
II,00 I, 284 ,0603 -,0685
12, 02 1, 26% *W,W,, --,0766
13,00 i, 240 **** -, 081 3

94
Table B1. Continued

26 PTINF = 5 PSI M • O°OB R • lOOJO00

G CL C0 CM

-2• 88 , Iii •0203 -• I012


-2•00 ,204 • 0162 -• 1026
-2• O0 •204 • 0166 -• 102 b
-1•50 •242 •0152 -.0985
-I, 50 • 242 •0154 -•0085
-I.01 0287 • 0143 -00954
-i, 01 • 287 • 0145 -009_4
-•49 .338 . Ol 60 -00938
-• 49 ,338 .0164 -• 0938
-•01 •388 ,0163 -•0937
-,01 ,388 ,0167 -•093 7
.00 •391 •0156 -• 0965
•00 •391 •0158 -•0965
• 50 ,444 .0175 -. 0978
,50 • 444 •OlTa -, 0078
I,01 * 492 .0183 -,0963
1 •01 ,492 • 0193 -•0963
2, O0 ,591 ,0221 -01003
2001 • 594 ,0218 -,0909
2.01 • 594 • 0220 -0 0999
3,01 0692 ,0236 -°0994
3,01 0692 ,0242 -, 0904
3o 0 1 ,692 ,0245 -•0994
4000 ,783 • 0255 -,0977
4000 ,787 ,0250 -•0970
4,00 , 78 7 00252 -, 0970
4,00 • 783 • 0259 -o0977
5,00 ,88 I ,0243 -,0904
5, Ol ,881 ,0248 -, 0904
5,01 0881 •0252 -,0904
5.02 , 884 , 024 5 -00897
6001 ,984 .0236 -, 0846
6002 ,983 ,0242 -00847
7, Ol 10083 ,0213 -00799
7• 02 1,084 •0208 -00797
7002 I •084 • 0212 -,079 7
7, 52 1.138 ,0214 -•0783
8,01 1.186 , 0215 -00767
8003 I, 190 00_-12 -0076_
8, 5 1 1.200 ,0244 -0 0724
8,51 1,200 °0?46 -,0724
8, 51 1 • 198 00245 -00727
9001 10208 • 0297 -00685
I0,01 1. 214 ,0402 -00612
11,01 10210 • 0516 -•055 1
12, Ol i, lq I ,0688 -0 0518
13,02 I,163 **** -,0527
13, 50 I, 146 **** -o 058 5
13o75 ,861 **** -01376
14.04 .814 ,w.** -.130 8

O5
Table B1. Continued

RU'_S 27p28 PTINF • 5 PSI M • 0,05 R •


60,000
AL_'HA_ DEG CL CD CM

-2,94 -.056 ,0336 -,0757


-2.00 ,114 • 0::3_6 -,0941
-2 •O 0 ,113 ,0?33 -,Oq41
-I,00 .230 .0224 -.1002
-.01 ,337 .0229 -,1094
.00 ,348 ,0243 -,llOP
,00 ,343 •0_37 -.1104
•50 •410 .0255 -.ll_B
1,01 • 464 ,0288 -,1178
i, 50 .515 ,0310 -,1201
2•01 .559 • 0322 -.1171
2,03 o558 ,03?6 -,1217
2.50 o600 •0349 -.1171
3, O0 o602 • 0397 -,I14_
3.00 ,634 ,0368 -,i199
3,54 •690 .0385 -,1170
4.00 ,643 ,0431 -,1180
4,00 • 697 ,0386 -,1059
4•00 •721 ,0400 -,I125
4,49 ,785 ,0414 -.liB9
4,99 ,838 • 0439 -,l13g
5,51 ,639 • 0_88 -,I078
6•01 ,661 ,063Q -,1080
6,49 ,68_ , 0684 -,1083
7• Ol 1.040 ,0337 -,0876
7•52 i. 097 • 031D -°0808
F_.02 1,14_ ,0280 -,0756
8,26 1,,I70 • 0279 -,0767
B.52 1,1Q2 , 0242 -.072e
8, 76 1.192 .0300 -.0700
q•01 1.194 .0373 -•0679
9,,52 1.198 • 0397 -,0628
10,02 1,20a •0471 -,0596
11,02 1,211 ,0604 -,054%
12,01 1,193 , 0797 -.0_28

