3
Keyword Manual
PIPEPHASE 9.3
Keyword Manual
The software described in this document is furnished under a written agreement
and may be used only in accordance with the terms and conditions of the license
agreement under which you obtained it. The technical documentation is
delivered to you AS IS and Invensys Systems, Inc. makes no warranty as to its
accuracy or use. Any use of the technical documentation or the information
contained therein is at the risk of the user. Documentation may include technical
or other inaccuracies or typographical errors. Invensys Systems, Inc. reserves
the right to make changes without prior notices.
Copyright Notice © 2009 Invensys Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of the material
protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording,
broadcasting, or by any information storage and retrieval system without
permission in writing from Invensys Systems, Inc.
Trademarks PIPEPHASE, NETOPT, NETOPT, Invensys, SIMSCIESSCOR, and SIM4ME
are trademarks of Invensys plc., its subsidiaries, and affiliates.
TACITE is a trademark of Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP).
OLGAS 1.1, OLGAS TWOPHASE, and OLGAS THREEPHASE are
trademarks of SCANDPOWER A/S.
FLEXlm is a trademark of Macrovision Corporation.
Windows VISTA, Windows XP, Windows 2003 Server, Windows 2008 Server,
Microsoft Office, and MSDOS are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
Pentium and Visual Fortran is a trademark of Intel Corporation.
Adobe, Acrobat, Exchange, and Reader are registered marks and/or trademarks
of Adobe Systems, Inc.
All other products noted herein are trademarks of their respective companies.
U.S. GOVERNMENT RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND
The Software and accompanying written materials are provided with restricted
rights. Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to
restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical
Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.2277013 or in
subparagraphs (c) (1) and (2) of the Commercial Computer Software –
Restricted Rights clause at 48 C.F.R 52.22719, as applicable. The Contractor/
Manufacturer is: Invensys Systems, Inc. (a division of Invensys plc. and owner
of the SimSciEsscor brand) 26561 Rancho Parkway South, Lake Forest, CA
92630, USA.
Printed in the United States of America, May 2009
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual TOC1
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction
About This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
New Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Occasional Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Experienced Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
About SimSciEsscor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Support Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Chapter 2 Overview
About This Chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Scope and Objectives of PIPEPHASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Flow Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Property Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Calculation Modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Piping Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Pressure Drop Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
User Convenience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Typical Applications of PIPEPHASE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Field Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Transmission Pipelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Slug Catcher Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Solving Networks with PIPEPHASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
The Building Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Joining Segments Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Joining Links Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Pressure Balance Solution Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
TOC2 Table of Contents
Chapter 3 Using PIPEPHASE
About This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Defining the Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Properties of Fluid Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Flows and Conditions of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Sphering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Piping Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
What PIPEPHASE Calculates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Rating, Design, Case Studies and Nodal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Global Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Units of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Printout Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Defining Fluid Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Defining Properties for Compositional Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Water as a Special Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Library Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Nonlibrary Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Petroleum Pseudocomponents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Assay Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Additional Component Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311
Thermodynamic Properties and Phase Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Transport properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Tabular Data for Compositional Fluids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Multiple Thermodynamic Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Additional Thermodynamic Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Defining Properties for NonCompositional Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316
Liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Steam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Gas Condensate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318
Blackoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Defining Properties for Mixed Compositional/NonCompositional Fluids . . . . . . . . . 320
Generating and Using Tables of Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Compositional Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
NonCompositional Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Structure of Network Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Controlling Convergence of Networks (PBAL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
PIPEPHASE Flow and Equipment Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Flow Devices (have length). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Equipment Devices (have no length) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Fittings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325
Process Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Unit Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
Flow Device Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Keyword Manual TOC3
Pressure Drop Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Pressure Drop in Flow Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Nominal Diameter and Pipe Schedule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Pressure Drop in Completions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Pressure Drop in Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Equipment Items. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Heat Transfer Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Detailed Heat Transfer in Pipe and Tubing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Gaslift Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Sphering or Pigging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Reservoirs and Inflow Performance Relationships. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Production Planning and TimeStepping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Time Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Wells and Well Grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Reservoir Depletion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Facilities Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Subsurface Networks and Multiple Completion Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
A Single Well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
More Than One Well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Multiple Completions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Global Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Individual Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Nodal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Dividing the Link. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Selecting Parameters and Flowrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Sensitivity Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Grouping Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Chapter 4 Input Reference
About This Chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Categories of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Order of Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Keywords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Keyword Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Qualifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Commenting Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Default Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Units of Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
Basis of Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
Multiple Units of Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
Continuing Statements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
Layout of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
Input Statement Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
Legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
GENERAL Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
Global Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
TOC4 Table of Contents
TITLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
DESCRIPTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .414
DIMENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
CALCULATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
FCODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
DEFAULT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
SEGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
LIMITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
PRINT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .428
OUTDIMENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
COMPONENT Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
COMPONENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
LIBID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
PETROLEUM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
ASSAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
CUTPOINTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
MW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
SPGR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
ACENTRIC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
ZC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
TC() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
PC() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
NBP() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
STDDENSITY() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
VC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
VP() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
ENTHALPY() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
CP() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
LATENT(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
DENSITY() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
VISCOSITY() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
CONDUCTIVITY() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
SURFACE() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
NETWORK Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
NETWORK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
SOLUTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
TOLERANCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
ACCELERATION (for PBAL Network Method Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .444
THERMODYNAMIC Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
THERMODYNAMIC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
WATER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
BWRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
LKP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
Keyword Manual TOC5
PR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
SRK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
PVT Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
PVT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
SET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
SET for NonCompositional Liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
SET for NonCompositional Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
SET for Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
SET for Compositional Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
SET for Condensate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
SET for Compositional Blackoil (Compositional sets only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
SET for Blackoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
ADJUST (Blackoil only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
LIFTGAS (Blackoil only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
TABULAR (Blackoil only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
FVF (Blackoil only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
SGOR() (Blackoil only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
VISCOSITY() (Blackoil only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
GRAVITY() (Blackoil only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
CORRELATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
DIMENSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
GENERATE (for Compositional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
GENERATE (for Blackoil) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
FILE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
FILE (for Blackoil) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
STRUCTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
System Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
SOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
CSOURCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
WTEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
Distillation Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Gravity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
Molecular Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
LIGHTENDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
SINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
JUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
LINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
Flow Devices (have length). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
PIPE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
ANNULUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
TUBING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
Dual Completions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
Parallel Dual Completions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
Equipment Devices (have no length). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4101
COMPLETION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4101
TOC6 Table of Contents
COMPRESSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4102
MCOMPRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4103
COOLER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4105
DPDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4105
EXPANDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4106
GLVALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4107
HEATER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4107
INJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4108
IPR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4109
PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4119
REGULATOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4121
SEPARATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4122
BEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4124
CHECK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4125
CHOKE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4125
MCHOKE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4127
MREGULATOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4128
CONTRACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4128
ENTRANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4129
EXIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4130
EXPANSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4131
NOZZLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4132
ORIFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4133
TEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4133
VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4134
VENTURIMETER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4136
UNIT OPERATIONS Data Category of Input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4137
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4137
UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4138
CALCULATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4138
DIMENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4139
HYDRATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4144
EVALUATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4145
GASLIFT Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4146
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4146
SIZING DATA Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4150
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4150
SIZING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4150
DEVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4150
LINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4150
MAXV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4151
TIMESTEPPING Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4152
TIMESTEPPING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4152
CHANGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4152
CASE STUDY Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4153
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4153
CASESTUDY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4154
DESCRIPTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4154
Keyword Manual TOC7
RESTORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4154
PARAMETER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4154
Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4155
Sinks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4159
Junctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4163
Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4167
Tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4168
Annulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4169
Compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4170
Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4170
Heater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4171
Cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4171
Completion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4172
Gaslift Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4172
Chokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4172
Separators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4173
Regulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4174
Expanders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4175
Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4175
Injection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4176
DPDT Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4176
MCOMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4177
Bend. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4177
Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4178
Contraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4179
Entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4179
Exit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4179
Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4180
Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4180
Orifice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4181
Tee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4181
IPR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4182
Calculator Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4182
Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4183
Objective Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4183
Constraint Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4184
Decision Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4184
PVT Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4185
Network Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4185
LINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4186
SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4189
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4189
SENSITIVITY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4189
NODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4189
DESCRIPTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4190
INFLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4190
OUTFLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4193
FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4193
TOC8 Table of Contents
PSPLIT Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4194
PSPLIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4194
TABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4194
UserDefined DP Correlations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4195
FORTRAN Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4195
User Subroutine Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4196
Saving Data for Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4199
PIPEPHASE Flash Routine Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4200
Moody Friction Factor Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4201
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4201
UserDefined Viscosity Correlation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4206
Implementing the Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4206
User Subroutine Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4206
Common Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4207
Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4211
UserDefined IPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4211
Builtin Variable List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4211
Keyword Input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4211
Subprogram Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4212
Common Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4212
Data Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4213
Units Conversion Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4213
Calculation Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4214
Secondary Output Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4215
Example Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4215
Variables and Arrays for UserDefined IPR Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4217
Chapter 5 Results
About This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Report Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Description of Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Input Reprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Intermediate Printout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Solution Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Input Reprint Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Thermodynamic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Component Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
General Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
PVT Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
Network Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
Source Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
Structure Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
Network Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
Case Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
Sizing Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
Nodal Analysis (Sensitivity) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
Lift Gas Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
Keyword Manual TOC9
PVTGEN Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516
Intermediate PRINTOUT Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
Network Directory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
Inflow Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518
Solution Output Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
Flash Report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
Separator Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520
Link Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520
Node Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
Device Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
Structure Data Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
Velocity Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
Results Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
Link Device Detail Report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
Pressure and Temperature Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
Pressure and Temperature Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
Phase Envelope Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
Phase Envelope Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
Holdup and Velocity Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
Pressure Gradient Detail Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
TaitelDuklerBarnea Flow Regime Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
Link Property Detail Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
Viscosity and Density Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
Friction and Surface Tension Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
Heat Transfer Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
Slug Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
Case Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
Nodal Analysis (Sensitivity) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
Sphering Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
Results Access System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
Chapter 6 Technical Reference
About This Chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
An Introduction to Fluid Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Basic Fluid Flow Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
The Steady State Flow Process — SinglePhase Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Laminar and Turbulent Singlephase Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Laminar and Transitional Flow Inside Pipes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
Critical Flow  A Qualitative Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621
Recommendations on Pressure Drop Correlations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627
Solution Algorithms Used in PIPEPHASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627
The Calculation Segment and Iteration Methodology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627
The Network Calculation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633
Fluid Models Used in PIPEPHASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636
NonCompositional Fluid Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636
Condensate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647
Steam Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647
TOC10 Table of Contents
Compositional Fluid Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648
Heat Transfer in Flow Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651
Heat Transfer for NonCompositional Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652
Heat Transfer for Compositional Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652
The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (Uvalue) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654
Equipment & Fittings Flow Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658
Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .659
Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659
DPDT Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660
Chokes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .660
Check Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665
Heaters and Coolers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665
Separators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 666
Fittings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .666
Converging Network Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672
User Requirements for this Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672
General Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673
Specific Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
SubNetwork Algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695
Frequently Asked Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 696
Data Transfer System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6111
Procedure for Accessing PRO/II Stream Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6111
Chapter 7 Component Data Summary
About This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
PRO/II Component Library. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
NonLibrary Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Petroleum Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Solid Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Component Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
UNIFAC Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
COMPONENT DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Chapter 8 Thermodynamic Data Summary
About This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
The METHOD Statement (required) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
MethodSpecific Water Handling Options (optional  Section 2.1.6). . . . . . . . . . 83
Property Statements (optional). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
UserSupplied Kvalue Data (optional  Section 2.3.12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Binary Interaction Data (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Liquid Phase Activity Binary Interaction Data (Section 2.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Other Binary Data For Liquid Activity Methods (Section 2.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Pure Component Alpha Formulations (optional  Section 2.4.5). . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Keyword Manual TOC11
Appendix A Pressure Drop Correlations
Recommendations on Pressure Drop Correlations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A2
SinglePhase Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A2
TwoPhase and Compositional Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A2
General Guidelines on Correlation Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A16
Appendix B Glossary
Glossary of Frequently Used Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B1
Appendix C References
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C1
Appendix D Default Values of Schedule Pipe Sizes
Steel Pipe Wall Thicknesses Used by INPLANT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D1
Appendix E UserDefinable Nominal Pipe Sizes
Format for UserCreated NPS Database. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E1
TOC12 Table of Contents
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 11
Chapter 1
Introduction
About This Manual
This manual describes the capabilities and use of the PIPEPHASE program and is
designed to help you gain maximum utility out of the program. It can be used with all
DOS and Windows versions of PIPEPHASE. This manual contains the chapters listed in
Table 11, an appendix of pressure drop correlations, a glossary, a bibliographical
reference, and an index.
Table 11: Quick Reference for New, Occasional and Experienced Users
See… Which… If you are a…
Chapter 1, Introduction Introduces the manual, the program, and SimSci
Esscor.
New User
Chapter 2, Overview Explains the main concepts of piping and network
analysis and the applications the program can
solve.
New User
Chapter 3, Using
PIPEPHASE
Describes the data needed to run the program, the
way it uses the data, and how you can use the
program.
New or Occasional
User
Chapter 4, Input Reference Provides statementbystatement descriptions of
program input.
New, Occasional or
Experienced User
Chapter 5, Results Provides a detailed description of and
commentary on program output.
New, Occasional or
Experienced User
Chapter 6, Technical
Reference
Provides detailed background information to
models used in the program.
New, Occasional or
Experienced User
Chapter 7, Component Data
Summary
Provides an overview of the Component Data
Category.
New, Occasional or
Experienced User
Chapter 8, Thermodynamic
Data Summary
Provides an overview of the Thermodynamic Data
Category.
New, Occasional or
Experienced User
12 Introduction
New Users
If you are an engineer new to PIPEPHASE, this manual will tell you what the program
does and how to use it. Chapter 2, Overview, describes the scope of the program, the
concepts involved in pipeline pressure drop analyses and how PIPEPHASE tackles
them.
Chapter 3, Using PIPEPHASE, describes the data that the program needs, the
conventions to follow in inputting the data to the program, and what the program will
produce as output. It then describes all the capabilities of the program and how to invoke
them, with signposts given to guide you through Chapter 4, Input Reference.
Note: If you read nothing else, read Chapter 3, Using PIPEPHASE.
Chapter 5, Results, is a guided tour of the results output and how to interpret the output.
Chapter 6, Technical Reference, gives more detailed information on methodologies used
in the program calculations
Occasional Users
If you are an occasional user revisiting PIPEPHASE after an absence, take some time to
skim through Chapter 3, Using PIPEPHASE, to remind yourself of the program’s
capabilities and conventions. Then go on to Chapter 4, Input Reference.
Experienced Users
If you use PIPEPHASE regularly, you will be able to find everything you need in
Chapter 4, Input Reference, and Chapter 6, Technical Reference.
About SimSciEsscor
PIPEPHASE is backed by the full resources of SimSciEsscor. SimSciEsscor provides
the most thorough service capabilities and advanced process modeling technologies
available to the process industries. SimSciEsscor’s comprehensive support around the
world, allied with its training seminars for every level of user, is aimed solely at making
your use of PIPEPHASE the most efficient and effective that it can be.
Support Services
Both new and experienced users will benefit significantly from attending one of SimSci
Esscor’s regularly scheduled training courses on PIPEPHASE. If you would like to
obtain a list of available courses, or if you have any questions relating to the use of
PIPEPHASE, its methods, data, or technology, please call your nearest SimSciEsscor
support office.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 13
To contact your nearest SimSciEsscor support office, select and click Technical
Support...from the Help menu. A Help desk page is displayed. Click the Support
Centres link to view the contact details of your nearest support centre. The SimSci
Esscor support centres are also hosted on our website. Please visit the following link:
http://www.simsciesscor.com/us/eng/support/supportlocations/default.htm
This Page Intentionally Blank
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 21
Chapter 2
Overview
Chapter Contents
About This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Scope and Objectives of PIPEPHASE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Flow Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Property Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Calculation Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Piping Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Pressure Drop Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
User Convenience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Typical Applications of PIPEPHASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Field Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Transmission Pipelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Slug Catcher Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Solving Networks with PIPEPHASE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Networks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
The Building Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Joining Segments Together. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Joining Links Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Pressure Balance Solution Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
22 Overview
About This Chapter
This chapter describes the scope, objectives, applications and capabilities of
PIPEPHASE. It introduces the concepts involved in pipeline, well, and network analysis
and describes how PIPEPHASE tackles them. This chapter should be read by anyone
new to PIPEPHASE.
Scope and Objectives of PIPEPHASE
PIPEPHASE is a simulation program which predicts steadystate pressure, temperature,
and liquid holdup profiles in wells, flowlines, gathering systems, and other linear or
network configurations of pipes, wells, pumps, compressors, separators, and other
facilities. The fluid types that PIPEPHASE can handle include liquid, gas, steam, and
multiphase mixtures of gas and liquid.
Figure 21: Scope of PIPEPHASE Application
Several special capabilities have also been designed into PIPEPHASE including well
analysis with inflow performance; gas lift analysis; pipeline sphering; and sensitivity
(nodal) analysis. These additions extend the range of the PIPEPHASE application so that
the full range of pipeline and piping network problems can be solved.
Special capabilities have been designed into PIPEPHASE like pipeline sphering. This
extends the range of PIPEPHASE applications so that varied pipeline and piping
network problems can be solved.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 23
Flow Devices
PIPEPHASE can be used for simulating single or multiphase fluid flow through any
combination of pipes, tubing, annuli, fittings and items of process equipment. In
PIPEPHASE, pipes, tubing and annuli are collectively known as flow devices. Pipes are
normally used for modeling pipelines whereas tubing and annuli simulate flow in wells.
A complete listing of available flow devices can be found in This chapter describes how
PIPEPHASE handles flow devices within pipe sections.
Property Data
PIPEPHASE can simulate fluids defined either by composition, by assay (ASTM, TBP)
curve, or by noncompositional means. For compositionally or assay defined fluids, all
component, thermodynamic, and transport property data are stored in, or created from,
PIPEPHASE’s data and calculation libraries. For noncompositionally defined fluids,
PIPEPHASE uses builtin correlations to determine all physical property data the
program requires for pressure drop and heat transfer calculations. Details of the different
fluid types and how to define them can be found in Chapter 3, Using PIPEPHASE.
Calculation Modes
PIPEPHASE can be used for designing new systems or rating existing ones. Any piping
topology can be addressed, from a simple single link of flow devices to the most
complex network of pipelines and wells, including multiple inlets and outlets and any
degree of looping. In network configurations, you are allowed to fix almost any
combination of pressures and flowrates and PIPEPHASE will solve for all the remaining
unknowns.
Piping Systems
PIPEPHASE rigorously simulates anything from a simple single pipe to the most
complex piping systems with multiple inlets and outlets. Line capacities, flow
distribution in loops, heat transfer effects, JouleThomson effects, inline flow patterns,
vapor and liquid velocities, and preferential phase splitting at tees for steam systems are
all accurately determined. Details of how these are invoked can be found in Chapter 3,
Using PIPEPHASE.
Line capacities, flow distribution in loops, heat transfer effects, JouleThomson effects,
inline flow patterns, vapor and liquid velocities and preferential phase splitting at tees
for steam systems are all accurately determined. Details of how these are invoked can be
found in Chapter 3, Using PIPEPHASE.
24 Overview
Pressure Drop Methods
PIPEPHASE solves pressure drop and energy balance equations, while simultaneously
performing rigorous heat transfer calculations. You can choose from more than twenty
industrystandard correlations for predicting the pressure drop and liquid holdup. A full
list of correlations is in Chapter 4, Input Reference, Tables 46a – 46c and 47.
User Convenience
PIPEPHASE is fully supported by SimSciEsscor’s experienced staff who can supply
advise on using the program and offer assistance if you are having problems. Simply call
or email the nearest authorized SimSciEsscor technical support center. Full
documentation is also available from these SimSciEsscor centers. In addition to the
easytouse keyword version of PIPEPHASE, SimSciEsscor offers a version with a
convenient Windows graphical user interface.
Typical Applications of PIPEPHASE
Both new design and the analysis of existing system applications are possible with
PIPEPHASE. For new systems, PIPEPHASE can be used to size the various pipes and
tubing, to determine required pump/compressor power and heater cooler duty, and to
predict pressure, temperature, liquid holdup, velocity, flowrate, and flow pattern
distributions throughout the system.
Field Production
Gathering Systems – Gathering systems, from the reservoir to the separation facilities
or transmission pipeline, may be analyzed using PIPEPHASE. For wells, you may
model inflow performance, completions, tubing/annuli flow, chokes, submersible
pumps and gaslift. For the flowlines and trunklines, you may model pipes, chokes,
separators, pumps, compressors, heaters, and coolers. The interaction between the
surface lines and the well strings are modeled with the appropriate network mass and
pressure equations. Each line of the network, both surface and downhole, are sub
jected to the heat balance relationships so that flowing temperatures can be pre
dicted. New gathering systems can be designed for optimum efficiency and old
systems can be revamped.The effects of changing separator conditions or flowline
size, for example, can easily be studied using case study analysis.
Gaslift Analysis – PIPEPHASE has four gaslift options. You may analyze the perfor
mance of wells which are currently on gaslift, maximize oil recovery using new
gaslift, and determine which gaslift valves should be activated for a specified pro
duction scheme. This allows you to study each production well in a field over the life
of the reservoir. You may determine which wells are candidates for gaslift, how pro
duction can be improved with gaslift, and which gaslift rates and valve locations are
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 25
required. For all gaslift options, the production fluid is considered to be in the tubing
and the lift gas in the annulus around it.
Once the location of the gaslift valve and the amount of injection gas is determined,
the performance of an entire gathering system can be analyzed in the Network mode.
Enhanced Oil Recovery – PIPEPHASE is not a reservoir model. However, it can be
used to analyze water, steam, gas, nitrogen, and CO2 injection wells, complete with
the outflow reservoir performance as predicted by a reservoir simulator, or as mea
sured by welltest data. PIPEPHASE can be used to predict injection rates and con
ditions, flowing bottomhole pressures, and similar phenomena. Of course,
PIPEPHASE can also be used to analyze the transmission pipelines or distribution
networks that deliver the injection fluids.
ReRouting and Mothballing – For complex gathering and distribution networks, you
may want to reroute part of the production and shutdown certain wells or entire
gathering centers. This can be modeled with PIPEPHASE without coding new input
files. New pipe links are manually inserted. Some engineering judgment should be
exercised in selecting the scenarios as to how links are to be shutin and new links
added through the case study or time stepping utilities.
Transmission Pipelines
PIPEPHASE can simulate or predict the pressure and temperature profiles for an
existing pipeline system that consists of various sizes of pipes, pumps, separators and
other equipment. It accomplishes this using one or more of its industry standard
pressuredrop correlations and its heat balance mechanism. Once the pressure and
temperature profiles are calculated, they can be compared with measured data. In this
manner, you can isolate problem areas and can investigate various remedies by further
simulation.
Power and Duty Requirements – In addition to the pipe sizing for a new pipeline sys
tem, the horsepower of pumps and compressors and the duty of coolers and heaters
must be determined. You can use PIPEPHASE to calculate these requirements based
on either simulated or input suction and discharge conditions.
Insulation Requirement – For many pipelines, a balance must be reached between the
retention and addition of heat. Heavy crudes usually have such high viscosities and
sensitive temperatureviscosity functions that it is important to keep the flowing
temperature as high as possible. Waterflood lines in cold environments must be kept
above the freezing point. Liquid dropout and hydrate formation in gas and gas/con
densate lines can be limited by maintaining or increasing the flowing temperature.
There are two ways of doing this  insulate the line or install heaters along the line.
For onshore pipelines, burying the line or covering it with earth is sometimes an
effective means of retarding heat loss. Generally, some combination of heaters, insu
lation, and burial constitutes an optimum or nearly optimum operation. Arctic envi
26 Overview
ronments usually disallow the burial option because of damage to the permafrost
layer.
PIPEPHASE allows prediction of heat loss through the pipe walls and of the perfor
mance of heaters installed at various locations along the pipeline. PIPEPHASE can
also predict the formation of hydrates.
Cost calculations can be incorporated through the calculator unit operation.
Slug Catcher Sizing – The sphering, or pigging, calculation in PIPEPHASE predicts
the quantity of liquids formed as a multiphase fluid flows in a pipeline and deter
mines the size of the liquid slug that is pushed out by the pig. The volume of a slug
catcher tank must be at least as large as this liquid slug.
If only natural slugging occurs, good engineering practice dictates that the slug
catcher vessel should be sized even larger than the calculated slug volume to account
for transient pigging conditions and statistical uncertainty inherent in all liquid
holdup predictions. Turndown simulation, i.e., holdup predicted for lower rates than
the actual operating rate, should also be a part of any slugcatcher study.
LNG, Carbon Dioxide and Other Fluids – Because of its large library of component
data and its variety of thermodynamic options, PIPEPHASE is not restricted to the
traditional hydrocarbon fluids. This means that line sizing, capacity determinations,
power and duty requirements, insulation calculations and station spacing can be
investigated for LNG, densephase CO
2
and similar fluids using PIPEPHASE.
Slug Catcher Sizing
The sphering, or pigging, calculation in PIPEPHASE predicts the quantity of liquids
formed as a multiphase fluid flows in a pipeline and determines the size of the liquid
slug that is pushed out by the pig. The volume of a slug catcher tank must be at least
as large as this liquid slug.
If only natural slugging occurs, good engineering practice dictates that the slug catcher
vessel should be sized even larger than the calculated slug volume to account for
transient pigging conditions and statistical uncertainty inherent in all liquid holdup
predictions. Turndown simulation, i.e., holdup predicted for lower rates than the actual
operating rate, should also be a part of any slugcatcher study.
Solving Networks with PIPEPHASE
PIPEPHASE is an easy program to use, yet it incorporates sophisticated algorithms for
calculating pressure drops and heat transfer in pipe networks. This section outlines the
PIPEPHASE approach to solving piping.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 27
Links
A link is a number of connected flow devices, fittings and equipment items arranged in
series with only one inlet and one outlet. As shown in the figure below, a link comprises
all pipes, fittings and equipment items from the fluid inlet to the outlet.
Figure 22: Example of a PIPEPHASE Link
Networks
A network is a number of links joined together at junctions. A network may have one or
more inlets (sources), one or more outlets (sinks), loops, and crossovers. The following
figure shows a typical network.
Figure 23: A typical PIPEPHASE Network
All networks are treated the same regardless of the number of sources, sinks, loops, and
crossovers.
28 Overview
The Building Blocks
A network is divided into a number of links and each link is in turn divided into flow
devices, fittings and process equipment items (pumps, valves, etc.). To carry out the
pressure drop and heat transfer calculations, each flow device may be further subdivided
into calculation segments. By default, each flow device is a single calculation segment.
Note: PIPEPHASE is a steadystate program; therefore, there must be an energy balance
within each pipe segment.
The segment calculation takes into account frictional, elevational, and accelerational
pressure drop components. Frictional pressure drop is due to the shear stress between
pipe wall and fluid. Elevational pressure drop is a result of the conversion of fluid
potential energy into hydrostatic pressure and the accelerational pressure drop is the gain
or loss in pressure due to changes in velocity of the fluid. The following figure illustrates
an PIPEPHASE calculation segment.
Figure 24: Calculation Segment
In addition to the pressure balance for the pipe segment, a heat balance is also
performed. There must be a balance between heat coming into the segment and heat
leaving it. Heat can enter or leave with the fluid or through the flow device walls. The
transfer through the walls is governed by the temperature difference between the average
fluid flowing temperature and the ambient temperature and by the overall heat transfer
coefficient.
Joining Segments Together
The calculation segment pressure drop and temperature change equations are the heart of
the PIPEPHASE calculations. For flow devices, the calculation segments are strung
together and the solution procedure is sequential. Calculation begins at the inlet where
the conditions are known. The heat and momentum balance equations are solved, in an
iterative fashion for this first segment and the conditions at the other end are found.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 29
These calculated conditions become the known conditions for the inlet to the next
segment. Calculations progress sequentially until the end of the device is reached.
Further flow devices are calculated in the same way until the end of the link is reached.
If an item of process equipment, such as a pump, is in the link, the calculated conditions
for the outlet of the flow device become the known inlet conditions for this item. Then
the equipment characteristic equations are solved.
Joining Links Together
A number of links may be joined together to form a network. A junction is the name
given to the point where two or more links are joined. Since the fluid coming from all
sources must equal the fluid leaving from all sinks, the net flow at each junction is zero.
The coupled junction balance equations form a set of nonlinear equations which must
be solved numerically.
The primary method for solving these equations in PIPEPHASE is called the Pressure
Balance Solution method.
Pressure Balance Solution Method
The Pressure Balance Solution Method (PBAL) is a NewtonRaphson method of solving
pipeline networks. Derivatives for this method are calculated numerically.
Pressures at a junction or sink are calculated for each inflowing link. The pressure
traverse in each link is calculated in the direction of flow from the inlet of the link to the
outlet.
Convergence
For a junction or sink with multiple inflowing links and where you have not fixed the
pressure:
• Pressures at a node (i.e., a sink, source, or junction) are calculated for each link inci
dent on the node. If the pressures are equal within a user defined tolerance, the node
pressure (by pressure balance) has converged.
For fixed sink and junction pressures:
• Pressures at a node are calculated for each link incident on the node. When the cal
culated node pressure is equal to the set node pressure within the user defined toler
ance, the node pressure has converged.
If the pressure discrepancy is not within tolerance in any of the nodes, the Newton
Raphson method calculates new mass balanced link flowrate estimates and new source
pressure estimates for the next iteration.
210 Overview
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 31
Chapter 3
Using PIPEPHASE
Chapter Contents