96
Table B1. Continued

R - 60pO00
RUNS 31s32 PTINF • 5 PSI M = 0,05

ATTACK)
HYSTERESIS (DECREASING ANGLE OF

C0 CM
ALPHAe DEG Ct

13.04 .?q3 #$** -.1233


13o04 .776 ,e,, -.1227
13.01 .804 **** -.1319
13,01 ,808 **** -,1298
12.01 1,195 .0797 -,0530
II.00 1.210 ,0607 -.0_41
i0, Ol 1,206 ,0472 -, 0594
i0.00 I. 208 .0468 -.0590
q. 0 1 1.193 .03 17 -.0676
_.51 1.193 .024_ -.0724
8.01 1.146 .0283 -,0762
7,01 1,043 ,033g -,0886
7.01 1.047 .0340 -.0888
b.76 1.017 .0349 -.0920
6,75 1,020 ,0351 -,OQI?
6,48 .985 .03?5 -.0960
6.44 .672 .0677 -.1075
6.25 ,673 ,0661 -,i084
6,25 ,673 ,0661 -,1091
5.99 ,656 ,0639 -,1080
5,50 ,633 ,0588 -,1073
5.25 .625 .0564 -.I076
4,99 .628 .0533 -.1086
4,75 ,799 ,0410 -,Ii16
_.50 ,647 .0497 -.II04
4,25 ,656 ,04q6 -,I187
4.00 .bill .0464 -.I158
3.50 .639 .0441 -.1145
2.99 ,600 ,0385 -,i155
2.00 .557 ,0307 -.1179
.99 .466 ,0271 -.llqO
.01 .342 .0227 -.I098
-2,00 .i18 .0228 -,0951
-2.85 -,04_ .0310 -,0767

97
Table B1. Continued

RUN 3q PTINF = 10 PSI M - 0.04


100,000
ALPHA, OEG CL CD CM
-2.97 • 098 ,0201 -.I002
-7.97 ,I01 ,0201 -.I005
-2.01 ,199 ,0168 -.099_
-i.00 ,289 ,0164
-I.00 -.0955
,289 ,0155
.00 -•0q55
,392 ,0173
1.00 -.0971
,491 ,O18q
2.00 -,0972
,589 o0218
2.00 -,0983
,589 ,0216
3,00 -,0983
,686 .0238
• 786 -,0983
_*00 ,02_I -,0943
,880
5.00 ,02_1 -,087g
,880 ,0234
5.00 .880 -.0879
,0237
6,01 .978 -,ORTg
,0230 -.0835
6,01 ,g78 .0232
6,52 I, 029 -.0835
.0225
6, 52 1,029 -.0814
7.01 .0210 -.0814
I,077
.0214 -,0786
7,01 1,077 *0212
8.02 i,179 -,0786
,0212 -.0752
B.02 1,179 ,0207
_.52 I.I00 -.07_2
,0Z46
q.02 -,0717
1. 199 ,0285
11.02 -,0674
I,205 ,0505
12.0 t, -,0_4_
1,194
13,05 -.050q
1.16_
13.50 ,886 -,05_8
-*1390

98
Table B1. Concluded

• lOOpO00
RUNS 43,,44 PTINF-=15 PSI M • 0.03

TURBULATOR TAPE, ON
C_
ALPHA, DEG CL C0
-.0014
-2.83 .oq5 . 0186 -.0_95
-2,00 ,167 *01'_2 -.0852
-i.5 1 ,205 ,0142 -.0789
-1. O0 ,242 , 0133 -.0789
_.qq .242 .0144 -.07_9
-,99 , 242 ,0136 -.081_
,00 .351 .0145 -,0830
,01 ,352 ,0145 -.n819
1,00 ,455 ,0143 -.0819
1,00 ,455 .0161 -,0819
1.01 .455 , 0103 -,0792
2.00 .556 . Ol 55 -.0827
3*00 .665 ,0179 -,0827
3,00 .665 . 0175 -,0804
4.00 .765 . 0190 -,0825
5,01 ,875 .0197 -,OR13
6.00 .971 .0217 -.0813
6.01 .971 .0210 -.0779
6.99 1,07 1 , 0211 -.0779
7.01 1.071 .0206 -,0758
7,51 I,II 8 .01_2 -.0760
70 52 i* 121 . 0189 -.0747
_.01 1,16_ , 0204 -,0715
8,51 I*189 ,0239 -.0676
9.02 1,192 ,0301 -.0601
i0.01 I. 202 **** -,0498
12.01 1.173 w,*** -.0541
13, Ol 1.151 **** -.1398
14.00 ,855 ***_'

M - 0,09 R • 60,000
RUNS 46, 47 PTI_F - 3 PSI
C"
C9
ALPHA, OEG CL

-2,01 ,136 ,0209 -, 0993


,01 ,351 .0263 -. ill7

_.00 :_822 ,0316 -.1248


3.03 B , 0368 -, 1205
3.50 ,617 ,0412 -, 1180
4,00 ,60 8 ,0477 -, 1132
598 ,0477 -,1107
4. Ol :603 . 0513 -.II04
4,50 ,I099
5,00 ,623 ,0547 -
5.5 1 ,643 ,0589 -. 1005
6. O0 . 665 .0637 -.I097
6_6 .0689 -, II0 1
6, 50 : 707 ,0756 -,109q
7,01 -,0_45
7.39 1.0o7 .0319
q,O1 1.158 ,0287 -.07_3
8.51 1,205 .0__68 -.0741
I0.01 I* 217 .0472 -,0614
I0.01 1.217 .0472 -. 0613

99
Table B2. Theoretical Results From Eppler Airfoil Code

q .. 60.000

ALPHA, DEG
CL CD
CM
-2.00
.173 .0164,
-I.00 -.08??
,282 .0148,
.00 .300 -.0830
1.00 .0152. -.0834
2.00 .0157,
,574 -.0_98
3.00 .0163, -.0776
,643
4.00 .0170,
• 705 -.0713
5.00 .OITQ*
. 704 -,0656
6.00 .0192. -.063_
,842
7.00 .0206,
1.031 -,0587
7.25 .025_*
1.098 -.0671
7.50 ,0256. -.0672
1.073
.0261. -.0658

I00. 000

aLPHA. DEG C[
CD CM
-2.00
.173
-i.00 .0141,
.Z83 -.0822
.00 .0113.
.393 -.0832
.01_2,
1.00 ,503 -.0842
2.00 .0127, -.0852
.611
3.00 .0131, -.085q
• 702
4.00 .0138. -. 08 Z7
,705
5.00 .0146,
.892 -. 0800
.0157*
6.00 -.0786
.g60 .0160,
7.00 -.0722
1.063 .0225
7.25 -.07?0
1.060
7.50 .0230, -.0706
1.005
7, 75 ,0235*
1.063 -.0689
.0240,
-.0676

R I
ZOO, 000

ALPHA. DEG CL CD
CM
-2.00
.177 .0118,
-I.00 -.0A22
,283 .0090
.00 -.0P32
• 393
1.00 .0093 -,08&2
,503
2.00 .0097
,613 -,0853
.0099
3.00 .723 -.0864
.0105
4.00 .832 -.0875
5.00 .0111 -.0885
.g40 .0121
6.00 1.032 -,089_
7.00 ,0130
I. Og8 ".0863
7.25 .0190
I.Ii0 -.0783
7.50 .0200,
1.127 -.075 _
7.75 .OZ05*
1.143 -.0740
7,87 .0710,
1.151 -.0724
_',00 .0213. -.0717
1.15g .0215,
8.12 1.165 -.0707
o,25 .0218'
1.173 -.0698
,0220'
-.0690

100
Table B2. Concluded

R " 300,000

ALPHA_ DEG CL CD CM
-2,00 .173 .0107, --.0822
-i,00 ,283 .0078 --.0832
,00 ,393 .0081 --.0_42
I*00 ,503 .0084 --.0853
2.00 ,613 .0086 --,0864
3,00
,723 .0090
4,00 --.0876
,833 .0095
5,00 --.0887
,943 .010_
6,00 -.0898
1,051 .0113
7,00 -.0907
1,112 .0173
7,25 -.0810
1.126 ,0185"
7,50 -,0785
[.144 ,0189"
7, 75 -.0771
1.161 .0194,
7,87 1.16q -,0754
.0197, -.0746
?=00 1.177 ,OlOq* -.0737
8.12 1.185 ,0202' -,0729
8,25 1,1q3 .0204, -.0771
8,50 1.208 .0209,
-.0703