About This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Defining the Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Properties of Fluid Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Flows and Conditions of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Sphering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Piping Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
What PIPEPHASE Calculates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Rating, Design, Case Studies and Nodal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Global Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Units of Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Printout Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Defaults. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Defining Fluid Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Defining Properties for Compositional Fluids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Water as a Special Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Library Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Nonlibrary Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Petroleum Pseudocomponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Assay Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Additional Component Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Thermodynamic Properties and Phase Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Transport properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Tabular Data for Compositional Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Multiple Thermodynamic Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Additional Thermodynamic Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Defining Properties for NonCompositional Fluids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Gas Condensate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
32 Using PIPEPHASE
Blackoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Defining Properties for Mixed Compositional/NonCompositional Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Generating and Using Tables of Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Compositional Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
NonCompositional Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Structure of Network Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Controlling Convergence of Networks (PBAL). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Networks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
PIPEPHASE Flow and Equipment Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Flow Devices (have length) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Equipment Devices (have no length) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Process Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Unit Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Flow Device Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Pressure Drop Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Pressure Drop in Flow Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Nominal Diameter and Pipe Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Pressure Drop in Completions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Pressure Drop in Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Equipment Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Heat Transfer Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Detailed Heat Transfer in Pipe and Tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Gaslift Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Sphering or Pigging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Reservoirs and Inflow Performance Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Production Planning and TimeStepping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Time Changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Wells and Well Grouping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Reservoir Depletion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Facilities Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Subsurface Networks and Multiple Completion Modeling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
A Single Well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
More Than One Well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Multiple Completions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Case Studies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Global Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Individual Changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Nodal Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Dividing the Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Selecting Parameters and Flowrates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Sensitivity Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Grouping Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 33
About This Chapter
This chapter contains information about the way PIPEPHASE works, the data that need
to be supplied by the user, and the correlations used.
This chapter is arranged according to what you want to do, the type of fluid you have,
and the type of pipeline network. For each of the capabilities of PIPEPHASE, this
chapter explains which data you are required to provide the program, and which data you
may optionally supply. Throughout this chapter, the right hand column contains page
numbers in Chapter 4, Input Reference, and to a STATEMENT on that page where you
will find details on how to format the data.
PIPEPHASE uses the industrystandard PRO/II physical property and thermodynamic
package. In these cases, page references are to the SimSci Component and
Thermodynamic Data Input Manual.
Defining the Application
The first thing you should do before using PIPEPHASE is to decide what type of
application you have. This depends on:
• The properties of the fluid(s) flowing through the piping system,
• The flowrates and conditions at which those fluids enter and leave the piping system,
• The structure and elements of the piping system, and
• Other special processes you may want to simulate, such as Sphering.
Properties of Fluid Types
There are seven types of fluid modeled in PIPEPHASE:
• Compositional
• Compositional Blackoil
• Noncompositional
• Blackoil
• Gas Condensate
• Gas
• Liquid
• Steam
34 Using PIPEPHASE
Compositional fluids are defined as mixtures of chemical components with a known
composition. For compositional fluids, PIPEPHASE will calculate the phase split
whenever prevailing process fluid conditions demand. However, you may instruct
PIPEPHASE to assume the fluid is one phase at all times, thus reducing the time the
program takes to solve by bypassing the vaporliquid equilibrium (flash) calculation.
Compositional blackoil allows selective compositional input for blackoil analysis and
reporting.
Noncompositional gases and liquids are singlephase. Blackoil is a liquiddominated,
twophase model. Gas Condensate is a gasdominated, twophase model. Steam is a
single component, twophase model.
Flows and Conditions of Fluids
Fluids enter piping systems at sources and leave at sinks. Fluids with different properties
may enter at different sources, but they must all be of the same type.
In general, you have to assign flowrates, temperatures and pressures to sources and/or
sinks. For compositional fluids, you also have to assign compositions to the source
fluids. The exceptions are explained in What PIPEPHASE Calculates later in this
chapter.
Sphering
Special applications, relevant to oil production, can be modeled with PIPEPHASE.
Sphering or Pigging is used to increase gas flow efficiency in wet gas and gas dominated
multiphase pipelines.
Piping Structure
Before beginning to input problem data into the application, is important that you
convert the structure of the piping system into a simpler schematic representation of the
relevant nodes (i.e., sources, junctions, and sinks) and links. Label each node and link
both uniquely and logically for future reference.
What PIPEPHASE Calculates
PIPEPHASE solves the equations that define the relationship between pressure drop and
flowrate. PIPEPHASE can also calculate heat losses and gains.
With a single link, PIPEPHASE will calculate the pressure drop for a known flowrate.
Alternatively, for a given pressure drop, PIPEPHASE will calculate the flowrate.
With a network configuration, you must supply a known flowrate or pressure at each
source and sink and PIPEPHASE will calculate the unknowns. The combination of
knowns that you are allowed to supply are explained in this chapter.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 35
Rating, Design, Case Studies and Nodal Analysis
PIPEPHASE works in both rating and design modes. In rating mode, you supply data
about the pipes, fittings and equipment and PIPEPHASE calculates the pressure and
temperature profiles. In design mode, PIPEPHASE calculates line sizes. Case studies
can be performed in either mode.
Nodal analysis is a powerful graphical technique commonly used by production
engineers reviewing individual wells or pipelines. The graph clearly represents the
performance characteristic envelope of the link. Nodal analyses can be performed only
on a single link.
Global Settings
Before you provide PIPEPHASE with information about the fluid and piping structure of
your problem, global parameters may be set and the problem definition described.
Choices can be made on how to control the simulation, define the input units, specify
how much output you want, and set global defaults for use throughout the simulation.
Units of Measurement
PIPEPHASE allows you to construct a group of units of measure (or dimensions) which
are to be used throughout all the simulation input. However, you may locally override
individual units of measure where necessary. The output will always be in the units
supplied on the DIMENSION statement, unless specific output overrides or supplements
To provide... See...
Descriptive
text
You must use a TITLE statement that denotes that
the input has started. The only word that has to
appear on this statement is TITLE.
p. 414 TITLE
On the TITLE statement you may supply text; this
text will appear at the top of every page of output,
and will make the run easier to identify.
p. 414 TITLE
You can further describe the problem using up to
four lines of 60 characters each.
p. 414 DESCRIPTION
If you are using the Case Study facility, you may
add one line of description for each case study. You
will find further details about case studies later in
this chapter.
p. 4154 DESCRIPTION
If you are using the Sensitivity (nodal) Analysis
facility, you may add two lines of description, one
for inflow and one for outflow. You will find further
details about nodal analysis later in this chapter.
p. 4190 DESCRIPTION
Input data
checking
You may use PIPEPHASE just to check your input
syntax and topology and not to perform any
calculations.
p. 420 CALCULATION
36 Using PIPEPHASE
are requested on the OUTDIMENSION statement.
Printout Options
PIPEPHASE generates a great deal of data during its calculations. The default printout is
normally sufficient for most engineering applications. You may increase or decrease the
amount of output depending upon your requirements. For further details describing the
output printout, see Chapter 5, Results.
To provide... See...
Input units Global units of measurement are defined at the
beginning of the input. PIPEPHASE has four pre
selected sets for user convenience: Petroleum,
English, Metric and SI. You should select the set
that is closest to your requirements. You can then
redefine units of measurement either globally at
the start of the input or individually when you
supply the data. If you do not select a set,
PIPEPHASE defaults to the English set.
p. 414 DIMENSION
To set the... See...
Output units The default units of measurement for output are
the same as those defined globally for input on
the DIMENSION statement. Using the
OUTDIMENSION statement, you may define a
separate set of units for the output.
p. 431 OUTDIMENSION
Input reprint You will always get a reprint of your input
keyword file. PIPEPHASE then reprints its
interpretation of the input. You may suppress
this interpretation output.
p. 428 PRINT
PVTGEN Tables and plots can be requested when
generating property data.
p. 428 PRINT
Iterative results During solution of a network, PIPEPHASE
iterates until it converges to within the set
tolerance. You can request a printout that shows
intermediate results. The results can provide
clues which help to converge large or sensitive
networks.
p. 428 PRINT
Flash results In a compositional run, PIPEPHASE prints out
phase equilibrium details and the properties of
the phases at each node. This output can be
suppressed.
p. 428 PRINT
Devices You can request a range of detail for different
devices. In addition, special outputs are
produced for sphering.
p. 428 PRINT
Properties
output
PIPEPHASE can output all properties used in
the detailed calculations.
p. 428 PRINT
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 37
Defaults
Many of the data items required by PIPEPHASE have default values assigned to them. If
you do not explicitly specify a value for an item of data, or select a calculation method,
the program will automatically assign a value or method. For example, pipe thermal
conductivity assumes a default value of 29 BTU/hrft
o
F if you do not specify a value.
Similarly, the Moody method for singlephase pressure drop calculations is chosen, by
default, as it is generally suitable for many engineering purposes. Beware, these default
selections are not neccessarily the most appropriate, or best for your particular
application. They do not substitute for engineering judgement. If an doubt, especially for
the choice of a calculation method, consult chapter 4 of the manual for advice.
For convenience, PIPEPHASE allows you to change some defaults globally at the start
of the input.
Plotting options In addition to tabular data, line printer plots of
pressure and temperature versus distance may be
requested. The TaitelDukler flow regime map
may also be produced for links operating in two
phase flow. Phase Envelope and Nodal Analysis
plots may also be generated.
p. 428 PRINT
Results Access
System (RAS)
Using the Results Access Database, you may
examine data that have been produced by a
keyword run of the program. You may also print
or plot the results using EXCEL.
p. 428 PRINT
To define... See...
Flow device
parameters
You can specify global values for the pipe,
tubing and annulus inside diameter, the
surrounding medium, and the parameters
associated with pressure drop and heat transfer.
You can override these settings for individual
pipes.
p. 424 DEFAULT
p. 492 PIPE
p. 495 TUBING
p. 494 ANNULUS
Heat transfer You can define the heat transfer for pipes,
tubings, and annuli as an overall coefficient or
by defining the parameters  viscosity,
conductivity, velocity, etc.  for the surrounding
soil, air, or water. You can select a medium and
optionally override these settings for individual
pipes. You can globally suppress heat transfer
calculations and then reinstate them for
individual pipes, tubings, and annuli.
p. 424 DEFAULT
p. 492 PIPE
p. 495 TUBING
p. 494 ANNULUS
Pressure drop
methods
You can globally set the pressure drop method
and the Palmer parameters for liquid holdup.
You can override the pressure drop method for
individual pipes, tubing, and annuli.
p. 421 FCODE
p. 492 PIPE
p. 495 TUBING
p. 494 ANNULUS
To set the... See...
38 Using PIPEPHASE
Defining Fluid Properties
PIPEPHASE requires the properties of the fluid to calculate pressure drops, heat transfer,
and phase separation. There are two major classifications of fluid models: compositional
and noncompositional.
A fluid model is compositional when it can be defined in terms of its individual
components either directly or via an assay curve. PIPEPHASE will then predict the
fluids properties by applying the appropriate mixing rules to the pure component
properties. Unless PIPEPHASE is instructed otherwise, it will perform phase
equilibrium calculations for the fluid and determine the quantity and properties of the
liquid and vapor phases.
A fluid model is noncompositional when it can be defined with correlations based on
measurable properties.
Defining Properties for Compositional Fluids
PIPEPHASE requires thermodynamic and transport properties to calculate phase splits,
pressure drops, and heat transfer.
All required properties of compositional fluids are predicted from the properties of the
pure components. These are mixed to get the stream properties of the fluid.
There are three methods for defining a component:
1. Selecting individual components from the SimSci library,
2. Defining individual components as petroleum pseudocomponents,
3. Defining an assay curve and having the thermodynamic model divide it into petro
leum cuts.
The compositional fluid can be defined in terms of any combination of these options.
You can have different compositions at each source.
Transitional flow You can globally set the transitional Reynolds
Number between laminar and turbulent flow
regimes.
p. 421 FCODE
Limits You can change the maximum and minimum
values of temperature and pressure for flash
calculations. If the program detects conditions
outside these limits, warning messages will be
presented in the output.
p. 428 LIMITS
To define... See...
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 39
Water as a Special Component
PIPEPHASE can rigorously predict phase separations involving more than one liquid
phase. However, there is a simplified way of dealing with water in hydrocarbon systems.
Because water is only sparingly soluble in oil, a hydrocarbon system with a significant
amount of water will often form two liquid phases. PIPEPHASE will handle calculations
involving water in hydrocarbons by one of two methods:
1. It can calculate the solubility of water in the hydrocarbon phase and put the excess
water into a pure aqueous phase. All the aqueous phase properties will be calculated
separately from those of the hydrocarbon phase.
2. It can perform a rigorous three phase flash to determine the composition of each
phase.
Library Components
The SimSci library contains over 1700 components. A full list is available in the SimSci
Component and Thermodynamic Data Input Manual. For all components, the databank
contains data for all the fixed properties and temperaturedependent properties necessary
to carry out phase equilibrium calculations. For all common components, the databank
also contains a full set of transport properties necessary to carry out pressure drop and
heat transfer calculations. If you need to supplement the data, or override the library data
with your own, you may do so.
To specify... See...
Library
components
All fixed property data may be accessed from
the SimSci databank. All you need to do is
supply the name of the component.
p. 433 COMPONENT
Library
components
You may override the SimSci constant
properties for any or all of the components.
p. 437 MW
p. 437 SPGR
p. 437 API
p. 437 ACENTRIC
p. 437 ZC
p. 437 TC()
p. 437 PC()
p. 437 NBP()
p. 437 STDDENSITY()
p. 438 VC
You may override the SimSci variable
(temperaturedependent) properties for any or
all of the components.
p. 438 VP()
p. 438 ENTHALPY()
p. 438 CP()
p. 438 LATENT()
p. 438 DENSITY()
p. 438 VISCOSITY()
p. 438 CONDUCTIVITY()
p. 438 SURFACE()
310 Using PIPEPHASE
Nonlibrary Components
You may use components not found in the SimSci library. You must input all the
necessary data for thermodynamic and transport properties.
Petroleum Pseudocomponents
To define hydrocarbon pseudocomponents, you must supply at least two of the following
three parameters:
1. Molecular weight
2. Gravity
3. Normal boiling point
PIPEPHASE will predict the third if you omit it. PIPEPHASE uses industrystandard
characterization methods to predict all fixed and temperaturedependent property data
for each pseudocomponent. You may select the method most suitable for your own
mixture.
To specify... See...
Nonlibrary
components
If you want to use a component that is not in the
SimSci Bank, you must supply its name and all the
required properties.
SimSci Component and
Thermodynamic Data
Input Manual
To define... See...
Pseudo
components
Define petroleum pseudocomponents by
supplying at least two of the following:
molecular weight, gravity, and normal boiling
point.
p. 434 PETROLEUM
Property
calculation
methods
You may select the method PIPEPHASE will
use to calculate the properties of your pseudo
components.
p. 435 ASSAY
Fixed Property
Data
You can supply your own fixed property data
to override the data that PIPEPHASE uses
from its own internal library.
p. 437 MW
p. 437 SPGR
p. 437 API
p. 437 ACENTRIC
p. 437 ZC
p. 437 TC()
p. 437 PC()
p. 437 NBP()
p. 437 STDDENSITY()
p. 438 VC
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 311
Assay Curve
If your fluid is defined by an assay curve (TBP, D86, D2887, or D1160), PIPEPHASE
will divide it into a number of cuts. You can control the number of cuts and the ranges
they cover. Each of the cuts is then treated as a pseudocomponent, as described
previously. You may also define a lightends analysis to go with the assay curve.
Additional Component Capabilities
All the features of SimSciEsscor’s industrystandard component property databank and
methods have been incorporated into PIPEPHASE. These are summarized below in
Table 31. For details of these methods and their applicability, please consult the SimSci
Component and Thermodynamic Data Input Manual, in the volume detailed below.
Variable Property
Data
You can supply your own temperature
dependent property data to override the data
that PIPEPHASE predicts.
p. 438 VP()
p. 438 ENTHALPY()
p. 438 CP()
p. 438 LATENT()
p. 438 DENSITY()
p. 438 VISCOSITY()
p. 438 CONDUCTIVITY()
p. 438 SURFACE()
To supply... See...
Assay Data
You supply an assay curve, and
PIPEPHASE will divide it into petroleum
cuts. You supply it in the form of D86,
D1160, D2887, TBP, or TBP at 10 mm Hg
curves.
Page 435 D86, D1160,
D2887, TBP,
TBP10
You must also supply gravity as API or
specific gravity or UOP Kfactor either as a
curve against percent vaporized or as an
average value.
Page 437 API, SPGR,
UOP, DATA
PIPEPHASE will calculate molecular
weight data, or you may supply it as an
average or a curve against percent
vaporized.
Page 437 MW
You may define the number of petroleum
fractions to be generated and their
temperature ranges.
Page 436 CUTPOINTS
You may select the method PIPEPHASE
will use to calculate the properties of the
generated petroleum fractions.
Page 435 ASSAY
Mixed component
types
You can mix defined components and
pseudocomponents with assay data by
defining a lightends composition and rate
for each source.
Page 483 LIGHTENDS
To define... See...
312 Using PIPEPHASE
Table 31: Summary of Other Component Property Options
Thermodynamic Properties and Phase Separation
PIPEPHASE can use a generalized correlation, an equation of state, or a liquid activity
method to calculate thermodynamic properties at the flowing conditions and hence to
predict the split between the liquid and vapor phases. The choice of the thermodynamic
property calculation method depends on the components in the fluid and the prevailing
temperatures and pressures. PIPEPHASE also provides a number of methods that can
rigorously calculate vaporliquidliquid equilibrium and solidliquid equilibrium.
Recommendations for the commonly found pipeline systems are provided below.
Table 32: Recommended Methods for Thermodynamic Properties
You can specify methods that you want to use for the following thermodynamic
Option Summary Chapter
Synthetic
components
You may characterize a component as a synfuel of a specific type or
as a mixture of different petroleum types.
Volume 1
Other fixed
property
requirements
Rackett parameter is required for the Rackett method for liquid
densities. Dipole moment and Radius of gyration are required for
the HaydenOConnell method for vapor properties. Hildebrand
solubility parameter and liquid molar volume are required for
various generalized and liquid activity thermodynamic correlations.
Van der Waal’s area and volume are required for UNIFAC and
UNIQUAC liquid activity thermodynamic correlations.
Volume 1
Properties from
structure
You may define the structure of nonlibrary components for use
with the UNIFAC thermodynamic method.
Volume 1
Method
Property
Heavy Hydrocarbon
Systems
Light Hydrocarbon
Systems
Natural Gas Systems
Kvalue
Braun K10 (<100 psia)
GraysonStreed
PengRobinson
SoaveRedlichKwong
PengRobinson
SoaveRedlichKwong
LeeKeslerPlcker
BenedictWebbRubin
Starling
ChaoSeader
PengRobinson
SoaveRedlichKwong
Enthalpy
CurlPitzer
JohnsonGrayson
LeeKesler
PengRobinson
SoaveRedlichKwong
PengRobinson
SoaveRedlichKwong
LeeKeslerPlcker
BWRS
CurlPitzer
Lee Kesler
PengRobinson
SoaveRedlichKwong
Liquid density
API
LeeKesler
API
LeeKesler
API
LeeKesler
Vapor density
PengRobinson
SoaveRedlichKwong
PengRobinson
SoaveRedlichKwong
PengRobinson
SoaveRedlichKwong
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 313
properties.
Transport properties
The SimSci databank contains pure component data for the thermal conductivity, surface
tension, and viscosity of liquids and vapors as functions of temperature. You can choose
to use these data and simple mixing rules to predict the flowing properties of the fluid.
Alternatively you can choose to use the API Data Book property prediction methods and
mixing rules for mixed hydrocarbons.
To specify... See...
Kvalues,
enthalpy, density
You must select a thermodynamic method for
calculating the vaporliquid equilibrium and mixture
properties from component properties. Either select
a system with a predefined method for each property,
or select an individual method for each property.
p. 448 METHOD
Vaporliquid
liquid equilibria
Use the (VLLE) qualifier on the SYSTEM keyword
or on the KVALUE keyword or have a second
KVALUE keyword with an (LLE) qualifier.
p. 448 METHOD
Different enthalpy
methods for liquid
and vapor
You must include two ENTHALPY keywords, one
with an (L) qualifier and one with a (V) qualifier.
p. 448 METHOD
Different density
methods for liquid
and vapor
You must include two DENSITY keywords, one
with an (L) qualifier and one with a (V) qualifier.
p. 448 METHOD
Aqueous phase
enthalpy
If you have water in a hydrocarbon system, you may
select a method for calculating aqueous liquid and
vapor enthalpies either by a simplified method
which assumes that the steam is at its saturation
point or by a rigorous method which takes into
account the degree of superheat of the vapor, if any.
p. 452 WATER
Binary interaction
parameters
For some systems, notably closeboiling mixtures,
the standard equations do not adequately reproduce
experimental phase equilibria data. You may
improve the predictability of many of the equations
of state, or liquid activity coefficient methods by
inputting your own binary interaction parameter
values. For example, you can tune the PR, SRK,
BWRS and LKP equations.
p. 453 PR
p. 453 BWRS
314 Using PIPEPHASE
About 60 of the bank components have data for viscosity and thermal conductivity from
the GPA TRAPP program. If you choose to use the TRAPP data, all of your components
must be TRAPP components and you cannot have any pseudocomponents or assay data.
For a listing of TRAPP component names, see the SimSci Component and
Thermodynamic Data Input Manual.
Tabular Data for Compositional Fluids
For large scale compositional simulations, a table of fluid properties can be specified at
the start of the run. This will reduce the computation time by eliminating flash
calculations during the solution procedure. This method is applicable if all the sources in
the network have the same composition, and the compositions are constant throughout
the network.
To specify... See...
Prediction
methods
You may choose a method for calculating bulk
transport properties from component properties. Select
a system with predefined methods for each property, or
select an individual method for each property.
p. 448 METHOD
Overriding
viscosity
To override the mixture liquid viscosity predictions,
you may supply a liquid viscosity curve for either the
hydrocarbon liquid phase, the water phase or the total
liquid. A different viscosity curve may be supplied for
each source.
p. 454 SET
To... See...
Build and use
a table
You can have PIPEPHASE build the table and
use it in the same run.
p. 464 DIMENSION
Retrieve a table
Alternatively, you can have PIPEPHASE build
the table, store it in a file, and then use it in a
subsequent run. PIPEPHASE will not build a
table for use in the same run while also storing
it for a subsequent run.
p. 420 CALCULATION
p. 464 DIMENSION
p. 470 FILE
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 315
Multiple Thermodynamic Methods
In most cases, a single set of thermodynamic and transport methods is adequate for
calculating properties of all sources. However, your flowsheet may contain sources with
widely varying compositions or conditions such that they cannot be simulated accurately
using just one set. To account for this, you may define more than one set of methods
(there is no limit) and apply different sets to different sources.
Additional Thermodynamic Capabilities
All of SimSci’s industrystandard thermophysical property calculation methods have
been incorporated into PIPEPHASE. These are summarized in the following table. For
details of these methods and their applicability, please consult Chapter 2 in the SimSci
Component and Thermodynamic Data Input Manual.
To specify... See...
More than one
thermodynamic
set
For each set use a separate METHOD statement.
Name the set using the SET keyword.
p. 448 METHOD
The set used by a
source
Link the source to the thermodynamic set using the
SET keyword.
p. 475 SOURCE
A default
thermodynamic
set
When a single set is present, all sources use that set. If
you do not link the source to a thermodynamic set, it
will use the default set. Normally this is the first set
that appears in the input. If you want to stipulate that
another set is the default, use the DEFAULT keyword.
The thermodynamic set can also be set for junctions
with streams feeding the junctions and being mixed
using the new method.
p. 448 METHOD
316 Using PIPEPHASE
Table 33: Summary of Other Thermodynamic Options
Defining Properties for NonCompositional Fluids
A noncompositional fluid model must be defined as blackoil, gas condensate, liquid,
gas, or steam. Blackoil and gas condensate are twophase, with one phase dominant. Gas
and liquid fluid models are singlephase. Steam may be single or twophase.
Option Methods
Generalized
Correlations
GraysonStreed
ImprovedGraysonStreed
GraysonStreedErbar
BraunK10
ChaoSeader
ChaoSeaderErbar
Ideal
Equations of State
SoaveRedlichKwong
SRKKabadiDanner
SRKHuronVidal
SRKPanagiotopoulosReid
SRKModified
SRKSimSci
SRKHexamer
PanagiotopoulosReid
PengRobinson
PRHuronVidal
PRPanagiotopoulosReid
BWRS
Uniwaals
Liquid Activity
Methods
Nonrandom Twoliquid Equation
Universal Quasichemical (UNIQUAC)
van Laar
Wilson
Margules
Regular Solution Theory
FloryHuggins Theory
Universal Functional Activity
Coefficient (UNIFAC)
Lyngbymodified UNIFAC
Dortmundmodified UNIFAC
Modified UNIFAC method
Free volume modification to UNIFAC
Ideal
Special Packages
Glycol
Sour water
GPA Sour Water
Amine
Alcohol
Other Features
Heat of mixing
Poynting correction
Henry’s Law
Amine Residence Time Correction
To specify... See...
Fluid definition
You must tell PIPEPHASE the type of fluid you
have: blackoil, gas condensate, liquid, gas, or
steam.
p. 420 CALCULATION
Different data
for different
sources
You may supply specific gravities for each
source.
p. 454 SET
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 317
Liquid
All properties of a noncompositional liquid are calculated by PIPEPHASE from the
specific gravity and builtin correlations.You may choose from the viscosity correlations
shown in Table 425, Property Correlations.
Gas
All properties of a noncompositional gas are calculated by PIPEPHASE from the
specific gravity and the builtin correlations. You may choose which viscosity
correlation to use from the list in Table 425, Property Correlations.
To specify... See...
Liquid definition
You must define the liquid as water or
hydrocarbon, and supply its gravity. If the liquid
is water, the specific gravity must be 1.0 or
greater.
p. 454 SET
Viscosity method
You may define the method that PIPEPHASE
uses to predict noncompositional liquid
viscosity.
p. 457 SET for Blackoil
Overriding
viscosity data
You may supply liquid viscosity data to
override the internally predicted data. You may
define the viscosity as a single value or as a
twopoint viscosity curve.
p. 454 SET
Specific heat
You may supply a single constant value for
liquid specific heat to override the internally
predicted data.
p. 454 SET
To specify... See...
Gas definition
A noncompositional gas is defined in terms of its
gravity, and PIPEPHASE will use the appropriate
correlations to predict its properties.
p. 454 SET
Viscosity method
You may define the method that PIPEPHASE uses
to predict noncompositional gas viscosity.
p. 457 SET for Blackoil
Cp/Cv ratio
definition
A gas specific heat ratio may be defined to
override the internal value used as default.
p. 454 SET
Define a
contaminant
One or more of the following gas contaminants
may also be defined: nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or
hydrogen sulfide.
p. 454 SET
Gas Zfactor
The method that PIPEPHASE uses to predict a
noncompositional compressibility factor may also
be defined.
p. 457 SET for Blackoil
318 Using PIPEPHASE
Steam
Steam is a noncompositional fluid that is allowed to exist in two phases. You cannot
override the steam table data contained within PIPEPHASE’s data libraries. However, all
pressure drop correlations which are available to compositional fluids are also available
to the steam model.
Gas Condensate
Gas condensate is a multiphase noncompositional fluid with gas predominating. All
properties of gas condensate are calculated by PIPEPHASE from the phase specific
gravities, condensate gas ratio at standard conditions, and builtin correlations.
To specify... See...
Steam tables
If the fluid is steam, use the program’s internal
steam tables. You may specify that the gravity of
the condensed water is more than 1.0 to take into
account dissolved solids.
p. 455 SET for Steam
Saturated steam
You may specify steam quality if the steam is
saturated. Specify the temperature and quality if
the steam is superheated or the water is subcooled.
p. 475 SOURCE
To specify... See...
Condensate
definition
A gas condensate is defined in terms of its
gravity, condensate gas ratio, and
PIPEPHASE will use the appropriate
correlations to predict its properties.
p. 456 SET for Condensate
Specific gravity
You must supply specific gravity data for
gas, liquid and water phases, even if you
do not expect them all to be present.
p. 456 SET for Condensate
Contaminants
One or more of the following gas
contaminants may also be defined:
nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or hydrogen
sulfide.
p. 456 SET for Condensate
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 319
Blackoil
Blackoil is a multiphase fluid model which predicts properties from the gas gravity, oil
gravity, and the volume of gas per unit volume of liquid.
To specify... See...
Blackoil definition
Blackoil is defined in terms of
the gravity of its oil and gas and
the Gas to Oil ratio.
PIPEPHASE will use the
appropriate correlations to
predict its properties.
p. 457 SET for Blackoil
Specific gravity
You must supply specific
gravity data for gas, liquid, and
water phases, even if you do not
expect them all to be present.
p. 457 SET for Blackoil
Viscosity
You may optionally enter liquid
viscosity data in the form of a
Tabular viscosity curve.
p. 457 SET for Blackoil
Contaminants
One or more of the following
gas contaminants may also be
defined: nitrogen, carbon
dioxide, or hydrogen sulfide.
p. 457 SET for Blackoil
Adjustment of
Properties
You may adjust the properties
that PIPEPHASE calculates
from its builtin correlations so
that they more closely fit
measured laboratory data.
p. 458 ADJUST (Blackoil only)
Lift gas definition
When you have a GLVALVE in
the simulation, you need to
define the lift gas in terms of
Gravity and (optionally)
contaminants.
p. 459 LIFTGAS (Blackoil only)
Tabular data
If laboratory data are available,
you may input them and
override the PIPEPHASE
internally generated data. If you
use tabular data, you must input
all data: Formation Volume
Factor, Solution Gas Oil Ratio,
Live Viscosity, and Gravity.
p. 459 TABULAR (Blackoil only)
p. 460 FVF (Blackoil only)
p. 461 SGOR() (Blackoil only)
p. 461 VISCOSITY() (Blackoil only)
p. 461 GRAVITY() (Blackoil only)
Gas Zfactor
The method that PIPEPHASE
uses to predict a non
compositional compressibility
factor may be defined.
p. 462 CORRELATION
Viscosity method
You may define the method that
PIPEPHASE uses to predict
viscosities and blending rules.
p. 462 CORRELATION
320 Using PIPEPHASE
Defining Properties for Mixed Compositional/NonCompositional
Fluids
PIPEPHASE offers the user the ability to define blackoil models that combine data from:
• Sources that are in the standard blackoil format (see description of blackoil inputs),
with
• Sources that are in the standard compositional format (see description of composi
tional inputs).
PIPEPHASE treats the combined fluid model as a blackoil model; flash calculations are
used to define the appropriate blackoil properties for the compositional sources. The
inputs to the compositional blackoil model are thus a combination of the inputs to
separate compositional and blackoil models.
Generating and Using Tables of Properties
For large scale compositional or blackoil simulations, a table of fluid properties can be
built and used. This will reduce the computation time by phase separation calculations
during the solution procedure. This method is applicable if all the sources in the network
have the same composition or Blackoil properties.
Formation volume
factor and solution
gas oil ratio
methods
You may define the methods
that PIPEPHASE uses to
calculate formation volume
factor and solution gas oil ratio.
p. 462 CORRELATION
To... See...
Build and use a
table
You can have PIPEPHASE build the
table and use it in the same run.
p. 466 GENERATE (for Blackoil)
Retrieve a table
Alternatively, you can have
PIPEPHASE build the table, store it in
a file, and then use it in a subsequent
run. PIPEPHASE will not build a
table for use in the same run while
also storing it for a subsequent run.
p. 420 CALCULATION
p. 466 GENERATE (for Blackoil)
p. 470 FILE
To specify... See...
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 321
Sources
A source is a point at which fluid enters the piping system. You define a source by
supplying parameters such as composition, temperature, pressure, and flowrate. You can
have more than one source in a network.
Compositional Sources
NonCompositional Sources
To specify... See...
Defined
components
You must define the total flowrate and
composition of the source stream. Components
can be either from the PIPEPHASE component
library or defined as pseudocomponents.
p. 475 SOURCE
Assay data
A source fluid may be defined by an assay
curve. You can combine library components
and/or petroleum pseudocomponents with an
assay curve by supplying a lightend analysis.
p. 475 SOURCE
p. 483 LIGHTENDS
Viscosity data
To override the internally generated fluid
viscosity data, you may specify a viscosity
curve in the PVT data section.
p. 454 PVT
Similar sources
To reduce redundant data entry, you may refer
to a predefined source. Parameters may be
specified to override the parameters that are
different.
p. 475 SOURCE
To specify... See...
Steam sources
You must define the pressure and quality of a
saturated steam source. The temperature must
be specified only if the steam is superheated
(Quality=100%) or subcooled (Quality=0%).
p. 475 SOURCE
Gas, liquid,
blackoil or
condensate sources
One or more sets of fluid property data are
defined in the PVT data section. You must
assign a unique set number to each data set.
Each source must be referred to the appropriate
data set number.
p. 475 SOURCE
p. 454 PVT
Well Inflow
Performance
You may specify the IPR of a well source for a
single link with gas, liquid, blackoil or
condensate. You may enter values for the Vogel
and Productivity Index parameters. You may
also supply well test data.Well test data
p. 475 SOURCE
p. 480 WTEST
Similar sources
If one source is the same as or similar to
another, you may refer it to the other source.
PIPEPHASE will copy all the data from one
source to the other. You may then override the
parameters that are different.
p. 475 SOURCE
322 Using PIPEPHASE
Structure of Network Systems
Flow devices such as pipes, fittings, and other process equipment are connected together
in a Link. Each Link starts at a Node (a Source or a Junction) and ends at another Node (a
Junction or a Sink).
PIPEPHASE can calculate either simple or complex network problems. A simple
network problem, e.g. a single link, is defined as a series of pipes, fittings, and process
equipment that has one source, one sink, and no junctions. A more complex network
may have one or more sources and one or more sinks. See Chapter 2, Overview, for
terminology and examples of single links and networks.
PIPEPHASE calculates the flowrates and pressure drops. In a network configuration,
you must either define these parameters or provide an estimate at each node.
Controlling Convergence of Networks (PBAL)
A system of nonlinear equations based on Kirchoff’s laws represents the network
problem. A Newton like technique is applied iteratively, until the solution converges to a
specified tolerance. If the solution diverges (in sensitive networks), user specified
damping factors and constraints may be set to stabilize the convergence path.
To specify... See...
Network solution
algorithm
There are two solution algorithms available for
Networks. For the vast majority of networks, you
would use the default PBAL method. If your
fluid is a singlephase liquid or gas, you may find
that the MBAL method gives a faster solution.
p. 440 SOLUTION
To specify... See...
Automatic
generation of
initial estimates
PBAL has a choice of methods.
By default, PBAL generates flowrate estimates by
considering the diameters of the first pipe in each
link. An alternative method uses the frictional
resistances of the pipes in each link. A third
method solves the first iteration with MBAL
before going into PBAL.
Finally, if you have solved this network before
and just changed some of the conditions, you may
instruct the program to use your previous solution
as its initial estimate.
p. 440 SOLUTION
Usersupplied
initial estimates
You may also provide individual estimates for
junction pressures and link flowrates.
p. 488 JUNCTION
p. 489 LINK
Maximum and
minimum flows
For any link, you may specify the maximum and
minimum flows that are to be allowed.
p. 489 LINK
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 323
Networks
A network generally has more than one link and one or more junctions. The variables are
the pressure and flowrate at each source and sink. You specify the values of the variables
that are known, and PIPEPHASE will calculate the unknowns. In order not to under or
overspecify the system, simple rules must be followed in constructing the problem:
• You must specify a number of knowns equal to the total number of sources and
sinks.
Controlling
convergence
In some difficult networks, convergence of the
base case can be improved by adjusting various
convergence parameters: for example, damping,
relaxation, internal tolerances, etc. Refer to
Chapter 6, Technical Reference, for details.
p. 440 SOLUTION
Direction of flow
If you know the flow direction in all links, you
can specify that PIPEPHASE not try to reverse
them from iteration to iteration.
p. 440 SOLUTION
Solution tolerance
The network calculation converges when the error
is within a given tolerance. You may optionally
change this tolerance.
p. 444 TOLERANCE
Calculation time
If PIPEPHASE does not converge within a certain
number of iterations, it will stop and report the
results of the last iteration. You may reduce or
increase the maximum number of iterations. To
reduce calculation time in large compositional
runs, you may control the number of fluid
property evaluations that are performed in each
link for the PBAL initialization procedure.
p. 440 SOLUTION
Closed loops
If the flows inadvertently form closed flow paths
at any iteration, PIPEPHASE will repair these and
optionally take remedial action.
p. 440 SOLUTION
Pipe segments
Pipes, tubing, and annuli are divided into
segments for pressure drop and heat transfer
calculations. You can change either the number of
segments or the length of segments for greater
calculational accuracy.
p. 426 SEGMENT
Check valves
You may allow regulators (unidirectional check
valves) to pass a small backward flow.
p. 440 SOLUTION
Critical flow in
chokes
Critical flow in chokes can cause difficulties for
convergence algorithms. To help PIPEPHASE
solve such networks, you can choose from three
options.
p. 440 SOLUTION
Wells
You can prevent well flows from falling below
the minimum required to transport fluid in a two
phase system.
p. 440 SOLUTION
To specify... See...
324 Using PIPEPHASE
• You must specify at least one pressure.
• If any source or sink flowrate is an unknown, you must supply an estimate.
• If you do not know a pressure at a source, sink, or junction, you do not need to sup
ply an estimate. You may specify estimates to speed up convergence.
PIPEPHASE Flow and Equipment Devices
A piping system is made up of links which join sources, sinks, and junctions. Each link
consists of a series of flow devices: pipes, fittings, and process equipment and unit
operations.
Sources and sinks must be named. The location and the direction of flow of each link are
implied by the FROM and TO keywords on the LINK statement.
The statements describing the devices in the link must follow the LINK statement and be
in the order in which the devices appear in the link.
Flow Devices (have length)
Descriptions of the flow devices available in PIPEPHASE are as follows:
To specify... See...
Sources and
sinks
You must have at least one source and at least
one sink.
p. 475 SOURCE
p. 487 SINK
Junctions
You must have a junction at the point where
two or more links meet. If your network is
complex, you may help the convergence by
supplying estimates for the junction pressures.
p. 488 JUNCTION
Links
You must supply a unique name for each link. If
your network is complex, you may speed up the
solution by supplying estimates for flowrates
through each link.
p. 489 LINK
Steam networks
PIPEPHASE can model preferential splitting at
Tee junctions in pure distribution networks.
These junctions can have only two outgoing
and one incoming link.
p. 488 JUNCTION
Subnetworks
PIPEPHASE has a number of devices that
invoke a special algorithm. You may specify
the inlet conditions; PIPEPHASE breaks the
flowsheet at the inlet and solves the resulting
subnetworks simultaneously so that the
pressures match.
p. 4103 MCOMPRESS
p. 4127 MCHOKE
p. 4128 MREGULATOR
Pipe
Horizontal, vertical or inclined. May be surrounded by air, water, or soil; insulated
or bare.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 325
Equipment Devices (have no length)
Descriptions of the completion, fitting, process, and unit operation equipment devices
available in PIPEPHASE are as follows:
Fittings
Process Equipment
Annulus
Well annulus. Heat loss is simulated using an overall heat transfer coefficient and
geothermal gradient.
Tubing
Well tubing. Heat loss is simulated using an overall heat transfer coefficient and
geothermal gradient.
Inflow
Performance
Relationship
Models the relationship between flowrate and reservoir pressure drawdown or
pressure drop at the sand face in a well.
Completion
Bottomhole completion, the interface between the reservoir and a well. There are
two types of completion: gravelpacked and openperforated.
Bend
A standard mitred bend or nonstandard bend with defined angle and radius.
Check valve
Device that allows flow in only one direction.
Choke valve
Restricts fluid flow. MCHOKE, a variant of CHOKE, introduces a discontinuity
into a network which is solved using a special subnetworking method.
PIPEPHASE calculates the choke size.
Contraction
Reduction in diameter from larger to smaller pipe. Variable angle.
Entrance
Entrance into a pipe from a larger volume such as a vessel.
Exit
Exit from a pipe to a larger volume such as a vessel.
Expansion
Increase in diameter from smaller to larger pipe. Variable angle.
Nozzle
Flow restriction used in metering.
Orifice
Orifice meter. Orifice plate can use thick or thin calculation formula.
Tee
Tee piece. Flow may be straight on or through the branch.
Valve
Any type of valve, e.g., gate, globe, angle, ball, butterfly, plug, cock.
Venturimeter
Venturi flow meter.
Compressor
Simple single or multispeed gas compressor.
Multistage
Compressor
Rigorous single or multistage gas compressor with optional inlet pressure
calculation. Uses a special subnetworking method. PIPEPHASE calculates the
required horse power.
Cooler
Removes heat from a stream.
DPDT
Any device that changes pressure and/or temperature with flowrate.
Expander
Steam expander.
326 Using PIPEPHASE
Unit Operations
Flow Device Sizing
In a single link system, PIPEPHASE can calculate the sizes of pipes and tubings to meet
either a pressure drop or a maximum velocity criterion.
With a fixed source pressure and fixed sink pressure, PIPEPHASE sizes all these devices
to the same diameter.
With a fixed source or sink pressure and maximum velocity, PIPEPHASE sizes each
device separately.
Gaslift Valve
Well gaslift valve.
Heater
Adds heat to a stream.
Injection
Reintroduces a stream from a compositional separator back into a link.
Pump
Single or multispeed liquid pump. An electric submersible pump may be
modeled.
Regulator
Means of fixing maximum pressure at any point in the structure.
MREGULATOR, a variant of REGULATOR, introduces a discontinuity into a
network which is solved using a special subnetworking method.
Separator
Splits some or all of one of the fluid phases from a link.
Hydrates
Predicts the temperature/pressure regime under which hydrates are prone to
form.
Calculator
A utility that allows you to compute results from flowsheet or network
parameters. These results can then be used as optimizer constraints or objective
parameters.
To specify... See...
Pipe sizing
You may ask for all flow devices to be sized or just
selected ones.
p. 4150 DEVICE
p. 4150 LINE
You may supply a set of maximum velocities and a
corresponding set of diameters or slip densities.
p. 4151 MAXV
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 327
Pressure Drop Calculations
PIPEPHASE calculates pressure drops for pipes, annuli and tubing. There are many
methods for calculating pressure drops. You can define one method globally for use
throughout the simulation, or you can use different methods in different pipes. Refer to
the discussions SinglePhase Methods, p. A2 and TwoPhase and Compositional
Methods, p. A2, for a survey of the pressure drop calculation methods available in
PIPEPHASE.
The following table lists recommended pressure drop methods for singlephase flow in
pipes with noncompositional fluids
The following table lists the pressure drop methods recommended for multiphase flow in
horizontal and inclined pipes. A legend and comments are located below the table.
To specify... See...
Pressure drop
method
Choose a method that is appropriate to the type
of fluid and piping topology you have. If you
do not choose a method, PIPEPHASE will use
Beggs & BrillMoody for compositional,
blackoil, condensate, or steam and Moody for
noncompositional fluids.
p. 421 FCODE
You may choose a different method for an
individual device.
If you do not choose a method for a device,
PIPEPHASE will use the method you selected
globally.
p. 492 PIPE
p. 494 ANNULUS
p. 495 TUBING
p. 421 FCODE
Table 34: Pressure Drop Methods for SinglePhase Flow (NonCompositional Fluids)
Liquid Gas
Moody
HazenWilliams
Moody
Panhandle Bf
Weymouth
American Gas Association
Table 35: Applicability of Multiphase Flow Correlations
Methods
5
Horizontal
and
inclines <
10
o
Upward
incline
10
o
<a<70
o
Downward
Incline
10
o
<a<70
o
Vertical
Upward
90
o
and >
70
o
Vertical
Downward
90
o
and
> 70
o
Beggs & Brill 4 4 4 4 4
Beggs & Brill  Moody
1
4 4 4 4 4
Beggs & Brill  No slip 8 8 8 8 4
Beggs & Brill  MoodyEaton
3
8 8 8 8 8
Beggs & Brill  MoodyDukler
3
8 8 8 8 8
Beggs & Brill  MoodyHagedorn &
Brown
8 8 8 8 8
Mukherjee & Brill
2
8 4 4 8 8
Mukherjee & BrillEaton
3
8 8 8 8 8
Ansari 8 8 8 4 8
328 Using PIPEPHASE
1. In general, this method is recommended because it performs reasonably well for the widest range of flow conditions.
2. This method is recommended for pipelines with low liquid holdup in hilly terrain.
3. These nonstandard hybrid models should be used only after matching measured data.
4. These models are available as addons through your SimSci representative
5. All these correlations were developed for circular flow crosssection. These correlations are used for Annulus flow using the wetted
perimeterhydraulic radius concept in place of the radius of the circular cross section.
Pressure Drop in Flow Devices
The pressure drop in a flow device (Pipe, Tubing or Annulus) of length L consists of
three components: friction, elevation, and acceleration.
In general, the frictional pressure gradient may be expressed as:
(31)
where:
p = fluid density
q = volumetric flux
d = equivalent diameter (actual diameter in the case of pipes and tubing)
Orkiszewski 8 8 8 4 8
Duns & Ros 8 8 8 4 8
Hagedorn & Brown 8 8 8 4 8
Hagedorn & Brown  Beggs & Brill 8 8 8 8 8
Aziz 8 8 8 4 8
Gray (not applicable for
Compositional)
8 8 8 4 8
Gray  Moody (not applicable for
Compositional)
8 8 8 4 8
Angel  Welchon  Ross 8 8 8 8 4
Eaton 4 8 8 8 8
EatonFlannigan 4 4 4 8 8
Dukler 4 8 8 8 8
DuklerFlannigan 4 4 4 8 8
Lockhart & Martinelli 4 4 8 8 8
DuklerEatonFlannigan 4 4 4 8 8
Olimens 4 4 8 8 8
OLGA
4
4 4 4 4 4
TACITE
4
4 4 4 4 4
Legend 4 Correlation recommended for the application
8 Correlation allowed, but not recommended for the application
Table 35: Applicability of Multiphase Flow Correlations (cont.)
Methods
5
Horizontal
and
inclines <
10
o
Upward
incline
10
o
<a<70
o
Downward
Incline
10
o
<a<70
o
Vertical
Upward
90
o
and >
70
o
Vertical
Downward
90
o
and
> 70
o
dP
dL

\ .
 
f
fpq
2
d
5
 ·
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 329
The friction factor, f, is inversely proportional to the Reynolds number for laminar flow.
For turbulent flow, f is a nonlinear function of the Reynolds number and the pipe
roughness.
In general, the elevation pressure gradient may be expressed as:
(32)
where:
p = fluid density
O = inclination angle
The acceleration pressure gradient is generally small, except when the fluid is
compressible, and the velocity and velocity gradients in the pipe are high. In general, the
acceleration pressure gradient may be expressed as:
(33)
where:
p = fluid density
v = fluid velocity
To specify... See...
Inside diameter
and roughness
If the majority of your flow devices have the
same inside diameter, you can specify a
global inside diameter at the start of the
simulation. Then you can override this value
for those devices which do not conform to
the default. Roughness can be specified also
as a global parameter or for each device.
p. 424 DEFAULT
p. 492 PIPE
p. 494 ANNULUS
p. 495 TUBING
Inclined pipes
You can specify an elevation change or
depth for each device If the elevation
change equals the length, the device is
vertical. If you do not specify an elevation
change, PIPEPHASE assumes that pipes are
horizontal and that annuli and tubings are
vertical.
p. 492 PIPE
p. 494 ANNULUS
p. 495 TUBING
Acceleration
terms
You may instruct PIPEPHASE to ignore the
acceleration term in pressure drop
calculations, if desired.
p. 420 CALCULATION
dP
dL

\ .
 
e
p O ( ) sin ·
dP
dL

\ .
 