R •
460,000

ALPHA, DEG CL CD CM
-2..00 .173 .0097, -.0822
-i.00 ,283 .0068
.00 .39_ -.0837
.0070 -.0842
1.00 .503 .0073
2. O0 -.0853
.613 .0075
3.00 -.0864
.723 .0078
4.00 -.0876
.833 .00_3
5.00 -.0887
.943 .0090
6.00 -.0900
1.053 ,0098
7.00 -.0Oli
1.120 .0157
7.25 -.0826
I. 13._ .0170
7,50 -.0810
1.159 ,0175'
7.75 -.0799
i. 178 .0179.
7,87 -.0786
1.187 ,0181.
8,00 -.0779
It 196 .0194.
8.12 1.204 -.0771
.0186,
%,75 -.0763
1.213 .Ol8q*
8, .50 -.0754
1.228 .0194,
8,75 -.0736
i. 244 ,Olqq*
9.00 -,0770
i. Z58 ,0_04'
q,25 -.0701
1.Z72 .0208,
-.0683

* SE PA P.ATION BUBBLE WARNING

101
TableB3. ExperimentalResultsFromModelWindTunnelat Stuttgart

R = 60tO00

CO
ALPH J,e DEG CL

-3,00 -,I_0 .01.11


-2,00 -,010 . 0310
-I,00 ,IZO ,0284
.00 .240 .0294
1,00 ,300 ,0315
2.00 ,470 .0341
3,00 .560 . 0368
4.00 ,640 ,0390
5.00 ,730 ,0407
6.00 .810 .0434
7.00 .900 .0455
8,00 ,980 ,0415
9,00 1,050 ,0312
I0, O0 1,100 ,0256
II .00 1. 130 . 0253
12.00 i. 140 .02"7
13.00 1,120 ,0363
14,00 1,060 ****
15,00 1,020 ****
16, O0 ,950 ****

R - 100,000

CD
ALPHA, DEG CL

-3.00 -.070 .0363


-2.00 .070 .0258
-I. O0 .200 .0214
.30 .320 .0207
1,00 ,430 ,0213
2.00 .520 ,0216
3.00 .610 .0211
_. O0 .700 .0208
5,00 .780 ,0206
6,00 .860 ,0203
7,00 ,,930 ,0197
0,00 I. 000 .OlSq
9,00 1,050 ,0186
I0, O0 i, 080 . 0194
Ii,00 i, I00 ,0215
12.00 I,II0 .0252
13, O0 1,120 , 0312.
14,00 I.I00 ,0408
15,00 1,060 ****
16,00 1,000 ****

102
Table B3. Concluded

R - 200,000

ALPHAs DEG CL CD
-4•00 -•130 •043_
-3.00 • 020 ,0257
-2•00 •130
-1.00 • 0172
•230
•00 .0130
.330 • O108
1.00 •430 ,0097
2•00 • 520
3•00 ,0092
•620 ,0093
4•00 •710 •0098
5•00 •800 • 0107
0.00 ,8PO
7.00 .012_
,950 • 0146
8•00 1.010
9,,00 .01_J3
1•060
I0•00 • 0_.46
I.080
11.00 ,0331
1•100 •0402
IZ.O0 1.110
13•00 .0448
1.100
14•00 1. 090 W,W,,I,,I,
15•00 I,060
16,00 i•010

103
Table B4. Experimental Results From Low-Turbulence Tunnel at Delft

R = _0,000

C_
ALPHA, DEG Ct

-3.05 -.155 .0413


-3.10 -. 040 ****
-1.85 .145 .0201
-i.00 .220 '****
,05 ,330 .02!3
1.00 .435 ***_'
2.10 .545 .0274
2.95 .600 ****
3.q5 .60_ .0417
4.95 .600 "***
5.95 .630 .0625
7. I0 • 690 .0788
7.45 1.005 ('***
8.25 1.075 ,0329
9.00 1.135 .0306
I0.30 1.135 .0432
10.05 1.170 .056'3
11.95 i.i$5 .0775
12.95 i. I£0 ****
13.40 .985 ****
15.40 .845 ****