a
pv
dv
dx
 ·
330 Using PIPEPHASE
Nominal Diameter and Pipe Schedule
As an alternative to entering a pipe (or tubing) inside diameter, you can specify a
nominal diameter and a schedule. PIPEPHASE has an internal database of standard
nominal pipe sizes and pipe schedules; the allowed combinations of nominal diameter
and schedule in this database are detailed in Table 36. You may supply your own
database which PIPEPHASE will use instead of its own.
To specify
nominal
diameter and
schedule for...
See...
All devices as a
global value
You may supply a nominal diameter and schedule
that will be used for all the fittings in this table,
unless overridden by data in the input to the fitting
itself.
p. 424 DEFAULT
Your pipes and
fittings
You may create a database of nominal diameters
and pipe schedules and have PIPEPHASE use it
instead of its own internal database
p. 424 DEFAULT
Pipe
You may supply a nominal diameter and schedule. p. 492 PIPE
Tubing
You may supply a nominal diameter and schedule. p. 495 TUBING
Bend
You may supply a nominal diameter and schedule. p. 4124 BEND
Entrance
You may supply a nominal diameter and schedule
for the downstream pipe.
p. 4129 ENTRANCE
Exit
You may supply a nominal diameter and schedule
for the upstream pipe.
p. 4130 EXIT
Nozzle
You may supply a nominal diameter and schedule
for the upstream pipe.
p. 4132 NOZZLE
Orifice
You may supply a nominal diameter and schedule
for the upstream pipe.
p. 4133 ORIFICE
Tee
You may supply a nominal diameter and schedule
for the upstream pipe.
p. 4133 TEE
Valve
You may supply a nominal diameter and schedule
for the upstream pipe.
p. 4134 VALVE
Venturi
You may supply a nominal diameter and schedule
for the upstream pipe.
p. 4136 VENTURIMETER
Contraction
You may supply a nominal diameter and schedule
for the inlet and outlet pipes.
p. 4128 CONTRACTION
Expansion
You may supply a nominal diameter and schedule
for the inlet and outlet pipes.
p. 4131 EXPANSION
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 331
Pressure Drop in Completions
Bottomhole completion describes the interface between a reservoir and a well. There are
two types of completion: gravel packed and open perforated. The pressure drop through
a completion is calculated from permeability and other data you input.
PIPEPHASE uses the Jones model for gravelpacked completion and the McCleod
model for openperforated completions. For further information about these models,
please refer to Chapter 5, Technical Reference.
Table 36: Allowable Pipe Nominal Diameters and Schedules
Nominal Diameter
(Inches) Valid Pipe Schedule Numbers
0.125 40 80
0.250 40 80
0.375 40 80
0.5 40 80 160
0.75 40 80 160
1.00 40 80 160
1.25 40 80 160
1.5 40 80 160
2.0 40 80 160
2.5 40 80 160
3.0 40 80 160
3.5 40 80
4.0 40 80 120 160
4.5 40
5.0 40 80 120 160
6.0 40 80 120 160
8.0 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
10.0 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
12.0 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
14.0 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
16.0 10 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
18.0 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
20.0 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
24.0 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
30.0 10 20 30
332 Using PIPEPHASE
Figure 31: Jones Model
Figure 32: McLeod Model
Pressure Drop in Fittings
The general form of the pressure drop equation is:
(34)
To specify... See...
Completion You may define a completion as being gravel
packed (Jones) or open perforated (McLeod).
p. 4101 COMPLETION
Dual
Completion
You may model dual completions, both
concentric and parallel.
p. 498 Dual Completions
AP
KG
2
u
2gp
 =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 333
where:
AP = pressure drop across the fitting
K = resistance coefficient/ Kfactor
G = mass velocity (mass flowrate/flow area)
u = twophase pressure drop multiplier
g = acceleration due to gravity
p = fluid density (equal to liquid density for twophase flows)
To specify... See...
Bend, tee,
valve
PIPEPHASE uses the generalized pressure drop
equation with a resistance coefficient. For bends,
tees, and valves, you can either supply the
resistance coefficient directly or supply an
equivalent length and have PIPEPHASE calculate
the resistance coefficient as a function of the
friction factor.
p. 4124 BEND
p. 4133 TEE
p. 4134 VALVE
Entrance, exit
For entrances and exits you can supply the
resistance coefficient or use the default value.
p. 4129 ENTRANCE
p. 4130 EXIT
Contraction,
expansion,
nozzle,
orifice,
Venturi
For contractions, expansions, nozzles, orifices, and
Venturimeters, you can supply the resistance
coefficient or use the value that PIPEPHASE
calculates from its builtin correlations. These
correlations relate the resistance coefficient to the
Reynolds number and specific fitting parameters
such as orifice diameter, Venturi throat diameter,
contraction and expansion angles, and nozzle
diameter. For gas flow in nozzles, orifices, and
Venturimeters, the specific heat ratio is also used in
the calculation of the resistance coefficient.
p. 4132 NOZZLE
p. 4131 EXPANSION
p. 4136 VENTURIMETER
p. 4128 CONTRACTION
p. 4133 ORIFICE
Choke
The pressure drop for a choke is calculated by the
orifice method for a singlephase fluid or by the
various choke models for a twophase fluid. You
can supply a discharge coefficient or use the default
value. MCHOKE, a variant of CHOKE which
introduces a discontinuity into a network, uses the
Fortunati model only.
p. 4125 CHOKE
p. 4127 Besides the fluid
type, a more general approach
for choosing choke models in a
network system are:
Check valve
A valve that permits flow in one direction only. You
can supply a resistance coefficient or use the default
value.
p. 4125 CHECK
334 Using PIPEPHASE
Equipment Items
PIPEPHASE simulates the change in fluid conditions across items of process equipment
that typically appears in pipeline systems.
Twophase
correction in
fittings
The pressure drops for fittings are corrected for
twophase flow by using either the Homogeneous
flow model or the Chisholm model. If you do not
make a selection, PIPEPHASE will use the default
method. You may supply values for the Chisholm
parameters.
p. 4124 BEND
p. 4130 EXIT
p. 4129 ENTRANCE
p. 4134 VALVE
p. 4133 TEE
p. 4128 CONTRACTION
p. 4131 EXPANSION
p. 4132 NOZZLE
p. 4133 ORIFICE
p. 4136 VENTURIMETER
To specify... See...
Compressor
A compressor imparts work to a gas. You supply
either a known power or a known outlet pressure, and
PIPEPHASE calculates the unknown parameter. You
may impose a maximum value on the unknown
parameter, and PIPEPHASE will constrain the
calculations according to whichever parameter is
limiting. Alternatively, you can supply a curve of
flowrate against head. You may also supply an
adiabatic efficiency as either a constant or a curve
against head. The exit temperature is then determined
by energy balance. If you specify more than one
stage, PIPEPHASE interprets the curve to be for each
stage; any maximum power you specify is over all of
the stages rather than for each individual stage. You
can also reference the compressor curve to a
previously defined performance curve.
p. 4102 COMPRESSOR
Multispeed
Compressor
You can specify different compressor curves for up to
five compressor speeds.
p. 4102 COMPRESSOR
Multistage
Compressor
In a multistage compressor you may specify different
parameters curves, efficiencies, etc. for different
stages. You may have multiple compressor trains,
each train with multiple stages. You may have
interstage scrubbers with downstream reinjection and
interstage coolers and piping losses. You may specify
the compressors inlet pressure. When you do this,
PIPEPHASE invokes a special algorithm which
breaks the flowsheet at the compressor inlet, and
solves the resulting subnetworks so that the pressures
match at the interface. PIPEPHASE calculates the
compressor power that is required for the pressures to
match.
p. 4103 MCOMPRESS
To specify... See...
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 335
Cooler
The cooler removes heat from the system. You supply
either a known exit temperature or known duty of the
unit, and PIPEPHASE will calculate the unknown
parameter. You may impose a maximum (for duty) or
minimum (for temperature) value on the unknown
parameter, and PIPEPHASE will constrain
calculations according to whichever parameter is
limiting. (Pressure drop as a function of flowrate can
be modeled.)
p. 4105 COOLER
Steam
expander
The expander models the expansion of steam from a
high pressure to a low pressure. You may specify the
power required, or the pressure drop or the pressure
ratio. If the unit is in a spur link, you may
alternatively specify the outlet pressure.
p. 4106 EXPANDER
Gaslift valve
This unit simulates the presence of a gaslift valve as
part of a well link. You must define the properties of
the lift gas in the PVT data section.
p. 4107 GLVALVE
p. 459 LIFTGAS
(Blackoil only)
General
purpose DP
and DT unit
The DPDT unit is a general purpose unit for defining
a pressure and/or temperature difference at a point in
the piping structure. You can use this unit to model
any equipment device where the pressure difference
and temperature difference characteristics can be
represented as curves against flowrate. You may also
specify the flow versus pressure drop equation for the
curve.
p. 4105 DPDT
Heater
The heater adds heat to the system. You supply either
a known exit temperature or known duty of the unit,
and PIPEPHASE will calculate the unknown. You
may impose a maximum value on the unknown
parameter, and PIPEPHASE will constrain the
calculations according to whichever parameter is
limiting. (Pressure drop as a function of flowrate can
be modeled.)
p. 4107 HEATER
Injection
The injection introduces a stream into a link. The
stream comes from a separator (see the entry below).
You may fix the pressure and temperature of the
injected stream.
p. 4108 INJECTION
To specify... See...
336 Using PIPEPHASE
Pump
A pump imparts work to a liquid. You supply either a
known power or a known outlet pressure, and
PIPEPHASE calculates the unknown. You may
impose a maximum value on the unknown parameter,
and PIPEPHASE will constrain the calculations
according to whichever parameter is limiting.
Alternatively, you can supply a curve of flowrate
against head. You may also supply an efficiency as a
constant or as a curve against head. The exit
temperature is determined by energy balance.If you
specify more than one stage, PIPEPHASE interprets
the curve to be for each stage; any maximum power
you specify is over all of the stages rather than for
each individual stage. You can also reference the
pump curve to a previously defined performance
curve.
p. 4119 PUMP
Multispeed
pump
You can specify different pump curves for up to five
pump speeds.
p. 4119 PUMP
Electric
submersible
pump
An extension of the PUMP item allows you to model
an electric submersible pump. In addition to all the
features mentioned above, you may supply motor
horsepower as a curve, either in tabular form or as
coefficients of an equation. You may specify auxiliary
power to be supplied to the pump. You may specify
head degradation as a function of gas ingestion
percentage, plus minimum submergence, casing head
pressure, and vertical pressure gradient in the casing
tubing annulus due to the gas column. Refer also to
Separator, below. You can also reference the electric
submersible pump curve to a previously defined
performance curve.
p. 4119 PUMP
Regulator
The regulator is used to set the maximum pressure at
some point in the pipeline structure. It allows flow in
only one direction and can be used to prevent flow
reversal within a selected link in a network.
p. 4121 REGULATOR
Subnetwork
regulator
You may specify the inlet pressure of this item. When
you do this, PIPEPHASE invokes a special algorithm
which breaks the flowsheet at the inlet and solves the
resulting subnetworks so that the pressures match at
the interface. You may also specify the flowrate
through the regulator.
p. 4128 MREGULATOR
To specify... See...
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 337
Heat Transfer Calculations
PIPEPHASE performs an energy balance on pipes, tubing, and annuli. The heat transfer
depends on the fluid temperature, properties, and flowrate, the temperature and
properties of the surrounding medium, and the heat transfer coefficient between the fluid
and the medium. PIPEPHASE does not model heat transfer to the surroundings for
fittings and equipment devices.
The general equation for heat transfer from a flow device is:
(35)
where:
Q = rate of heat transfer per unit length
U = overall heat transfer coefficient
Separator
The separator splits out all or part of the gas or liquid
phase of a multiphase fluid. In the case of a
hydrocarbon system with water, you can select the
hydrocarbon or aqueous phase instead of the total
liquid phase. You specify the amount separated as an
absolute flowrate or as a percentage of the phase. You
can separate more than one phase in one separator.
You can then reinject the separated streams at points
downstream in the link using the Injector. You cannot
impose a pressure drop on the separator.
p. 4122 SEPARATOR
Bottomhole
separator
If a separator is positioned at the bottomhole below an
electric submersible pump, you may either specify
gas injection percentage or supply pump dimensions
and have PIPEPHASE calculate it.
p. 4122 SEPARATOR
Hydrates
Hydrates are solid mixtures of water and other small
molecules. Under certain process conditions,
particularly in the gas processing industry, hydrate
formation may clog lines and foul process equipment.
The HYDRATE unit operation predicts the pressure
and temperature regime in which the process is
vulnerable to hydrate formation. Calculations
performed assume the presence of free water for
hydrates to form. Possible hydrate formers include:
methane through isobutane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen
sulfide, nitrogen, ethylene, propylene, argon, krypton,
xenon, cyclopropane, and sulfur hexafluoride. The
effect of sodium chloride, methanol, ethylene glycol,
diethylene glycol, and triethylene glycol hydrate
inhibitors can also be studied.
p. 4144 HYDRATES
To specify... See...
Q UAAT =
338 Using PIPEPHASE
A = surface area per unit length
AT= temperature difference between bulk fluid and outside medium
The overall heat transfer coefficient either is input or may be calculated from the
constituent film coefficients and geometries.
For annuli, you must specify an overall heat transfer coefficient.
For a pipe or tubing, you may supply an overall coefficient or you may request detailed
heat transfer calculations. Detailed heat transfer calculations are invoked when you input
any one of the parameters required to carry out the calculations.
Detailed Heat Transfer in Pipe and Tubing
For a pipe surrounded by soil, water, or air, you define the medium properties (and
velocity of water or air). For a buried pipe, you enter the buried depth.
For tubing you enter data that describe the properties of the annuli and casings between
the outside of the tubing and the inside of the hole.
To specify... See...
Pipe and tubing
You may specify an overall coefficient or the
properties of the surrounding medium. You also
supply the ambient temperature or geothermal
gradient. For piping only, you can supply these values
globally for all devices or for individual devices.
p. 424 DEFAULT
p. 492 PIPE
p. 495 TUBING
Annuli
You specify the overall heat transfer coefficient and
the geothermal gradient. You can supply these values
globally for all devices or for individual devices.
p. 424 DEFAULT
p. 494 ANNULUS
Isothermal
calculations
For noncompositional gas or liquid fluid models, you
may suppress heat transfer calculations for individual
flow devices.
p. 492 PIPE
p. 495 TUBING
p. 494 ANNULUS
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 339
Gaslift Analysis
Gaslift analysis is used to investigate the effects of lift gas on well production. Gaslift
can be used with blackoil wells where the oil production is upward through the well
tubing and the lift gas is injected downward through the well casing.
Note: If you want to simulate the effect of gaslift with a compositional fluid, use the INJECTION device.
There are four options for gaslift analysis:
1. Generate the pressure profile for a fixed oil production and lift gas rate.
2. Generate a table of oil production versus lift gas rate for fixed pressures.
3. Locate the gas injection valve to match required tubing head pressure.
4. Locate the gas injection valve to match required casing head pressure.
To specify... See...
Calculation type
You must specify that you want to do a gaslift
simulation.
p. 420 CALCULATION
Fluid Properties
You must specify the fluid properties of the
Blackoil. You must specify the fluid properties
of the lift gas.
p. 457 SET for Blackoil
p. 459 LIFTGAS (Blackoil
only)
Structure Data
You must specify the oil production data. You
must have a production string link with the
name PROD. This link will contain well and
surface devices. For Option 4, only Tubing is
allowed.
p. 475 SOURCE
p. 489 LINK
You must have an injection string link with the
name GASL. This link may contain only
annuli.
p. 489 LINK
p. 494 ANNULUS
Gaslift Data
You must input gaslift data according to the
option you have selected.
Option 1.Generate a pressure profile for a fixed
oil production and lift gas rate.
p. 4147 PCALC
Option 2.Generate a table of oil production
versus lift gas rate for fixed pressures.
p. 4148 CAPACITY
Option 3.Locate the gas injection valve to
match required tubing head pressure.
p. 4148 LOCATION
Option 4.Locate the gas injection valve to
match required casing head pressure.
p. 4148 LOCATION
340 Using PIPEPHASE
Sphering or Pigging
PIPEPHASE’s sphering calculations predict the quantity of liquid formed when a
multiphase fluid flows in a pipeline and determine the size of the liquid slug that is
pushed out when the pipe is pigged.
Sphering calculations can be carried out for single links. The launching station is at the
inlet of a pipe. You may have intermediate launching stations; a sphere is launched from
a pipe when the previous sphere(s) reach the inlet of that pipe.
Reservoirs and Inflow Performance Relationships
Using PIPEPHASE, you can examine the effect of reservoir conditions on the
performance of wells and downstream networks. You can also investigate the
implications of declining reservoir pressure and production rate and shutin wells when a
userspecified water cut or gasoil ratio is exceeded.
The Inflow Performance Relationship device models the relationship between flowrate
and reservoir pressure drawdown or pressure drop at the sand face in a well.
To specify... See...
Calculation type
You must specify that you want to do a sphering
simulation.
p. 420 CALCULATION
Fluid type
The fluid must be compositional and both gas and
liquid should be present to obtain realistic results.
p. 420 CALCULATION
Time Increments
You may override the default time step used in the
McDonaldBaker successive steadystate
calculation method.
p. 426 SEGMENT
Structure Data
You may have only PIPE devices. You identify a
pipe with a launching station by specifying a
sphere diameter on the PIPE statement. The first
launching station must be in the first pipe of the
link.
p. 492 PIPE
To specify... See...
Type of model
You may select from five standard models. You may write
your own subroutine and use it to model the inflow
performance relationship.
p. 4109 IPR
Reservoir curves
You may enter tables of reservoir pressure, cumulative
production, GasOil Ratio, CondensateGas Ratio, Water
Cut, and WaterGas ratio. These are used in Timestepping
to simulate reservoir decline with time.
p. 4109 IPR
Multiple reservoirs
and multiple wells
You can have multiple reservoirs in one network. One
reservoir can serve several wells.
p. 4109 IPR
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 341
Production Planning and TimeStepping
Production planning involves the study of the timedependent interactions between the
producing formation(s) and all of the wells, gathering lines, and surface facilities in an
oil or gas field. PIPEPHASE supplies this capability through its Timestepping feature.
Typically, the study extends from a few years to the entire producing life of the field. For
such extended periods, a quasisteady state approach provides an efficient representation
of the timedependency. Timestepping carries out a series of steadystate PIPEPHASE
simulations automatically in the same run. Each simulation represents the conditions at a
specific timestep in the operating history of the field.
Time Changes
The changes supported are similar to the Case Study.
Wells and Well Grouping
Each of the well completion zones in a gathering network produces from a specific
formation or reservoir. The decline in the reservoir pressure with time and the changes in
the characteristics of the fluid produced are a function of the total fluid volume produced
from the reservoir. For the purposes of these calculations, a well completion is associated
with a reservoir group. A reservoir group includes all of the producing zones that
contribute to its depletion.
Automatic
subsurface
networks
You may automatically create a subsurface network for a
well with multiple sources. PIPEPHASE solves these using
a finite difference solution method. This is a quicker but less
rigorous method of creating a subsurface network. Refer to
Subsurface Networks and Multiple Completion Modeling
later in this chapter for further details.
p. 4109 IPR
IPR curves
You may enter curves that correlate reservoir pressure or
cumulative production with flowing bottomhole pressure
and flowrate. These data are then regressed onto one of the
standard models.
p. 4109 IPR
Pseudopressure
formulation
For an IPR with a gas basis, you may specify a drawdown
formulation.
p. 4109 IPR
To specify... See...
Selecting times
Supply a series of times. PIPEPHASE will carry out
simulations at each of those times.
p. 4109 IPR
Downstream
network changes
At each time you may specify one or more changes to the
network or conditions downstream of the well.
p. 4109 IPR
To specify... See...
342 Using PIPEPHASE
Reservoir Depletion
The depletion of a reservoir over the life of a field is characterized by a decline in
average reservoir pressure and changing fluid composition. For most reservoirs, the gas
oil ratio increases with time; for a reservoir with an active water drive, the produced
water cut increases as the water table creeps up.
Facilities Planning
In a gathering system, changes to the operation of surface facilities directly affect the
overall production. For example, adding compression facilities to an existing gas
gathering network reduces the pressure at the upstream wells, which in turn increases the
drawdown and results in improved production from the reservoir; an increase in the
separator pressure will have the opposite effect. Timestepping enables you to simulate
changes to the facilities installation over time.
To specify... See...
Reservoir Groups
You must name the reservoir GROUP and supply depletion
data in one IPR device. Other IPR devices may access the
same reservoir depletion data by using the same GROUP
name.
p. 4109 IPR
Depletion
characteristics
Supply a curve of reservoir pressures against cumulative
production.
p. 4109 IPR
Gas and gas
condensate fields
For a gas or gas condensate field you may supply the slope
of the depletion curve as pressure decline rate per unit of
production.
p. 4109 IPR
Production decline
rates for each IPR
The production decline characteristics for individual
completion zones must be defined. Tabular data represent
the decline in the flowing well pressure as a function of the
production rate. The timedependent parameter may be
expressed in terms of reservoir pressure or cumulative
production.
p. 4109 IPR
Fluid
compositional
changes
You may enter curves for water cut, gasoil ratio (or
condensategas ratio for condensate wells), and water cut (or
watergas ratio for condensate wells) as functions of
reservoir pressure or cumulative reservoir produced volume.
p. 4109 IPR
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 343
Subsurface Networks and Multiple Completion Modeling
A Single Well
A single well can produce from one reservoir:
Figure 33: One Well, One Reservoir:
To specify... See...
A source to give the properties, flowrate, and conditions of the fluid. p. 475 SOURCE
One IPR to define the interface to the reservoir. p. 4109 IPR
One tubing from the well to the surface. p. 495 TUBING
One node to continue into the rest of the network. p. 488 JUNCTION
p. 487 SINK
To specify... See...
A source for each reservoir to give the properties, flowrates, and conditions
of the fluids.
p. 475 SOURCE
An IPR for each reservoir to define the interfaces. p. 4109 IPR
A tubing between consecutive reservoirs. p. 495 TUBING
A tubing from the last reservoir to the surface. p. 495 TUBING
A node to continue into the rest of the network. p. 488 JUNCTION
p. 487 SINK
Tubing
Ground Level
Junction or sink
Reservoir
IPR
344 Using PIPEPHASE
Figure 34: One Well, More Than One Reservoir
More Than One Well
You may have more than one well in a PIPEPHASE run. The wells may all use one
reservoir. In this case, information for the reservoir data is entered in one IPR and
accessed from other IPRs using the GROUP name.
Multiple Completions
In PIPEPHASE you may model a multiple completion rigorously:
To specify... See...
A source for each completion to give the properties, flowrates, and
conditions of the fluids.
p. 475 SOURCE
An IPR for each completion to define the interfaces. p. 4109 IPR
Tubing and junctions to form the network between completions. p. 495 TUBING
A tubing from the last completion to the surface. p. 495 TUBING
A node to continue into the rest of the network. p. 488 JUNCTION
p. 487 SINK
Tubing
Ground Level
Reservoir
Tubing
Reservoir
Junction or sink
IPR
IPR
Subsurface junction
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 345
Figure 35: Multiple IPRs
Alternatively, you may approximate these conditions by having PIPEPHASE
automatically generate a subsurface network:
Figure 36: One IPR, Automatic Multiple Completions
Case Studies
The CASE STUDY option provides the facility to perform parametric studies and to
print multiple problem solutions in a single computer run. Case studies are always
performed after the base case problem has been solved. If the base case problem cannot
be solved for any reason, then no case studies are performed. Each case study analysis is
performed based on the cumulative changes to the flowsheet up to that time.
To specify... See...
One source to give the properties, flowrates and conditions of the fluids. p. 475 SOURCE
One IPR with physical dimensions such as length, inclination. p. 4109 IPR
A tubing from the IPR to the surface. p. 495 TUBING
A node to continue into the rest of the network. p. 488 JUNCTION
p. 487 SINK
Reservoir
IPR1 IPR2 IPR3
Tubing
Ground Level
Junction or sink
Subsurface junctions
Reservoir
Length of well
S 1 S 2 S 3
Internally generated sources
IPR
Tubing
Ground Level
Junction or sink
346 Using PIPEPHASE
Case studies are an efficient means of obtaining solutions for multiple scenarios to a
given problem and result in large savings in both computer time and cost. For problems
requiring iterative solutions, the converged results of the last solution are used as the
starting values for the next run. This can result in large computer time savings in runs
involving large networks, where it typically takes several iterations to move from the
initial pressure estimates to the final converged solution.
There is no limit on the number of CHANGE statements per case study or on the total
number of case studies that may be in a given run. The cumulative changes up to a given
case study run may be erased and the original base case restored at any time.
Since the case studies are performed sequentially in the order you input, it is best to
make changes in an orderly manner, proceeding from high values to low values or low
values to high values, but not in a random order. This enhances convergence and
minimizes total computer time.
Global Changes
You may change one parameter in the entire problem.You may specify an old value so
that only those specified parameters with that old value will be changed. Otherwise, all
values will be changed. You may also change parameters for all devices in a link. In this
case, the old value cannot be used to limit the changes.
Individual Changes
Source, sink, and device parameters may be changed individually. You must specify a
name for each source, sink, or device where a parameter change is desired.
To... See...
Add descriptive text
You can add one line of description for each
case study.
p. 4154 DESCRIPTION
Make changes
You can change any of the parameters in
Table 36, either globally or on individual
flow elements.
p. 4154 PARAMETER
You can restore the base case at any time. p. 4154 RESTORE
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 347
Nodal Analysis
Nodal (Sensitivity) Analysis allows you to study the overall performance of wells,
pipelines and other single link systems as a function of input parameters and flowrates.
The results are summarized in tabular and graphical form. You can also study
combinations of inflow and outflow parameters using the multiple combination nodal
analysis option.
Nodal Analysis is performed on a single link.
Dividing the Link
You first divide your single link into two sections, separated by a Solution Node. The
section upstream of the Solution Node is called the Inflow section and would typically
be the tubing of a well. The section downstream of the Solution Node is called the
Outflow section and would typically be the flowline from the wellhead to a surface
separator. The Solution Node, in this case, would be the wellhead node.
If you locate the Solution Node actually at the source or the sink, then there will be only
an Outflow or Inflow section respectively.
If you do not want to vary any parameters in either the Inflow section or the Outflow
section, simply omit the INFLOW or OUTFLOW statement. Obviously, a Nodal
Analysis cannot be carried out without at least one of these statements.
Selecting Parameters and Flowrates
You then select a parameter in the Inflow section and a parameter in the Outflow section.
Typical parameters would be reservoir pressure (for Inflow) and pipe ID (for Outflow).
You may enter up to five values for each of these parameters. Each combination of
Inflow parameter value and Outflow parameter value represents an operating point of the
system. This means that there may be up to 25 operating points.
The parameters you select must have values supplied in the base case input data.
Finally, you define up to ten flowrates.
Sensitivity Results
PIPEPHASE calculates the flowrates and Solution Node pressures corresponding to
each operating point and prints them out in the form of tables and plots. The flowrates
you input must span all the flowrates at which you expect the operating points to occur.
348 Using PIPEPHASE
Grouping Parameters
As an extension to the Nodal Analysis feature, PIPEPHASE allows you to group a
number of variables into one nodal parameter. For example, you may define an Outflow
parameter as a combination of pump power, pipe ID and heater temperature. Each of the
five values of the Outflow parameter would now be a combination of the corresponding
values of each of the contributing variables.
Thus you might define that the first value of the Outflow parameter is the combination of
25KW pump power with 30 mm pipe ID and 400 K; the second 30KW, 40 mm and
310 K; the third 35KW, 50 mm and 350 K; and so on.
The following table lists the variables that are available for nodal analysis
To... See...
Add descriptive
text
You can add one line of description for each of
the Inflow and Outflow sections.
p. 4176 DESCRIPTION
Define the Solution
Node
You must define a Solution Node which comes
between the Inflow and Outflow sections. If you
want the Solution Node to be at the flowing
bottomhole of an injection well, use
BOTTOMHOLE. If you want to locate the
Solution Node at the outlet of the last device and
want to use Sink pressure as a variable
parameter, use SINK.
p. 4175 NODE
Define the
parameter(s)
You must define at least one Inflow or Outflow
parameter for PIPEPHASE to change. The
parameters that are accessible are divided into
seven categories, as defined in the table below.
If you want to define a nodal parameter as a
group of variables, you may combine up to ten
variables within one Category. You may not
combine variables in different categories.
p. 4176 INFLOW
p. 4179 OUTFLOW
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 349
Table 37: Variables Available for Nodal Analysis.
Category Device Variable
Category 1  Source
SOURCE NAME
PRESSURE
COEFFICIENT
EXP
PI
VOGEL
Category 2  Sink
SINK NAME
PRES
II
COEFF
EXP
Category 3  Devices
PIPE NAME
ID
ROUGHNESS
U
FLOWEFF
TUBING NAME
ID
ROUGHNESS
U
FLOWEFF
ANNULUS NAME
IDANN
ODTUB
ROUGHNESS
U
FLOWEFF
COMPRESSOR/
PUMP
NAME
POWER
PRESSURE
EFFICIENCY
STAGES
HEATER/COOLER NAME
DUTY
TOUT
DP
CHOKE NAME
ID
COEFFICIENT
SEPARATOR NAME
RATE
PERCENT
GLVALVE NAME
RATE
DISSOLVE
350 Using PIPEPHASE
INJECTION NAME
TEMPERATURE
PRESSURE
COMPLETION NAME
PENETRATION
PERFD
SHOTS
TUNNEL
Category 4  Non
compositional Source
Properties
GOR
WCUT
CGR
WGR
QUALITY
Category 5  Main Source
COMPOSITION
Category Device Variable
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 41
Chapter 4
Input Reference
Chapter Contents
About This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Categories of Input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Order of Categories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Keywords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Keyword Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Qualifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Commenting Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Default Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Units of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Basis of Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Multiple Units of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Continuing Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Layout of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Input Statement Descriptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
GENERAL Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Global Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
TITLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
DIMENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
CALCULATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
FCODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
DEFAULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
SEGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
LIMITS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
PRINT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
OUTDIMENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
COMPONENT Data Category of Input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
COMPONENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
42 Input Reference
LIBID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
PETROLEUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
ASSAY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
CUTPOINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
MW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
SPGR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
ACENTRIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
ZC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
TC() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
PC(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
NBP() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
STDDENSITY(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
VC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
VP() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
ENTHALPY() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
CP(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
LATENT() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
DENSITY() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
VISCOSITY(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
CONDUCTIVITY() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
SURFACE() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
NETWORK Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
NETWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
SOLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
TOLERANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
ACCELERATION (for PBAL Network Method Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
THERMODYNAMIC Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
THERMODYNAMIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
METHOD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
BWRS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
LKP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
PR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
SRK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
PVT Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
PVT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
SET. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
SET for NonCompositional Liquid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
SET for NonCompositional Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
SET for Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
SET for Compositional Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
SET for Condensate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
SET for Compositional Blackoil (Compositional sets only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
SET for Blackoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 43
ADJUST (Blackoil only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
LIFTGAS (Blackoil only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
TABULAR (Blackoil only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
FVF (Blackoil only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
SGOR() (Blackoil only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
VISCOSITY() (Blackoil only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
GRAVITY() (Blackoil only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
CORRELATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
DIMENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
GENERATE (for Compositional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
GENERATE (for Blackoil) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
FILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
FILE (for Blackoil) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
STRUCTURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
System Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
SOURCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
CSOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
WTEST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Distillation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Gravity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Molecular Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
LIGHTENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
SINK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
JUNCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
LINK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Flow Devices (have length) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
PIPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
ANNULUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
TUBING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Dual Completions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Parallel Dual Completions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Equipment Devices (have no length) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
COMPLETION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
COMPRESSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
MCOMPRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
COOLER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
DPDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
EXPANDER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
GLVALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
HEATER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
INJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
IPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
REGULATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
SEPARATOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
BEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
44 Input Reference
CHECK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
CHOKE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
MCHOKE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
MREGULATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
CONTRACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
ENTRANCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
EXIT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
EXPANSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
NOZZLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
ORIFICE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
TEE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
VALVE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
VENTURIMETER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
UNIT OPERATIONS Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
UNIT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
CALCULATOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
DIMENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
CONSTANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
DEFINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
RESULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
PROCEDURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
RETURN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
HYDRATES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
EVALUATE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
GASLIFT Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
GASLIFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
PCALC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
CAPACITY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
SIZING DATA Category of Input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
SIZING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
DEVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
LINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
MAXV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
TIMESTEPPING Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
TIMESTEPPING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
CHANGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
CASE STUDY Data Category of Input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
CASESTUDY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
RESTORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
PARAMETER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Sinks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 45
Junctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Tubing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Annulus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Heater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Completion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Gaslift Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Chokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Separators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Regulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Expanders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
DPDT Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
MCOMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Contraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Entrance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Orifice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Tee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
IPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Calculator Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Objective Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Constraint Variable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Decision Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
PVT Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Network Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
LINK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS Data Category of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
SENSITIVITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
NODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
INFLOW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
OUTFLOW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
FLOW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
PSPLIT Data Category of Input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
PSPLIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
TABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
UserDefined DP Correlations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
46 Input Reference
FORTRAN Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
User Subroutine Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Saving Data for Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
PIPEPHASE Flash Routine Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Moody Friction Factor Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Example 1 – Olimen’s Pressure Drop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Example 2 – Fancher and Brown Pressure Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
UserDefined Viscosity Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Implementing the Correlation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
User Subroutine Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Common Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
UserDefined IPR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Builtin Variable List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Keyword Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Subprogram Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Common Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Data Extraction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Units Conversion Utility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Calculation Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Secondary Output Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Example Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Variables and Arrays for UserDefined IPR Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Real Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Indexed Real Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Integer Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
About This Chapter
This chapter contains information about the data that PIPEPHASE needs to perform
different types of simulation. These data are input in a free format style file and the file is
divided into categories; for example, Component Data, Property Data, etc.
This chapter explains the general rules for input, which categories are mandatory and
which are optional. It defines all the terms used in the input descriptions and the
conventions used throughout this chapter.
Each data category, the statements contained in it and the keywords on each statement
are then described. For an explanation of how the program uses these data, please refer
to Chapter 3, Using PIPEPHASE, and Chapter 6, Technical Reference.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 47
Categories of Input
The data required by PIPEPHASE are input to the program in the following main
categories.
Note: For Network Data GUI, the RESET function is not supported.
Which categories are mandatory and which are optional depend on what fluid type you
have:
Table 41: Categories of Input
There are several other categories which can be selectively overridden on the flow
device and fitting statements in the Structure Data Category of input.
Order of Categories
The only restriction on order of data input is that the General Data Category must be
first. However, it is always good practice to maintain a consistent order. The order of the
categories above, which is followed in this chapter, is recommended.
General Data Category Define general problem administration and global settings that control
the whole flowsheet.
Component Data Category Define all components present in the feed streams.
Network Data Category Define calculational and network solution methods.
Thermodynamic Data Category Define the thermodynamic property methods used in the simulation.
PVT Data Category Define the properties of streams.
Structure Data Category Define the sources, junctions, sinks, flow devices, fittings and items of
process equipment in the flowsheet.
Unit Operations Category Define the unit operations (e.g., the hydrates unit) included in the
simulation.
Fluid Type Mandatory Categories Optional Categories
NonCompositional GENERAL, PVT, STRUCTURE NETWORK
Compositional GENERAL, COMPONENT,
THERMODYNAMIC, STRUCTURE
PVT, NETWORK, UNIT
OPERATIONS
Gaslift Define data and options for blackoil well gaslift analysis.
Line Sizing Determine pipe sizes in singlelink calculations.
Sensitivity (Nodal)
Analysis
Study overall performance in singlelink calculations as a function of one or two
system parameters.
Case Study Change parameters and rerun.
TimeStepping Data Allows the simulation of the effect of reservoir pressure decline with cumulative
production on the network performance, and device parameter changes with
time.
48 Input Reference
Keywords
Keyword Input
The primary mode for entering input in PIPEPHASE is in the form of keyword
controlled, free format statements. The keyword entries in a statement are separated by
commas. For example:
PIPE ID=1.25, LENGTH=25, ROUGHNESS=0.002
For ease of interpretation, each keyword is an engineering word. To make the input
easier to enter, any keyword with more than four characters can be truncated to a
minimum of four characters. Keywords with fewer than four characters may not be
lengthened. For example:
The keyword LENGTH may be written LENG.
The keyword ROUGHNESS may be written ROUGH.
The keyword ID cannot be written IDIA.
Keywords can stand alone, indicating that they are acting as a switch, or they can be
associated with a value or another keyword by the use of an equals sign (=). This value
can be entered in integer, decimal, or scientific format. For example:
In the instructions presented in this chapter, the presence of an equals sign (=) after a
keyword means that PIPEPHASE expects a value or another keyword. In some cases,
however, more than one data item is required. When this situation arises, the instructions
will include the format for the data input. For example:
Qualifiers
Many keywords can be qualified by entering a keyword in brackets (parentheses) after
them. The most common use of a qualifier is for defining a unit of measurement to
override the set of units declared globally in the General Data Category of input. Other
qualifiers include the definition of estimates, maxima and minima, fluid type and basis
of a composition or flowrate. Some qualifiers are optional and some are mandatory. You
may use more than one qualifier for a keyword and the order in which they appear is not
important.
ENGLISH English units set will be used.
LENGTH=FT Units of length are feet.
TEMP=50 Temperature set to 50 units.
PRES=2.0E2 Pressure is 200 units.
VISC= Indicates that a single value of viscosity is required.
VISC=temp1,value1 /
temp2,value2
Indicates that the program requires two data values with their associated
temperatures
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 49
The input instructions explain which qualifiers are available for each keyword.
Examples are:
Commenting Input
For clarity, you may add comments to your input. If a dollar sign ($) is placed in a
statement, any text on that statement that appears after the $ is ignored. For example:
PRES(BAR)=3.54 $Field data, taken 2315 10/16/94
Default Data
Many of the data items required by PIPEPHASE have default values assigned to them. If
you do not explicitly specify a value for an item of data, or select a calculation method,
the program will automatically assign a value or method. For example, pipe thermal
conductivity assumes a default value of 29 BTU/hrft
o
F if you do not specify a value.
Similarly, the Moody method for singlephase pressure drop calculations is chosen, by
default, as it is generally suitable for many engineering purposes.
Beware, these default selections are not neccessarily the most appropriate, or best for
your particular application. They do not substitute for engineering judgement. If an
doubt, especially for the choice of a calculation method, consult chapter 4 of the manual
for advice.
The input instructions indicate the defaults that the program will use in the absence of
user input. All the numerical defaults in the input instructions are expressed in terms of
the units of measurement of the English set.
When you specify a value or override a default in the General Data Category of input
your value becomes the default for the entire simulation. You can then override your
own default value later in the input. For example, to specify that all but one of your pipes
are surrounded by air, you would have in the General Data Category of input:
DEFAULT AIR, VELOCITY=20
You would specify most of your pipes in this way:
PIPE ID=4, LENGTH=150
For the one pipe that is buried, the PIPE statement would look like this:
PIPE SOIL, ID=5, LENGTH=100, BDTOP(FT)=1
ID(IN)=12 Inside diameter is 12 inches.
PRES(BAR,ESTI)=2 Estimated pressure is 2 bars absolute.
POWER(MAX,KW)=17 Maximum power is 17 kilowatts.
410 Input Reference
Units of Measurement
Many items of data that you input to PIPEPHASE have a unit of measurement associated
with them. Most have alternatives: for example, length can be measured in feet, meters,
miles, or kilometers and temperature in
o
F,
o
C,
o
R, or K. It is possible to specify the unit
of measurement individually for every item of data. However, to avoid having to do this,
you may define the units that are to be used for each quantity – temperature, duty, power
etc. – throughout the whole simulation input. This is done on the DIMENSION
statement in the General Data Category of input. Individual data items may be expressed
in different units by using qualifiers as described above.
For convenience, PIPEPHASE has four sets of units of measurement: Petroleum,
English, Metric and SI. Each set has predefined units for each data item. You may select
a set of units, globally override some of the predefined units and then override units for
any individual data item. In this way, you have complete input flexibility.
For example, if you wanted to use the SI predefined unit set but with pipe length in feet
and short length (e.g., for pipe diameter) in inches, your General Data Category of input
would contain the statement:
DIMENSION SI, LENGTH=FT,IN
If the inside diameter of one of your pipes is measured in millimeters, you would have in
the Structure Data Category of input:
PIPE ID(MM)=25.4
Basis of Measurements
With some quantities, for example flow and composition, you can also choose a basis of
measurement. The basis may be molar weight, liquid volume, or gas volume and you
may use a qualifier to define it. If you also specify a dimensional unit for the quantity,
the unit must be appropriate to the basis. You cannot, for example, specify pounds per
hour for a liquid volume flowrate. A valid example would be:
RATE(GV,CFM)=1.E3
where the value specified, RATE keyword and the qualifiers GV and CFM combine to
mean the gas volume rate has a value of 0.001 millions of standard cubic feet per minute.
The input instructions explain which bases are allowed. If a basis is specified but no unit
of measurement is entered, PIPEPHASE will assume the unit to be the default
appropriate to the basis which you defined.
Multiple Units of Measurement
Some input items, for example a curve of viscosity against temperature, have more than
one unit of measurement. You can specify one or both units as qualifiers:
VISC(C,CP)=100,1.0/200,0.7
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 411
The order in which the qualifiers are entered is not important.
Continuing Statements
Input statements too long to fit on one line may be continued onto a second line or
further by using an ampersand (&) or an asterisk (*) as a continuation character.
DIMENSION SI, LENGTH=FT, TEMP=C
is the same as
DIMENSION SI, LENGTH=FT, &
TEMP=C
Layout of Input
You may indent any line of input to make the data more readable and you may have any
number of spaces between data entries. For example:
DIMENSION SI, LENGTH=FT, &
TEMP=C
is equivalent to
DIMENSION SI, LENGTH = FT, &\
TEMP= C
However, you may not embed blanks in your keywords or data entries.
Input Statement Descriptions
Legend
The data categories are described in this chapter. A full listing of statements with their
associated keywords appears at the start of each data category. Each statement and
keyword is then explained in detail. The following conventions apply:
BOLD Bold capitals are used for keywords.
For example: ENGLISH
You must use this word exactly as it is printed (or truncate it to four or more characters).
A keyword with an equals sign (=) after it must be followed a value or another keyword.
UNDERLINE Default keywords are indicated by underlining.
For example: PETROLEUM
If you omit the entry or statement, the program will use this keyword as the default.
LIGHT Light capitals are used for values, methods and entries.
For example: INPUT=FULL
If you omit the keyword and entry, the program will use the default.
A number indicates a numerical default value.
For example: LAMINAR=3000
If you omit the keyword and entry, the program will use this value as the default.
Input Statement Descriptions > Legend …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
412 Input Reference
or Alternative entries are separated by the word or.
For example: {PETROLEUM or ENGLISH}
You may select only one of the options contained within curly brackets {} and separated
by the word or.
{ } Curly brackets indicate that a statement, keyword, or group of keywords is/are optional.
For example: {VELOCITY=value}
Your input is valid without this entry. A default is usually invoked if an entry is omitted.
( ) Ordinary parentheses indicate that qualifiers are allowed.
For example: ID()=
Unless otherwise noted, qualifiers are units of measurement.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 413
GENERAL Data Category of Input
Global Parameters
The GENERAL Data Category of Input defines global parameters that control the whole
flowsheet.
Table 42: GENERAL Data Category of Input
Statement Keywords See page...
TITLE {PROJECT=}, {PROBLEM=}, {USER=}, {DATE=},
{SITE=}
p. 14
{DESCRIPTION} any text p. 14
{DIMENSION} {PETROLEUM or ENGLISH or METRIC or SI},
{VELOCITY=, TEMPERATURE=, PRESSURE=,
LENGTH=, VISCOSITY=, DUTY=, POWER=, DENSITY=
or GRAVITY=, RATE(M)=, RATE(W)=, RATE(LV)=,
RATE(GV)=}
p. 14
CALCULATION NETWORK or SINGLE or GASLIFT or PVTGEN or
PVTRUN or PVTTAB, BLACKOIL or CONDENSATE or
LIQUID or GAS or STEAM or COMPOSITIONAL(),
{SPHERING, ISOTHERMAL, NOACCEL, NORUN,
PRANDTL}, MASS
p. 20
{FCODE} {PIPE=BBM or MOODY, ANNULUS=BBM or MOODY,
TUBING=BBM or MOODY, PALMER=0.924,0.685,
LAMINAR=3000}
p. 21
{DEFAULT} {WATER or AIR or SOIL, VELOCITY()=,
TAMBIENT()=80, TGRADIENT()=1.0, DENSITY()=,
VISCOSITY()=, CONDUCTIVITY()=,UPIPE()=1.0,
UANNULUS()=1.0, UTUBING()=1.0, HINSIDE()=0.0,
HOUTSIDE()=0.0, HRADIANT()=0.0, BDTOP=0,
THKPIPE()=0.3125, THKINS()=0, CONPIPE()= 29,
CONINS()=0.015, CONSOIL()=0.8, IDPIPE()= or NOMD=,
NOMR=, NOMT=, PIPSCHEDULE=DIAMDATA.DAT,
SCHEDULE=40, SCHR=40, SCHT=40, IDANNULUS()=,
IDTUBING()=, ODTUBING()=, FLOWEFF=,
ROUGHNESS()=0.0018, HWCOEFF()=150,}
p. 24
{SEGMENT} {DLHORIZ()=, or NHORIZ=1, DLVERT()=, or NVERT=1,
MAXSEGS=20, DTIME=10, AUTO=ON, FAST, PSEG=20,
TSEG=5, PTOL=0.2, HTOL=0.05, ITER=25
p. 26
{LIMITS} {TEMPERATURE(MIN)=60,
TEMPERATURE(MAX)=800, PRESSURE(MIN)=0.0,
PRESSURE(MAX)=25000}
p. 28
{PRINT} {INPUT=FULL,
DEVICE=SUMMARY, PROPERTY=NONE,
CONNECT=FULL, FLASH=FULL, SUMMARY=BOTH,
DATABASE=NONE, PLOT=NONE, MAP=NONE, ITER,
SLUG=BRILL}, SIMULATOR= PART or FULL,
OPTIMIZER=PART or FULL, MERGESUB, NODACT
p. 28
GENERAL Data Category of Input > TITLE …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
414 Input Reference
TITLE
Mandatory statement. Introduces the general category.
Optional entries:
Example:
TITLE PROJ=TEST1, PROB=FEED, USER=TECH DEPT, DATE=7/5/94
DESCRIPTION
Optional statement. Allows you to enter a description of the simulation. You can have up
to four DESCRIPTION statements. The information on these statements is printed once
at the start of the output page.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries:
Example:
DESC THIS SIMULATION IS A GASLIFT OPTIMIZATION STUDY ON
DESC WELL #321s
DIMENSION
Optional statement. Defines the units of measurement for each data item in the input.
Select a set of units and/or override individual units. If you omit this statement, units will
default to those in the ENGLISH set. Table 43 and Table 44 define the Primary and
Secondary Units of Measurement in each standard set and other permitted units that can
be used with this statement. You can also use these units for specific data items by using
qualifiers.
Mandatory entries: None
{OUTDIMENSION} {ADD or REPLACE, PETROLEUM or ENGLISH or
METRIC or SI, VELOCITY=, TEMPERATURE=,
PRESSURE=, LENGTH=, VISCOSITY=, DUTY=,
POWER=, DENSITY= or GRAVITY=, RATE(M)=,
RATE(W)=, RATE(LV)=, RATE(GV)=}
p. 31
PROJECT=
PROBLEM=
USER=
DATE=
SITE=
Use any or all of these entries for administrative information. PROJECT,
PROBLEM, USER and DATE entries appear on every page of output. The
SITE keyword is used for accounting in multisite installations. Each entry
can have up to 12 alphanumeric characters. The DATE entry can include the
/ character.
DESCRIPTION Up to four lines of text each containing up to 60 characters of text.
Table 42: GENERAL Data Category of Input (cont.)
Statement Keywords See page...
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 415
Optional entries:
Example:
DIME SI, LENGTH=KM,IN, VISC=CP, DENS=SPGR, RATE(GV)=CF
ENGLISH or
PETROLEUM or
METRIC or SI
Select only one of these sets of units.
VELOCITY=
TEMPERATURE=
PRESSURE=
LENGTH=
VISCOSITY=
DUTY=
POWER=
DENSITY= or GRAVITY=
Define the units in which you want to specify any or all of these quantities.
LENGTH has two arguments: the first is long length, for pipe lengths, pipe
elevations, etc.; the second is short length for diameters, roughness, etc.
RATE(M)=
RATE(W)=
RATE(LV)=
RATE(GV)=
Define the units in which you want to specify any or all of molar, weight,
liquid volumetric and gas volumetric flowrates. Gas Volumetric rate is
always expressed in millions of units. Thus CFD means millions of cubic
feet of gas per day.
Table 43: Primary Units of Measurement
Petroleum English Metric SI Other Permitted Units
AREA FT2 FT2 M2 M2 CM2, MI2, ACRE, KM2,
IN2
DENSITY or
GRAVITY
1
(liq.)
API API KGM3 KGM3 SPGR, LBFT3
DENSITY or
GRAVITY
1
(gas)
SPGR SPGR KGM3 KGM3 LBFT3
DUTY BTUHR BTUHR KCHR KW KJHR
LENGTH FT, IN FT, IN M, MM M, MM CM, KM, MI
POWER HP HP KW KW
PRESSURE PSIG PSIA BAR KPA PSF, ATM, ATA, PA,
KGCM, ATE
RATE(GV)
3
CFD CFHR CMHR CMHR CFS, CFM, CMD
RATE(LV) BPD CFHR CMHR CMHR CFS, CFM, CFD, CMD,
LHR, BPH, GPM
RATE(M)
2
MOLHR MOLHR MOLHR MOLHR MOLD
RATE(W) LBHR LBHR KGHR KGHR LBD, MLBHR, MLBD,
KGD, THRM, TDM
ROUGHNESS
4
IN IN MM MM CM, FT
TEMPERATURE F F C K R
VELOCITY MPH FPS KMPH MPS
VISCOSITY CP CP CP PAS KGMHR, LBFTHR, CST,
SSU, M2HR, FT2HR
GENERAL Data Category of Input > DIMENSION …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
416 Input Reference
Table 44: Secondary Units of Measurement
1 When DENSITY or GRAVITY is API, gas density is specific gravity with respect to air at 60
o
F and 1
atmosphere.
2 Molar rates are lbmoles for Petroleum and English unit sets, kgmoles for Metric and Si unit sets.
3 Units of measure for RATE(GV) are always in millions of units.
4 The default units for ROUGHNESS will change (to obey relative consistency and meaning) if the unit for short
length is modified by the user, as per the following rules:
• If the global dimension set is ENGLISH or PETROLEUM, and the short length unit is overridden to
become MI (miles), then the ROUGHNESS unit increases from IN (inches, default) to FT (feet).
• If the global dimension set is ENGLISH or PETROLEUM, and the short length unit is overridden to
become M (meters) or KM (kilometers), then the ROUGHNESS unit decreases from IN (inches, default)
to CM (centimeters).
• If the global dimension set is METRIC or SI, and the short length unit is overridden to become M
(meters) or KM (kilometers), then the ROUGHNESS unit increases from MM (millimeters, default) to
CM (centimeters).
• If the global dimension set is METRIC or SI, and the short length unit is overridden to become MI
(miles), then the ROUGHNESS unit increases from MM (millimeters, default) to FT (feet).
5 The volume can be defined using the keyword VOLUME. The units of measure are BBL for Petroleum unit
set, FT3 for English unit set, M3 for Metric and SI unit sets.
Petroleum English Metric SI Other permitted
units
Angle DEG DEG DEG DEG RAD
Condensate Gas
Ratio
BBLMMSCF BBLMMS
CF
M3MM3 M3MM
3
Gas Oil Ratio CFTBBL CFTBBL M3M3 M3M3 CFTCFT
Heat Transfer Coeff BTUFTF BTUFTF KCMC WMC BTUINF, CALCMC,
KJMC
Fetkovich IPR
COEFFICIENT
MCFD MCFD M3HB M3HK
Perforation Density FT FT M M
Permeability D D D D MD
Roughness
*
IN IN MM MM CM, FT
Solution Gas Oil
Ratio
CFTBBL CFTBBL M3M3 M3M3 CFTCFT
Specific Heat BTULBF BTULBF KCKGC KJKGC
Temperature
Gradient
F100FT F100FT C100M C100M CKM
Thermal
Conductivity
BTUFTF BTUFTF KCMC WMC BTUINF, CALCMC,
KJMC
Thermal Expansion F F C C K, R
Water Gas Ratio BBLMMSCF BBLMMS
CF
M3MM3 M3MM
3
* The default unit for ROUGHNESS changes (to obey relative consistency and meaning) if you modify the unit for short length.
If the short length unit is entered as MI (miles), the default roughness unit is FT (feet).
If the short length unit is entered as M (meters) or KM (kilometers), the default roughness unit is CM (centimeters).
Table 43: Primary Units of Measurement (cont.)
Petroleum English Metric SI Other Permitted Units
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 417
Table 45: Keywords Used to Define UOMs
UOM Description
ACRE Acre
API API gravity
ATA technical atm abs
ATE technical atm gauge
ATM atmospheres
BAR bars absolute
BBLMMSCF barrels/million ft
3
BPD barrels/day
BPDPSI barrels/day/psi
BPH barrels per hr
BTUFT2F BTU/hrft
2
°F
BTUFTF BTU/hrft°F
BTUHR millions BTU/hr
BTULBF BTU/lb°F
C
*
degrees Celsius
C
**
per degree C
C100M °C/100 meters
CFD ft
3
/day for liquid volumes, million ft
3
/day for gas volumes
CFHR ft
3
/hr for liquid volumes, million ft
3
/hr for gas volumes
CFM ft
3
/minute for liquid volumes, million ft
3
/minute for gas volumes
CFS ft
3
/second for liquid volumes, million ft
3
/sec for gas volumes
CFTBBL ft
3
/barrel
CFTCFT ft
3
/ft
3
CKM °C/kilometer
CM centimeters
CMD m
3
/day for liquid volumes, million m
3
/day for gas volumes
CMHR m
3
/hr for liquid volumes, million m
3
/day for gas volumes
CP centipoise
CST centistoke
D Darcy
DEG degrees
F
*
degrees Fahrenheit
F
**
per degree F
F100FT °F/100 ft
FPS ft/second
FT
*
feet
FT
**
number/ft
FT2HR ft
2
/hr
* Primary UOM ** Secondary UOM
GENERAL Data Category of Input > DIMENSION …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
418 Input Reference
GPM US gals/minute
HP horsepower
HR hours
IN inches
IN2 sq inches
K
*
Kelvin
K
**
per degree K
KCHR million kcals/hr
KCKGC kcals/kg°C
KCMC kcals/m
2
hr°C
KCMC kcals/mhr°C
KGCM kg/cm
2
KGD kg/day
KGHR kg/hr
KGM3 kg/m
3
KGMHR kg/mhour
KJHR million kJ/hr
KJKGC kJ/kg°C
KM kilometers
KM2 sq kilometers
KMPH km/hr
KPA kilopascals
KW kilowatts (power)
KW million kw (duty)
LBD lb/day
LBFT3 lb/ft
3
LBFTHR lb/fthr
LBHR lb/hr
LHR liters/hr
M
*
meters
M
**
number/meter
M2HR sq meters/hr
M3DBAR m
3
/day/bar
M3HB million m
3
/hrbar
2
n
M3HK million m
3
/hr/k3Pa
2n
Table 45: Keywords Used to Define UOMs (cont.)
UOM Description
* Primary UOM ** Secondary UOM
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 419
M3HRBAR m
3
/hrbar
M3M3 m
3
/m
3
M3MM3 m
3
/million m
3
MCFD 10
6
ft
3
/daypsia
2n
(for Fetkovich Coefficient), 10
3
ft
3
/day (for gas volume rate)
MD millidarcy
MFT3DPSI thousand ft
3
/daypsi
MI miles
MI2 sq miles
MIN minutes
MKGHRBAR thousand kg/hrbar
MLBD thousand lb/day
MLBHR thousand lb/hr
MLBHRPSI thousand lb/hrpsi
MM millimeters
MM2 sq millimeters
MOLD moles/day
MOLHR moles/hr
MPH miles/hr
MPS meters/second
PA Pascals
PAS Pascalseconds
PSF lb/ft
2
PSIA lb/in
2
absolute
PSIG lb/in
2
gauge
R
*
degrees Rankine
R
**
per degree R
RAD radians
SPGR specific gravity
SSU SSU viscosity
TDM metric tonnes/day
THRM metric tonnes/hr
WMC watts/m°C
WMC watts/m
2
°C
Table 45: Keywords Used to Define UOMs (cont.)
UOM Description
* Primary UOM ** Secondary UOM
GENERAL Data Category of Input > CALCULATION …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
420 Input Reference
CALCULATION
Mandatory statement. Specifies the type of calculation, the fluid type, the options for the
decision variables, constraints, specifications, and objective function, as well as general
optimization parameters.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
NETWORK or
PVTGEN
GASLIFT
Select only one of these to invoke the calculation method. Select PVTGEN if
you want to generate PVT fluid property tables for use in a subsequent run
(See also the PVT Category of Input). You can use PVTGEN with
BLACKOIL and COMPOSITIONAL fluids only. Select NETWORK to
solve basic network simulations. Select SINGLE to focus in on a single link
or for nodal analysis. Select GASLIFT to use the gaslift analysis package.
Note: The GUI will automatically select the SINGLE algorithm when required for line sizing and nodal
analysis calculations.
PVTRUN or
PVTTAB
Generate PVT tables and run a simulation using these tables. The simulation
uses compositional PVT tables as specified in the PVTFILE SETNO. Phase
envelope and hydrate predictions will not be performed using this option.
BLACKOIL or
CONDENSATE or
LIQUID or
GAS or
STEAM or
COMPOSITIONAL()
Select only one of these to describe the fluid type. BLACKOIL,
CONDENSATE, LIQUID, GAS and STEAM are noncompositional fluids.
You can define their properties in the PVT Data Category of input. Use
COMPOSITIONAL if you want to define the fluid as a mixture of
components or petroleum fractions (entered either directly or indirectly via a
distillation curve). Use the qualifier GAS or LIQ or BLACK to specify that a
compositional fluid is only gas or only liquid or only mixed compositional
blackoil models, therefore bypassing any twophase flash calculations.
SPHERING Use this keyword to invoke sphering or pigging calculations. Note that a
sphering report will be generated only if you specify DEVICE=PART, or
greater, in the print options.
ISOTHERMAL Suppress heat balances on all flow devices. You can override this on
individual flow devices. Not available with COMPOSITIONAL() fluids or
STEAM.
NOACCEL Ignore the acceleration term in pressure drop calculations.
NORUN Suppress calculations perform input checks only.
PRANDTL Invokes a rigorous Prandtl number calculation for inside and outside film
heat transfer coefficients. If you omit this keyword, a Prandtl number of 1.0
will be used.
MASS Converts standard mass based volume formulation to mass based
formulation. This option is needed when modeling separators and flow
splitting at junctions.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 421
Example:
CALC NETWORK, COMPOSITIONAL(GAS) $to specify a network comp. gas run
CALC NETWORK, COMPOSITIONAL(BLACK) $to specify a network comp. blackoil run
FCODE
Optional statement. Selects pressure drop and holdup correlations. If you omit this
statement, PIPEPHASE will use MOODY for noncompositional liquid or gas or BBM
for any other fluid.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries:
Example:
FCODE PIPE=BBM, PALMER=0.9,0.7, TUBING=HB, PALMER=1.0, 0.
PIPE=
ANNULUS=
TUBING=
Define the correlation to be used for pressure drop calculations in pipes,
annuli, and tubings. See Table 46a and Table 47 for available methods.
Default is BBM for compositional, blackoil, condensate and steam fluids and
MOODY for noncompositional liquids and gases.
PALMER=0.924,0.685
Specify global Palmer liquid holdup correction factors. Different global
Palmer data may be input for pipes, annuli, and tubings. These global data
may be overridden on individual flow devices.
The PALMER keyword must follow immediately after the PIPE,
ANNULUS, or TUBING to which the Palmer data is to be applied. The first
number is applied to uphill flow holdup correction and the second is applied
to downhill flow.
Two values must be supplied: uphill and downhill. The defaults shown apply
only to BB or BBM correlations. If you want to use the defaults, enter only
the PALMER keyword without any values. If different values are required,
supply those values with the PALMER keyword. If you are using a
correlation other than BB or BBM, you must supply values with the
PALMER keyword. If you need to correct only for downhill holdup, supply a
value of 1.0 for the uphill correction factor.
LAMINAR=3000’
Define the value of the Reynolds number to be used as the boundary between
laminar and turbulent flow.
GENERAL Data Category of Input > FCODE …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
422 Input Reference
Table 46a: Pressure Drop & HoldUp Methods for Compositional, Blackoil, Condensate and Steam
Table 46b: Methods in Table 46a for Vertical or Near Vertical Upward Flow
Method Keyword Application
Beggs & Brill BB Pipe Tubing Annulus
Beggs & Brill  Moody BBM Pipe Tubing Annulus
Beggs & Brill  No slip BBNS Pipe Tubing Annulus
Beggs & Brill  MoodyEaton BBME Pipe Tubing Annulus
Beggs & Brill  MoodyDukler BBMD Pipe Tubing Annulus
Beggs & Brill  MoodyHagedorn &
Brown
BBMHB Pipe Tubing Annulus
Beggs & Brill high velocity BBHV Pipe Tubing Annulus
Beggs & Brill  Moody high velocity BMHV Pipe Tubing Annulus
Beggs & Brill  No slip high velocity BBNH Pipe Tubing Annulus
Mukherjee & Brill MB Pipe Tubing Annulus
Mukherjee & BrillEaton MBE Pipe Tubing Annulus
TACITES
TM,1
TACS Pipe Tubing Annulus
OLGAS
2
OLGA Pipe Tubing Annulus
1, 2, 3 See footnotes to Table 46c.
Method Keyword Application
Ansari ANSA Pipe Tubing Annulus
Orkiszewski ORK Tubing Annulus
Duns & Ross DR Tubing Annulus
Hagedorn & Brown HB Tubing Annulus
Hagedorn & Brown  Beggs & Brill HBBB Tubing Annulus
Aziz AZIZ Tubing Annulus
Gray (not applicable for
compositional)
GRAY Tubing Annulus
Gray  Moody (not applicable for
compositional)
GRYM Tubing Annulus
Angel  Welchon  Ross ANGEL Tubing Annulus
1, 2, 3 See footnotes to Table 46c.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 423
Table 46c: Methods in Table 46a for Horizontal or Near Horizontal Flow
Table 47: SinglePhase Pressure Drop Methods
Method Keyword Application
Xiao XIAO Pipe
Eaton EATON Pipe
EatonFlanigan* EF Pipe
Dukler DUKLER Pipe
DuklerFlanigan* DF Pipe
Lockhart & Martinelli LM Pipe
DuklerEatonFlanigan* DE Pipe
Olimens OLIM Pipe
User Defined Method UDP1 Pipe Tubing Annulus
User Defined Method UDP2 Pipe Tubing Annulus
1 The TACITES mechanistic method is developed and maintained by the French companies IFP,
Total and Elf Aquitaine Production, and is available only under a separate license agreement
with SimSci. Please consult your local SimSci representative for details.
2 The OLGAS mechanistic method is available under separate license agreement with SimSci.
Please consult your SimSci representative for details.
3 Also allowed for the compositional gas option.
* Flanigan holdup connection for downward inclined pipes
Method Fluid Keyword Application
Moody
3
Liquid or
Gas
MOODY Pipe Tubing Annulus
HazenWilliams Liquid HW Pipe Tubing Annulus
Panhandle B
3
Gas PANB Pipe Tubing Annulus
Weymouth
3
Gas WEYM Pipe Tubing Annulus
American Gas
Association
3
Gas AGA Pipe Tubing Annulus
TACITES
1
TACS Pipe Tubing Annulus
OLGAS
2
OLGA Pipe Tubing Annulus
UserDefined Method Liquid or
Gas
UDP1 Pipe Tubing Annulus
UserDefined Method Liquid or
Gas
UDP2 Pipe Tubing Annulus
1, 2, 3 See footnotes to Table 46c..
GENERAL Data Category of Input > DEFAULT …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
424 Input Reference
DEFAULT
Optional statement. Sets up global values to be used throughout the simulation. All these
can be overridden selectively on the flow device and fitting statements in the
STRUCTURE Data Category of input.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries:
WATER or
AIR or
SOIL
Use one of these to specify the medium surrounding the pipes. If no
surrounding is chosen, the default heat transfer coefficient for the pipe is
used. If more than one surrounding is entered, then without any overriding
information supplied on the PIPE statement in the Structure Data Category
of input, the hierarchy of usage is given by: SOIL has default preference over
WATER which has default preference over AIR
Therefore, if all three surroundings are defined on this statement, they will be
prioritized per the above logic.
More than one surrounding may be specified on this statement. In this case
the input order of the attributes of the surroundings (such as velocity) must
logically follow the surrounding medium these attributes refer to (see the
second example at the end of this section).
If any of the following keywords are entered and no surrounding is input, the
surrounding defaults to SOIL:
VISCOSITY VELOCITY DENSITY
BDTOP THKPIPE THKINS
CONPIPE CONINS CONSOIL
CONDUCTIVITY
HAUSEN Specifying this keyword activates a special inside film coefficient
calculation (Hausen) when laminar heat transfer flow conditions exist (valid
for Re < 2000). If this keyword is not specified, the normal turbulent flow
calculation is used for all conditions of flow.
VELOCITY()= Velocity of the surrounding air or water. Default values are 10 miles/hr for
air and 1 mile/hr for water.
TAMBIENT()=80 Ambient temperature of the surrounding medium.
TGRADIENT()=1.0 Geothermal temperature gradient.
DENSITY()= Density of the surrounding air or water. Defaults are specific gravity of
1.0 for air and 10.0 API for water.
VISCOSITY()= Viscosity of the surrounding air or water. Defaults are 0.02 cP for air and
1.0 cP for water.
CONDUCTIVITY()= Thermal conductivity of the surrounding air, soil, or water. Defaults are
0.015 BTU/hrftF for air, 0.8 BTU/hrftF for soil and 0.3 BTU/hrftF for
water.
UPIPE()=1.0 If no medium is invoked directly or indirectly, this overall heat transfer
coefficient will be used.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 425
UANNULUS()=1.0
UTUBING()=1.0
Overall heat transfer coefficient from inside an annulus or tubing to the
surroundings.
HINSIDE()=0.0 Additional heat transfer resistance which will be added to the inside film heat
transfer resistance calculated by PIPEPHASE.
HOUTSIDE()=0.0 Additional heat transfer resistance which will be added to the outside film
heat transfer resistance calculated by PIPEPHASE.
HRADIANT()=0.0 Additional radiant heat transfer resistance which will be added to the outside
film heat transfer resistance calculated by PIPEPHASE.
BDTOP()=0 Depth of a buried pipe measured from the top of the outside of the pipe, in
short length units. A positive value must be supplied when SOIL has been
selected as the surrounding.
THKPIPE()=0.3125 Pipe thickness in short length units.
THKINS()=0 Insulation thickness in short length units. Maximum of 5 values.
CONPIPE()=29
CONINS()=0.015
CONSOIL()=0.8
Thermal conductivity of the pipe material, insulation (maximum of five
values, for five insulation layers) and soil.
IDPIPE()= or
NOMD=
Inside diameter of pipes and fittings in short length units. Nominal inside
diameter of pipes and fittings, in inches only.
NOMT= Nominal inside diameter of tubing devices, in inches only.
PIPSCHEDULE=
DIAMDATA.DAT
Name of external text file in the user directory containing pipe and tubing
schedule data which are to be invoked for all nominal size specifications. If a
file name is supplied, the input file extension must be .DAT. The
PIPSCHEDULE keyword may or may not be included in this statement. If
this keyword is omitted, then an internal table is used with default values.
Note: If a nominal diameter is not available for a userdefined schedule in the selected table or file, the
next smaller schedule is searched.
SCHEDULE=40 Default pipe schedule to be used for fittings, pipe and line sizing options.
SCHT=TB01 Default schedule for tubing devices.
DESC= Twentycharacter description of type of pipe used.
Note: If a nominal diameter is not available for a userdefined schedule in the selected table,
PIPEPHASE will generate an error message. If a schedule is not defined, the default schedule 40 is used
and, if a match cannot be found, PIPEPHASE will produce an error message.
IDANNULUS()= Inside diameter of annulus in short length units.
IDTUBING()= Inside diameter of tubing in short length units.
ODTUBING()= Outside diameter of tubing in short length units.
FLOWEFF=100 Flow efficiency as a percentage. This parameter may be used in a rating
exercise to adjust flowrates to meet a measured pressure drop. The use of
FLOWEFF is recommended only when other parameters, such as pressure
drop method, pipe roughness, heat transfer coefficient values, etc., have been
varied in order to match field data.
ROUGHNESS()=0.0018 Pipe inside roughness. Use the qualifier REL to denote roughness as a
fraction of the pipe inside diameter. Otherwise, value is absolute and in short
length units.
GENERAL Data Category of Input > SEGMENT …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
426 Input Reference
Example:
DEFAULT AIR, TAMB=40, VELOCITY=30, THKINS=4
DEFAULT AIR, COND=0.01, VISC=0.018, VELOCITY=8, WATER,&
COND=0.34, VELOCITY=5
SEGMENT
Optional statement. Controls the segmenting of pipes, annuli, and tubing for pressure
drop and heat transfer calculations. If you omit this statement, PIPEPHASE will use a
default of one segment per pipe, annulus, and tubing.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries:
HWCOEFF()=150 Coefficient for HazenWilliams pressure drop method.
DLHORIZ()= or
NHORIZ=1
Length of a pipe calculation segment in long length units. Number of
calculation segments per pipe.
DLVERT()= or
NVERT=1
Length of an annulus or tubing calculation segment in long length units.
Number of calculation segments per annulus or tubing.
MAXSEGS=20 Maximum number of calculation segments per flow device. This overrides
any value calculated from other data on this statement.
DTIME=10 Time step for pigging or sphering in seconds.
PSEG=20 This option only applies when the AUTO or FAST segmentation options are
used. When this keyword is invoked and either AUTO or FAST are specified,
PIPEPHASE will automatically size segments so that the maximum average
pressure drop per segment is PSEG or no more than MAXS segments are
used in a pipe/tube/annulus. By default, a value of 20 psia is used for PSEG.
TSEG=5 This keyword is activated with the use of the AUTO or FAST keywords
(described below). Under this option, PIPEPHASE attempts to insure that the
temperature drop across a segment is TSEG and the absolute pressure drop is
PSEG and the maximum number of segments is MAXS. PIPEPHASE uses a
default value of 5 F for TSEG.
PTOL=0.2 The pressure traverse algorithm uses for property computations, the pressure
and temperature at the midpoint of each segment. Because midpoint values
are used, the algorithm must use an iterative procedure to converge to a mid
point pressure. PTOL is the convergence criterion for the midpoint pressure
and is 0.2 psia by default (Minimum tolerance = 0.0001 psia).
HTOL=0.05 This is option only applies to compositional or steam systems and it refers to
the convergence tolerance that is to be used for segment midpoint
enthalpies. By default, HTOL is equal to 0.05 Btu/lb.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 427
Example:
SEGM DLHOR=50, MAXSEGS=10
Note: When using horizontal tubing devices, the user should use a set number of segments rather than a
vertical segmentation specification. With no vertical depth specified, the device will default to a few
segments regardless of the length. The user should specify a number of segments allow for better property
predictions along the horizontal well.
ITER=25 This refers to the number of iterations that are to be used to compute the mid
point pressure/temperature in a given segment. By default, ITER is set to 25.
When ITER=1, the traverse algorithm reduces to the forward Euler
integration procedure. The forward Euler is, in principle, faster than the mid
point weighting used by default in PIPEPHASE. However, it also leads to
less accurate traverses than are produced by the midpoint weighting method.
AUTO=ON When invoked, this option automatically sizes segments according to
computed pressure and temperature gradients. The following options
(discussed above) are invoked with this keyword:
PSEG = 20 psia
TSEG = 5 F
PTOL = 0.2 psia
HTOL = 0.05 Btu/lb
ITER = 25
MAXS= 50
AUTO=OFF Allows the user to specify the flow device segment length, either directly, or
through a userspecified number of segments. By default, this option is set to
Manual Segmentation Method. The following defaults are invoked by this
keyword:
DLHORIZ=2000 feet
DLVERT=500 feet
NHOR=1
NVER=1
MAXSTEPS=20
FAST When invoked, this option uses an automated, yet more relaxed than AUTO,
segmenting procedure to estimate the size of segments. The following
defaults are invoked by this keyword:
PSEG = 50 psia
TSEG = 50 F
PTOL = 0.2 psia
HTOL = 1 Btu/lb
ITER = 1 (thus the traverse algorithm reduces to the forward Euler method)
MAXS = 20
Under the FAST keyword, PIPEPHASE will compute pressure traverses at a
faster rate than under the AUTO option. However, because of the coarser
segmentation and the use of forward Euler marching, the pressure traverse
estimates are expected to be less accurate than under default segmentation
procedures.
Note: Under the FAST and AUTO options, the user has complete control of the segmentation options
PSEG, TSEG, PTOL, HTOL, ITER and MAXS
GENERAL Data Category of Input > LIMITS …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
428 Input Reference
LIMITS
Optional statement. Set the minimum and maximum temperatures and pressures for
calculations. If calculations stray outside these limits, PIPEPHASE will print a warning
message. You should ensure that the pressure and temperature limits correctly bound
their anticipated values in the simulation prior to program execution. The default limits
are those judged to be representative for all of the thermodynamic methods available to
PIPEPHASE.
If the simulation conditions are over a narrower range of conditions than the default
values, you still should not reduce the range for the limits. Reducing the range can make
it more difficult for the network to solve by giving poor PVT predictions during
intermediate calculations.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries:
Example:
LIMITS PRES(MIN)=5
PRINT
Optional statement. Controls the level of output produced by PIPEPHASE.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries:
TEMPERATURE(MIN)=60
TEMPERATURE(MAX)=800
PRESSURE(MIN)=0
PRESSURE(MAX)=25000
Minimum and maximum temperatures and pressures. Additional
qualifiers may be used to specify units of measurement.
INPUT=FULL
SUMMARY=BOTH
DEVICE=SUMMARY
PROPERTY=NONE or
SUMMARY or PART or
FULL
CONNECT=FULL
FLASH=FULL
PLOT=FULL
Select an option for each of these from Table 48, Options for Output.
CONNECT applies only to networks. FLASH applies only to compositional
fluid types. The PLOT and MAP options can only be invoked with
DEVICE=PART or DEVICE=FULL.
MAP=TAITEL or NONE Use MAP=TAITEL to print the TaitelDuklerBarnea flow regime map for
each link. DEVICE=PART or DEVICE=FULL must also be specified
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 429
Example:
PRINT INPUT=NONE, PROPERTY=FULL, DATABASE=FULL
Table 48: Options for Output
MERGESUB Independent subnetworks are formed, when specifying the upstream pressure
or flow rate to a choke/regulator or inlet pressure to a MultiStage
Compressor. Pseudo nodes and links are created for the boundaries of these
individual networks. Invoke this option to merge these nodes and links back
to its original network before generating the output report.
NODACT Use this to report node summary at actual conditions. If ignored, node
summary is reported at standard conditions.
SLUG=BRILL Invokes a statistical slug model. The options are BRILL, NORRIS or
SCOTT. Only with DEVICE=PART or DEVICE=FULL for single links
only.
ITER Request detailed printout during the convergence of an iterative network
calculation.
SIMULATOR=PART Choose to print the network simulation results for every cycle,
SIMULATOR=FULL, or at the final cycle, SIMULATOR=PART.
OPTIMIZER=PART Choose to print the optimization results after every iteration,
OPTIMIZER=FULL, or at the end of the simulation, OPTIMIZER=PART.
VFPT = DEFAULT EXCEL, ECLIPSE,GCOM(hidden), USER. EXCEL is default; generates
VFP tables.
DATABASE=FULL Controls the writing of data to a database after solution for use with the
Results Access System through the GUI. Options are FULL, LAST, and
NONE. FULL writes all data from all cases to the database; LAST writes
only data from the last case; NONE writes no data.
Entries
Keyword NONE SUMMARY PART FULL
INPUT List of input
No details
N/A List of input
Structure details
List of input
Full details
DEVICE No device
details or
summary
Device
summary
Summary report plus
pressure, temperature,
liquid holdup and
velocities
All PART reports plus
pressure gradient
reports
PROPERTY No reports N/A Point by point physical
property data
Prints all point by point
physical property data
plus heat transfer data
and hydrate prediction
CONNECT No reports N/A N/A Tables and plot of
network connectivity
FLASH No reports N/A N/A Composition and phase
properties at each node
GENERAL Data Category of Input > PRINT …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
430 Input Reference
PLOT No plots N/A Link pressure and
temperature plots.
DEVICE=PART or
DEVICE=FULL must
also be specified.
Link pressure,
temperature and phase
envelope plots.
DEVICE=PART or
DEVICE=FULL must
also be specified
DATABASE No file produced
for Results
Access System
N/A Only last CASE
STUDY produced in
Results Access System
file
All output data
produced in Results
Access System file
OLD NEW BOTH
SUMMARY Node, Link and
Device
Summaries are
produced.
Structure Data,
Velocity and
Results
Summaries are
produced.
Both the OLD and
NEW set of reports are
produced
Entries
Keyword NONE SUMMARY PART FULL
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 431
OUTDIMENSION
Optional statement. The normal output is produced in the same units of measurement as
those defined in the DIMENSION statement. The OUTDIMENSION statement requests
a second set of output and defines the units of measurement for it. Select a predefined set
of units and/or override individual units. See Table 43, Primary Units of Measurement,
and Table 44, Secondary Units of Measurement, for the definition of units in each
predefined set and other units which can be specified for each data item. If this statement
is omitted, a second set of output will not be generated.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries:
Example:
OUTDIME METRIC, VISC=PAS, DENS=API, RATE(M)=LBHR
ADD or
REPLACE
Use one of these options to specify whether the second output should be
added to the first output or should replace it.
PETROLEUM or
ENGLISH or
METRIC or
SI
Select only one of these sets of units.
VELOCITY=
TEMPERATURE=
PRESSURE=
LENGTH=
VISCOSITY=
DUTY=
POWER=
DENSITY= or GRAVITY=
Define the units in which any or all of these quantities are to be printed out.
RATE(M)=
RATE(W)=
RATE(LV)=
RATE(GV)=
Define the units in which any or all of molar, weight, liquid volumetric and
gas volumetric flowrates are to be printed out.
COMPONENT Data Category of Input > Overview …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
432 Input Reference
COMPONENT Data Category of Input
Overview
The Component Data Section defines the components in a compositional simulation.
This section is mandatory for a compositional fluid unless you are defining your fluid in
terms only of an assay curve with no Lightends and you do not want to alter the default
cuts or characterization criteria. This section is also mandatory for a mixed
compositional/noncompositional blackoil model. This section must not be present if
your fluid is noncompositional.
Chapter 1, SimSci Component Data Input Reference, in the optional SimSci Component
and Thermodynamic Data Input Manual, describes all the features of the SimSci
Component Data system. Many of these features are not used in PIPEPHASE because
they are not relevant to pressure drop through pipes and fittings.
Of those that are relevant, the commonly used ones are described here in detail. The rest
are summarized and you should refer to Chapter 1 of the SimSci Component and
Thermodynamic Data Input Manual for input details.
Table 49a: COMPONENT Data Category for Input
Statement Keywords See page...
COMPONENT None
LIBID number, name {, , alias}/ ..., BANK=, {FILL=}
p. 34
{PETROLEUM()} number, name, mol wt, gravity, normal boiling point/... p. 34
{ASSAY} CHARACTERIZE= CAVETT, MW=CAV80,
CONVERSION=API94, CURVEFIT=VER6
GRAVITY=WATSONK, {FIT=SPLINE, TBPIP=1,
TBPEP=98, NBP=}
p. 35
{CUTPOINTS} TBPCUTS() = 100,800,28/1200,8/1600,4 p. 37
{Constants}
MW
SPGR
API
ACENTRIC
ZC
TC()
PC()
VC()
NBP()
STDDENSITY()
component number, value/...
p. 37
p. 37
p. 37
p. 37
p. 37
p. 37
p. 37
p. 37
p. 37
p. 37
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 433
Table 49b: Other Statements to Table 49a
COMPONENT
Mandatory statement for compositional fluids. Introduces the category.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries:
{Variables}
VP()
ENTHALPY()
CP()
LATENT()
DENSITY()
VISCOSITY()
CONDUCTIVITY()
SURFACE
CORR = , {LN or LOG or EXPFAC = }, DATA = or
TABULAR =
p. 38
p. 38
p. 38
p. 38
p. 38
p. 38
p. 38
p. 38
Other statements For details, refer to Chapter 1, SimSci Component Data Input Reference, of
the SimSci Component and Thermodynamic Data Input Manual.
NONLIBRARY Components that are not in the SimSci bank and for which you have to
supply a full set of properties.
PHASE Identifies solid components
SYNCOMP Data for a synfuel component of a specific type.
SYNLIQ Data for a synfuel component that is a mixture of different petroleum types.
RACKETT Rackett parameter required for the Rackett method for liquid densities.
DIPOLE Dipole moment required for the HaydenO’Connell method for vapor
properties.
RADIUS Radius of gyration required for the HaydenO’Connell method for vapor
properties.
SOLUPARA Hildebrand solubility parameter required for various generalized and liquid
activity thermodynamic correlations.
MOLVOL Liquid molar volume required for various generalized and liquid activity
thermodynamic correlations.
VANDERWAAL Van der Waals area and volume required for UNIFAC and UNIQUAC liquid
activity thermodynamic correlations.
STRUCTURE, GROUP Data for nonlibrary components for use with the UNIFAC thermodynamic
method.
Statement Keywords See page...
COMPONENT Data Category of Input > LIBID …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
434 Input Reference
LIBID
Optional statement. Identifies the components whose properties are to be taken from the
SimSci databank.
Mandatory entries:
Example:
LIBID 1, C1/2, C2/3, C3, BANK=SIMSCI, PROCESS
LIBID 1, C1, METHANE/3, C3/2, ETHN, PURE ETHANE, *
BANK=SIMSCI, PROCESS
PETROLEUM
Optional statement. Defines petroleum fraction pseudocomponents. Component
properties are calculated using the characterization method selected on the ASSAY
statement below.
Mandatory entries:
number, name{, , alias} / ... For each component, its number in the component list for this simulation
followed by its library name (not the full name). Separate one components
entry from the next using the / character.
Select components from the list in Chapter 1 of the SimSci Component and
Thermodynamic Data Input Manual.) For convenience, some components
have more than one allowable name.
Optionally, you may also enter an alias (up to 16 characters) for a
component, which will be used in the output reports. If you enter an alias,
you must have two commas before it.
You may enter the components in any order but there must be no gaps in the
component number sequence and each component number must be used
only once. This rule applies to all defined components, including Petroleum
pseudocomponents entered using the PETROLEUM statement below, but
does not apply to petroleum fractions generated by the program from ASTM
curves.
BANK Selects order of component databanks which are searched for pure
components. The entries allowed are SimSci or PROCESS.
Optional entries: (For details, refer to Chapter 1, SimSci Component Data Input Reference, in
the SimSci Component and Thermodynamic Data Input Manual.)
FILL Specifies that SimSci property prediction methods be used for components
missing library or usersupplied data.
number, name, MW, std
liquid density, NBP/...
You may supply a name of up to 16 characters for each component. The
name is used in the output reports. You must supply at least two of the three
quantities: molecular weight, gravity and normal boiling point. The
remaining value is calculated. You may use qualifiers to define units of
measurement for gravity and/or normal boiling point.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 435
Example:
PETRO 5, CUT11, 91,64,180/6, CUT12,100,,210/ &