P = IO0,000

cr)
ALPHA, DEG CL

-4.05 -.065 .0288


-3.05 . 075 ****
-2.05 .175 • O16"r
-I.05 .265 ****
.00 .365 .015]
1.00 ,455 ****
1.90 ,545 .OlqO
2,95 .635 ****
3.95 .725 .0_23
4.90 .810 ****
5.90 .895 ,,0230
6.75 .985 .0215
B.05 1.080 .0205
_.90 I.I05 .0266
I0. O0 I. 130 . 01"r3
I0.85 I. 15 0 ****
ll.qO 1.155 ****
12.90 I. 140 ****
13.qO 1,035 *('**

104
TableB4. Concluded

R - 200PO00

AL PHA_, DEG .CL CD

-4,00 -,045 ",0212


-3,05
,050
-2,10 ,145 ,0127
-1,10 ,240
,15 ,345 ,OOq2
1,95 ,550 ,0113
2,95 ,650
_',05 ,760 ,0122
4,90 ,855 ,0131
0,05 .955 *0125
7,00 1,055 ,0130
qo15 1,125 ,0168
8,90 1,145
10,25 1,175 ,0_12
lO,gO 1,185
11,q5 1,185
12,95 1.170
I_.00 1,180
15,00 1,0_5

105
Appendix C

Spanwise Drag Coefficients


This appendix contains a computer listing of the spanwise drag coefficients for the Eppler 387 airfoil
section as measured in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel.

106
Table C1. Spanwise Drag Coefficients

RUNS 5,6
PTINF = 15 PSI M = 0.08 300,000
ALPHA = 0.0 DEG. ALPHA = DEG.
SPAN,IN. CD
SPAN, IN. CD
0.1522 0.0089
1.9948 0.0791 0.0114
0.0091 1.0035
3.0210 0 0085 0.0114
3.9805 2.0428 0 0114
0 0089 3.0210
6.0123 0 0085 0 0113
8.0051 3.9805 0 0119
0 0089 5.0271
9.9957 0 0089 0 0114
12.0023 5.99O8 0 0120
0 0092 6 9916
11.0038 0 O092 0 0114
9 0170 8 0051 0 0124
0 0087 9 0170
7 0118 0 0091 0 0114
5 0047 i0 0242 0 0118
0 0088
1 0035 11 0038 0 0111
0 0087 12 0058
-i 9828 0 OO89 0 0126
-3 9921 8 0051 0 0122
0 0088 8 0237
-6 0444 0 0088 0.0121
-8.0145 -i 0157 0.0112
0 0089 -2.0068
-i0 0029 0 0089 0 0112
-12 0037 -2.9856 0 0112
0 OO89
-ii 0091 -4 0152 0 0114
0 0087
-I0 9986 -5 0160 0 0117
0 0085 -6 O23O
-9 0087 0 0087 0 0110
-7 0220 -7 0220 0 0116
0 0089
-4 9936 -8 0145 0 0115
0 0091 -8 9919
-3 0093 0 0088 0 0115
-0 9914 -11 0196 0 0113
0 0089 -12 0018
0 0791 0 0087 0 0114
-10 0171 0 0112
-6 0016 0 0111
-5 0383 0 0116

107
Table C1. Continued

M = 0.06 R = 200,000
RUNS 12,14 PTINF = 15 PSI

ALPHA = 5.0 DEG.


ALPHA = 0.0 DEG.

SPAN,IN. CD
SPAN,IN. CD

-0 0183 0 0138
0 0304 0 0109
1 0278 0 0142
-0 9914 0 0108
2 0188 0 0139
-1 9828 0 0109
3 0210 0 0135
-3 0329 0 0107
3 9805 0 0140
-4 0152 0 0106
5 0047 0 0139
-5 0160 0 0107
5 9694 0 0136
-6 0016 0 0107
7 0118 0 0147
-7 0220 0 0106
8 0051 0 0141
-7 9957 0 0107
9.0170 0 0139
-9 0087 0 0109
i0.0100 0 0143
-9 9743 0 0106
10.9932 0 0141
-i0 9986 0 0107
11.9906 0 0145
-12 0007 0 0109
11.9906 0 0140
-7 0220 0 0106
11.9906 0 0147
-2 0309 0 0109
6.9916 0 0140
-2 OO68 0 0098
2.9737 0 0134
-2 0068 0 0105
3 4918 0 0142
-2.O068 0 0104
2 4742 0 0137
-2.0309 0 0103
-0 0183 0 0141
-2.0309 0.0106
-0 9914 0 0143
0 1035 0.0107
-2 0068 0 0139
1 0035 0.0108
-3 0329 0 0141
2 0188 0 0107
-4 0162 0 0141
2 9974 0 0103
-4 9936 0 0144
4 0267 0 0105
-6 0016 0 0138
5 0047 0 0118
-7 0018 0 0143
5 0271 0 0109
-8 0145 0 0142
5 9908 0 0106
-8 9919 0 0143
6 9916 0 0110
-I0 0171 0 0139
8 0237 0 0107
-ii 0196 0 0141
9 0002 0 0106
-ii 9609 0 0144
9.0002 0 0107
0 0791 0 0140
i0.0100 0 0108
-I 0400 0 0141
11.0248 0 0111
11.9990 0 0107