7, CUT13,120,55,280/8, CUT14,150,,370/ &
9, CUT15,200,40,495/10, CUT16,245,,590/ &
11, CUT17,300,30,687/12, CUT18,360,,770
ASSAY
Optional statement. Used to specify the method by which PIPEPHASE calculates the
properties of defined pseudocomponents or those generated from assay data.
Mandatory entries:
Example:
ASSAY CHAR = SIMSCI, MW = CAV80, GRAV = WATSONK, *
CONVERSION = API87, CURVEFIT = VER6
The number must follow the rules described above under LIBID.
If a name is not given, PIPEPHASE will assign a name based on the normal
boiling point.
If you omit any data item, you must retain the embedded comma.
CHARACTERIZE = CAVETT Define the method to be used for calculating critical properties and
enthalpies of pseudocomponents. Options are described in Table 411,
Characterization Methods.
MW = CAV80 Define the method to be used for calculating molecular weights of
pseudocomponents. Options are described in Table 410.
CONVERSION = API94 Selects the method for interconversion between ASTMD86 and TBP
distillation curves. Options are described in Table 413, Inter
Conversion Methods.
CURVEFIT = VER6 Defines the method for determining end points of petro cuts. Options
are described in Table 414, CURVEFIT Methods.
GRAVITY = WATSONK Define the method to be used for calculating gravities for pseudo
components when only the average gravity of a curve is given. Options
are described in Table 412.
Other entries: (For details, refer to Chapter 1, SimSci Component Data Input
Reference, in the SimSci Component and Thermodynamic Data Input
Manual.)
FIT = SPLINE Selects the curve fitting procedure for user supplied assay data.
TBPIP = 1,
TBPEP = 98
Define the volume percents for determining the initial point (IP) and
end point (EP) temperatures when specifying streams and reporting
assay curves at output time.
NBP = Designates the method used for calculating the normal boiling point of
narrow cuts.
COMPONENT Data Category of Input > ASSAY …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
436 Input Reference
Table 410: Molecular Weight Methods
Table 411: Characterization Methods
Table 412: Gravity Methods used in PIPEPHASE
Table 413: InterConversion Methods
Table 414: CURVEFIT Methods
Method Description
SIMSCI Method developed by SimSci to match the API Technical Data Book method for
300 to 800
o
F boiling components and to provide a better match to the available
field data both above and below that temperature range.
EXTAPI 1980 API Technical Data Book method with adjustment for components boiling
below 300
o
F to match known pure component data better. Also known as the
CAVETT80 method.
CAVETT Old (pre1980) API Technical Data Book method
Method Description
CAVETT CAVETT is used for critical constants and ideal gas enthalpies. YenAlexander
is used for vapor pressures. Edmister is used for acentric factors.
SIMSCI SimSci’s extension of the CAVETT method is used for all properties. Also
known as the Twu method.
LK LeeKesler is used for all properties.
Method Description
WATSONK Assumes constant Watson K for all components based on TBP temperatures.
PRE301 Assumes constant Watson K for all components based on ASTM temperatures.
Method Description
API63 This method is taken from the API Technical Data Book prior to the 1987
edition and uses a procedure developed by W.C. Edmister, et.al.
API87 This is the method published in the 1987 API Technical Data Book which was
developed by Riazi and Daubert.
API94 This is the method detailed in the 1994 API Technical Data Book which was
developed by Daubert, T.E.. This method uses an approach similar to that of the
API 1963 procedure, which always produces a monotonic TBP curve.
Method Description
VER6 This method generates a quadratic using the first 3 (for IP) or last 3 (for EP)
supplied data points. It uses the slope of this curve to linearly extrapolate to the
appropriate end point (0%) or 100%). This may artificially introduce an
inflection point in the data curve. Select this option to reproduce results from
older PIPEPHASE version (upto 9.2.1)
IMPR This method uses a quadratic spline to more accurately locate missing end
points.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 437
CUTPOINTS
Optional statement. Used to define the TBP cut points for components defined by assay
curve.
Mandatory entries:
Example:
CUTPOINTS TBPCUTS(F)=100,800,20/ 1000, 10/ 1200,8
CUTPOINTS TBPCUTS(F)=100,1200,38
MW
SPGR
API
ACENTRIC
ZC
Optional statements. Define constant properties of pure components.
Mandatory entries:
Example:
MW 1, 59.3/4, 76.5
TC()
PC()
NBP()
STDDENSITY()
Optional statements. Define constant properties of pure components. A qualifier may be
used to specify units of measurement.
Mandatory entries:
Example:
STDD(LBFT3) 4,45/7,50
TBPCUTS()=
t
0
, t
1
, n
1
{/t
2
, n
2
/..}
t
0
is the start temperature for the whole assay, t
1
is the end temperature for
the first group and n
1
is the number of cuts in the first group. Then, for each
subsequent group of cuts, enter the end temperature for the group and the
number of cuts in that group.
The default is 100, 800, 28/1200, 8/1600, 4
number1, value1/
number2, value2/ ...
numberN, valueN
The number corresponds to the components number on the LIBID statement.
number1, value1/
number2, value2/ ...
numberN, valueN
The number corresponds to the components number on the LIBID statement.
COMPONENT Data Category of Input > VC …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
438 Input Reference
VC
Optional statement. Defines critical volume of pure components. Qualifiers may be used
to specify units of measurement and basis.
Mandatory entries: :
Example:
VP()
ENTHALPY()
CP()
LATENT()
DENSITY()
VISCOSITY()
CONDUCTIVITY()
SURFACE()
Optional statements. Define pure component properties that vary with temperature.
Where appropriate, qualifiers may be used to specify phase, temperature unit, property
units and basis. Properties are listed in Table 415.
Table 415: Pure Component Variable Properties in PIPEPHASE
You may enter either coefficients of an equation or tabular data.
number1, value1/
number2, value2/ ...
numberN, valueN
The number corresponds to the components number on the LIBID statement.
VC(CC,M) 1, .09 Note: This is equivalent to 90 cc/gm mole.
Property Keyword Phase* Property Units Basis
Density DENSITY() L density M or WT
Enthalpy ENTHALPY() I or L energy M or WT
Solid specific heat CP() heat capacity M or WT
Latent heat of
vaporization
LATENT() energy M or WT
Vapor pressure VP() L pressure
Viscosity VISCOSITY() V or L viscosity
Thermal conductivity COND() V or L conductivity
Liquid surface tension SURFACE() surface tension
*Phases are: I ideal gas
V vapor
L liquid
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 439
Mandatory entries: Coefficient form:
Optional entries:
Mandatory entries: Tabular form:
Example:
DENSITY(L,C,LBFT3) TABULAR = 60, 80, 100/1,55.5,43.7/2, &
45.8,,40.2
ENTHALPY(I,C,KCAL/KG,M) TABULAR=100,140,180/1,700000, &
825000,910000/ &
2,410000, ,470000
VP(C,MMHG) CORR=21, LN, DATA= 1,,, 14.321, 1068, 60.3/ &
2,,, 16.15, 1372, 1.7
CORRELATION
The correlation form for equation based data. See Chapter 1, SimSci
Component Data Input Reference, in the SimSci Component and
Thermodynamic Data Input Manual, for equation forms.
Note: Only equation 1 may be used for CP.
DATA = Data entry for equation based correlations. The format is: DATA = i, t
max
,
t
min
, C
1
, ..., C
8
/...
i corresponds to the components number on the LIBID statement.
t
max
, t
min
are temperature limits for the data. They must be entered for
Chebychev equations, and are optional for others. If omitted, the embedded
commas must be retained.
C
1
,...,C
8
are equation coefficients.
EXPFAC= Exponential factor. Only used in equations 3 and 4.
LN or LOG
Select the logarithmic base e (LN) or 10 (LOG). Only used in equations with
logarithmic terms.
TABULAR = Data entry for tabular data. The format is:
TABULAR = t
1
, t
2
, .../i, p
1
, p
2
, .../...
t
1
, t
2
,... are temperatures at which tabular data are entered.
i corresponds to the components number on the LIBID statement.
p
1
, p
2
,... are data values at temperatures t
1
, t
2
,... . A minimum of one value
must be given. You need not provide a value for every temperature point but
if you skip a value you must retain the embedded comma.
NETWORK Data Category of Input > Overview …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
440 Input Reference
NETWORK Data Category of Input
Overview
The NETWORK Data Category of input defines calculational methods. This category is
only needed to control the network convergence algorithm.
Table 416: NETWORK Data Category of Input
NETWORK
Mandatory statement. Introduces the category.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries: None
SOLUTION
Optional statement. Selects the solution method and sets switches for the convergence of
a network. If you omit this statement, the PBALANCE method will be used with the
defaults shown below. See Pressure Balance Method, p. 634, for details of the
application of these parameters
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries:
Statement Keywords See page...
NETWORK None
{SOLUTION} PBAL or MBAL, MAXITER = 20, FLOWALLOC = 1,
PRELIMINARY = 1, FINAL = 1, SUBITERATION = 200,
RELAXATION = 0.25, DAMP = 0.25, EXPLICIT, NOFR,
QDAMP =, PDAMP = , STEP = 1, SLIP = 5, HALVINGS = 3,
NOLOOP=0, CHECK, CHOKE = 1, WELLS, PROP=0,
SCALE=1.0, SYMMETRIC, LINKS, ANSARI, XIAO,
QUICK, KEEPSHUT
p. 40
{TOLERANCE} PTOL(psia)= .0001, QTOL()= 1, TTOL() = .001, RATE()=1.0,
PRES()=2.0, QLOW=, PERT= .01, NEWACC
p. 44
{ACCELERATION} INTERPOLATION, NPRESS = 0, NTEMP = 0, PMIN = ,
PMAX = , TMIN = , TMAX = , STOP, ISOTHERMAL = 1
p. 44
PBAL or MBAL Use one of these to specify the network solution algorithm. PBAL invokes
the Pressure Balance algorithm, MBAL the singlephase algorithm. MBAL
can only be used with singlephase gas or liquid systems.
MAXITER = 20 Maximum number of iterations for the PBALANCE method.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 441
FLOWALLOC = 1 Controls the initial estimate for flowrates in PBALANCE networks only.
Use FLOWALLOC=1 to estimate initial flowrates based on diameters of the
first pipe in the links.
Use FLOWALLOC=2 to estimate initial flowrates based on the frictional
resistance of each link.
Use FLOWALLOC=3 to estimate initial flowrates based on nodal mass
(MBAL) conservation.
Use FLOWALLOC=4 to use flowrates and pressure from a previous solution
of the network, to be read from a restart file.
PRELIMINARY = 1 The number of continuation steps to be used to compute the preliminary
solution for the MBAL method and for FLOW=3 in the PBAL method.
FINAL = 1 The number of final continuation steps required to move the pressure field
predicted by the preliminary solution to the final rigorous solution. This is
applicable to the MBAL method and FLOW=3 in the PBAL method
SUBITERATION = 200 Maximum number of iterations to be performed in each continuation step.
This is applicable to the MBAL method and FLOW=3 in the PBAL method
RELAXATION = 0.25 Extent of partial correction from iteration to iteration for the pressure field.
Values can be between 0 and 1.0. This is applicable to the MBAL method
and FLOW=3 in the PBAL method
DAMP = 0.25 Extent of partial correction from iteration to iteration for the preliminary
continuation stage. Values can be between 0 and 1.0. This is applicable to the
MBAL method and FLOW=3 in the PBAL method
EXPLICIT Applicable only to a singlephase gas or liquid system. When present, initial
estimates are obtained from the Blasius friction factor approximation.
Otherwise, the implicit Colebrook/BBM approach is used. This is applicable
to the MBAL method and FLOW=3 in the PBAL method
NOFR Include this keyword to specify that no flow reversals are to be permitted
within links during the solution of a network. Applicable to PBAL method.
QDAMP = Limits the magnitude of the flowrate adjustment for any link at each iteration
within a PBALANCE network. If a link flowrate change exceeds QDAMP,
the magnitude of the change vector is normalized such that the magnitude of
the vector is reduced but the direction of the adjustment vector is not
changed. The units of QDAMP are fixed as:
FLUID TYPE UNITS
Compositional & steam (MLBHR)
Gas & condensate (MCFD)
Liquid & blackoil (BPD)
This feature is useful when large flowrate fluctuations and convergence
instabilities are observed in the iteration history of a network run, commonly
seen in a large, highly looped network. Damping the flowrate changes to a
small value may lead to a more stable iteration scheme but may result in
slower convergence. You may need to increase the number of iterations to
achieve convergence to within the required tolerance.
PDAMP = Similar to QDAMP, but applied to node pressure changes. Pressures are in
units of psi. Applicable to PBAL method.
STEP = 1 Use this keyword to enable the NewtonRaphson algorithm to converge
without internal limits.
NETWORK Data Category of Input > SOLUTION …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
442 Input Reference
SLIP = 5 Applicable only to FLOWALLOCATION = 3. Use this keyword to specify
the slope angle above which the BBM model used to initialize the flow field
reduces to the noslip formulation. Units are degrees.
HALVINGS = 3 Number of interval halvings allowed in each successive iteration. Applicable
to PBAL method.
NOLOOP=0
Use this keyword to generate a report of the occurrence of closed loops
during intermediate PBAL iterations. Use NOLOOP=1 to obtain a warning if
closed loop flow occurs during PBAL iterations. If you use NOLOOP=2,
PIPEPHASE will print the warning and, in addition, try to prevent the closed
loop flow from forming.
CHECK When present, regulators (unidirectional check valves) are allowed to pass a
small backward flow.
CHOKE = 1 Controls the broadening of the critical flow regimes in Choke valves.
Use CHOKE = 1 to allow exponential broadening.
Use CHOKE = 2 to allow linear broadening.
Use CHOKE = 3 to invoke a rigorous critical flow approach for chokes.
The flowrate through a choke depends on the pressure drop through the
choke when the flow is subcritical. When a choke is in 'critical flow' the
flowrate through the choke depends only on the inlet pressure. Further
reduction of the downstream/outlet pressure below the critical pressure
(outlet pressure at the on set of critical flow) has no effect on the flowrate.
When this happens Newtonbased methods cannot be applied directly
because the dp
out
/dq derivatives go to infinity. PIPEPHASE solves networks
where chokes are in critical flow using three mutually exclusive options.
CHOKE=1: The infinite derivative is replaced by a exponential extension
of the choke performance curve.
CHOKE=2: The infinite derivative choke performance curve is replaced
by a high but finite valued user defined slope or derivative
using a linear extension of the choke performance.
The above two options allows the network algorithm to use Newton methods
to proceed to a solution. Due to the high value of the derivative the network
becomes sensitive and may sometimes fail to converge. These two options
are available for the Fortunati and Ueda choke models.
CHOKE=3: PIPEPHASE solves for the maximum possible flow (critical
flow) for the well for a given source pressure (userspecified
reservoir or bottom hole pressure). If the network tries to flow
more than the critical flowrate, the link QMAX logic is
invoked based on the critical flowrate which acts as the
maximum allowable flowrate for that well/link.
The solution obtained accurately reflects the critical choke flow behavior and
the resulting network solution. At this time, this option is invoked only with
the Perkins choke model. This option works only for chokes in source links
where the link source pressure is fixed.
WELLS Use this keyword to prevent well flows from falling below the minimum
required to transport fluid in a twophase system.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 443
PROP=0 Controls the number of fluid property evaluations that are performed in each
link for the PBAL (FLOWALLOC=3) initialization procedure.
PROP=0 Fluid properties are evaluated only once per link at an
average pressure and temperature.
PROP=1 Fluid properties are evaluated for each device based on
conditions at the start of the device.
PROP=2 Fluid properties are evaluated for each device based on
conditions at the end of the device. This invokes an iterative
calculation for each device which consumes more computing
time and thus should only be used if the initialization
procedure needs help to produce an acceptable initial estimate
for the PBAL algorithm.
SCALE=1.0 Allows the user to control the extent of the NewtonRaphson correction to
the network pressure and link flow distribution. This number is a fraction
between 0 and 1. When the value is 1.0, a complete NewtonRaphson
correction is made to the estimated flow and pressure distribution. When this
value is less than 1.0, a fractional NewtonRaphson correction is made
during the PBAL iteration process. The value of the fractional correction is
the value of the parameter assigned to SCALE. Occasionally, fractional
values of SCALE can stabilize the NewtonRaphson iteration process.
However, extremely small fractional values can also slow down the
calculation procedure.
LINKS With this option, PIPEPHASE generates flow tables at the start of the
calculations that relate flowrate to exit pressure and exit temperature in all
links that originate with a source that has a fixed inflow pressure boundary
conditions. When available, the tables are then used in the place of the
normal pressure traverse procedure to compute exit pressures and
temperatures for links. This option can potentially speed up the PBAL
iteration procedure in PIPEPHASE.
XIAO With this option, the FLOW=3 allocation method will use the XIAO
mechanistic model instead of the default BBM model to estimate the
flowrate in pipes.
ANSARI With this option, the FLOW=3 allocation method will use the Ansari
mechanistic model in tubes and annuli instead of the default BBM model to
estimate flowrates.
SYMMETRIC With this option, the FLOW=3 allocation method will approximate the
Jacobian Matrix used in the NewtonRaphson iteration procedure as a
symmetric matrix. This option has the potential of increasing the
computational speed of the FLOW=3 allocation method.
QUICK With this option, the FLOW=3 allocation method will (1) approximate the
Jacobian Matrix as a symmetric matrix, and (2) will use an approximate
method to compute flowrate derivatives. This option has the potential of
further increasing the computational speed of the FLOW=3 allocation
method.
KEEPSHUT Allows wells that have been closed to remain closed, unless the user
explicitly opens the wells again. This option should not be used with
optimization, because if the wells are closed in during the previous cycle, if
may eliminate the best cycle.
NETWORK Data Category of Input > TOLERANCE …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
444 Input Reference
Example:
SOLUTION PBAL, MAXITER=30, FLOWALLOC=2, PRELIM=2, FINAL=2, & SUBITER=100,
RELAX=0.5, DAMP=0.5, EXPLICIT, NOFR, QDAMP=10, & PDAMP=0.5, HALVINGS=4, NOLOOP,
CHECK, CHOKE=2
TOLERANCE
Optional statement. Defines the criteria for convergence of networks that require
iterative calculations.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries:
For PBAL network solution methods:
Example:
TOLERANCE PTOL = .0003, QTOL = 2, TTOL = .0005
ACCELERATION (for PBAL Network Method Only)
Optional statement. Forces PIPEPHASE to interpolate from tabulated fluid properties
during intermediate iterations instead of carrying out rigorous property calculations at
every iteration in every link. Rigorous flashing is carried out on the final iterations
unless the STOP keyword is used.
PTOL(psia) =
.0001
Pressure tolerance for MBAL network solution and for network initialization under
FLOWALLOC = 3.
QTOL() = 1 Flow tolerance for MBAL network solution and for network initialization under
FLOWALLOC = 3. Units depend on the fluid type:
Liquid and blackoil bbl/day
Gas and gas condensate MCFD
Compositional and steam MLBHR
TTOL() = .001 Temperature tolerance for MBAL network solution method only.
QLOW()= Default minimum flowrate for all pressurespecified sources in the network.
PIPEPHASE will zero out flows for those sources that fall below the specified
minimum value.
PERT= .01 Specify the rate perturbation for the network solution.
NEWACC Used to handle high velocity fluids for near critical flow applications. This option
determines fluid properties in a pipe segment from the average of the inlet and outlet
properties. The inlet and outlet velocities directly calculate the pressure drop due to
acceleration.
PRES()=2.0 Pressure tolerance for PBAL solution method.
RATE()=1.0 Used to improve convergence in networks with chokes in critical flow
(CHOKE=2 option).
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 445
Mandatory entries: :
Optional entries:
Example:
ACCELERATION INTERPOLATION, NPRESS = 10, NTEMP = 10, &
PMIN = 1, PMAX = 100, TMIN = 10, TMAX = 500, STOP, &
ISOTHERMAL = 2
INTERPOLATION Use this keyword to switch on the interpolation procedure.
NPRESS = 0 Number of equally spaced pressure points.
NTEMP = 0 Number of equally spaced temperature points in the matrix. NPRESS *
NTEMP must not exceed 400.
PMIN()= Minimum pressure in the matrix
PMAX()= Maximum pressure in the matrix
TMIN()= Minimum temperature in the matrix
TMAX()= Maximum temperature in the matrix
STOP When convergence is reached using the interpolated properties, use of this
keyword stops the calculations . Without this keyword, calculations continue
until convergence is reached using rigorous property values.
ISOTHERMAL = 1 Specifies the temperature at which properties are looked up in the matrix.
ISOTHERMAL = 1 looks up properties at the local ambient temperature.
ISOTHERMAL = 2 looks up properties at the local upstream node
temperature.
ISOTHERMAL = 3 looks up properties at TMIN.
THERMODYNAMIC Data Category of Input > Overview …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
446 Input Reference
THERMODYNAMIC Data Category of Input
Overview
The Thermodynamic Data Category of input defines the methods that PIPEPHASE uses
to determine phase separation and transport properties in compositional runs. You need
this category only if you have specified that the fluid is compositional on the Calculation
statement in the General Data category.
Chapter 2, SimSci Thermodynamic Data Input Reference, in the SimSci Component and
Thermodynamic Data Input Manual describes all the features of the SimSci
Thermodynamic Data system. Many of these features are not used in PIPEPHASE
because they are not relevant to pressure drop through pipes and fittings.
Of those that are relevant, the commonly used ones are described here in detail. The rest
are summarized and you should refer to the SimSci Thermodynamic Data Input
Reference cited above.
Table 417a: Thermodynamic Data Category of Input
Statement Keywords See page...
THERMODYNAMIC None p. 48
METHOD {SYSTEM()=, KVALUE()=, ENTHALPY()=,
DENSITY()=, TRANSPORT= PURE, VISCOSITY()=,
CONDUCTIVITY()=, SURFACE=, SET = , DEFAULT}
p. 48
WATER DECANT=, {GPSA, SOLUBILITY=SIMSCI,
PROPERTY=SATURATED}
p. 52
BWRS i, j, kij/ ... p. 53
LKP i, j, kij/ ... p. 53
PR i, j, kija, kijb, kijc/ ... p. 53
SRK i, j, kija, kijb, kijc/ ... p. 53
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 447
Table 417b: Other Statements to Table 417a
Other Statements For details, refer to Volume 2, of the SimSci Component and Thermodynamic
Data Input Manual.
KVALUE
ENTHALPY
DENSITY
Used to identify nondefault databanks and methods of calculating missing
data.
KDATA Allows usersupplied Kvalue data.
HEXAMER, HOCV,
TVIRIAL, IDIMER,
RK1, RK2, SRKKD,
SRKM, SRKH, PRP,
PRM
Allows usersupplied binary interaction data for equations of state and
generalized correlations.
NRTL, UNIQUAC,
WILSON,
VANLAAR,
MARGULES,
FLORY, IDEAL,
AZEOTROPE,
INFINITE,
MUTUAL
Allows usersupplied binary interaction data for liquid activity methods.
PHI Used to identify vapor fugacity databanks.
HENRY, SOLUTE,
HENDATA
Used to identify Henrys Law databanks.
UNIFAC,UNIFTn,
UNFV
UNIFAC method UNIWAAL method
Group contribution data for UNIFAC and/or UNIWAALS.
PAnn, SAnn, VAnn Supplies pure component alpha formulations for PR, SRK and UNIWAAL.
TC, PC, VC, ZC,
ACENTRIC, NBP,
MOLVOL,
DIPOLE, RADIUS,
SOLUPARA,
RACKETT,
WDELT
Used to specify pure component data for use with a specific thermodynamic
method in place of the data input in the Component Category.
THERMODYNAMIC Data Category of Input > THERMODYNAMIC …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
448 Input Reference
THERMODYNAMIC
Mandatory statement for compositional fluids and mixed compositional/non
compositional fluid models such as the compositional blackoil model. Introduces the
category.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries: None
METHOD
Optional statement. Defines the methods to be used for calculating thermodynamic
properties and transport properties of the flowing fluid. Choose systems with predefined
methods for all properties or choose individual methods for each property.
If you want to use different methods to calculate properties of different sources, use
multiple METHOD statements. Identify each METHOD statement using a SET keyword
and refer to that identifier with the SET keyword on the SOURCE statement in the
Structure Category.
Mandatory entries: You must specify either SYSTEM or KVALUE, ENTHALPY and DENSITY. All
other entries are optional.
Optional entries:
SYSTEM() = Select a thermodynamic system from Table 418. The SYSTEM will allocate
methods for calculating Kvalues, enthalpies and densities. If you select a
SYSTEM, you can still override one or more of the individual methods by
using the other keywords on this statement.
Use a qualifier to denote which type of equilibrium calculations are to be
performed. Allowable qualifiers are:
SYSTEM VLE vaporliquid
VLLE vaporliquidliquid
KVALUE() =
ENTHALPY() =
DENSITY() =
Select methods from Table 419 for calculating Kvalues, enthalpies, and
densities. If you have selected a SYSTEM, you do not need these keywords;
use them if you want to override the individual methods automatically
selected as part of the predefined SYSTEM.
Use qualifiers to denote which type of equilibrium calculations are to be
performed and the phases to which the methods apply. Allowable qualifiers
are:
KVALUE VLE (or none) vaporliquid
LLE liquidliquid
VLLE vaporliquidliquid
ENTHLPY VL (or none) both vapor and liquid
V vapor only
L liquid only
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 449
If you want to specify a different method for different phases, you may have more than
one KVALUE entry. However it is done, whether with SYSTEM or KVALUE or a
combination, you must include all phases present in the simulation.
For ENTHALPY and DENSITY you must specify methods for both vapor and liquid
either by specifying a method for VL or a method for V and a method for L.
DENSITY VL (or none) both vapor and liquid
V vapor only
L liquid only
TRANSPORT = Select a transport system from Table 420. TRANSPORT will allocate
methods for calculating viscosity, conductivity and surface tension. If you
select TRANSPORT, you can still override one or more of the individual
methods by using other keywords on this statement.
VISCOSITY() =
CONDUCTIVITY() =
SURFACE =
Select methods from Table 421 for calculating conductivity, surface tension
and viscosity. If you have selected a TRANSPORT system, you do not need
these keywords; use them if you want to override the individual methods
automatically selected as part of the predefined TRANSPORT system.
Use qualifiers to denote the phases to which the methods apply. Allowable
qualifiers are:
VISCOSITY VL (or none) both vapor and liquid
V vapor only
L liquid only
CONDUCTIVITY VL (or none) both vapor and liquid
V vapor only
L liquid only
SURFACE none liquid only
For VISCOSITY and CONDUCTIVITY you must specify methods for both
vapor and liquid either by specifying a method for VL or a method for V and
a method for L.
SET = Up to 12 alphanumeric characters. Identifies this METHOD statement.
Needed only when multiple METHOD statements are used. Referenced
using the SET keyword on the SOURCE statement in the Structure Category
of input.
DEFAULT Identifies the default method set. When a SOURCE statement in the
Structure Category does not explicitly specify a SET, the default method set
is used. If no METHOD statement has the DEFAULT keyword, the first
METHOD statement in the input is used as the default set. Only one
METHOD statement may have the DEFAULT keyword.
Other entries: (For further information, refer to Chapter 2, SimSci Thermodynamic Data
Input Reference, in the SimSci Component and Thermodynamic Data Input
Manual.)
PHI Method to be used to compute pure component and mixture vapor fugacity
coefficients for liquid activity methods.
HENRY Used to model dissolved gases in a liquid solution for liquid activity
methods.
THERMODYNAMIC Data Category of Input > METHOD …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
450 Input Reference
Example:
METHOD SYSTEM=SRK, TRANS=PETRO, SET=MYSET1
METHOD KVALUE=SRK, ENTHALPY=SRK, DENS(L)=API, DENS(V)=SRK, &
VISC(V)=PETRO, VISC(L)= PURE, COND=PETRO, SURFACE=PURE,&
DEFAULT, SET=MYSET2
METHOD SYSTEM=SRK, KVALUE(LLE)= NRTL, KVALUE(SLE) = VANTHOFF
Table 418: Methods Used by Predefined Thermodynamic Systems
For other systems, refer to Chapter 2, SimSci Thermodynamic Data Input Reference, in
the SimSci Component and Thermodynamic Data Input Manual, Table 2.1.41.
System Kvalue Enthalpy Density (V) Density (L)
BK10 BK10 JG IDEAL API
BWRST BWRST BWRST BWRST BWRST
CS CS CP SRK API
GS GS CP SRK API
LKP LKP LKP LKP API
PR PR PR PR API
SRK SRK SRK SRK API
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 451
Table 419: Thermodynamic Calculation Methods
For other methods, refer to Chapter 2 in the SimSci Component and Thermodynamic
Data Input Manual, Table 2.1.31.
Table 420: Methods Used by Predefined TRANSPORT Systems
Table 421: Transport Property Calculation Methods
Method Keyword Kvalue Enthalpy Density(L) Density(V)
API Method API Yes
BWRSTwu BWRST Yes Yes Yes Yes
Braun K10 BK10 Yes
ChaoSeader CS Yes*
CurlPitzer CP Yes
Grayson
Streed
GS Yes*
Johnson
Grayson
JG Yes
LeeKesler LK Yes Yes Yes
LeeKesler
Plcker
LKP Yes Yes Yes Yes
Peng
Robinson
PR Yes Yes Yes
Redlich
Kwong
RK Yes
Soave
Redlich
Kwong
SRK Yes Yes Yes
* Not to be used for systems with more than a total of 5% molar carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide or for
fluids above their critical points.
System Viscosity Conductivity Surface Tension
PETRO (default) PETRO PETRO PETRO
PURE PURE PURE PURE
TRAPP TRAPP TRAPP PETRO
TACITE LBC TRAPP PARACHOR
Method Keyword Viscosity Conductivity Surface Tension
Library Data PURE Yes Yes Yes
Hydrocarbon predictions PETRO Yes Yes Yes
TRAPP Method TRAPP Yes Yes
API Technical Data Book API Liquid
only
Woelfin Method (Tight
correlation using PETRO
or PURE method)
TSWOELF
or TWOELF
Liquid
only
THERMODYNAMIC Data Category of Input > WATER …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
452 Input Reference
WATER
Optional statement. Defines the method to be used for calculating water and steam
properties.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
WATER DECANT=ON, GPSA, SOLU=KERO, PROP=STEAM
Table 422: Water Solubility Calculation Options
Woelfin Method (Medium
correlation using PETRO
or PURE method)
MSWOELF
or MWOELF
Liquid
only
Woelfin Method (Loose
correlation using PETRO
or PURE method)
LSWOELF
or LWOELF
Liquid
only
LohrenzBrayClark LBC Liquid
only
Parachor Method PARACHOR Yes
Heavy Oil Heavy Liquid
only
DECANT = When ON, water is treated as a special component, its solubility in the
hydrocarbon phase is calculated and the nondissolved water put into a
separate phase. When OFF, water is treated as being fully soluble in the rest
of the stream. When SRK, PR, GS, CS, GSE, CSE, IGS, LKP, BK10 or
BWRS methods are used, DECANT is optional and defaults to ON.
GPSA Used with DECANT = ON to specify that water partial pressures are
calculate using the GPSA Data Book Figure 203. If this keyword is not
present, steam tables are used.
SOLUBILITY = SIMSCI Used to specify the method of computing the solubility of water in the
hydrocarbon phase. Options are in Table 422.
PROPERTY =
SATURATED
The calculation basis of pure water properties. Options are in Table 423.
SIMSCI Calculations are based on the solubility of water in a number of common
components, including hydrocarbons and nonhydrocarbon gases. See
Chapter 2, SimSci Thermodynamic Data Input Reference, in the SimSci
Component and Thermodynamic Data Input Manual, for details.
KEROSENE Calculations are based on the solubility of water in kerosene, as presented
in the API Technical Data Book, Figure 9A1.4.
Method Keyword Viscosity Conductivity Surface Tension
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 453
Table 423: Water Property Calculation Options
BWRS
LKP
Optional statements. Define the interaction parameters for the BWRS and LKP equation
of state.
Mandatory entries:
Example:
BWRS 2,3,0.055/3,4,0.008
PR
SRK
Optional statements. Define the interaction parameters for the PengRobinson and
SoaveRedlichKwong equation of state.
Mandatory entries:
Example:
PR 2,3,0.001, 0.054, 3.8/3,4,0.0089, 0.0006, 0.5601
EOS Solubility is calculated from equation of state water Kvalues using water
hydrocarbon interaction parameters.
SATURATED Properties are based on vapor/liquid curves. Adequate for most
simulations.
STEAM Properties are calculated using the Keenan and Keyes equation of state for
water. Use this method when water is present as a superheated vapor.
i, j, kij /... Enter component pair numbers followed by the numerical value of the binary
interaction coefficient for the pair. Multiple entries are separated by the “/”
character.
i, j, kija, kijb, kijc / ... Enter component pair numbers followed by the numerical value of the binary
interaction coefficients for the pair. Multiple entries are separated by the “/”
character.
PVT Data Category of Input > Overview …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
454 Input Reference
PVT Data Category of Input
Overview
The PVT Data Category of input defines properties of streams. This category is
mandatory for blackoil, gas condensate, gas and liquid, and mixed compositional/non
compositional blackoil fluid models. It is optional for steam and mandatory for a
compositional fluid only if you want to build and/or use property tables, or if you want to
override the bulk liquid viscosity.
Table 424: PVT Data Category of Input
PVT
Mandatory statement. Introduces the category.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries: None
SET
Mandatory statement. The entries on this statement depend on the fluid type.
Statement Keywords See page...
PVT None p. 54
SET SETNO=, {GRAVITY()=, CONTAMINANTS=0,0,0, COMP,
CPRATIO=1.30, VISCOSITY()=, CP()=, FVF=, SGOR=}
p. 54
{ADJUST} TRESERVOIR()=, VISCOSITY()=,
COMPRESSIBILITY()=, PRESSURE()=
p. 58
{LIFTGAS} GRAVITY()=, CONTAMINANTS=0,0,0 p. 59
{TABULAR} SETNO=, TEMPERATURE()=, PRESSURE()= p. 59
{FVF} DATA= p. 60
{SGOR()} DATA= p. 61
{VISCOSITY()} DATA= p. 61
{GRAVITY()} DATA= p. 61
{CORRELATION} {VISCOSITY()=, ZFACTOR=STANDING,
FVF=VAZQUEZ, SGOR=VAZQUEZ,
BLEND=VOLUMETRIC, INVERSION=, RATIO=}
p. 62
{DIMENSION} {MAXDIM=}
{GENERATE} SOURCE=, SETNO=,TYPE=, {TEMPERATURE()=, DT()=,
NT()=, PRESSURE()=, DP()=, NP()=, GOR()=,
PRINT=NONE, PLOT=NONE, PVTFILE=}
p. 64
{FILE} SETNO=, PVTFILE= p. 70
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 455
SET for NonCompositional Liquid
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
SET SETNO=1, GRAVITY(LIQUID,LBFT3)=49.7, CP(KCKGC)=0.525,&
VISCOSITY(C,CP)=0,0.395/50,0.246
SET for NonCompositional Gas
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
SET SETNO=1, GRAVITY(GAS)=1.04, CPRATIO=1.45, CONT=0,0,0.2
SET for Steam
Mandatory entries:
SETNO= A numerical entry which identifies the set. This set number corresponds to a
set number on one or more SOURCE statements in the Structure Data
Category of input.
GRAVITY()= Defines the standard gravity of the fluid in gravity units. You must include a
qualifier to specify whether the fluid is LIQUID or WATER. If you use
LIQUID, correlations for liquid hydrocarbons will be used. If you use
WATER, correlations for water properties will be used. Additionally, if you
use WATER, you must enter a gravity value corresponding to a specific
gravity of greater than or equal to 1.0.
VISCOSITY()=Viscosity Use this entry to define a constant viscosity or a loglog viscosity curve. You
may enter either kinematic or dynamic viscosity by specifying the
appropriate units. The format for the entry is:
either VISCOSITY()=value
or VISCOSITY()=temp1,value1/temp2,value2
CP()= Use this entry to define a constant heat capacity for the fluid.
SETNO= A numerical entry which identifies the set. This set number corresponds to
SOURCE statements in the Structure Data Category of input.
GRAVITY(GAS)= Defines the standard gravity of the gas in gas gravity units. If the unit is
SPGR, it is relative to air at 60 F and 1 atmosphere. You must use the
qualifier GAS.
CONTAMINANTS=0,0,0 Defines gas contaminants, which modify the correlated zfactor calculation.
All three values are required. The format for the entry is:
CONTAMINANTS=mole % N2, mole% CO2, mole% H2S
CPRATIO=1.30 Ratio of Cp/Cv.
SETNO= A numerical entry which identifies the set. This set number corresponds to
SOURCE statement in the Structure Data Category of input.
PVT Data Category of Input > SET for Compositional Fluid …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
456 Input Reference
Optional entries:
Example:
SET SETNO=1, GRAVITY(WATER,LBFT3)=66
SET for Compositional Fluid
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
SET SETNO=1, VISCOSITY(OIL,CP,F)=100,2.6/200,0.8
SET for Condensate
Mandatory entries:
GRAVITY(WATER,SPGR)
=1.0
Defines the standard gravity of the liquid water in gravity units. You must
use the qualifier WATER. If you do not want to override the default value,
you can omit the entire PVT Data Category of input.
SETNO= A numerical entry which identifies the set. This set number corresponds to a
set number on one or more SOURCE statements in the Structure Data
Category of input.
VISCOSITY()= Use this entry to define a constant viscosity or a loglog liquid viscosity
curve.You may enter either kinematic or dynamic viscosity by specifying the
appropriate units. The format for the entry is:
either VISCOSITY()=value
or VISCOSITY()=temp1,value1/temp2,value2
You must use a qualifier to define the phase to which the data refer. Options
are OIL, WATER and LIQUID for the hydrocarbon phase, the free water
phase and the total liquid respectively. If multiple sets of twopoint viscosity
curves are supplied by the user, PIPEPHASE will blend these curves when
the streams mix. If viscosity curves are specified, they must be specified for
all sets. Only one set of singlepoint viscosity data is allowed.
SETNO= A numerical entry which identifies the set. This set number corresponds to a
set number on one or more SOURCE statements in the Structure Data
Category of input.
GRAVITY()= Defines the standard gravities of the fluids. You must include a qualifier to
specify whether the fluid is GAS, CONDENSATE or WATER. You must
enter data for all three phases even if one or more is not present. Gravity units
are used for CONDENSATE and WATER and gas gravity units for GAS. The
value of the gravity of WATER must correspond to a specific gravity of
greater than or equal to 1.0.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 457
Optional entries:
Example:
SET SETNO=1, GRAVITY(GAS,KGM3)=1.0, GRAVITY(WATER,SPGR)=1.03,&
GRAVITY(COND)=58, CONT=1.3, 2.1, 0.0
SET for Compositional Blackoil (Compositional sets only)
There are two types of sets that are required for the compositional blackoil model. The
first corresponds to the standard BLACKOIL PVT Set definition (see discussion below).
The second (this set) corresponds to the compositional blackoil source definitions.
Mandatory entries: For compositionallydefined sources:
Optional entry:
SET for Blackoil
This set also applies to blackoil sources in the compositional blackoil model.
Mandatory entries:
CONTAMINANTS=0,0,0 Defines gas contaminants, which modify the correlated zfactor calculation.
All three values are required. The format for the entry is:
CONTAMINANTS=mole % N2, mole% CO2, mole% H2S
SETNO= A numerical entry which identifies the set. This set number corresponds to a
set number on one or more CSOURCE statements in the Structure Data
Category of input.
COMP This keyword indicates that the set is for a compositionally defined source
under the compositional blackoil fluid model.
VISCOSITY(OIL)= Use this entry to define a constant viscosity or a loglog liquid viscosity
curve. You may enter either kinematic or dynamic viscosity by specifying
the appropriate unit.The format for the entry is:
either VISCOSITY()=value
or VISCOSITY()=temp1,value1/temp2,value2
You must use the OIL qualifier to define the phase to which the data refer. If
multiple sets of 2 point viscosity curves are supplied by the user,
PIPEPHASE will blend these curves when the streams mix. If viscosity
curves are specified, they must be specified for all sets. Only one set of
single point viscosity data is allowed.
SETNO= A numerical entry which identifies the set. This set number corresponds to a
set number on one or more SOURCE statements in the Structure Data
Category of input.
GRAVITY()= Defines the standard gravities of the fluids. You must include a qualifier to
specify whether the fluid is GAS, OIL or WATER. You must enter data for all
three phases even if one or more is not present. Gravity units are used for
OIL and WATER and gas gravity units for GAS. The value of the gravity of
WATER must correspond to a specific gravity of greater than or equal to 1.0.
PVT Data Category of Input > ADJUST (Blackoil only) …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
458 Input Reference
Optional entries:
Example:
SET SETNO=1, GRAVITY(OIL)=28, GRAVITY(WATER)=10.5,&
VISCOSITY(OIL)=100,10/210,1, GRAVITY(GAS)=0.75,&
CONT=1.3, 2.1, 0.0
ADJUST (Blackoil only)
Optional statement. Used for blackoil only. This statement must immediately follow the
SET statement. The measured laboratory data on this statement adjusts the properties
computed by the Standing correlation. You must specify STANDING for all properties
on the CORRELATION statement. More than one ADJUST statement is allowed per
run.
Note: Also applies to blackoil sources in the compositional blackoil model.
Mandatory entries:
VISCOSITY(OIL)= Use this entry to define a constant viscosity or a loglog liquid viscosity
curve. You may enter either kinematic or dynamic viscosity by specifying
the appropriate unit. The format for the entry is: either VISCOSITY()=value
or VISCOSITY()=temp1,value1/temp2,value2
You must use the OIL qualifier to define the phase to which the data refer. If
multiple sets of 2 point viscosity curves are supplied by the user,
PIPEPHASE will blend these curves when the streams mix. If viscosity
curves are specified, they must be specified for all sets. Only one set of
single point viscosity data is allowed.
CONTAMINANTS=0,0,0 Defines gas contaminants, which modify the correlated zfactor calculation.
All three values are required. The format for the entry is:
CONTAMINANTS=mole % N2, mole% CO2, mole% H2S
FVF= This specifies the the blackoil formation volume factor correlation. Select on
option from Table 425. If not specified, Pipephase will use the default
correlation specified in the CORRELATION
statement.
SGOR= This specifies the the blackoil Solution gasoil ratio correlation. Select an
option from Table 425. If not specified, Pipephase will use the default
correlation specified in the CORRELATION statement.
TRESERVOIR()= Reservoir temperature. Corresponds to the first PRESSURE entry given
below.
VISCOSITY()= Oil viscosity at bubble point conditions.
COMPRESSIBILITY()= Oil compressibility above the bubble point. Units are reciprocal pressure
units.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 459
Example:
ADJUST TRESERVOIR(F)=160, VISCOSITY(CP)=2.1, COMPRESS=8E6, &
PRESSURE(PSIG)=1400,1000,400, FVF=1.23,1.21,1.17,&
SGOR=449,297,191
LIFTGAS (Blackoil only)
Optional statement. Used for blackoil only. Defines lift gas properties when the
GASLIFT calculation option is used or when a GLVALVE is present in a link.
Note: Also applies to blackoil sources in the compositional blackoil model.
Mandatory entries:
Example:
LIFTGAS GRAVITY=0.75, CONTAMINANTS=1.5, 0.0, 0.25
TABULAR (Blackoil only)
Optional statement. Used for blackoil only. Supplies the temperature and pressure
coordinates for the FVF, SGOR, VISCOSITY and GRAVITY statements that follow.
The data supplied on these statements override those calculated by the program.
Note: Also applies to blackoil sources in the compositional blackoil model.
Mandatory entries:
PRESSURE()= Three pressures, separated by commas, in descending order. The first must
be the bubble point pressure corresponding to TRESERVOIR. The last
should be of the order of 200 psig. The middle value must be a value
intermediate between the other two.
SGOR()= Three values of solution gas oil ratio, separated by commas, corresponding
to the three PRESSURE values.
FVF()= Three values of volume formation factor, separated by commas,
corresponding to the three PRESSURE values. FVF is the ratio of insitu
volume to stock tank volume.
GRAVITY()= Defines the standard gravity of the lift gas in gas gravity units. If the unit is
SPGR, it is relative to air at 60 F and 1 atmosphere.
CONTAMINANTS=0,0,0 Defines lift gas contaminants, which modify the correlated zfactor
calculation. All three values are required. The format for the entry is:
CONTAMINANTS=mole % N2, mole% CO2, mole% H2S
SETNO= A numerical entry which identifies the set. This set number corresponds to a
set number on one or more SOURCE statements in the Structure Data
Category of input.
TEMP()= At least two and no more than five entries may be given in ascending or
descending order. The (units) entry may optimally be used to override the
temperature units on the DIMENSION card.
PVT Data Category of Input > FVF (Blackoil only) …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
460 Input Reference
Mandatory entries:
The TABULAR card is followed by cards of the form shown below where PNAME is a
property name followed by qualifiers. The property values re entered in groups which
correspond to the pressure groups.
Example:
PNAME(qualifiers)DATA = v1,v2,...v10/...
FVF (Blackoil only)
Mandatory when TABULAR statement is used. Supplies Formation Volume Factor data
for the matrix of temperatures and pressures on the TABULAR statement. This
statement must follow the TABULAR statement. The data supplied on this statement
override those calculated by the program.
Note: Also applies to blackoil sources in the compositional blackoil model.
Mandatory entries:
PRES()= At least three and no more than ten entries may be given in ascending or
descending order. The (units) entry may optimally be used to override the
temperature units on the DIMENSION card. Pressures are grouped with
slashes(/), with one group to correspond to each TEMP entry. Each pressure
group must include the bubble point pressure for the TEMP entry, with at
least one pressure entry higher and one entry lower than the bubble point
entry. The bubble point entry is designed with a ‘(BP)’  immediately after
the bubble point pressure entry.
DATA= Up to ten sets of up to five values. Each set must have the same number of
values, separated by commas, as the number of TEMP values entered on the
TABULAR statement. There must be the same number of sets, separated by
the slash (/) character, as the number of PRESSURE values entered on the
TABULAR statement.
DATA= Up to ten sets of up to five values. Each set must have the same number of
values, separated by commas, as the number of TEMP values entered on the
TABULAR statement. There must be the same number of sets, separated by
the slash (/) character, as the number of PRESSURE values entered on the
TABULAR statement.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 461
SGOR() (Blackoil only)
Mandatory when TABULAR statement is used. Supplies Solution Gas Oil Ratio data for
the matrix of temperatures and pressures on the TABULAR statement. This statement
must follow the TABULAR statement. The data supplied on this statement override
those calculated by the program.
Note: Also applies to blackoil sources in the compositional blackoil model.
Mandatory entries:
VISCOSITY() (Blackoil only)
Mandatory when TABULAR statement is used. Supplies live oil Viscosity data for the
matrix of temperatures and pressures on the TABULAR statement. This statement must
follow the TABULAR statement. The data supplied on this statement override those
calculated by the program.
Note: Also applies to blackoil sources in the compositional blackoil model.
Mandatory entries:
GRAVITY() (Blackoil only)
Optional. Used only with TABULAR statement. One or two statements, with OIL and/or
GAS qualifier, supply oil and/or gas gravities data for the matrix of temperatures and
pressures on the TABULAR statement. These statements must follow the TABULAR
statement. The data supplied on these statements override those calculated by the
program.
Note: Also applies to blackoil sources in the compositional blackoil model.
DATA= Up to ten sets of up to five values. Each set must have the same number of
values, separated by commas, as the number of TEMP values entered on the
TABULAR statement. There must be the same number of sets, separated by
the slash (/) character, as the number of PRESSURE values entered on the
TABULAR statement.
DATA= Up to ten sets of up to five values. Each set must have the same number of
values, separated by commas, as the number of TEMP values entered on the
TABULAR statement. There must be the same number of sets, separated by
the slash (/) character, as the number of PRESSURE values entered on the
TABULAR statement.
PVT Data Category of Input > CORRELATION …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
462 Input Reference
Mandatory entries:
Example:
GRAVITY(OIL,LBFT3) DATA= .....
CORRELATION
Optional statement. Used for Blackoil and NonCompositional Liquid and Gas.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries:
Example:
CORR VISCOSITY (LIQ)=USER, CONSTANTS = AA1, 3.383 /CC4, 34.5/…
CORRELATION VISCOSITY(GAS)=KATZ, ZFACTOR=DRY
DATA= Up to ten sets of up to five values. Each set must have the same number of values,
separated by commas, as the number of TEMP values entered on the TABULAR
statement. There must be the same number of sets, separated by the slash (/)
character, as the number of PRESSURE values entered on the TABULAR statement.
VISCOSITY()= Used with Blackoil, Liquid and Gas. Specifies the correlation for the viscosity
calculations. Select an option from Table 425. You must use a qualifier to
indicate whether the phase is LIQ, GAS or OIL. The default depends on the
phase and the fluid. With Blackoil, use VISCOSITY(LIQ) to define the water
oil mixing rule.
ZFACTOR=STANDING Used with Blackoil and Gas. Defines the method to be used for gas
compressibility calculations. Select an option from Table 425.
FVF=VAZQUEZ Used with Blackoil only. Defines the method to be used for formation volume
factor calculation. Select an option from Table 425.
SGOR=VAZQUEZ Used with Blackoil only. Defines the method to be used for solution gas oil
ratio calculation. Select an option from Table 425.
BLEND=VOLUMETRIC Used with Blackoil and Liquid. Defines the viscosity blending rule.
Alternatives are VOLUMETRIC and INDEX.
INVERSION= Water fraction at the inversion point on a volume basis. Use this entry to
adjust the calculation of wateroil mixture viscosity using one of the
WOELFLIN viscosity mixing rules.
RATIO= Enter a curve of water volume fraction against viscosity multiplier. Use this
entry to adjust the calculation of wateroil mixture viscosity using one of the
WOELFLIN viscosity mixing rules. up to ten points may be entered. The
format is:
RATIO=water_frac1, multiplier1/water_frac2, multiplier2...
VISCOSITY (LIQ) =
USER or DAQING
This keyword is required to define an userdefined viscosity correlation
model. Up to 40 labels (maximum 16 characters) and corresponding constants
can be specified. Entry of CONSTANTS data is optional. See Table 417a for
userdefined labels and their default values. If required, default values can be
defined constants.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 463
Table 425: Property Correlations
Fluid Property Correlation Keyword
Liquid
Hydrocarbon
VISC(LIQ) TUFFP Vazquez/Beggs VAZQUEZ
BealStanding/ChewConally STANDING
GLASO GLASO
Liquid Water VISC(LIQ) Beal BEAL
ASME Steam tables ASME
Gas VISC(GAS) Lee et al LEE
Katz, Carr et al KATZ
ZFACTOR StandingKatz STANDING
HallYarborough wet gas WET
HallYarborough dry gas DRY
Blackoil VISC(OIL) TUFFP Vazquez/Beggs VAZQUEZ
BealStanding/ChewConally STANDING
GLASO GLASO
VISC (LIQ) Daqing DAQING
User USER
VISC(GAS) Lee et al LEE
Katz, Carr et al KATZ
Volumetric averaging AVERAGE
API Procedure 14b API
Woelflin for emulsions (tight correlation) TWOELF
Woelflin (medium correlation) MWOELF
Woelflin (loose correlation) LWOELF
SGOR TUFFP Vazquez/Beggs VAZQUEZ
Lasater LASATER
Standing STANDING
GLASO GLASO
FVF TUFFP Vazquez/Beggs VAZQUEZ
Standing STANDING
GLASO GLASO
ZFACTOR StandingKatz STANDING
HallYarborough wet gas WET
HallYarborough dry gas DRY
PVT Data Category of Input > DIMENSION …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
464 Input Reference
Table 426: Labels and Default Values Used for User Defined Correlations
DIMENSION
DIMENSION specifies the maximum number of tables and table size to be used for the
problem. This is an optional entry. System defaults are available. The DIMENSION
statement must occur before the first GENERATE statement.
The MAXDIM keyword specifies the maximum number and dimensions of the Type 2
blackoil tables. The number of tables (TtABL label), the number of pressures (PRES
label), the number of temperatures (TEMP label), and the number of variables (VARI
label). An example may be found at the end of this chapter.
The syntax is:
DIMENSION MAXDIM=label,number/ label,number/……
MAXDIM Labels:
Labels Default Values Labels Default Values
CUT1 0.006 CC1 1.562
CUT2 0.74 CC2 2.7183
C1 7.1546 CC3 0.03702
C2 2.7885 CC4 35.0
C3 0.6 CC5 2.7183
C4 7.2799 CC6 3.5
C5 2.8447 CC7 35.0
C6 0.6 AA2 3.3811
C7 7.2244 CC8 0.3892
C8 2.8506 CC9 2.7183
C9 0.6 CC10 0.02237
C10 1.0 CC11 50.0
C11 2.8461 CC12 2.7183
C12 2.7183 CC13 3.5
C13 7.0 CC14 1.0073
AA1 3.3811
CC15
35.0
Label Description
TABL Number of tables. Minimum and Default is 10
PRES Number of pressures. Minimum and Default is 30, Maximum is 150
TEMP Number of temperatures. Minimum and Default is 30, Maximum is 150
VARI Number of variables. Minimum and Default is 6. Maximum is 18
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 465
Example:
DIMENSIONS MAXDIM=TABL,20/PRES,50/TEMP,10/VARI,
GENERATE (for Compositional)
Optional statement. Used only for compositional fluids. Causes a table of fluid
properties to be created. This table can be used in the same run in which it is generated or
stored for use in a future run. You cannot do both.
If you want to create and use the table in this run, you may have only one source and you
must have a complete Structure Data Category of input. If the table is to be stored for use
in a subsequent simulation, you must use the PVTGEN entry on the CALCULATION
statement in the General Data Category of input. You can create more than one table but
the only Structure statements allowed are those required to define a source. Refer to your
platform Installation Guide for assistance on file management procedures for your
operating system and computer hardware.
Note: The phase fraction generated in the Compositional PVT Table are Molar fractions.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
GENERATE SOURCE=FEED, SETNO=1, TEMP=0,DT=30, NT=16,&
PRES=10,50,90,130,150, PRINT=LDEN,LVIS,LFRAC, PLOT=FULL
SOURCE= The name of the compositional source for which the table is to be created.
SETNO= If you are saving tables for a future run, this entry refers to the table number
and is used on the FILE statement in the future run. If you are not saving the
table, this entry must be the same as the set number on the SOURCE statement.
TEMPERATURE()=100,
DT()=10,
NT=10
Use these entries to define the temperatures at which the properties are to be
calculated. The format is:
TEMP=initial value,DT=increment,NT=number of values
You must define at least three and not more than twenty data points.
PRESSURE()=14.7,
DP()=20,
NP=10
Use these entries to define the pressures at which the properties are to be
calculated. The format is:
PRES=initial value,DP=increment,NP=number of values
You must define at least three and not more than twenty data points.
PRINT=NONE
PLOT=NONE
Options are FULL or NONE or a list of individual properties:
PRINT=property, property, ...
Table 427 shows the keywords for the properties.
PVTFILE= Use this entry to specify an eight character prefix for the PVT data file. The
extension is always .PVT and the default is {input file name}.PVT.
PVT Data Category of Input > GENERATE (for Blackoil) …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
466 Input Reference
Table 427: Generated Properties Printed or Plotted
GENERATE (for Blackoil)
Optional statement. Used for Blackoil. Causes a table of fluid properties to be created.
This table can be used in the same run in which it is generated or stored for use in a
future run. Multiple blackoil GENERATE statements are allowed, one for each PVT set.
Stream mixing of blackoil tables is automatically done when needed for network
calculations. Specify the correlation for the viscosity calculations. Select an option from
Table 425. You must use a qualifier to indicate whether the phase is LIQ, GAS or OIL.
You cannot do both liquid and gas. The default depends on the phase and the fluid. With
Blackoil, use VISCOSITY(LIQ) to define the wateroil mixing rule.
If you want to create and use the table in this run, you may have only one source and you
must have a complete Structure Data Category of input. If the table is to be stored for use
in a subsequent simulation, you must use the PVTGEN entry on the CALCULATION
statement in the General Data Category of input. You can create more than one table but
Property Phase Keyword
Fraction (Molar
fraction)
Gas
Liquid
GFRAC
LFRAC
Molecular Weight Gas
Liquid
GMW
LMW
Surface Tension Liquid
Water
LSURF
WSURF
Density Gas
Liquid
Water
GDEN
LDEN
WDEN
Viscosity Gas
Liquid
Water
GVIS
LVIS
WVIS
Enthalpy Gas
Liquid
Water
Total Stream
GENTH
LENTH
WENTH
TENTH
Thermal Conductivity Gas
Liquid
Water
GCON
LCON
WCON
The properties generated are: Oil formation volume factor
Solution gasoil ratio
Live oil viscosity
Oil gravity
Free gas gravity
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 467
the only Structure statements allowed are those required to define a source. Refer to your
platform Installation Guide for assistance on file management procedures for your
operating system and computer hardware.
Old keywords for old functionality in the GENERATE statement for TYPE=1 tables:
SETNO,TEMPERATURE()=,DT()=,NT=,PRESSURE()=,DP()=,NP=6
GOR()=
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
GENERATE SOURCE=FEED, SETNO=1, TEMP=250, 50,&
PRES=4000,1000,4, GOR=1236, PLOT=FULL
New keywords for new functionality in the GENERATE statement for TYPE=2 tables:
Mandatory entries: For Type=2:
SETNO= If you are saving tables for a future run, this entry refers to the table number
and is used on the FILE statement in the future run. If you are not saving the
table, this entry must be the same as the set number on the SOURCE
statement.
TEMPERATURE()=100,
DT()=10,
NT=6
Use these entries to define the temperatures at which the properties are to be
calculated. The format is:
TEMP=initial value,DT=increment,NT=number of values
You must define at least three and not more than twenty data points.
PRESSURE()=14.7,
DP()=20,
NP=6
Use these entries to define the pressures at which the properties are to be
calculated. The format is:
PRES=initial value,DP=increment,NP=number of values
GOR()= The formation GOR for which the PVT table is to be generated.
TYPE=1 Defines the type of blackoil table. Allowed values are 1(default) for Fixed
GOR type tables or 2 for the new variable GOR PVT tables.
PLOT=NONE Use this keyword to control the output of plotted properties. Options are
FULL or NONE. Property tables are always printed.
PVEC ( units)= Specifies an array of pressures. The number of pressures allowed depends on
what was specified for the PRES label in the MAXDIM statement.
TVEC (units )= Specifies an array of temperatures. .The number of temperatures allowed
depends on what was specified for the PRES label in the MAXDIM
statement.
PRVEC=label,
integervalue/label,integer
value/……
The type 2 blackoil table always generates/uses 6 mandatory properties and
12 additional optional properties. This keyword specifies through standard
labels (listed below), which optional properties are to be added in the Table.
An integer value of 1 means that property is to be included. An integer
value of 0 means that property is not to be included in the table. The 12
optional properties are listed below. If an optional property label is not
specified, that optional property is not included..
PVT Data Category of Input > GENERATE (for Blackoil) …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
468 Input Reference
Optional entries:
The PVT file will be always be generated in the same directory as the output file.
A blackoil PVT table can be used for any fluid with the same PVT set properties,
independent of the gas oil ratio (GOR). When the tables are generated, a large GOR
value is used to predict the solution gas oil ratio (SGOR) and other properties. When
using the PVT tables, properties are obtained based on tabular data as impacted by the
source GOR. The method for determining the accurate PVT properties above the bubble
point is as follows:
• The bubble point pressure is calculated for the given temperature and source GOR.
• The solution gas oil ratio, water oil ratio, oil volume formation factor, water volume
formation factor and liquid viscosity are obtained for the given temperature and
pressure, with the pressure being limited to the bubble point pressure.
• The oil gravity, gas gravity, gas compressibility, gas viscosity and remaining proper
ties are obtained for the given temperature and pressure.
Table 428: Default Set of Properties (mandatory)
PRVEC keyword allows the user to specify additional property tables in addition to the
default set.
PVTFIL=alphanumeric
character string
This keyword specifies the name of the PVT file to be generated for this
blackoil PVT set. An automatic extension '.PVT' will be added to this string.
The default name will be filename_setno_xx where 'xx' denotes the PVT set
number.
FVFO Oil Formation Volume Factor
SGOR Solution Gas oil ratio
VISO Oil Viscosity
OILGRAV Oil Gravity
GASGRAV Oil Gravity
CO Oil Compressibility
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 469
Table 429: Additional Properties –Valid Labels
Example:
GENERATE SETNO=4, PVTFILE=TEST_PVTGB2_SET4, TYPE=2,*
TVEC=70,75,80,85,90,95,100,105,110,115,120,125,130, *
PVEC=500,750,1000,1250,1500,1750,2000,2250,2500,2750,3000,3250,3500,3750,*
PRVEC=VISW,1/CPO,1
This specification will generate a table with the following 6 mandatory properties and 2
optional (total 8) properties:
The old TEMPERATURE,DT,NT,PRESSURE,DP,NP keywords can be used for
TYPE=1 tables
GOR will work only with TYPE=1 (old) PVT tables.
Old functionality: Only one blackoil GENERATE statements was allowed.
Note: Liquid viscosity is dependent primarily on temperature. For blackoil tabular data, viscosity may be a
function of pressure below the bubble point to take into account gas that is dissolving into the liquid. Above
the bubble point, the viscosity does not change significantly as a function of pressure. As a result,
PIPEPHASE will use the viscosity at the bubble point pressure for pressures that exceed this value.
FVFW Water Formation Volume Factor
ZFAC Gas Compressibility
SGWR Solution Gas Water Ratio
VISG Gas Viscosity
VISW Water Viscosity
CW Water Compressibility
STOG Oilgas Surface Tension
STWG Watergas Surface Tension
STOW Oilwater Surface Tension
CPG Gas Specific Heat
CPO Oil Specific Heat
CPW Water Specific Heat
FVFO Oil Formation Volume Factor
SGOR Solution Gas oil ratio
VISO Oil Viscosity
OILGRAV Oil Gravity
GASGRAV Gas Gravity
CO Oil Compressibility
VISW Water Viscosity
CPO Oil specific heat
PVT Data Category of Input > FILE …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
470 Input Reference
FILE
Optional statement. Allows you to retrieve data which have been generated in a previous
run. You may select only one table from a previous run (i.e., only one source
composition). When this statement is used, it is the only statement in the PVT Data
Category of input. Refer to your platform Installation Guide for assistance on file
management procedures for your operating system and computer hardware.
Mandatory entries: For compositional fluids:
Optional entry:
Example: FILE SETNO=2, PVTFILE=SET01
FILE (for Blackoil)
Optional statement. Each FILE statement allows the simulation to retrieve and use a
pregenerated PVT file
Mandatory entries: For compositional fluids:
FILE SETNO=1, PVTFILE=xxx
Example: PVT statement using both SET and GENERATE statements:
PVT
DIMENSION MAXDIM=TABL,2/PRES,20/TEMP,10
SET SETN=1, GRAV(OIL,API)=35, GRAV(GAS,SPGR)=0.65, *
GRAV(WATER)=1.03, FVF=STANDING, SGOR=LASATER
GENERATE SETN=1,TYPE=2,PVEC(PSIA)=10,14.7,100,200,300,….., TVEC(F)=50,60,70,….
$
SET SETN=2, GRAV(OIL,API)=25, GRAV(GAS,SPGR)=0.6, *
GRAV(WATER)=1.03, FVF=VAZQUEZ, SGOR=VAZQUEZ
GENERATE SETN=2,TYPE=2, PVEC(PSIA)=10,14.7,100,200,300,….., TVEC(F)=50,60,70,….
SETNO=
The set number which is to be retrieved. This number corresponds to a
SETNO entry on a GENERATE statement in a previous run which created
the tables. It also is used by the SOURCE statement to identify the table from
which properties are to be taken. This entry is not allowed for blackoil
calculations.
PVTFILE= The 8 character prefix for the userspecified filename. The file extension is
always .PVT and the default is {input file name}.PVT.
SETNO= The PVT set number. For Type=1 PVT table, the set number must match the
set number in the Type 1 PVT file.
PVTFILE= The name of the PVT table file. If file cannot be found, an error message will
be printed and the program will stop.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 471
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input
Overview
The STRUCTURE Data Category of Input defines the piping system. It is mandatory for
all types of simulation.
Table 430a: STRUCTURE Data Category of Input
Statement Keywords See page...
STRUCTURE None
p. 75
SOURCE STREAMID= or NAME=, SETNO= or REFSOURCE=,
{PRESSURE()= , TEMPERATURE()=, QUALITY=,
RATE()=, SET=, ASSAY=LV or COMPOSITION()=,
NOCHECK, GOR()=0.0, CGR()=0.0, WCUT=0.0,
WGR()=0.0, COEFFICIENT()=, EXP()=, PRIORITY=}
p. 75
CSOURCE STREAMID= or NAME=, SETNO= or REFSOURCE=,
{PRESSURE()= , TEMPERATURE()=, RATE()=, SET=,
ASSAY=LV or COMPOSITION()=, NOCHECK,
PRIORITY=}
p. 78
{WTEST} NAME=, TEMPERATURE()=, PRESSURE()=, RESPRES(),
RATE()=, {PI() or VOGEL(), GOR(), WCUT=0.0, GAS,
CGR(), WGR()=0.0}
p. 80
{D86 or TBP or
D1160 or D2887 or
TBP10}
DATA()=percent, temp/percent, temp/ ...
p. 81
{API or SPGR or
WATSONK}
{DATA()=mid %, value/ mid %, value/...}, AVG=
p. 82
{MW} DATA=mid %, value/ mid %, value/..., {AVG=}
p. 83
{LIGHTENDS} COMPOSITION()=, RATE= or PERCENT= or FRAC= or
MATCH or NOMATCH, STREAM=, NORMALIZE
p. 83
{SINK} {STREAMID= or NAME=}, PRESSURE()=,
{TEMPERATURE()=, RATE(), INJECTION,
COEFFICIENT()=, EXP()=, SET=}
p. 87
{JUNCTION} STREAMID= or NAME=, {PRESSURE(ESTI)=, TROCK=},
{DETEE or STTEE, ANGLE()=0, {PROPORTIONAL or
HONG or ORANJE or TUFFP or CHIEN or SEEUP or
SEEHOR or SEEDOWN or USER}
p. 88
{LINK} NAME=, FROM=, TO=, {RATE(ESTI)=, DUAL, INJECT,
QMAX()=, QMIN()=0, TOLERANCE(LOWER)=,
TOLERANCE(UPPER)=, FWATER, FOIL, FGAS, PRINT}
p. 89
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > Overview …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
472 Input Reference
{PIPE} {NAME=}, LENGTH()=, {ID()= or NOMD=,
SCHEDULE=40, ECHG()=0.0, FCODE=,
PALMER=0.924,0.685, ROUGHNESS()=0.0018,
ISOTHERMAL or NONISOTHERMAL, WATER or AIR or
SOIL, VELOCITY()=10, TAMBIENT()=80, DENSITY()=,
VISCOSITY()=, CONDUCTIVITY()=, FLOWEFF=100,
HWCOEF()=150, U()=1.0, HINSIDE()=0.0,
HOUTSIDE()=0.0, HRADIANT()=0.0, BDTOP()=0.0,
THKPIPE()=0.3125, THKINS()=0.0, CONPIPE()=29,
CONINS()=0.015, CONSOIL()=0.8, IDSPHERE()=, DELH=,
SEGM=}
p. 92
{ANNULUS} {NAME=}, LENGTH()=, {IDAN()=, ODTUBING()=,
DEPTH()=, FCODE=, PALMER=0.924,0.685,
ROUGHNESS()=0.0018, ISOTHERMAL or
NONISOTHERMAL, FLOWEFF=100, HWCOEF()=150,
U()=1.0, TGRADIENT()=1.0, DELH=, SEGM=}
p. 94
{TUBING} {NAME=}, LENGTH()=, {ID()= or NOMD=,
SCHEDULE=40, DEPTH()=, FCODE=,
PALMER=0.924,0.685, ROUGHNESS()=0.0018,
ISOTHERMAL or NONISOTHERMAL, FLOWEFF=100,
HWCOEF()=150, U()=1.0, TGRADIENT()=1.0,
ODTUBING()=, IDCASING()=, ODCASING()=, HOLEID(),
CONCASING()=25, EMIS()=0.95, EMOS()=0.95,
MEDIUM=, CPANNULUS()=, CONANNULUS()=,
BETANNULUS()=, VISANNULUS()=, VELANNULUS()=,
DENANNULUS()=, DIFFEARTH=0.96, CONEARTH()=,
TIME=, DELH=, SEGM=}
p. 95
{COMPLETION} {NAME=}, JONES or MCLEOD, LENGTH()=, PERFD()=,
SHOTS()=, {TUNNEL()=, PERM()=, PENETRATION()=,
OVER or UNDER, THICKNESS()=0.5}
p. 101
Table 430a: STRUCTURE Data Category of Input (cont.)
Statement Keywords See page...
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 473
Table 430b: STRUCTURE Data Category of Input – Equipment Devices (No Length)
Statement Keywords See page...
{COMPRESSOR} {NAME=}, POWER()= or PRES()= or CURVE()=rate, head,
efficiency/rate, head, efficiency/... or CRVn()=rate, head,
efficiency/... and RPMC= and RPM= or POWER= or
PRESSURE=, {STAGES=1, EFFICIENCY=100}
p. 102
{MCOMPRESS} {NAME=}, POWER()= or PDISCHARGE()= or
CURVE()=stage, rate, head, efficiency/stage, rate, head,
efficiency/... or PIN()=, {TRAINS=1, STAGES=1, EQUALPR
or INTP()=, ADEFF=100, POLY, PEFF=100, PEXP=,
INTP()=, INTQ()= or INTT(), INTDP()=, PERCENT()=,
NOKCONV, TDIS()=, PRSTAGE()=, STANDARD or
ACTUAL}
p. 103
{COOLER} {NAME=}, TOUT()= or DUTY()=, {DP()=0.0,
COEFFICIENT=1.0, EXP=1.0}
p. 105
{DPDT} {NAME=}, CURVE()=rate,dp,dt /..., {WELL} p. 105
{EXPANDER} {NAME=}, POWER()= or DP()= or PRATIO= or PRES()=,
{EFFICIENCY=100, WTOLERANCE=0.001, TEST()=}
p. 106
{GLVALVE} {NAME=}, RATE()=, {DISSOLVE=100} p. 107
{HEATER} {NAME=}, TOUT()= or DUTY()=, {DP()=0.0,
COEFFICIENT=1.0, EXP=1.0}
p. 107
{INJECTION} {NAME=}, FROM=, GAS or COND or WATER or LIQUID,
{PRESSURE()= and TEMPERATURE()=, WELL}
p. 108
{IPR} {NAME=}, MODEL= or TYPE=, IVAL=, RVAL=, ARRAY=,
{GROUP=}
p. 109
{PUMP} {NAME=}, POWER()= or PRESSURE()= or TYPE=0 and
CURVE()=rate,head,efficiency,power/..., or TYPE=0 and
HDCONS= and EFFCONS= and PWRCONS= or
CRVn()=rate,head,efficiency/... and RPMC= and RPM= or
POWER= or PRESSURE=, {STAGES=1,
EFFICIENCY=100, AUXILLIARY()=, ALPHA=,
DEGRADATION=, SUBMERGENCE()=, CHP()=14.7,
PGRAD=0, WELL, LENGTH()=, DEPTH()=,}
p. 119
{REGULATOR} {NAME=}, PRES()= p. 121
{SEPARATOR} {NAME=}, PERCENT()= or RATE()=, {WELL, GIP= or
ODPUMP() and IDCASING()=}
p. 122
{EXPANSION} {NAME=}, IDIN()= or NOMID=, IDOUT()= or NOMOD=,
{DESCRIPTION=, SCHEDULE=40, ANGLE=180, K=,
CHISHOLM or HOMOGENEOUS, LAMBDA=1.0, C2=,
USER=, NUMBER=1, COMP}
p. 131
{NOZZLE} {NAME=}, IDPIPE()= or NOMD=, {SCHEDULE=40},
IDNOZZLE()=, {COEFFICIENT=, CPCV=1.4,
CHISHOLM or HOMOGENEOUS, LAMBDA=1.0, C2=0.5,
USER=, NUMBER=1}
p. 132
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > Overview …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
474 Input Reference
{ORIFICE} {NAME=}, IDPIPE()= or NOMD=, {SCHEDULE=40},
IDORIFICE()=, {THIN or THICK, COEFFICIENT=,
CHISHOLM or HOMOGENEOUS, LAMBDA=1.0, C2=0.5,
CPCV=1.4, USER=, NUMBER=1}
p. 133
{TEE} {NAME=}, IDPIPE()= or NOMD=, K= or KMUL=,
{DESCRIPTION=, SCHEDULE=40,
ROUGHNESS()=0.0018, CHISHOLM or HOMOGENEOUS,
LAMBDA=1.0, C2=1.75, USER=, NUMBER=1}
p. 133
{VALVE} {NAME=}, IDIN()= or NOMID=, IDOUT()= or NOMOD=,
K= or KMUL=, {DESCRIPTION=, SCHEDULE=40,
ANGLE=180, CHISHOLM or HOMOGENEOUS,
LAMBDA=1.0,, C2=1.5, VELCON=, USER=, NUMBER=1}
p. 134
{VENTURIMETER} {NAME=}, IDPIPE()= or NOMD=, {SCHEDULE=40},
IDTHROAT()=, {COEFFICIENT=, CPCV=1.4,
CHISHOLM or HOMOGENEOUS, LAMBDA=1.0, C2=5.3,
USER=, NUMBER=1}
p. 136
Table 430c: STRUCTURE Data Category of Input – Fitting Devices
Statement Keywords See page...
{BEND} {NAME=}, ID()= or NOMD=, K= or KMUL=,
{DESCRIPTION=, SCHEDULE=40, STANDARD or
NONSTANDARD, RADIUS()=, ANGLE()=,
ROUGHNESS()=0.0018, CHISHOLM or HOMOGENEOUS,
LAMBDA=1.0, C2=4.35, USER=, NUMBER=1}
p. 124
{CHECK} {NAME=}, ID()=,, {COEFFICIENT=1.0}
p. 125
{CHOKE} {NAME=}, ID()=,, FN or UEDA or ORIFICE or PERKINS,
{COEF=1.03, CPCV=1.0, WELL}
p. 125
{MCHOKE} {NAME=}, PUPS()= or QRATE ()= or PDOWN()=,
{CPCV=1.4, COEF=1.0}
p. 127
{MREGULATOR} {NAME=}, PUPS()= or QRATE ()= or PDOWN()=
p. 128
{CONTRACTION} {NAME=}, IDIN()= or NOMID=, IDOUT()= or NOMOD=,
{DESCRIPTION=, SCHEDULE=40, ANGLE()=180, K=,
HOMOGENEOUS or CHISHOLM, LAMBDA=1.0, C2=0.5,
USER=, NUMBER=1}
p. 128
{ENTRANCE} {NAME=}, IDPIPE()= or NOMD=, {DESCRIPTION=,
SCHEDULE=40, K=0.5, HOMOGENEOUS or CHISHOLM,
LAMBDA=1.0, C2=, USER=, NUMBER=1}
p. 129
{EXIT} {NAME=}, IDPIPE()= or NOMD=, {DESCRIPTION=,
SCHEDULE=40, K=1, HOMOGENEOUS or CHISHOLM,
LAMBDA=1.0, C2=, USER=, NUMBER=1}
p. 130
Table 430b: STRUCTURE Data Category of Input – Equipment Devices (No Length) (cont.)
Statement Keywords See page...
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 475
STRUCTURE
Mandatory statement. Introduces the category.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries: None
System Nodes
SOURCE
Mandatory statement. Defines a point where fluid enters the system. There may be more
than one source in a simulation. The data required depends upon the fluid type. A source
may be defined explicitly by giving all its properties, or you may instruct PIPEPHASE
that any property not given should be copied from another source.
Mandatory entries: For all fluids:
{EXPANSION} {NAME=}, IDIN()= or NOMID=, IDOUT()= or NOMOD=,
{DESCRIPTION=, SCHEDULE=40, ANGLE=180, K=,
CHISHOLM or HOMOGENEOUS, LAMBDA=1.0, C2=,
USER=, NUMBER=1, COMP}
p. 131
{NOZZLE} {NAME=}, IDPIPE()= or NOMD=, {SCHEDULE=40},
IDNOZZLE()=, {COEFFICIENT=, CPCV=1.4,
CHISHOLM or HOMOGENEOUS, LAMBDA=1.0, C2=0.5,
USER=, NUMBER=1}
p. 132
{ORIFICE} {NAME=}, IDPIPE()= or NOMD=, {SCHEDULE=40},
IDORIFICE()=, {THIN or THICK, COEFFICIENT=,
CHISHOLM or HOMOGENEOUS, LAMBDA=1.0, C2=0.5,
CPCV=1.4, USER=, NUMBER=1}
p. 133
{TEE} {NAME=}, IDPIPE()= or NOMD=, K= or KMUL=,
{DESCRIPTION=, SCHEDULE=40,
ROUGHNESS()=0.0018, CHISHOLM or HOMOGENEOUS,
LAMBDA=1.0, C2=1.75, USER=, NUMBER=1}
p. 133
{VALVE} {NAME=}, IDIN()= or NOMID=, IDOUT()= or NOMOD=,
K= or KMUL=, {DESCRIPTION=, SCHEDULE=40,
ANGLE=180, CHISHOLM or HOMOGENEOUS,
LAMBDA=1.0,, C2=1.5, VELCON=, USER=, NUMBER=1}
p. 134
{VENTURIMETER} {NAME=}, IDPIPE()= or NOMD=, {SCHEDULE=40},
IDTHROAT()=, {COEFFICIENT=, CPCV=1.4,
CHISHOLM or HOMOGENEOUS, LAMBDA=1.0, C2=5.3,
USER=, NUMBER=1}
p. 136
STREAMID=
or
Identifies the source. Up to twelve alphanumeric characters.
NAME= Identifies the source. Up to twelve alphanumeric characters.
Table 430c: STRUCTURE Data Category of Input – Fitting Devices (cont.)
Statement Keywords See page...
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > SOURCE …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
476 Input Reference
Other entries for all fluids:
Other entries for Compositional Sources:
SETNO=
or
REFSOURCE=
Use one of these. SETNO must be numeric. It is the identifier which links the
source to a set of properties defined in the PVT data category. When you use
REFSOURCE, the temperature, pressure, rate and composition of the
referenced source are copied into this source. You can then override any one
or more of these using entries on this statement.
PRESSURE()= Mandatory entry unless REFSOURCE is used. Use the ESTI qualifier if the
pressure is estimated
For timestepping, if the source drains a reservoir, the source pressure is
interpreted as the reservoir pressure at the source location at time = 0.0. This
pressure may be different from the average reservoir pressure. This pressure
difference is maintained throughout the timestepping.
TEMPERATURE()= Mandatory entry, unless REFSOURCE is used or, for a steam or single
component source, QUALITY is given. For single component source
QUALITY must be specified. If QUALITY=0 or 100%, then
TEMPERATURE must also be specified.
RATE()= Mandatory entry unless REFSOURCE is used or unless compositional rates
are specified. Use the ESTI qualifier if the rate is estimated. The units in
which you must express the flowrate of a noncompositional fluid depends
on the fluid type:
Fluid Type Rate Basis
Noncompositional gas Gas volume units
Noncompositional liquid Liquid volume units
Steam Weight units
For a compositional fluid, you may also use a qualifier to define the basis of
the flowrate. Options are: LV, GV, W, or M for liquid volume, gas volume,
weight, or moles. The default basis is moles, except for ASSAY.
PRIORITY= Integer that indicates the priority of shut in for the source under the various
well control options. For example if there are two sources, and the priority of
one is 1 and the priority of the other is 2, then PIPEPHASE will first
preferentially shut the source with PRIORITY=1.
SET= Identifies the thermodynamic set name as defined in the Thermodynamic
Data Category. The defined thermodynamic set will then be used for the link
associated with this source.
ASSAY=LV Use this with Compositional sources. ASSAY instructs PIPEPHASE to
expect source data in the form of an assay curve (see below). You must
define the basis of the assay. Options are LV and WT. Cannot be used with
COMPOSITION.
or
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 477
Other entries for Blackoil Sources:
Other entries for Gas Condensate Sources:
Other entries for Single Phase Gas Sources:
Other entries for Steam Sources and Single Component Sources:
Other entries for GUI PFD Layout:
Example:
SOURCE NAME=FEED, SETNO=1, PRES=0, TEMP(C)=40, RATE=100
SOURCE NAME=13, PRESS=125, TEMP=136, RATE(W)=2000,&
COMP=0.8/0.1/0.05/0.05
COMPOSITION()= The component breakdown of the SOURCE in fractions, percents, or rates.
Cannot be used with ASSAY. Basis may be:
M Moles (Default)
W Weight
LV Standard liquid volume
GV Standard gas volume
Format for data entry is:
COMPOSITION(basis) = i, value/...
Component rates which sum to 1.0 or 100.0 are taken as fractions or percents
respectively. For other totals, the sum is taken as the total rate and checked
against the RATE entry. If the total rate and the RATE entry do not agree, an
error is signalled unless the NOCHECK keyword is also used. For
NOCHECK, component rates are normalized to agree with RATE.
NOCHECK Use this keyword with COMPOSITION to request normalization of
component percentages or fractions. Unless NOCHECK is invoked,
COMPOSITION must sum to 1.0, 100.0 or the value defined on the RATE
entry.
GOR()=0.0 Optional entry. Gasoil ratio.
WCUT=0.0 Optional entry. Volume percent of water in the liquid phase.
CGR()=0.0 Optional entry. Condensate gas ratio .
WGR()=0.0 Optional entry. Water gas ratio.
COEFFICIENT()= and
EXP()=I
Optional entries. Define the Inflow Performance Relationship of a well
source using the gas flow equation. See IPR device for alternate
specification.
COEFFICIENT()= and
EXP()=
Optional entries. Define the Inflow Performance Relationship of a well
source using the gas flow equation.
QUALITY= Use instead of or in addition to TEMPERATURE. QUALITY must be
between 0 and 100 percent. If quality is given, PIPEPHASE calculates the
corresponding temperature at the given pressure. If quality is specified as
zero or 100 percent, the temperature must also be supplied.
XCOR = xxx
YCOR = xxx
GUI Coordinates to place the icon on the PFD.
The user should not change this data.
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > CSOURCE …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
478 Input Reference
SOURCE NAME=12, PRESS=115,&
RATE(W)=1000, TEMPERATURE=136, REFS=13
SOURCE NAME=W, RATE=70000, PRES(ESTI)=170, QUALITY=98
SOURCE NAME=FEED, SETNO=1, PRES=114, RATE(W)=1500000, &
TEMPERATURE=60, ASSAY=LV
SOURCE NAME=100, TEMP=150, PRES=1000, &
COMP=1,3000/2,35/3,30/4,890/5,300/6,520/7,105/8,283/&
9,100/10,133/11,165/12,303/13,560/14,930/15,300/&
16,300/17,300/18,280/19,260, RATE=8800, NOCHECK, SET=THERMO1
CSOURCE
Mandatory statement for compositionallydefined sources for the compositional blackoil
model. Defines a point where fluid enters the system. There may be more than one
source in a simulation. All the statements that define a source must be grouped together.
The data required depends upon the fluid type. A source may be defined explicitly by
giving all its properties, or you may instruct PIPEPHASE that any property not given
should be copied from another source.
Mandatory entries: For all fluids:
Other entries for all fluids:
STREAMID=
or
Identifies the source. Up to twelve alphanumeric characters.
NAME= Identifies the source. Up to twelve alphanumeric characters.
SETNO=
or
REFSOURCE=
Use one of these. SETNO must be numeric. It is the identifier which links
the source to a set of properties defined in the PVT data category. When you
use REFSOURCE, the temperature, pressure, rate and composition of the
referenced source are copied into this source. You can then override any one
or more of these using entries on this statement.
PRESSURE()= Mandatory entry unless REFSOURCE is used. Use the ESTI qualifier if the
pressure is estimated.
For timestepping, if the source drains a reservoir, the source pressure is
interpreted as the reservoir pressure at the source location at time = 0.0. This
pressure may be different from the average reservoir pressure. This pressure
difference is maintained throughout the timestepping.
TEMPERATURE()= Mandatory entry, unless REFSOURCE is used or, for a steam or single
component source, QUALITY is given. For single component source
QUALITY must be specified. If QUALITY=0 or 100%, then
TEMPERATURE must also be specified.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 479
Other entries for Compositional Sources:
Example:
CSOURC NAME=1,RATE=100,TEMP=140,PRES(ESTI)=100, &
COMP=20/40/40,NOCHECK, SETNO=2
NAME=2,RATE=100,TEMP=100,PRES=89,REFSOURCE=2,SETNO=2
RATE()= Mandatory entry unless REFSOURCE is used or unless compositional rates
are specified. Use the ESTI qualifier if the rate is estimated. The units in
which you must express the flowrate of a noncompositional fluid depends
on the fluid type:
Fluid Type Rate Basis
Noncompositional gas Gas volume units
Noncompositional liquid Liquid volume units
Steam Weight units
For a compositional fluid, you may also use a qualifier to define the basis of
the flowrate. Options are: LV, GV, W, or M for liquid volume, gas volume,
weight, or moles. The default basis is moles, except for ASSAY.
PRIORITY= Integer that indicates the priority of shut in for the source under the various
well control options. For example if there are two sources, and the priority of
one is 1 and the priority of the other is 2, then PIPEPHASE will first
preferentially shut the source with PRIORITY=1.
SET= Identifies the thermodynamic set name as defined in the Thermodynamic
Data Category. The defined thermodynamic set will then be used for the link
associated with this source.
ASSAY=LV Use this with Compositional sources. ASSAY instructs PIPEPHASE to
expect source data in the form of an assay curve (see below). You must
define the basis of the assay. Options are LV and WT. Cannot be used with
COMPOSITION.
COMPOSITION()= The component breakdown of the SOURCE in fractions, percents, or rates.
Cannot be used with ASSAY. Basis may be:
M Moles (Default)
W Weight
LV Standard liquid volume
GV Standard gas volume
Format for data entry is:
COMPOSITION(basis) = i, value/...
Component rates which sum to 1.0 or 100.0 are taken as fractions or percents
respectively. For other totals, the sum is taken as the total rate and checked
against the RATE entry. If the total rate and the RATE entry do not agree, an
error is signalled unless the NOCHECK keyword is also used. For
NOCHECK, component rates are normalized to agree with RATE.
NOCHECK Use this keyword with COMPOSITION to request normalization of
component percentages or fractions. Unless NOCHECK is invoked,
COMPOSITION must sum to 1.0, 100.0 or the value defined on the RATE
entry.
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > WTEST …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
480 Input Reference
WTEST
Optional statement. Defines the Inflow Performance Relationship of a well from
measured data. This statement may be used only in a SINGLE link calculation. It must
follow immediately after the SOURCE statement to which it refers.
This statement is used with Blackoil, Condensate, Liquid or Gas. The data required
depends upon the fluid type.
Mandatory entries: For all fluids:
Other entries for Blackoil:
Other entries for Gas Condensate:
Other entries for Singlephase Liquid:
Other entries for Singlephase Gas:
NAME= Identifies the test device at the outlet of which the test measurements were
taken. Up to four alphanumeric characters.
TEMPERATURE()= Measured temperature at the test device outlet. For a gas or condensate run
two data entries must be supplied for the two test rates.
PRESSURE()= Measured pressure at the test device outlet. For a gas or condensate run two
data entries must be supplied for the two test rates.
RESPRES()= Reservoir pressure at the time the measurements were taken. For a gas or
condensate run two data entries must be supplied for the two test rates.
PI()= or
VOGEL()=
Mandatory entry. Defines the IPR of a well source by Productivity Index or
the Vogel equation.
RATE()= Mandatory entry. Measured standard volume oil flowrate.
GOR()= Mandatory entry. Formation gasoil ratio measured at testing conditions.
WCUT=0.0 Optional entry. Volume percent of water in the liquid phase.
GAS Mandatory entry. Specify that the gas flow equation is to be used.
RATE()= Mandatory entry. Testing gas volumetric flowrate. Two data points must be
supplied
CGR()=0.0, 0.0 Optional entry. Condensate gas ratio.If entered, two data points must be
supplied.
WGR()=0.0, 0.0 Optional entry. Water gas ratio. If entered, two data points must be supplied.
PI()= or
VOGEL()=
Mandatory entry. Defines the IPR of a well source by Productivity Index or
the Vogel equation.
RATE()= Mandatory entry. Measured liquid flowrate.
GAS Mandatory entry. Specify that the gas flow equation is to be used.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 481
Distillation Data
This statement is necessary only if Assay curve is used. One of the following statements
must appear immediately after the corresponding SOURCE statement and prior to the
next SOURCE statement or THERMO statement. It supplies the distillation data for the
fluid portion of the stream. Solids are not considered in the distillation data. The DATA
entry is required; all other entries are optional.
The FIT option on the ASSAY statement in the Component Data Category determines
the curve fitting procedure used to process the distillation data. The default cubic
SPLINE method requires a minimum of 2 data points. When only two data points are
present, PIPEPHASE uses a probability density function to fill in the remainder of the
curve. All other fitting procedures require 3 data points for TBP curves, and 5 points for
other distillation data.
By default, PIPEPHASE assumes a pressure of 760 mmHg for the supplied data. For all
distillation data options except D2887, the PRES option allows changing the pressure at
which the data were taken or to which the data were corrected.
RATE()= Mandatory entry. Testing gas volumetric flowrate. Two data points must be
supplied.
D86 DATA= pct, value / pct, value / ...,
{TEMP= K or C or R or F, STREAM=sid, PRES(MMHG)=760.0,
CRACKING}
or
TBP or
D1160
DATA= pct, value / pct, value/ ..., {TEMP= K or C or R or F,
STREAM=sid, PRES(MMHG)= 760.0}
or
D2887 DATA= pct, value / pct, value / ..., {TEMP= K or C or R or F, STREAM=
sid}
D86
or
This statement supplies ASTM D86 distillation data, normally taken at
atmospheric pressure (760 mmHg). Use the PRES entry to correct for data
measured at another pressure. Use the CRACKING entry (below) to correct
for thermal cracking.
TBP
or
Supply true boiling point distillation data on this statement, using the PRES
entry to indicate the pressure at which the data were measured.
D1160
or
This statement supplies ASTM D1160 distillation data, normally measured
in partial vacuum conditions. By default, data is corrected to 1 atmosphere
(760 torr). Use the PRES entry to correct data to another pressure.
D2887 This statement allows entry of data that describes a distillation curve
simulated in accordance with the ASTM D2887 procedure.
Note: No pressure entry appears on this statement.
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > Gravity Data …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
482 Input Reference
Gravity Data
Standard liquid gravity measured at 60
o
F (15.5
o
C).
One of these statements must follow the distillation data statement after the SOURCE
statement. These statements offer alternative forms for defining the liquid density of the
assay at 60
o
F (15.5
o
C). The AVERAGE entry is required; all other entries are optional.
When the DATA entry is not supplied, PIPEPHASE generates a gravity curve based on
the distillation data and the average gravity value.
DATA This entry is required to supply the actual distillation data points. Each data
point consists of two pieces of information:
(1) the cut point, expressed as a percentage of the cumulative distillates and
(2) the temperature of the cut.
Data must appear with the cut percentages in ascending order, consistent
with the basis declared on the ASSAY entry of the SOURCE statement. Any
data supplied on the LIGHTENDS statement override the corresponding
portion of the distillation data.
TEMP This optional entry identifies the dimensional unit used to supply
temperature data. If omitted, the temperature unit declared on the
DIMENSION statement in the General Data Category serves as the default.
Available arguments include C (Celsius), K (Kelvin), F (Fahrenheit), or R
(Rankine) degrees.
PRES The PRES entry allows specifying the pressure at which the distillation data
were measured, or to which the data are corrected. The default pressure is
760 mmHg. The default dimensional unit is the problem pressure unit.
STREAM This supplies a stream label. It is optional; but when used, it must agree with
the stream label declared on the SOURCE statement, or an input error
occurs.
CRACKING Presence of this keyword corrects D86 data for the effects of thermal
cracking. It is available only on the D86 statement.
Note: This correlation was removed from the API Data Book in 1987, but remains available as an option
to provide consistency for older data.
API or
SPGR or
WATSONK
AVERAGE= value, {STREAM= sid}, {DATA= pct, value / pct, value / pct,
value / ...}
API API gravity.
SPGR Specific gravity.
WATSONK Watson (or UOP) characterization factor data.
AVERAGE This entry defines the average value for the fluid portion of the stream,
including any lightends. Solid components are not considered. This entry is
required.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 483
Molecular Weight
The following optional statement defines the molecular weight curve for the assay
stream.
If this statement is used, the DATA entry must appear, but the AVERAGE and STREAM
entries always are optional. If the MW statement is not given, PIPEPHASE estimates the
molecular weights for all assay cuts, using the method chosen by the MW entry on the
ASSAY statement, in the Component Data Category of input.
LIGHTENDS
The LIGHTENDS statement defines the light hydrocarbon components in the assay
analysis.
DATA This option allows entry of usersupplied data points that replace the
PIPEPHASE generated gravity curve. If used, at least three data points must
be provided, consistent with the basis declared on the ASSAY entry of the
SOURCE statement.
pct Midvolume percent or midweight percent of the data point.
value The gravity or Watson characterization value of the point
associated with the pct argument.
STREAM Stream label. It is optional, but when used, must agree with the stream label
declared on the SOURCE statement, or an input error occurs.
MW DATA= pct, value / pct, value / pct, value / ..., {AVERAGE= value,
STREAM= sid}
DATA The data entry must define at least three points that appear in the order of
ascending weight percentages. An unlimited number of points may be
supplied.
pct Midvolume percent or midweight percent of the data point.
value The gravity or Watson characterization value of the point
associated with the pct argument.
AVERAGE Optionally, this defines the average molecular weight of the fluid portion of
the stream. Solid components are ignored. If AVERAGE is given,
PIPEPHASE normalizes or extrapolates the molecular weight curve, as
required to satisfy the average molecular weight of the stream. If omitted,
PIPEPHASE uses quadratic extrapolation of the molecular weight curve, as
needed, to compute an average molecular weight.
STREAM Stream label. It is optional, but when used, must agree with the stream label
declared on the SOURCE statement, or an input error occurs.
LIGHTENDS COMPOSITION(M or WT or LV or GV)= i, value / ...,
{RATE(M or WT or LV or GV)= value or
FRACTION(WT or LV)= value or
PERCENT(WT or LV)= value or
MATCH or NOMATCH},
{STREAM= sid, NORMALIZE}
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > LIGHTENDS …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
484 Input Reference
All components appearing on this statement must be defined in the Component Data
Category. The COMPOSITION entry is required, but all other entries are optional.
In the following figure, point a is the midpoint volume percent of the highest boiling
pure component. This cumulative percentage point is adjusted to intercept the TBP
curve. Point b is the volume percent of the total lightends.
COMPOSITION Required. This entry identifies the components that constitute the lightends
of the stream. The flow of each component in the lightends may be supplied
as an actual flow rate or as a fraction or percentage of the total stream fluid
rate. Solids are not included. The basis may be mole (M), weight (WT),
liquid volume (LV), or gas volume (GV) and may be different from the basis
used on the RATE, FRACTION, or PERCENT entry. If i is omitted, it
defaults to the next component number in sequence. If none of the i
arguments are given, then the first value is associated with component 1.
If RATE, PERCENT, or FRACTION is given:
The value given is the composition for each component i. The sum of the
values must equal 1.0 0.01, 100 1 or the desired rate 1%. Alternatively, the
NORMALIZE keyword may be used to adjust the values to the desired rate.
If MATCH is given:
The values are adjusted by a constant factor so that the lightends flowrate
matches the lowboiling portion of the TBP curve.
If RATE, PERCENT, FRACTION or MATCH is not given:
The values are the actual flowing amounts.
RATE Optional. If used, this entry defines the total lightends rate on a mole (M),
weight (WT), liquid volume (LV), or gas volume (GV) basis. The basis may
be different from the COMPOSITION basis.
or
FRACTION or
PERCENT
Optional. This defines the total lightends rate as a fraction or percent of the
total stream fluid rate. The basis may be either weight (WT) or liquid volume
(LV). The basis may be different from the COMPOSITION basis. The
default basis is set by the ASSAY entry on the SOURCE statement.
or
MATCH or
NOMATCH
The MATCH option adjusts the lightends flow rate to match the TBP curve,
as shown in Figure 41. The adjustment ensures the midvolume percentage
of the highest boiling lightend component (that is available in significant
quantity) and intercepts the TBP temperature curve at the specified volume
percent. This is the default. The NOMATCH option does not adjust the
lightends flow rate to match the TBP curve.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 485
Figure 41: Lightends Matching
Optional entries: None
Mandatory entries: None
Example: Composition and rate given:
LIGHTEND STREAM=1, COMP=1./2./3./4.0, RATE= 10.0
Composition given and rate defined as a fraction or percent of the RATE entry given on
the SOURCE statement:
LIGHT STREAM=1, COMP(WT)= 0.1/0.2/0.3/0.4, FRAC(V)= 0.02
LIGHT STREAM=1, COMP= 10./ 20./ 30./ 40., PERCENT= 2.0
Match lightend flowrate to intercept the TBP curve:
LIGHTEND STREAM=1, COMP= 1.0 / 2.0 / 3.0 / 4.0, MATCH
COMP entries as actual flowing values:
LIGHTEND STREAM= 1, COMP(V)= 1.0/2.0/3.0/4.0
STREAM Stream label. It is optional, but when used, it must agree with the stream
label declared on the SOURCE statement, or an input error occurs.
NORMALIZE Optional. When RATE, FRACTION, or PERCENT is present, the
NORMALIZE option normalizes the total rate of the lightends to obtain the
required rate, regardless of the sum of the values supplied for the
COMPOSITION entry.
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > LIGHTENDS …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
486 Input Reference
Example: SOURCES with Assay Data. Set up SOURCES input for the
following three streams:
PROPERTY
STREAM= 1, TEMP= 150.0, PRES= 50.0, &
RATE(LV)= 1200.0, PHASE= L, ASSAY= LV
D86
STREAM= 1, DATA= 0.0, 100./ 10., 210./ &
30., 240./ 50., 260./ 70., 275./ 90., 290./ 100., 310.
API
AVERAGE= 60.0, STREAM= 1
LIGHTENDS
STREAM= 1, RATE= 50.0, &
COMPOSITION= 1, 2./ 2, 10./ 3, 28./ 4, 7./ 5, 3.0
PROPERTY
STREAM= 2, TEMP= 100.0, PRES= 50.0, &
RATE(2)= 1500.0, PHASE= L, ASSAY= LV
Stream Label
1 2 V6
Assay Basis
Distillation Type
LV
ASTM D86
LV
ASTM D1160
WT
TBP
IBP
10%
30%
50%
70%
90%
EP
100
210
240
260
275
290
310
310
360
385
410
560