108
TableC1. Continued

RUNS21,41,37 PTINF = 15 PSI M : 0.03 R : 100,000

ALPHA = 0.0 DEG. ALPHA = 0.0 DEG.

SPAN,IN. CD
SPAN,IN. CD

0.0304 0.0169 -3.0329 0.0173


0.0304 0.0164 -3.0093 0.0165
1.0035 0.0169 -3.0329 0.0170
1.0278 0.0171 -3.9921 0.0164
2.0188 0.0167 -4.0152 0 0165
2.0188 0 0169 -4.9936 0 0171
3.0210 0 0161 -4.9936 0 0168
3 0210 0 0164 -6.0016 0 0171
4 0267 0 0152 -6.0016 0 0171
4 0036 0 0154 -7.0018 0 0167
5 0047 0 0165 -6.9815 0 0172
5 0047 0 0163 -6.9815 0 0170
5 9908 0 0164 -6.9815 0 0172
6 0123 0 0159 -8.0145 0 0169
5 9908 0 0165 -8 0145 0 0169
6 0123 0 0163 -9 0087 0 0172
6 9916 0 0169 -9 0087 0 0171
6 9916 0 0167 -9 8584 0 0176
8 0051 0 0173 -i0 0171 0 0179
8 0051 0 0172 -ii 0507 0 0182
9 0002 0 0174 -ll 0507 0 0178
9 0002 0 0174 -Ii 9996 0 0198
i0 0242 0 0161 -ii 9983 0 0198
i0 0242 0 0169 -3 0329 0 0164
i0 0242 0.0166 -3 0093 0 0161
i0 0242 0.0166 0 1012 0 0173
11.0038 0.0172 0.0769 0 0170
11.0038 0 0173 -1.0178 0 0170
12.0001 0 0181 -1.0178 0 0168
11.9990 0 0173 -2 0328 0 0172
12.0001 0 0180 -2 0328 0 0170
12.0001 0 0180 -3 0111 0 0171
3.0210 0 0161 -4 0169 0 0164
3.5152 0 0160 -5 0621 0 0171
3.5152 0 0160 -5 9815 0 0177
3.4918 0 0167 -7 0231 0 0168
4 0036 0 0156 -8 0340 0 0171
4 0267 0 0158
4 4855 0 0161 ALPHA = 5.0 DEG.
-0 0183 0 0163
-0 0183 0 0168 -0.0171 0.0243
-0 9914 0 0172 -2.0056 0.0249
-0 9914 0 0168 -2.0537 0.0244
-i 0157 0 0169 -4.0139 0.0242
-i 9828 0 0170 -6.0003 0.0243
-i 9828 0 0168

109
TableC1. Continued

RUN 35 PTINF = 5 PSI M : 0.09 R = i00,000

ALPHA = 0.O DEG. ALPHA = 0,0 DEG.

CD SPAN,IN. CD
SPAN,IN.

0 0162 5 9916 0.0173


0 0559
0 0163 7 0327 0.0183
-0 9902
0 0180 8 0056 0.0186
-2 0056
0 0178 9 0174 0.0183
-2 0056
0 0175 i0 O245 0 0161
-3 0080
0 0176 II 0663 0 0168
-4 0370
0 0183 12 0050 0 0181
-5 0146
0 0192 12 0050 0 0181
-6 0003
0 0193 ii 0250 0 0174
-6 0003
0 0182 9 0174 0 0187
-7 0207
0 0188 4 4863 0 0153
-8 0132
0 0188 4 0507 0 0148
-9 0075
0 0195 3 5162 0 0161
-i0 O585
0 0205 3 0693 0 0146
-ii 0188
0 0223 2 4991 0 0152
-12 0054
-12 0O54 0 0223
-ii 5013 0 0217
-II 0807 0 0205
-i0 0019 0 0195
-9 0410 0 0192
-8 0319 0 0185
-7 0005 0 0179
-6 0003 0 0192
-5.0370 0 0186
-4.0139 0 0173
-3.0317 0 0172
-2 0056 0 0178
-I 0145 0.0160
-0 0415 0.0161
1 0531 0.0155
2 0199 0,0168
3 0220 0.0144
3 4927 0.0160
4 0276 0.0147
5 0055 0.O175

110
Table C1. Continued

RUN 36 PTINF = 5 PSI M = 0.09 R = 100,000

ALPHA = 5.0 DEG. ALPHA = 5.0 DEG.

SPAN,IN. CD SPAN,IN. CD

0 0803 0 0251 -6 0217 0 0250


1 0046 0 0250 -7 0005 0 0265
2 0199 0 0254 -8 0132 0 0264
2 4991 0 0247 -9 0075 0 0268
2 9984 0 0238 -10 0303 0 0268
3 4927 0 0240 -10 9978 0 0277
4 0276 0 0246 -12 0027 0 0291
4 509] 0 0254 -12 0027 0 0294
5 0055 0 0254 -11.0396 0 0279
6 0558 0 0248 -10 0019 0 0266
6 9923 0 0253 -9 0410 0 0264
8 0802 0 0260 -8 0132 0 0259
8 9839 0 0257 -7 0207 0 0261
10 0103 0 0264 -6 0431 0 0249
11 0354 0.0253 -5 0146 0 0255
11 9990 0.0262 -4 0139 0 O248
11.9990 0.0263 -3 9908 0 0248
11.0145 0 0251 -3 0317 0 0257
10.0809 0 0264 -3 0317 0 0255
9.0174 0 0254 -2 0296 0 0248
8.0056 0 0259 -1 0387 0 0249
7.0528 0 0255 0 0316 0 0246
6.0130 0 0248
5.0502 0 0251
4. 5091 0 0250
4.0276 0 0243
3.4224 0 0241
3 0220 0 0236
2 4991 0 0246
2 0199 0 0251
0 9803 0 0248
0 0072 0 0247
-0 0171 0 0247
-1 0387 0 0251
-2 0056 0 0253
-3 0553 0 0258
-4 0139 0 0249
-4 9923 0 0255
-5 0146 0 0257

111
Table C1. Concluded

RUN 40 PTINF = i0 PSI M = 0.04 R = i00,000

ALPHA = 0.0 DEG. ALPHA = 5.0 DEG.

SPAN,IN. CD SPAN,IN. CD

0 0278 0.0179 0 0034 0 0241


0 0278 0.0175 -i 0182 0 0246
-i 0182 0.0175 -2 0333 0 0247
-0 9940 0 0173 -3 0116 0 0258
-2 0574 0 0178 -4 0174 0 0241
0 0176 -5 0404 0 0245
-2 0574
-3 0116 0 0176 -6 0249 0 0239
-3 0116 0 0172 -7 0035 0 0249
-4 0405 0 0174 -7 9786 0 0252
0 0174 -8 9932 0 0256
-4 0636
-5 0180 0 0178 -8 9764 0 0260
-5 0180 0 0178 -8 0160 0 0243
-6 0249 0 0182 -7 0035 0 0249
-6 0249 0 0183 -6 0035 0 0232
-7 0035 0 0176 -5 0180 0 0246
-7 0035 0 0177 -3 9712 0 0243
-7 0237 0 0176 -3 9712 0 0242
-8 0533 0 0179
-8 O533 0 0177
-8 9932 0 0181
-9 0100 0 0183
-i0 0040 0 0186
-I0 0040 0 0188
-II 0203 0 0195
-ii 0203 0 0193
-12 0047 0 0214
-30353 0 0174
0 0034 0 0180

112
Appendix D

Chordwise Pressure Coefficients

This appendix contains a computer listing of the pressure coefficient data for the Eppler 387 airfoil
section as measured in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. No wind-tunnel blockage corrections
have been applied to the data.

113
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Appendix E

Spanwise Pressure Coefficients


This appendix contains a computer listing of the upper surface spanwise pressure coefficient data for
various angles of attack for the Eppler 387 airfoil section as measured in the Langley Low-Turbulence
Pressure Tunnel. No wind-tunnel blockage corrections have been applied to the data.

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6. McGhee, Robert J.; Beasley, William D.; and Fos-
References
ter, Jean M.: Recent Modifications and Calibration of
the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. NASA
1. Mueller, Thomas J.: Low Reynolds Number Vehicles.
TP-2328, 1984.
AGARD-AG-288, Feb. 1985.
7. Stainback, P. Calvin; and Owen, F. Kevin: Dynamic
2. Althaus, Dieter: Profilpolaren fur den Modellflu9
Flow Quality Measurements in the Langley Low Turbu-
Windkanalmessungen an Profilen im Kritischen lence Pressure Tunnel. Technical Papers 13th Aerody-
ReynoldszaMbereich. Neckar-Verlag VS-Villingen, c.1980. namic Testing Conference, American Inst. of Aeronautics
3. Volkers, D. F.: Preliminary Results of Windtunnel Mea- & Astronautics, 1984, pp. 257 265. (Available as AIAA-
surements on Some Airfoil Sections at Reynolds Numbers 84-0621.)
Between 0.6 × 105 and 5.0 x 105. Memo. M-276, Dep. of 8. Loving, Donald L.; and Katzoff, S.: The Fluorescent-Oil
Aerospace Engineering, Delft Univ. of Technology, June Film Method and Other Techniques for Boundary-Layer
1977. Flow Visualization. NASA MEMO 3-17-59L, 1959.

4. Harvey, William D.: Low-Reynolds Number Aero- 9. Pankhurst, R. C.; and Holder, D. W.: Wind-Tunnel

dynamics Research at NASA Langley Research Center. Techniques. Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd. (London),
Aerodynamics at Low Reynolds Numbers 104 < Re < 1965.
106--Proceedings, Volume II, Day e, Royal Aeronauti- 10. Kline, S. J.; and McClintock, F. A.: Describing Un-

cal Soc., c.1986, pp. 19.1-19.49. certainties in Single-Sample Experiments. Mech. Eng.,

5. McGhee, Robert J.; Jones, Gregory S.; and Jouty, vol. 75, no. l, Jan. 1953, pp. 3-8.

Remi: Performance Characteristics From Wind-Tunnel 11. Eppler, Richard; and Somers, Dan M.: A Computer Pro-

Tests of a Low-Reynolds-Number Airfoil. AIAA-88-0607, gram for the Design and Analysis of Low-Speed Airfoils.
NASA TM-80210, 1980.
Jan. 1988.

228
Report Documentation Page
_a_ _ Adrr,n _ITa1,_ rl

1. Report No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.


NASA TM-4062 2. Government Accession No.

4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date

Experimental Results for the Eppler 387 Airfoil at October 1988


Low Reynolds Numbers in the Langley Low-Turbulence 6. Performing Organization Code
Pressure Tunnel
7. Author(s)
8. Performing Organization Report No.
Robert J. McGhee, Betty S. Walker, and Betty F. Millard
L- 16430
10. Work Unit No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address

NASA Langley Research Center 505-60-21-01


Hampton, VA 23665-5225 11. Contract or Grant No.

13. Type of Report and Period Covered


12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Technical Memorandum


Washington, DC 20546-0001 14. Sponsoring Agency Code

15. Supplementary Notes

16. Abstract

Experimental results have been obtained for an Eppler 387 airfoil in the Langley Low-Turbulence
Pressure Tunnel. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.03 to 0.13 and a chord
Reynolds number range from 60 000 to 460 000. Lift and pitching-moment data were obtained from
airfoil surface pressure measurements and drag data from wake surveys. Oil flow visualization was
used to determine laminar-separation and turbulent-reattachment locations. Comparisons of these
results with data on the Eppler 387 airfoil from two other facilities, as well as with predictions from
the Eppler airfoil code, are included.

17. Key Words (Suggested by Authors(s)) 18. Distribution Statement


Low Reynolds number Unclassified Unlimited
Eppler 387 airfoil
Laminar-separation bubbles
Wind-tunnel comparisons
Experiment/Theory
Subject Category 02
19. Security Classif.(of this report) 20. Security Classif.(of this page)
Unclassified Unclassified 21.231
No. of Pages 22. All
Price
NASA FORM 1626 OCT 86
NASA-Langley, 1988

For sale by the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161-2171