201

370
390

450

Gravity type API Watson K SpGr
Stream average
Mid % 25
37
52
60



12.5



0.76
0.31
0.42
0.65
Lightends
Total flow
Comp. no.
1
2
3
4
5
50 moles

2
10
28
7
3







11% by weight

8.0
12.0
31.0
42.0
7.0
Thermal
conditions
Temperature
Pressure
Phase
150
50
Liquid
100
50
Liquid
200
75
Mixed
Total rate, basis 1200, LV 1500, LV 2700, WT
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 487
D1160
STREAM= 2, DATA= 0.00, 310./ 10., 360./ 30., 385./ &
50.0, 410.0 / 70.0, 560.0
WATSONK
AVERAGE= 12.5, STREAM= 2
PROPERTY
STREAM= V6, TEMP= 200.0, PRES= 75.0, &
RATE(W)= 2700.0, PHASE= M, ASSAY= WT
TBP
STREAM= V6, DATA= 0.0, 201./ 30.0, 370.0/ &
50.0, 390.0 / 90.0, 450.0
SPGR
STREAM= V6, AVERAGE= 0.76, &
DATA= 25.0, 0.31 / 37.0, 0.42 / 52.0, 0.65
LIGHTEND
STREAM= V6, PERCENT(WT)= 11.0, &
COMP(W)= 1, 8.0 / 2, 12.0 / 3, 31.0 / 4, 42.0 / 5, 7.0
SINK
Defines a point where fluid leaves the system. You may have more than one sink in a
network simulation. As demonstrated in the following table, the requirements for entries
for this statement depend on the type of simulation.
Table 431: Mandatory Entries for SINK
Conditional entries:
Simulation Type Mandatory Sink Data
Network Stream ID or Name.
Estimated or fixed pressure.
Estimated or fixed rate.
STREAMID=
or
Identifies the sink. Up to twelve alphanumeric characters.
NAME= Up to twelve alphanumeric characters.
PRESSURE()= Pressure at the sink. Use the ESTI qualifier if the value is an estimated one.
TEMPERATURE()= Fixed temperature at the sink.
RATE()= Rate of outflow at the sink. Use the ESTI qualifier if the value is an
estimated one. The basis of the rate must conform to the following rules
dependent on the fluid type:
Fluid Type Rate Basis
Noncompositional gas Gas volume units
Noncompositional liquid Liquid volume units
Steam Weight units
Compositional fluid Weight units
For the Blackoil model the user has the additional ability to specify the
standard volumetric flowrates of either gas, oil, water or liquid at the sink.
The default basis is the combined liquid flow of oil and water at the sink.
The user can also specify the unit basis of the standard volumetric flowrate.
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > JUNCTION …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
488 Input Reference
Optional entries:
Other entries for GUI PFD Layout:;
Example:
SINK NAME=FLRB, PRESSURE=21, RATE(ESTI)=140
JUNCTION
Mandatory statement for the network calculation method, where two or more links
connect.
Mandatory entries for all network simulations:
Optional entries for all network simulations:
For the Compositional model the user has the ability to specify in addition to
the total mass rate of flow at the sink the standard volumetric flowrate of
either gas/oil or water at the sink with appropriate volume qualifiers. The
default basis is the mass flow at the sink. However, to specify the mass rate
with unit qualifiers, the user must specify that the basis is weight (WT), thus
the following is appropriate syntax:
RATE(wt,weight units)=
In addition the qualifiers, WATER/GAS/OIL are now used to allow the user
to specify the volumetric flows of the respective phases at the sink.
INJECTION Optional entry. Use this keyword to specify an injection well.
COEFFICIENT()= and
EXP()=
Optional entries to define the injectivity of a well using the gas flow
equation. Can be used only for SinglePhase Gas or Gas Condensate.
II()= Optimal entries to define the injectivity index for all fluid types.
SET= Identifies the thermodynamic set name as defined in the Thermodynamic
Data Category. The defined thermodynamic set will then be used for the
fluid at the sink node.
XCOR = xxx
YCOR = xxx
GUI Coordinates to place the icon on the PFD.
The user should not change this data.
STREAMID=
or
Identifies the sink. Up to twelve alphanumeric characters.
NAME= Identifies the junction. Up to twelve alphanumeric characters.
PRESSURE(ESTI)= Estimate of pressure at this junction. The qualifier ESTI must be used. If you
supply a pressure estimate, it should be consistent with the estimated
direction of flow.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 489
Optional entry for Compositional Systems only:
Optional entries for modeling preferential splitting at a tee junction, for Steam Systems only:
Other entries for GUI PFD Layout:;
Example:
JUNCTION NAME=A, PRESSURE(ESTI)=165, DETEE, ORANJE
LINK
Mandatory for network simulations. Defines a series of devices (flow devices, fittings
and items of process equipment). The statements defining these devices must appear
immediately after the LINK statement. Flow is assumed to be from one item to the next,
in the order in which they appear in the input and in the direction designated by the
FROM and TO entries.
Mandatory entries:
TROCK()= Temperature of the rock formation at this junction. Required entry for
subsurface junctions and the first surface junction.
SET= Identifies the thermodynamic set name as defined in the Thermodynamic
Data Category of input. The defined thermodynamic set will then be used for
the fluid at the junction node.
DETEE or
STTEE
Junction is a deadend tee or a straightthrough tee.
Note: The smaller diameter pipe leaving the junction is always considered the branch link.
ANGLE()=0 Angle of branch. Limits are 90 degrees for vertical incline; –90 degrees for
vertical decline.
PROPORTIONAL or
HONG or
ORANJE or
TUFFP or
CHIEN or
SEEUP or
SEEHOR or
SEEDOWN or
USER
Select a method for calculating phase splitting at the junction. HONG or
TUFFP may be used with ANGLE if the branch is not horizontal. Use a user
defined model to calculate phase splitting at this junction. When you use this
entry, you must have an additional PSPLIT category of data at the end of the
simulation input. See the PSPLIT Data Category of input near the end of this
chapter for further details. See References (99104) for more information on
these preferential phase split models.
XCOR = xxx
YCOR = xxx
GUI Coordinates to place the icon on the PFD.
The user should not change this data.
NAME= Identifies the link. Up to four alphanumeric characters. When using gaslift,
the name of the production string must be PROD and the name of the
injection string must be GASL.
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > LINK …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
490 Input Reference
Optional entries:
Note: In a network, there may be more than one feasible link calculation sequence. In PIPEPHASE the
links are first ordered alphanumerically before the feasible ordering is done. This guarantees that the same
calculation sequence is arrived at no matter what the link input order was in the keyword file. However if the
link name is changed the program may arrive at an alternate feasible link calculation sequence
FROM=, or F= Identifies the source or junction where this link starts. Up to twelve
alphanumeric characters.
TO=, or T= Identifies the sink or junction where this link ends. Up to twelve
alphanumeric characters.
RATE(ESTI)= Estimate of the flowrate through this link. The qualifier ESTI must be used.
If a rate estimate is supplied for one link, an estimate must be supplied for all
links. Otherwise PIPEPHASE will generate its own estimates and ignore
those estimates supplied. The handling of user supplied estimate differs
based on the flow allocation method. For most methods, the simulator will
provide initial estimates which are overridden by the user estimates. The
FLOWALLOC=1 or FLOWALLOC=2 keywords (see the previous section
on Network Data Category of input) may be used to enable the mixing of
usersupplied and programgenerated link flowrate estimates. In this case the
user estimates will be taken into account, but conflicting estimates will be
adjusted to be as close to the user estimates as possible. When using a restart
file, the restart file estimates are taken as the highest priority and user
supplied estimates for a given link will be used only if no data is available in
the restart file.
DUAL= For detailed heat transfer in dual completions. Specify the name of the link
that forms a dual completion with this link. Valid for Network calculations
with Blackoil, steam and compositional fluids. Only concentric completions
are allowed with compositional fluids. The detailed heat transfer data are
entered on the TUBING statement in the Structure Data Category of input.
INJECT To specify that a link is an injection well. Mandatory when modeling
subsurface networks with multiple completion zones in injection wells.
QMAX()= Enter the maximum flowrate to be allowed through the link. This maximum
flow constraint will be activated only if the following four conditions are all
met:
1 The flowrate is not fixed in the link.
2 The link is a source link with the source pressure fixed and the flowrate
is unknown.
3 There is at least one surface regulator with the pressure set to a value
higher than the system pressure (e.g., 99999 psia)
4 The regulator is not the last device in the link.
Note: If the flow exceeds QMAX beyond the upper tolerance, PIPEPHASE calculates the regulator
pressure that needs to be set in order to meet the maximum flow constraint specified.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 491
Other entries for GUI PFD Layout:;
Example:
LINK NAME=J, F=13, TO=JTK, RATE(ESTI)=1.E6, PRINT
Two other conditions can also invoke the QMAX logic:
2b The link is not a source link and the link flowrate is not fixed explicitly
(e.g., a sink link with the sink rate fixed will fix the link flowrate) or
implicitly (e.g., spur links have fixed flowrates).
3b The link has at least one choke or valve in the link. In this case
PIPEPHASE will keep the flow between the upper and lower tolerance
values.
Note: PIPEPHASE varies the choke or valve size as part of the network iterations to keep the flow below
the maximum within tolerance.
If 1 and 3b are not both true, then the maximum flow logic will be
inactivated.
If 1 and 3b are true and 2b is not true, the network will fail to converge.
QMIN()=0 Enter the minimum flowrate to be allowed through the link. If the flowrate
falls below this value, the PBAL convergence algorithm will shut down the
link. This logic can be used to simulate well shutdown when the well
production falls below some minimum flowrate.
TOLERANCE(LOWER)= Specifies the lower flow tolerances as a fraction of the QMAX value.
TOLERANCE(UPPER)= Specifies the upper flow tolerances as a fraction of the QMAX value.
FGAS Desired gas volume fraction (in percent) of link flow.
FWAT Desired water volume fraction (in percent) of link flow.
FOIL Desired oil volume fraction (in percent) of link flow.
The purpose of the FGAS/FWAT/FOIL options is to allow the user to control
the volume fractions of fluids in a link. The FGAS, FOIL and FWAT options
can only be used with the mass based formulation of the blackoil model.
Note: The quantities FOIL, FWAT and FGAS can only be specified once for any and all links that
emanate from a given node. Thus, if three links carry flow from a node, then FWAT/FGAS/FOIL can be
specified for, at most, one of the three links.
PRINT Use this entry to generate a detailed report for the link. This detailed report
will include a phase envelope plot if the PLOT=FULL and DEVICE=PART
or FULL options have both been specified on the PRINT statement in the
General Data Category of input. If the PRINT option is not specified on any
link and DEVICE=PART or FULL is in the PRINT statement, detailed
reports will be generated for every link in the simulation. Therefore it is
recommended that you use this keyword to select only those links of interest.
XCOR = xxx
YCOR = xxx
GUI Coordinates to position the link on the PFD. If no information is given,
a direct connection is given between the attached nodes.
The user should not change this data.
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > Flow Devices (have length) …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
492 Input Reference
Flow Devices (have length)
PIPE
Any value defined on any pipe statement will override the corresponding values set
globally in the General Data Category of input.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
LENGTH()= Pipe length in long length units.
NAME= Identifies the pipe. Used for crossreferencing. Up to four alphanumeric
characters.
ID()= or NOMD= Inside diameter of pipe in short length units. Nominal inside diameter of
pipes (in inches only).
Note: If neither of these keywords is specified on the PIPE statement, either IDPIPE or NOMD must have
been specified as a General Default.
SCHEDULE=40 Pipe schedule.
Note: If a nominal diameter is not available for a userdefined schedule in the selected table, then
PIPEPHASE will generate an error message. If the schedule is not defined, then the default schedule 40 is
used. If a match cannot be found, PIPEPHASE will produce an error message.
ECHG()=0.0 Elevation change from inlet to outlet. Positive is uphill.
FCODE= Defines pressure drop and holdup method. Select a code from Table 46a or
Table 46b.
PALMER=0.924,0.6851 Use Palmer liquid holdup correction factors. Two values must be supplied:
uphill and downhill. The defaults shown apply only to BB or BBM
correlations; if the default values are to be used, only include the PALMER
keyword without any values. If different values are required, supply those
values with the PALMER keyword. If you are using any other correlation,
you must supply values with the PALMER keyword. If you want to correct
only downhill holdup, supply a value of 1.0 for the uphill correction factor.
ROUGHNESS()=0.0018 Pipe inside roughness in short length (special) units (see Table 44). Use the
qualifier REL to denote roughness as a fraction of the pipe inside diameter.
ISOTHERMAL or
NONISOTHERMAL
Use ISOTHERMAL to suppress heat balance calculations. Use
NONISOTHERMAL to override an ISOTHERMAL entry on the
CALCULATION statement in the General Data Category of input and thus
reinstate heat balance calculations.
WATER or
AIR or
SOIL
Use one of these to specify the medium surrounding the pipe.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 493
VELOCITY()=10 Velocity of the surrounding air or water.
TAMBIENT()=80 Ambient temperature of the surrounding medium.
DENSITY()= Density of the surrounding air or water. Defaults are specific gravity of 1.0
for air and 10.0 API for water.
VISCOSITY()= Viscosity of the surrounding air or water. Defaults are 0.02 cP for air and 1.0
cP for water.
CONDUCTIVITY()= Thermal conductivity of the surrounding air, water, or soil. Defaults are
0.015 BTU/hrft
o
F for air, 0.3 BTU/hrft
o
F for water and 0.08 BTU/hrft
o
F for soil.
FLOWEFF=100 Flow efficiency as a percentage. This parameter may be used in a rating
exercise to adjust flowrates to meet a measured pressure drop. The use of
FLOWEFF is recommended only when other parameters, such as pressure
drop method, pipe roughness, heat transfer coefficient Heat transfer
coefficientvalues, etc. have been varied in order to match field data.
HWCOEFF()=150 HazenWilliams coefficient, for use with the HazenWilliams pressure drop
method for singlephase liquids.
U()=1.0 Overall heat transfer coefficient from inside a pipe to the surroundings.
HINSIDE()=0.0 Additional heat transfer coefficient which will be added to the inside film
heat transfer coefficient calculated by PIPEPHASE.
HOUTSIDE()=0.0 Additional heat transfer coefficient which will be added to the outside film
heat transfer coefficient calculated by PIPEPHASE.
HRADIANT()=0.0 Additional radiant heat transfer coefficient which will be added to the
outside film heat transfer coefficient calculated by PIPEPHASE.
BDTOP()=0.0 Depth of a buried pipe measured from the top of the outside of the pipe, in
short length units.
Note: To define data for a partially buried pipe:
1 Define the surroundings as AIR or WATER only (not SOIL).
2 Specify a negative BDTOP. BDTOP is the distance from the surface of the soil to the top of the pipe
outermost diameter. The magnitude of the negative burial depth however makes sense only if it is less
than the outermost diameter of the pipe (including the insulation thickness if any).
3 If desired, specify the value of CONSOIL (the conductivity of the soil). In this case PIPEPHASE will
do an internal calculation for the heat transfer coefficient for the buried portion of the pipe. The default
value of CONSOIL will be used.
4 Additionally, if you wish to override PIPEPHASE’s internal soil heat transfer coefficient calculation
you may specify the HOUTSIDE keyword and value for the soil portion of the pipe. The use of the
HOUTSIDE keyword will override the method described in (3).
THKPIPE()=0.3125 Pipe thickness in short length units.
THKINS()=0.0 Insulation thickness in short length units.
CONPIPE()=29
CONINS()=0.015
CONSOIL()=0.8
Thermal conductivity of the pipe material, insulation and soil.
IDSPHERE()= Diameter of the sphere used for pigging in short length units.
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > ANNULUS …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
494 Input Reference
Example:
PIPE NAME=PIP1, LENGTH=30, ID=3.068
PIPE ID=3, LENGTH=5808, ECHG=140, U=0.0001
PIPE NAME=AJ, ID=8, LENGTH=170, &
WATER, VISCOSITY(CP)=1.5, VELOCITY=5, DENSITY(LBFT3)=68,&
COND=0.33, TAMB=5, CONPIPE=35, THKPIPE=0.8, THKINS=5
PIPE NAME=X1, NOMD=3, SCHE=30
ANNULUS
Define a well annulus. Any value defined on an Annulus statement will override the
corresponding values set globally in the General Data Category of input.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
DELH= Size of segmentation to be used in pipe/tube/annulus. This value overrides
values set as default on the SEGMENT statement. However, the default does
not override values that are computed under the AUTO or FAST options.
SEGM=. Number of segments to be used in the current pipe/tube/annulus. This value
overrides defaults set on the SEGMENT statement. However, this value does
not override segment sizes that are computed under the AUTO or FAST
options.
LENGTH()= Distance from the top of the first annulus in the link to the bottom of the
annulus in long length units.For an inclined well, the length will be greater
than the depth.
NAME= Identifies the annulus. Used for crossreferencing. Up to four alphanumeric
characters.
IDANNULUS()= Inside diameter of annulus in short length units.
ODTUBING()= Outside diameter of the tubing inside the casing which forms the annulus in
short length units.
DEPTH()= Vertical depth from the well head to the bottom of the casing in long length
units. Must be positive. If omitted, a vertical annulus is assumed (depth =
length).
FCODE= Defines pressure drop and holdup method. Select a code from Table 46a or
Table 46b.
PALMER=0.924,0.6852 Use Palmer liquid holdup correction factors. Two values must be supplied:
uphill and downhill. The defaults shown apply only to BB or BBM
correlations; if the default values are to be used, only include the PALMER
keyword without any values. If different values are required, supply those
values with the PALMER keyword. If you are using any other correlation,
you must supply values with the PALMER keyword. If you want to correct
only downhill holdup, supply a value of 1.0 for the uphill correction factor.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 495
TUBING
Define the tubing in a well. Any value defined on a Tubing statement will override the
corresponding values set globally in the General Data Category of input.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
ROUGHNESS()=0.0018 Annulus inside roughness in short length (special) units (see Table 44). Use
the qualifier REL to denote roughness as a fraction of the annulus inside
diameter.
ISOTHERMAL or
NONISOTHERMAL
Use ISOTHERMAL to suppress heat balance calculations.Use
NONISOTHERMAL to override an ISOTHERMAL entry on the
CALCULATION statement in the General Data Category of input and thus
reinstate heat balance calculations.
FLOWEFF=100 Flow efficiency as a percentage. This parameter may be used in a rating
exercise to adjust flowrates to meet a measured pressure drop. The use of
FLOWEFF is recommended only when other parameters, such as pressure
drop method, roughness, heat transfer coefficient values, etc., have been
varied in order to match field data.
HWCOEF()=150 HazenWilliams coefficient, for use with the HazenWilliams pressure drop
method for singlephase liquids.
U()=1.0 Overall heat transfer coefficient from inside an annulus to the surroundings.
TGRADIENT()=1.0 Geothermal temperature gradient.
DELH = Size of segmentation to be used in pipe/tube or annulus. This value overrides
values set as default on the SEGMENT statement. However, the default does
not override values that are computed under the AUTO or FAST options.
SEGM= Number of segments to be used in the current pipe/tube/annulus. This value
overrides defaults set on the SEGMENT statement. However, this value does
not override segment sizes that are computed under the AUTO or FAST
options.
LENGTH()= Distance from the top of the first annulus in the link to the bottom of the
tubing in long length units. For an inclined well, the length will be greater
than the depth.
NAME= Identifies the tubing. Used for crossreferencing. Up to four alphanumeric
characters.
ID()= or
NOMD=
Inside diameter of tubing in short length units. Nominal diameter of tubing
(in inches only).
SCHEDULE=TB01 Tubing schedule.
Note: If a nominal diameter is not available for a userdefined schedule in the selected table, then
PIPEPHASE will generate an error message. If the schedule is not defined, then the default schedule TB01
is used. If a match cannot be found, PIPEPHASE will produce an error message.
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > TUBING …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
496 Input Reference
Entries for detailed heat transfer in wells:
These entries describe the casings between the outside of the tubing and the inside of the
hole and the annular spaces between tubing and inner casing, between the casings and
between outer casing and hole. You are allowed up to four casings. The number of
spaces must be one more than the number of casings.
DEPTH()= Vertical depth from the well head to the bottom of the tubing in long length
units. Must be positive. If omitted, a vertical tubing is assumed (depth =
length).
FCODE= Defines pressure drop and holdup method. Select a code from Table 46a or
Table 46b.
PALMER=0.924,0.6852 Use Palmer liquid holdup correction factors. Two values must be supplied:
uphill and downhill. The defaults shown apply only to BB or BBM
correlations; if the default values are to be used, only include the PALMER
keyword without any values. If different values are required, supply those
values with the PALMER keyword. If you are using any other correlation,
you must supply values with the PALMER keyword. If you want to correct
only downhill holdup, supply a value of 1.0 for the uphill correction factor.
ROUGHNESS()=0.0018 Tubing inside roughness in short length (special) units (see Table 44). Use
the qualifier REL to denote roughness as a fraction of the tubing inside
diameter.
ISOTHERMAL or
NONISOTHERMAL
Use ISOTHERMAL to suppress heat balance calculations. Use
NONISOTHERMAL to override an ISOTHERMAL entry on the
CALCULATION statement in the General Data Category of input and thus
reinstate heat balance calculations.
FLOWEFF=100 Flow efficiency as a percentage. This parameter may be used in a rating
exercise to adjust flowrates to meet a measured pressure drop. The use of
FLOWEFF is recommended only when other parameters, such as pressure
drop method, roughness, heat transfer coefficient values, etc., have been
varied in order to match field data.
HWCOEF()=150 HazenWilliams coefficient, for use with the HazenWilliams pressure drop
method for singlephase liquids.
U()=1.0 Overall heat transfer coefficient from inside a tubing to the surroundings.
TGRADIENT()=1.0 Geothermal temperature gradient.
ODTUBING()= Outside diameter of the tubing in short length units.
IDCASING()= Mandatory entry. Inside diameter(s) of the casing(s) in short length units. Up
to four entries, working outward, separated by commas.
ODCASING()= Mandatory entry. Outside diameter(s) of the casing(s) in short length units.
Up to four entries, working outward, separated by commas.
HOLEID()= Mandatory entry. Diameter of the hole in short length units.
CONCASING()=25 Thermal conductivity of the tubing and casings. Up to five entries, working
outward, separated by commas. The first entry is for the tubing.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 497
EMIS()=0.95 Emissivity of the inner surfaces of casings and the hole. Up to five entries,
working outward, separated by commas. Where the space is not filled with a
gas, just enter a comma without a value.
EMOS()=0.95 Emissivity of the outer surfaces of the tubing and casings. Up to five entries,
working outward, separated by commas. Where the space is not filled with a
gas, just enter a comma without a value.
MEDIUM= Mandatory entry. Type of medium filling each space. Up to five entries,
working outward, separated by commas. Media are identified by code
number:
1 = gas with natural convection
2 = gas with forced convection
3 = liquid with free convection
4 = liquid with forced convection
5 = solid
CPANNULUS() =
0.25 (for gas)
or 0.46 (for liquid)
Specific heat of the annular medium. Up to five entries, working outward,
separated by commas. Not required for a solid medium. Where the medium is
solid, just enter a comma without a value.
CONANNULUS() =
0.01875 (for gas)
or 0.12083 (for liquid)
Thermal conductivity of the annular medium. Up to five entries, working
outward, separated by commas. A value is required for a solid medium.
BETANNULUS()=0.00141 Coefficient of thermal expansion of a gas with natural convection. Only
applies when MEDIUM=1 for the corresponding annular space. Up to five
entries, working outward, separated by commas. Where the space is not filled
with a gas with natural convection, just enter a comma without a value.
VISANNULUS() =
0.0223 (for gas)
or 0.22 (for liquid)
Viscosity of a gas or liquid annular medium. Up to five entries, working
outward, separated by commas. Where the space is not filled with a gas or
liquid, just enter a comma without a value.
VELANNULUS()= Velocity is required for a forced convection gas or liquid annular medium. Up
to five entries, working outward, separated by commas. Where the space is
not filled with a forced convection gas or liquid, just enter a comma without a
value.
DENANNULUS() =
0.0559 lb/ft
3
(for gas)
or 62.4 lb/ft
3
(for liquid)
Density of a gas or liquid annular medium in lb/ft
3
or kg/m
3
. Up to five
entries, working outward, separated by commas. Where the space is not filled
with a gas or liquid, just enter a comma without a value. Gravity units,
namely SPGR and API units, are not allowed.
DIFFEARTH=0.96 Diffusivity of the earth.
CONEARTH()= Optional entry. Thermal conductivity of the earth.
TIME= Mandatory entry. Equivalent production or injection time since the last time
the temperature gradient in the well was the geothermal gradient. Units must
be days.
DELH = Size of segmentation to be used in pipe/tube or annulus. This value overrides
values set as default on the SEGMENT statement. However, the default does
not override values that are computed under the AUTO or FAST options.
SEGM= Number of segments to be used in the current pipe/tube/annulus. This value
overrides defaults set on the SEGMENT statement. However, this value does
not override segment sizes that are computed under the AUTO or FAST
options.
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > Dual Completions …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
498 Input Reference
Dual Completions
Dual completion strings, when modeled as separate
production strings (links), do not account for the heat transfer
between the strings. If detailed heat transfer interactions
between the strings need to be calculated, the configuration
of the dual completion must be defined.
The calculation must be Network and the fluid must be
Blackoil, steam or compositional. Only concentric dual
completions may be modeled if the fluid is compositional.
Dual completion strings are indicated by the keyword DUAL
in the LINK statement.
Concentric Dual Completions
This well is modeled with two links. The first link contains
the inner production or injection string which is specified on
a TUBING statement. The second link models the outer
string as an ANNULUS. The geometry of the annular space
is defined by IDCAS and ODCAS.
To model an insulated tubing or casing, specify a solid medium for the annular space.
All the detailed heat transfer data are entered on the TUBING statement, including the
thermal properties of the fluid in the ANNULUS. The ANNULUS statement does not
change for detailed heat transfer calculations.
Separate TUBING statements are required whenever the tubing or heat transfer
parameters change. A separate ANNULUS statement must be supplied to correspond to
each length of tubing down to the first completion. Below this point, the annulus does
not function as a flow device and there is no ANNULUS statement for it. It is simply a
casing on the TUBING statement.
Example:
LINK NAME=L1, FROM=S1, TO=SNK1, DUAL=L2
$ Surface to the bottom of the water filled space
TUBING ID=2.992, ODTUBING=3.5, IDCASING=5.5,8.54, &
ODCASING=5.52,9.62, HOLEID=12, CONCASING=29,29,29, &
EMIS=0.9,0.9,0.9, EMOS=0.9,0.9,0.9, MEDIUM=2,3,5, &
BETAN=1.39E3,1.39E6,0, DENAN(LBFT3)=0.055,63,0, &
CONAN=1,2.9,0.5, VISAN=0.5,1,0, CPAN= 1,1,0, &
VELAN=5,0,0, CONEARTH=1.0, DIFFUSIVITY=0.96, TIME=21,
LENGTH=500
$ Bottom of water filled space to first completion
TUBING ID=2.992, ODTUBING=3.5, IDCASING=5.5, ODCASING=5.52,&
HOLEID=8, CONCASING=29,29, EMIS=0.9,0.9, EMOS=0.9,0.9,&
MEDIUM=2,5, BETAN=1.39E6,0, DENAN(LBFT3)=0.055,0, &
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 499
CONAN=1,0.5, VISAN=0.5,0, CPAN= 1,0, VELAN=5,0,&
CONEARTH=1.0, DIFFUSIVITY=0.96, TIME=21, LENGTH=1000
$ First completion down to the second completion
TUBING ID=2.992, ODTUBING=3.5, IDCASING=5.5, ODCASING=5.52,&
HOLEID=8, CONCASING=29,29, EMIS=0.9,0.9, EMOS=0.9,0.9,&
MEDIUM=1,5, BETAN=1.39E6,0, DENAN(LBFT3)=0.63,0, &
CONAN=0.0188,0.5, VISAN=0.033,0, CPAN= 1,0, VELAN=5,0,&
CONEARTH=1.0, DIFFUSIVITY=0.96, TIME=21, LENGTH=1500
$
LINK NAME=L2, FROM=S2, TO=SNK2, DUAL=L1
ANNULUS IDAN=5.5, ODTUB=3.5, LENGTH=500
ANNULUS IDAN=5.5, ODTUB=3.5, LENGTH=1000
Parallel Dual Completions
Each production or injection strings is modeled as TUBING in a separate link. The
casings around the strings are defined by the IDCAS and ODCAS keywords on the
TUBING statements.
For insulated tubing, specify a solid medium for the annular
space such that the insulation around each tubing is held in
place by a metal sheet which is modeled as a casing. This
casing, and the first casing which surrounds both strings,
must be defined on each TUBING statement. Data for the
other casings which surround both strings are entered for one
of the links only  the longer link in the example below.
Whenever a change in data requires a new TUBING
statement in one link, there must also be a new TUBING
statement in the other link down to the first completion. A
separate TUBING statement is then required in the longer
link for the remainder of the string.
Example:
LINK NAME=L1, FROM=S1, TO=SNK1, DUAL=L2 $ Longer string
TUBING ID=2.441, ODTUBING=2.875
IDCASING=4.35,9.85,12.615, &
ODCASING=4.875,10.75,13.375, HOLEID=17.5, &
CONCASING=29,29,29,29, EMIS=0.9,0.9,0.9,0.9, &
EMOS=0.9,0.9,0.9,0.9,MEDIUM=5,1,3,5, &
BETAN=0,1.39E3,1.39E6,0, DENAN(LBFT3)=0,0.055,63,0, &
CONAN=0.04,0.0188,1,0.5, VISAN=0,0.023,1,0, &
CPAN= 0,0.25,1,0, VELAN=0,0,0,0, CONEARTH=1.0, &
DIFFUSIVITY=0.96, TIME=21, LENGTH=500 TUBING ID=2.441, &
ODTUBING=2.875, IDCASING=9.85, ODCASING=10.75, &
HOLEID=12.5, CONCASING=29,29, EMIS=0.9,0.9, &
EMOS=0.9,0.9,MEDIUM=1,5, BETAN=1.39E3,0, &
DENAN(LBFT3)=0.055,0, CONAN=0.0188,0.5, VISAN=0.023,0, &
CPAN= 0.25,0, VELAN=0,0, CONEARTH=1.0, DIFFUSIVITY=0.96, &
TIME=21, LENGTH=1000 TUBING ID=2.441, ODTUBING=2.875, &
IDCASING=9.85, ODCASING=10.75, HOLEID=12.5, &
CONCASING=29,29, EMIS=0.9,0.9, EMOS=0.9,0.9,MEDIUM=1,5, &
BETAN=1.39E3,0, DENAN(LBFT3)=0.055,0, CONAN=0.0188,0.5, &
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > Parallel Dual Completions …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
4100 Input Reference
VISAN=0.023,0, CPAN= 0.25,0, VELAN=0,0, CONEARTH=1.0, &
DIFFUSIVITY=0.96, TIME=21, LENGTH=1500
$
LINK NAME=L2, FROM=S2, TO=SNK2, DUAL=L1 $ Shorter string
TUBING ID=1.995, ODTUBING=2.35, IDCASING=2.875,9.85, &
ODCASING=4.35,10.75, HOLEID=17.5, CONCASING=29,29,29, &
EMIS=0.9,0.9,0.9, EMOS=0.9,0.9,0.9,MEDIUM=5,1,5, &
BETAN=0,1.39E3,0, DENAN(LBFT3)=0,0.055,0, &
CONAN=0.04,0.0188,0.5, VISAN=0,0.023,0, CPAN= 0,0.25,0, &
VELAN=0,0,0, CONEARTH=1.0, DIFFUSIVITY=0.96, TIME=21, &
LENGTH=500 TUBING ID=1.995, ODTUBING=2.35, IDCASING=9.85, &
ODCASING=10.75, HOLEID=12.5, CONCASING=29,29, EMIS=0.9,0.9, &
EMOS=0.9,0.9,MEDIUM=1,5, BETAN=1.39E3,0, &
DENAN(LBFT3)=0.055,0, CONAN=0.0188,0.5, VISAN=0.023,0, &
CPAN= 0.25,0, VELAN=0,0, CONEARTH=1.0, DIFFUSIVITY=0.96, &
TIME=21, LENGTH=1000
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4101
Equipment Devices (have no length)
COMPLETION
Describes a bottomhole completion, the interface between the reservoir and a well. An
IPR device should be used in addition to the completion device to account for the
pressure drop from the reservoir to the near wellbore.There are two types of completion:
gravelpacked; and openperforated. The entries on this statement depend on the type of
completion.
Mandatory entries for both types of completion:
Optional entries for both types of completion:
Mandatory entries for gravelpacked completion:
Optional entries for gravelpacked completion:
Mandatory entries for openperforated completion:
JONES or MCLEOD Use one of these to indicate whether the completion is to use the Jones model
for gravelpacked completions or the McLeod openperforated completion
model.
LENGTH()= Total length of the perforated interval in long length units.
PERFD()= Diameter of the perforation in short length units.
SHOTS()= Perforation shot density measured as total number of perforations per unit
completion length.
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
TUNNEL()= Tunnel length that is filled with gravel through which linear flow occurs in
short length units.
PERM()= 45 Permeability of the gravel.
PENETRATION()= Distance from the end of the perforation to the borehole radius in short length
units.
PERM()= Crushed zone permeability. An additional qualifier must be used to indicate
whether the value is for CRUSHED zone or RESERVOIR. If a reservoir
value is supplied, the crushed value is calculated depending on whether the
perforating conditions are declared to be overbalanced or underbalanced (see
OVER and UNDER, below):
Overbalanced conditions:
Crushed permeability = 0.1 * reservoir permeability
Underbalanced conditions:
Crushed permeability = 0.4 * reservoir permeability
No declared conditions:
Crushed permeability = reservoir permeability
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > COMPRESSOR …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
4102 Input Reference
Optional entries for openperforated completion:
Example:
COMPLETION JONES, TUNNEL=1.55, PERFD=0.39, SHOTS=4, LENGTH=10
COMP NAME=COMP, MCLEOD, PERM(RESE,MD)=0.65, PENE=3,&
PERFD=0.39, SHOTS=8, LENGTH=30, UNDERBALANCED
COMPRESSOR
Describes a single or multistage compressor. This unit cannot be used for steam
systems.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
OVER or UNDER Use this keyword to indicate that the perforating conditions are overbalanced
or underbalanced.
THICKNESS()= 0.5 Thickness of the crushed zone immediately around the perforation in short
length units.
POWER()= or
PRES()= or
CURVE()=
One of power, outlet pressure or a compressor curve must be specified.
Optionally, use the MAX qualifier to specify a maximum power or pressure.
If power is specified, you may specify a maximum pressure. If you specify
outlet pressure or a compressor curve, you may supply a maximum power.
or
CRVn()= and RPMC=
and
RPM= or
POWER= or
PRES=
If a curve is entered (up to 25 entries) for a multistage compressor, all stages
use the same curve. For CURVE, you can use two qualifiers to specify units
of measurement for actual flowrate (gas volume basis only) and/or long
length. Format of data is:
CURVE=rate,head,efficiency/rate,head,efficiency/...
For multispeed curves, CRVn, RPMC, and one of RPM, PRESSURE, or
POWER are mandatory. One curve must be entered for each RPMC value
specified. Up to five RPMC values may be entered in ascending or
descending order:
RPMC=rpm1,rpm2,rpm3,rpm4,rpm5
Up to 25 data sets may be entered per curve:
CRVn=rate1,head1,efficiency1/.../rate25,head25, efficiency25
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
STAGES=1 Number of stages.
Efficiency=100 Percentage adiabatic efficiency of the compressor.
Not used if a CURVE is defined.
RPM(MAX)= For multispeed compressors, the maximum speed in RPM.
PRES(MAX)= For multispeed compressors, the maximum pressure.
POWER(MAX)= For multispeed compressors, the maximum power.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4103
Example:
COMP POWER(MAX)=55, CURVE=200,20,85/400,40,76
COMPRESS NAME=CMP2, POWER(HP)=250, PRES(MAX,PSIG)=1050, &
EFFICIENCY=85
Example: Multispeed compressor with data provided for three RPM curves.
COMP NAME = CMP1, PRES(MAX)=300, &
CRV1=200,20,100/300,40,98/ &
CRV2=400,50,100/500,60,98/ &
CRV3=600,70,100/700,80,98, &
RPMC=1000,2000,3000
MCOMPRESS
Describes a single or multistage, multitrain compressor station. It can model the effect
of intercoolers and scrubbers. This unit cannot be used for steam systems. You may
specify the performance of a multistage compressor in one of the following ways:
• Total power: use the POWER keyword.
• Discharge pressure: use the PDISCHARGE keyword.
• Performance curve(s): use the CURVE keyword.
• Suction pressure: use the PIN keyword.
If you specify the suction (inlet) pressure, a special subnetworking algorithm is invoked.
Note that this is true only for PBAL networks. The subnetworking algorithm then sizes
the compressor power requirements.
Mandatory entries:
Note: For multispeed curves, if RPM, or PRES, or POWER is specified, you can supply maximum
values for values not specified. For example, if you specify the RPM, then you can supply values of
PRES(MAX) or POWER(MAX), but not RPM(MAX).
POWER()= Total power available to the multistage compressor. If you are using
PDISCHARGE or CURVE to specify the performance of the compressor,
you may use the MAX qualifier to specify a maximum power.
or
PDISCHARGE()= Discharge pressure. If you are using POWER or CURVE to specify the
performance of the compressor, you may supply an estimated outlet pressure
using the ESTI qualifier. Alternatively you may use the WARN qualifier and
PIPEPHASE will issue a warning if the discharge pressure rises above the
value you supply.
or
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > MCOMPRESS …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
4104 Input Reference
Optional entries:
CURVE()= Performance curve(s) of flowrate, head and % efficiency for each stage.
Each stage may have a separate curve. Each stage curve may have up to ten
data points. If you input only one stage curve, each stage will use it. You can
select standard or actual conditions as the basis for the gas flow rate
measurement (standard is the default, but actual is recommended). You can
use two qualifiers to specify units of measurement for actual gas volume
flowrate and/or long length. Format of data is:
CURVE=stage, rate, head, efficiency/stage, rate, head, efficiency/...
or
PIN()= Suction pressure. Invokes a special subnet working algorithm. If PIN is
specified POWER, PDIS or CURVE must not be specified.
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
TRAINS=1 Number of identical compressor trains operating in parallel.
STAGES=1 Number of stages per train to a maximum of five.
EQUALPR or
INTP()=
Use one of these entries to define the interstage compressor pressures. Use
EQUALPR to specify that the pressure ratios across all stages are to be
equal. Use INTP to set the individual interstage pressures, in ascending
order, separated by commas. None of the efficiency keywords may be used
with CURVE.
ADEFF= 100 Adiabatic efficiency of each stage, in ascending order, separated by commas.
This keyword may not be used with CURVE.
POLY and
PEFF= 100 and
PEXP=
Use these keywords to specify that compression calculations are carried out
using polytropic equations and to override the default data for polytropic
efficiency and polytropic exponent. If you do not enter POLY, adiabatic
compression equations will be used.
Use PEFF to enter the Polytropic efficiency of each stage, in ascending order,
separated by commas.
Use PEXP to enter the Polytropic exponent of each stage, in ascending order,
separated by commas. If you do not enter PEXP, PIPEPHASE calculates it.
INTQ() = or
INTT() =
Interstage cooler duties or interstage temperatures. Up to five values, in
ascending order, separated by commas.The last value refers to the duty or
exit temperature of the cooler located after the last stage.
INTDP() = Pressure losses associated with interstage piping and cooler. Up to five
values, in ascending order, separated by commas. The last value refers to the
pressure losses associated with the piping and cooler located after the last
stage.
PERCENT() = Volume percent of scrubber fluids to be reinjected downstream of the
compressor station. The value is used for all scrubbers in the compressor.
Use a qualifier to denote the phase to be reinjected. COND refers to the
condensate phase; WATER to the free water phase. Use two entries to specify
COND and WATER separately or use LIQ to refer to the combination of
condensate and water.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4105
Example:
MCOMPRESS NAME=CMP1, STAGES=3, INTT(F)=120,120, TWARN(F)=250,&
PDIS(PSIG,WARN)=3000, POLY, PERCENT=(COND)=100,&
CURVE = 1, 50, 3000, 72/ 1, 100, 2550, 74 /&
1, 200, 2100, 75/ 1, 400, 1650, 76, ACTUAL
MCOMPRESS NAME=CMP2, STAGES=5, PDIS(PSIG)=1200, &
INTT(F)= 100,100,100,100,100, EQUALPR,&
ADEF = 80,81,80,80,82, POWER(WARN,HP)=1500
MCOMPRESS NAME=CMP3, STAGES=2, POWER(HP)=800,&
NOKCONV, ADEFF=79,79, INTP(PSIG)=350
COOLER
Simulates the removal of heat from a fluid. Not available with steam systems.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
COOLER NAME=C1, TOUT=120, DP=2, DUTY(MAX)=5E3
In this example, cooler C1 has 5000 duty units available to reduce the feed stream
temperature to 120F. Less duty may be used, but not more.
DPDT
Describes a general equipment item to model any device that changes the pressure and/
or temperature of a fluid stream.
NOKCONV Use this keyword to suppress repeated calculations of gas specific heat ratio
during convergence of the compressor. Instead, PIPEPHASE will use the
inlet value throughout the compressor.
TDIS() = Warning temperature. If the calculated exit temperature exceeds this value a
warning will be printed.
PRSTAGE() = Warning pressure ratio. If any calculated stage pressure ratio exceeds this
value a warning will be printed.
STANDARD or
ACTUAL
Compressor data are specified at standard or actual conditions. The default is
to enter the data based on standard conditions.
TOUT()= or
DUTY()=
Use one of these entries to define the operation of the cooler. If both are used
in order to bound the outlet conditions, you must apply either the MIN
qualifier to TOUT or the MAX qualifier to DUTY.
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
DP()=0.0 Pressure drop across the cooler.
COEFFICIENT=1.0, and
EXP=1.0
Alternative method of expressing pressure drop as a function of flowrate
through the cooler, in the form:
AP = COEFFICIENT * RATE
EXP
where the rate is always expressed in lb/sec and DP is in units of PSI.
Therefore the COEFFICIENT entry has dimensions:
AP / RATE
EXP
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > EXPANDER …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
4106 Input Reference
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
DPDT NAME=E3, CURVE=1.5E6,7,35/0.5E6,15,40
EXPANDER
This statement is currently available only for steam systems and models the work
generated due to expansion of steam from a high pressure to a lower pressure.
CURVE()= Up to 25 entries. Describes the relationship between the fluid flowrate and
the pressure and temperature differences across the device. A positive
difference indicates a rise in pressure or temperature across the device. The
format of the data is:
CURVE()= rate, dp, dt / ....
CRVn() specifies a curve in the multicurve DPDT data. The 'n' refers to the curve
number and must be a intger between 1 and 5. Example: crv1=q1,dp1,dt1/
q2,dp2,dt2/…..up to 25 points. The units for rate, dp and dt can be specified
locally. (GUI does not allow local units specification). This keyword not
allowed to be used with the (previously existing) CURVE keyword which is
allowed only for a single curve..
PINC() Inlet pressure curve parameter. The number of values must match exactly as
the number of curves specified.
(GUI does not allow local units specification).
Maximum 5 values:
eg. PINC = 100,200,300,400,500
or
POUTC() Outlet pressure curve parameter. The number of values must match exactly
as the number of curves specified.
(GUI does not allow local units specification).
Maximum 5 values
eg. POUTC=500,600,700,800
Qualifiers may be used to specify units of measurement for flowrate,
pressure and temperature. The units for flowrate allowed depend on the fluid:
Fluid Type Rate Basis
Noncompositional gas Std.Gas volume units
Noncompositional liquid Std. Liq. volume units
Steam Weight units
Compositional fluid Weight units
Blackoil Std. Liq. volume units
Gas condensate Std. Gas volume units
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
WELL Use this keyword to indicate that the device is in a well.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4107
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
EXPANDER NAME=EXP1, DP(BAR)=4,EFFIC=87
GLVALVE
Describes a Gaslift Valve as part of a well LINK. Used with blackoil fluids only. The
properties of the lift gas must be described in the PVT Data Section.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
GLVALVE NAME=GLV1, RATE(CFM)=1.5, DISSOLVE=35
HEATER
Simulates the addition of heat to a fluid. Not available with steam systems.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
POWER()= or Required amount of power to be produced.
DP()= or Required pressure drop.
PRATIO= or Required pressure ratio of absolute outlet pressure to absolute inlet pressure.
PRES()= Desired outlet pressure. This entry should be used for spur links only (see
Flowrate Estimation in Links, p. 676). The qualifier MIN may be used to set
the minimum outlet pressure.
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
EFFICIENCY=100 Adiabatic efficiency (in percent).
WTOLERANCE=0.001 Relative tolerance used to converge the power calculations.
TEST()= Estimate of the expander outlet temperature. Used to assist convergence.
RATE()= Lift gas rate in standard gas volume units.
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
DISSOLVE=100 Volume percentage of soluble lift gas that dissolves in the oil.
TOUT()= or
DUTY()=
Use one of these entries to define the operation of the heater. If you use both,
you must apply the MAX qualifier to one of the entries.
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
DP()=0.0 Pressure drop across the heater.
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > INJECTION …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
4108 Input Reference
Example:
HEATER DUTY=5E3, TOUT(MAX)=212
In the example above, the heater has a duty of 5000 units available to it, but the
maximum outlet temperature is set at 212
o
F. Therefore, if 212
o
F is reached using fewer
than 5000 duty units, then the heater duty will be set at the calculated value.
INJECTION
Describes a device for introducing an injection stream from a SEPARATOR to a point
downstream. Used with blackoil, gas condensate or compositional fluids.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
INJECT FROM=V101, GAS
Note: If the user does not specify either the pressure or temperature for the injected stream, the value from
the separator will be used in the energy balance. If the injection pressure differs from the pressure where the
fluid is injected, the required pressure difference will be calculated.
COEFFICIENT=1.0,
and
EXP=1.0
Alternative method of expressing pressure drop as a
function of flowrate through the heater, in the form:
AP = COEFFICIENT * RATE
EXP
where the rate is always expressed in lb/sec and DP is in units of PSI.
Therefore the COEFFICIENT entry has dimensions:
AP / RATE
EXP
FROM= Identifies the SEPARATOR STREAMID from where the injected stream was
produced.
GAS or
COND or
WATER or
LIQUID
Identifies the separator effluent stream which forms the injected stream. If
you want to inject several streams from separators at the same point, use
multiple INJECTION devices.
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
PRESSURE()= and
TEMPERATURE()=
Specify either both or neither. If you specify neither, the pressure of the
injected stream will be assumed to be the injection point pressure and its
temperature that of the separator.
WELL Use this keyword to indicate that the injection device is in a well.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4109
IPR
The Inflow Performance Relationship device models the relationship between flowrate
and reservoir pressure drawdown or pressure drop at the sand face in a well. Several
IPR models are supplied. Alternatively, userdefined IPR models may be linked to
PIPEPHASE and data for them entered through the IPR device.
The IPR device is also used to enter reservoir decline data which is required for time
stepping.
The IPR device can also be used to shutdown sources depending upon wheter a
maximum water cut or gas oil ratio has been exceeded in any given source.
This device also allows tabular data to be entered for interpolation or regression onto one
of the PIPEPHASE models and/or for use in a timestepping run.
Units of measurement are those chosen on the DIMENSIONS statement and cannot be
changed for individual data items in the IPR device.
Mandatory entries:
MODEL= Enter a number to define a usersupplied IPR model to be used. The model number must be
greater than 20 but less than 30.
or
TYPE= Enter the name of the IPR model to be used. The data required depends on the model
selected. Refer to tables below:
Type Description Table
PI Productivity Index Table 434
VOGEL Vogel Table 435
GASF Fetkovich Gas Flow Table 436
LIT LaminarInertialTurbulent (Jones and Blount) Table 437
BABUODEH The BabuOdeh IPR model for horizontal wells Table 439
TABULAR Tabular Data Model Table 440
IVAL= Integer data identified by Labels. These data are input in the format:
IVAL = label, value/label, value/ ...
Refer to tables below for labels and descriptions. Labels may be entered in full or may be
truncated to four characters. Except where stated, these data are all mandatory.
RVAL= Real data identified by Labels. These data are input in the format:
RVAL = label, value/label, value/ ...
Refer to the following tables for labels and descriptions. Labels may be entered in full or
may be truncated to four characters. Except where stated, these data are all mandatory.
ARRAY= Array data identified by Labels. These data are input in the format:
Array = label, value1, value2,.../label, value1, value2/ ...
Refer to the following tables for labels and descriptions. Labels may be entered in full or
may be truncated to four characters. Except where stated, these data are all mandatory.
Data specified by the ARRAY keyword represents reservoir decline data.
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > IPR …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
4110 Input Reference
Optional entries:
Example:
IPR NAME=IPR1, GROUP=RES2, MODEL=2, & IVAL=FLOW,2, &
RVAL=QMAX,0.5/VOGCON,0.3/VOGEXP,1.1/QCUM,6, &
ARRAY=PPRES,5000,4500,4000,3500/ & AQCUM 7.5,6.4,5.3,4.2
NAME= Name of the Inflow Performance Relationship device.
GROUP= Name of the reservoir group. You must enter this if you want to interpolate the decline
curves of a reservoir during timestepping. The reservoir data you use can be entered in
this IPR.
If you want to use reservoir decline data (defined by the ARRAY keyword) entered in
another IPR device, enter the same reservoir GROUP name of the IPR device in which
the data resides; do not enter any reservoir data in this IPR device.
Conversely, if you enter reservoir decline data in this IPR, the data can be used by
another IPR device draining the same reservoir.
You may enter data for multiple reservoirs in one PIPEPHASE run.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4111
Table 432: Label Requirements for All Models
Note: A request to shut wells may be made using any of the following criteria within the IPR device:
1 If the local reservoir pressure falls below the abandonment pressure (ABAN)
2 If the wellproduced watercut exceeds the maximum watercut (FWMAX) when the blackoil or
condensate fluid models are used, or
3 If the well produced GOR exceeds the maximum GOR (GORMAX).
Example:
IPR NAME=IPR1, TYPE=PI, IVAL=FLOW,2/BASIS,5, RVAL=PI,0.5
IVAL Labels for All Models
BASIS Deliverability (flow rate) basis
1 = gas
2 = liquid
3 = oil
4 = water
5 = weight
Flow rate units in the IPR are fixed according to the BASIS chosen:
BASIS Flow rate units
1 (gas) Gas volume units
2 (liquid) Liquid volume units
3 (oil) Liquid volume units
4 (water) Liquid volume units
5 (weight) Weight units
BabuOdeh does not allow a Basis of 1 or 5
FLOW Traverse direction: 1 = forward(default) 2 = backward
Optional RVAL Labels for All Models
DPMAX Maximum pressure drawdown for the IPR device. This constraint will be activated
if all three of the following conditions are satisfied:
The IPR device is in a source link with the source pressure fixed.
A regulator is placed on the surface (in the link) and the regulator pressure set to a
very high value (higher than any pressure in the system, e.g., 99999.0).
At least one device is placed downstream of the regulator.
FWMAX Maximum acceptable water cut for the well.
GORMAX GOR at which the well will shut down.
ABAN Reservoir abandonment pressure.
WABP Minimum bottomhole pressure.
OPEN Well status flag. 1 for open, 0 for close.
UPTIME Used with time stepping to define the fraction of the time the well will be open
during the time step.
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > IPR …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
4112 Input Reference
If you want PIPEPHASE to automatically create a subsurface network with multiple
sources and use a Numerical Finite Difference solution method, use NSEG to identify a
multisource well (number of production zones = number of segments). A typical
application would be in very thick continuous formations and horizontal well
completions.
Note: The BabuOdeh model does not support automatically generated multisource well completions.
Table 433: Label Requirements for Automatically Generated MultiSource Well Completions
Example:
IPR NAME=IPR1, TYPE=PI, IVAL=NSEG,5, &
RVAL=PI,0.5/ID,5.4/LENGTH,30/ECHG,5.
Use the labels below when you have specified TYPE = PI:
Table 434: Label Requirements for the Productivity Index Model
Example:
IPR NAME=IPR1, TYPE=PI, IVAL=FLOW,2/NSEG,5, &
RVAL=PI,0.5/ID,5.4/LENGTH,30/ECHG,5.0
Use the labels below when you have specified TYPE = VOGEL:
IVAL Labels for MultiSource Well Completions
NSEG Number of segments
RVAL Labels for MultiSource Well Completions
ID Diameter of the tubing adjacent to the producing formation
LENGTH Length of the producing zone
ECHG Elevation change over the producing zone from the foot of the well to the dog
leg. Defaults to 0.0 (horizontal)
RVAL Labels for Productivity Index Model
PI Productivity index for the entire completion
or
SPI Productivity index per unit of length. Use only with Multisource well completions
(NSEG > 1)
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4113
Table 435: Label Requirements for the Vogel Model
Note: Typically, other values of VOGCON and VOGEXP are used to get a vogel IPR for horizontal wells.
Example:
IPR NAME=IPR1, MODEL=2, IVAL=NSEG,1, &
RVAL=QMAX,1000/VOGCON,0.3/VOGEXP,1.1
Use the labels below when you have specified TYPE = GASF:
Table 436: Label Requirements for the Fetkovich Gas Flow Model
Example:
IPR NAME=IPR1, TYPE=GASF, IVAL=NSEG,1, &
RVAL=COEF,1.4/EXP,0.2
Use the labels below when you have specified TYPE = LIT:
Table 437: Label Requirements for the LaminarInertialTurbulent Model
Example:
IPR NAME=IPR1, MODEL=4, IVAL=NSEG,5, &
RVAL=CLAMINAR,0.5/CTURBULENT,0.3/ID,5.4/LENGTH,30
RVAL Labels for Vogel Model
QMAX Maximum flowrate or absolute open flow potential in units corresponding to the
BASIS chosen
VOGCON Constant in the Vogel equation. Must be between 0.0 and 1.0. Default is 0.2
VOGEXP Exponent in the Vogel equation. Default is 1.0
RVAL Labels for Gas Flow Model
COEF Coefficient in the Fetkovich gas deliverability model
EXP Exponent in the Fetkovich gas deliverability model
RVAL Labels for LaminarInertialTurbulent Model
CLAMINAR Laminar coefficient in the LaminarInertialTurbulent model
CTURBULENT Turbulent coefficient in the LaminarInertialTurbulent model
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > IPR …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
4114 Input Reference
Use the labels below when you want to specify pseudopressure formulation for the
Fetkovich Gas Flow or LIT IPR model with a gas basis.
Table 438: Label Requirements for PseudoPressure Formulation
Example:
IPR NAME=IPR1, TYPE=GASF, IVAL=BASIS,1/DRAW,2/NPSEG,3 &
RVAL=COEF,0.5/EXP,0.8/PMAX,5000/PMIN,1000 IPR NAME=IPR1,&
TYPE=LIT, IVAL=BASIS,1/DRAW,3 &
RVAL=CLAMI,0.5/CTURB,0.3/MPCON,3.2
PseudoPressure formulation IVAL Labels for PseudoPressure Formulation
DRAWDOWN Select a type of formulation:
0 Pressure
2
formulation (default)
1 M(p) formulation with integral constant = 2.0
1
2 M(p) formulation with integral constant = T
sc
/(P
sc
T
res
)
3 User defined MPCONS
NPSEG Number of pressure segments for M(p) formulation. Not valid when DRAW = 0
RVAL Labels for PseudoPressure Formulation
MPCONS Integral constant for the M(p) formulation. Valid only when DRAW = 3
PMAX Upper pressure limit for M(p) formulation. Defaults to reservoir pressure. Not valid
when DRAW = 0
PMIN Lower pressure limits for M(p) formulation. Defaults to PRES(MIN) on DEFAULT
statement. Not valid when DRAW = 0
1
The M(p) pressure formulation is given by the following equation:
where: c is the integral constant, z is the gas compressibility, and u is the gas viscosity
M p ( ) c
p
uz
 p d
p
o
p
í
=
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4115
Use the labels below when you have specified TYPE=BABUODEH:
Table 439: Label Requirements for the BabuOdeh Model
Example: (See the following figure to clarify the input)
IPR NAME=IPR1, MODEL=7, IVAL=BASIS,3, &
RVAL=KX,4/KY,5/KZ,6/RESA,7/RESB,8/THICK,9/ &
LENGTH,22/XCORD,34/Y1CORD,45/Y2CORD,56/ZCORD,67/ &
RW,6/VISL,.7/FVF,4/SKIN,2
Figure 42: BabuOdeh Model Example
Tabular IPR curves may be specified for a completion by inputting PWF versus QF
(flowrate) for a range of reservoir pressures or cumulative reservoir production.
RVAL Labels for BabuOdeh Model
KX Permeability in X direction (darcies)
KY Permeability in Y direction (darcies)
KZ Permeability in Z direction (darcies)
RESA Length of reservoir  perpendicular to well, i.e. Xdirection (coarse length)
RESB Width of reservoir  parallel to well, i.e., Ydirection (coarse length)
THICKNESS Thickness of reservoir (coarse length)
LENGTH Length of horizontal well (coarse length)
XCORD X coordinate of horizontal well (coarse length)
Y1CORD Y1 coordinate of horizontal well (coarse length)
Y2CORD Y2 coordinate of horizontal well (coarse length)
ZCORD Z coordinate of horizontal well (coarse length)
RW Well bore radius (fine length)
VISL Fluid viscosity
FVF Formation volume factor
SKIN Reservoir infinitesimal skin
STRUCTURE Data Category of Input > IPR …
{} entries are optional () keyword qualifiers underlined keywords are defaults
= requires values or entries values or entries for keywords are defaults in Petroleum units
4116 Input Reference
The descriptions below use the generic form of Label; e.g., PRESn. Up to five IPR
curves may be entered; i.e., n may be between 1 and 5. Up to six points may be entered
on each IPR curve; i.e., m may be between 1 and 6.
Table 440: Label Requirements for the Tabular IPR Model
Example:
IPR NAME=IPR1,TYPE=TABU,IVAL=BASIS,5, &
RVAL = PRES1,2500 / &
PWF11,1500 / PWF12,1250 / PWF13,1000 / &
QF11,25000 / QF12,30000 / QF13,35000
The following schematic illustrates tabular IPR curves:
IVAL Labels for Tabular Data
IMODEL Enter a number to define the IPR model on which the tabular data is to be regressed:
1 Productivity Index (requires 1 point on each curve)
2 Vogel (requires 1 point on each curve)
3 Fetkovich Gas Flow (requires 2 points on each curve)
4 LaminarInertialTurbulent (requires 2 points on each curve).
If you do not enter a value for IMODEL (or enter 0), interpolation will be by a
sectionallycontinuous straight line; there will be no curve fitting and up to six points
on each IPR curve may be entered. Sufficient curve data should be supplied to cover
the ranges of flow encountered during calculations.
RVAL Labels for Tabular Data
PRESn Reservoir pressure on the nth IPR curve.
or
TQCUMn Cumulative total reservoir production on the nth IPR curve. The units depend on the
fluid type:
Blackoil total oil + water in liquid volume units
Condensate or gas total gas produced in gas volume units
Compositional liquid/ steam liquid in liquid volume units
or TQOCUMn Cumulative oil production on the nth IPR curve in liquid volume units
or TQLCUMn Cumulative oil + water production on the nth IPR curve in liquid volume units
or TQGCUMn Cumulative gas production on the nth IPR curve in gas volume units
or TQWCUMn Cumulative water production on the nth IPR curve in liquid volume units
PWFnm mth flowing bottomhole pressure on the nth IPR curve
QFnm mth flow rate on the nth IPR curve. The units correspond to the BASIS chosen
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4117
Figure 43: Tabular IPR Curves
If cumulative production is a parameter for the tabular IPR curves the following labels
may be used to interpolate the set of curves.
Table 441: Additional Label Requirements for the Tabular IPR Model
se the labels in the following table when you want to use the PIPEPHASE timestepping
feature.
Table 442: Label Requirements for TimeStepping
RVAL Labels for Tabular Data (when Cumulative Production is the Parameter)
QCUM Cumulative total reservoir production at time=0. The default is zero. The units
depend on the fluid type:
Blackoil total oil + water in liquid volume units
Condensate or gas total gas produced in gas volume units
Compositional liquid in liquid volume units
Used only if TQCUM is specified in the reservoir declining curve.
or
QOCUM Cumulative oil produced in liquid volume units at time=0. The default is zero. Used
only if TQOCUM is specified in the reservoir declining curve.
or
QLCUM Cumulative liquid (oil + water) produced in liquid volume units at time=0. Used only
if TQLCUM is specified in the reservoir declining curve.
or
QGCUM Cumulative gas produced in gas volume units at time=0. The default is zero. Used
only if TQGCUM is specified in the reservoir declining curve.
or
QWCUM Cumulative water produced in liquid volume units at time=0. The default is zero.
Used only if TQWCUM is specified in the reservoir declining curve.
ARRAY Labels for Reservoir Data
DECLINERATE P/Z decline rate per unit of production, in pressure per gas volume units. Valid for
gas flow based reservoir decline.
4118 Input Reference
The curve is required if an interpolation is to be made in an IPR device or timestepping
is to be used in the run. Up to 50 points may be defined on the curve for a Blackoil or
Condensate run and up to 100 points for a Liquid, Compositional or Steam run.
Alternatively, for timestepping in Gas Reservoirs, the reservoir decline can be
represented as a straight line of P/Z against cumulative production by specifying the
decline rate.
Note: Any difference between a userspecified source pressure and the corresponding reservoir pressure is
maintained during timestepping. A decline in reservoir pressure (Dp) with each timestep will result in a
corresponding decline in the source pressure. This feature is useful when considering the effect of well
location in the reservoir.
Example:
IPR NAME=IPR1, GROUP=RES2, ... &
RVAL=QCUM,6/ &
ARRAY=PPRES,5000,4500,4000,3500/ &
AQCUM 4.2,5.3,6.4,7.5,
Well Data for TimeStepping
For timestepping runs, curves of reservoir pressure or cumulative production against
GasOil Ratio, CondensateGas Ratio, Water Cut and WaterGas ratio may be entered for
each completion.
PPRES Array of reservoir pressures on the reservoir declining curve.
AQCUM Array of cumulative total matter produced corresponding to the reservoir pressures
array. Units correspond to the chosen fluid type for the problem.
or
AQOCUM Cumulative oil produced in units corresponding to the liquid volume units chosen.
Use with QOCUM if necessary.
or
AQLCUM Cumulative liquid (oil + water) produced in units corresponding to the liquid
volume units chosen. Used with QLCUM iif necessary.
or
AQGCUM Cumulative gas produced in units corresponding to the BASIS chosen. Use with
QGCUM if necessary.
or
AQWCUM Cumulative water produced in units corresponding to the BASIS chosen. Use with
QWCUM if necessary.
ARRAY Labels for Reservoir Data
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4119
Table 443: Additional Label Requirements for TimeStepping
The following example illustrates the use of two wells utilizing a single reservoir model.
Example:
IPR NAME=IPR1,TYPE=PI,RVAL=PI,50/ &
PRES1,2700/ PRES2,2500/,PRES3,2300/, &
GOR1, 100 / GOR2, 120 / GOR3, 150 /&
WCUT1, 20 / WCUT2, 21 / WCUT3, 22 &
IVAL=BASIS,2, &
ARRAY= AQCUM, 10000.0, 30000, 60000, 100000/ &
PPRES, 2700, 2500, 2300, 2300, &
GROUP=AAAA IPR NAME=IPR2,TYPE=PI,RVAL=PI,60/ &
IVAL=BASIS,2, &
RVAL= PRES1, 2700 / PRES2, 2500 / PRES3,2300/, &
GOR1, 67 / GOR2, 72 / GOR3, 81 / &
WCUT1, 8.2 / WCUT2, 9.0 / WCUT3, 10.7, &
GROUP=AAAA
PUMP
Describes a single or multistage pump.
RVAL Labels for Tabular Data Used with TimeStepping
PRESn Reservoir pressure on the nth IPR curve
or
TQCUMn Cumulative total reservoir production on the nth IPR curve. The units depend on the
fluid type:
Blackoil total oil + water in liquid volume units
Condensate or gas total gas produced in gas volume units
Compositional liquid/ steam liquid in liquid volume units
or
TQOCUMn Cumulative oil production on the nth IPR curve in liquid volume units
or
TQLCUMn Cumulative oil + water production on the nth IPR curve in liquid volume units
or
TQGCUMn Cumulative gas production on the nth IPR curve in gas volume units
or
TQWCUMn Cumulative water production on the nth IPR curve in liquid volume units
GORn GasOil ratio corresponding to the nth reservoir pressure or cumulative reservoir
production. Use this label for Blackoil runs only.
or
CGRn CondensateGas ratio corresponding to the nth reservoir pressure or cumulative
reservoir production. Use this label for condensate runs only.
WCUTn Water Cut corresponding to the nth reservoir pressure or cumulative reservoir
production. Use this label for Blackoil runs only.
or
WGRn WaterGas ratio corresponding to the nth reservoir pressure or cumulative reservoir
production.Use this label for condensate runs only.
4120 Input Reference
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
POWER()= One of power, outlet pressure or a pump curve must be specified.
or
PRESSURE()=
or
TYPE=0 and
CURVE()=
There are normally two pump curves: Q (flowrate) against H (head) and Q against
E (efficiency). If the pump is an electric submersible pump, you may supply a
third curve of Q against P (motor power). You can supply these curves either in
tabular form by using CURVE or as coefficiencts of quadratic equations by using
HDCONS, EFFCONS, and PWRCONS.
or
TYPE=0 and
HDCONS=
and
EFFCONS=
and
PWRCONS=
or
CRVn()= and
RPMC=
and
RPM= or
POWER= or
PRESSURE=
Use TYPE to specify the number of curves and whether the RILING correction for
high viscosity fluids is to be used:
TYPE = 0 Two curves without RILING correction
TYPE = 1 Three curves without RILING correction
TYPE = 100 Two curves with RILING correction
TYPE = 101 Three curves with RILING correction
If you want to input curves as a table, use the following format:
CURVE()=Q, H, EFF, P/Q, H, EFF, P/...
Each group of Q, H, EFF, and P corresponds to one point on the table. You can use
qualifiers to specify units of measurement for actual flowrate (liquid volume basis
only) and/or head in long length units and/or motor power. P (motor power) may
not be input when TYPE=0 or 100.
If you want to input curves as equations, use the following format:
HDCONS = hc1, hc2, hc3
EFFCONS = ec1, ec2, ec3
PWRCONS = pc1, pc2, pc3
where:
hc1, hc2, hc3 are coefficients in the head/rate equation,
ec1, ec2, ec3 are coefficients in the efficiency/rate equation and
pc1, pc2, pc3 are coefficients in the power/rate equation.
The form of each equation is:
property = coefficient1 + coefficient 2*Q + coefficient3*Q
2
where
Q = flowrate
You may not use qualifiers to change the units of measurement. PWRCONS may
not be input when TYPE = 0 or 100.
If you have specified power, you may also specify a maximum pressure using
PRESSURE(MAX). If you have specified an outlet pressure or a pump curve or
equation set, you may also supply a maximum power using POWER(MAX).
For multispeed curves, CRVn, RPMC, and one of RPM, PRESS, or POWER are
mandatory. One curve must be entered for each RPMC value specified. Up to 5
RPMC values may be entered in ascending or descending order:
RPMC=rpm1,rpm2,rpm3,rpm4,rpm5
Up to 25 data sets may be entered per curve:
CRV
n
=rate
1
,head
1
,efficiency
1
/.../rate
25
,head
25
,efficiency
25
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4121
Mandatory entries for a pump in a well:
Example:
PUMP NAME=PMP1, POWER=100, PRESSURE(MAX)=300, EFFICIENCY=90
REGULATOR
Describes a device used to fix the pressure immediately downstream from it if the
upstream pressure is greater.
Note: For source links with source pressure fixed, if the link maximum flowrate is specified on the LINK
statement or the DPMAX is specified in the IPR device in the source link, you must specify a regulator at the
surface with a very high set pressure. There must be at least one flow device downstream of this regulator.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
REGU NAME=R101, PRES(BAR)=2.435
In this example:
STAGES=1 Number of stages. If there is more than one stage and pump curves are
entered, all stages use the same curves.
EFFICIENCY=100 Percentage efficiency of the pump. Not used if a CURVE is defined.
AUXILLIARY()1= Auxilliary power to be supplied to an electric submersible pump in addition
to the power associated with the pump itself.
ALPHA
1
= and
DEGRADATION
You may specify head degradation as a function of Gas Ingestion Percentage.
ALPHA is an array of up to five Gas Holdup Percentages;
DEGRADATION is an array of corresponding head degradation percentages.
The format is:
ALPHA = value1, value2, value3,...
DEGR = value1, value2, value3,...
Each ALPHA value must have a corresponding DEGRADATION value.
SUBMERGENCE()
1
= Minimum submergence for an electric submersible pump, in coarse length
units.
CHP()
1
=14.7 Casing head pressure for an electric submersible pump.
PGRAD
1
=0 Vertical pressure gradient in the casing tubing annulus due to the gas column
above an electric submersible pump. Units are pressure per coarse length.
WELL Use this keyword to indicate that the pump is in a well.
LENGTH()= Distance from the well head to the inlet of the pump in long length units.
DEPTH()= Vertical depth from the well head to the inlet of the pump in long length
units. Must be positive. If omitted, a vertical well is assumed (depth =
length).
PRESSURE()= Set downstream pressure.
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
4122 Input Reference
If P
inlet
> 2.435 bar, P
outlet
= 2.435 bar
If P
inlet
< 2.435 bar, P
outlet
= P
inlet
SEPARATOR
Describes the equipment used to split some or all of the different phases from a multi
phase stream. Used with blackoil, gas condensate or compositional fluids.
PIPEPHASE models separators in networks for blackoil, condensate and compositional
fluid models. There are no restrictions on the following types of separators:
1. Gas Separator in a blackoil network
2. Condensate (oil) separator in a gas condensate network
3. Water separators in a gas condensate network
4. Liquid separators in a gas condensate network
Certain restrictions apply for the following configurations:
1. Any phase separator in a compositional network
2. Any component separator in a compositional network
3. Water separators in a blackoil network
For the restricted configurations listed above, the following ruleson the placement of the
separators in the network must be followed in order to provide correct simulation results:
1. The separator(s) may be located in ‘Source pressure specified’ source link(s).
2. The separator may be located in a ‘Sink rate specified’ sink link (spur sink link).
3. The separator is located in a spur link.
4. The separator may be anywhere in a network if there are no spur links in the net
work.
The separator in a network must not be located as described below:
1. Separators must not be located in a nonspur ‘junction to junction’ link (internal
link) when the network has spur links.
2. Separator must not be located in a rate specified source link, where the network has
spur links.
To enable the modeling of networks with separators, in configurations which are not
supported currently, a workaround may be available. The basic idea is to reconfigure
the problem through the judicious choice of subnetwork configurations as described
below.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4123
Separators are normally maintained at some design pressures. Downstream of the
separator, in the same link, specify an MREG with PUPS value set to the separator
design pressure (See manual for information on how to setup subnetworks properly).
When this is an acceptable option from the modeling viewpoint, the resulting
subnetwork will yield a valid ‘separator in network’ configuration.
Mandatory entries:
Table 444: Separator Options
Note: You can operate on more than one phase on a single statement. With the blackoil model, the
separator can be used to specify either the percentage or rate separation of gas, or water through use of the
qualifiers (GAS,WATER). When rates are specified you can also specify the units for the volumetric flow of
gas or water.
Optional entries:
Optional entry for compositional fluids:
Optional entries for a bottomhole separator:
PERCENT()= or
RATE()=
Use PERCENT to define what percentage of the required phase is to be
removed in the effluent stream. Use RATE to define the flowrate of the
required phase to be removed in the effluent stream. That which is not
removed continues along the link. Identify the phase and the rate units by use
of qualifiers, as in the table below. You may operate on more than one phase
on the same statement.
Separator Effluent Phase Qualifier Rate Basis
Vapor GAS
1
Gas Volume
Hydrocarbon liquid COND
2
Liquid Volume
Aqueous WATER Liquid Volume
Hydrocarbon + Aqueous LIQ
3
Liquid Volume
*
Compositional fluids and blackoil problems
2
Compositional fluids and gas condensate problems
3
Compositional fluids only
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
WELL Use this keyword to indicate that the separator is in a well.
Component Specifies the percent of the component to be separated.
GIP = If a bottomhole separator is positioned below an electric submersible pump,
you may use GIP to specify Gas Ingestion Percentage.
or
ODPUMP() = and
IDCASING() =
If you want PIPEPHASE to calculate Gas Ingestion Percentage, you must
supply ODPUMP, the outside diameter of the pump at the bottomhole
separator, and IDCASING, the inside diameter of the casing containing the
pump.
4124 Input Reference
Example:
SEPARATOR NAME=V2, PERCENT(COND)=100, PERCENT(WATER)=95
BEND
The BEND statement may be used to describe any type of bend, for example standard
elbows, mitre bends, pipe bends and flanged or buttwelded elbows. A BEND may be
standard or nonstandard.
Mandatory entries:
Table 445: Recommended Values of KMUL
Optional entries:
Note: If a nominal diameter is not available for a userdefined schedule in the selected table, then an error
message will be generated by PIPEPHASE. If schedule is not defined, then the default schedule 40 is used.
If a match cannot be found, PIPEPHASE will produce an error message.
ID()= or
NOMD=
Inside diameter of the bend pipe in short length units. Nominal diameter (in
inches).
K= or
KMUL=
Enter one of these. K is the resistance coefficient.
If you enter KMUL, PIPEPHASE calculates the resistance coefficient by
multiplying the calculated friction factor by KMUL. If additional
information is supplied, such as the angle, this data will be ignored.
If you enter K for a nonstandard bend, you must enter the value for a 90
o
bend and PIPEPHASE will calculate the resistance coefficient for the whole
bend. Recommended values of KMUL are given in the following table:
Bend Angle Recommended Values of KMUL
Standard elbow: 90° 30
Standard elbow: 45° 16
Mitre bend 90° 60
Mitre bend 45° 15
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
DESCRIPTION= Up to twenty characters of descriptive text for user information purposes
only.
SCHEDULE=40 Pipe schedule. Internal builtin table of schedule data will be used unless the
PIPSCHEDULE keyword is specified in the DEFAULT statement in the
General Data Category of input. In the latter case, either a default or user
defined table of pipe schedule data will be used.
STANDARD or
NONSTANDARD
Type of bend. Use STANDARD to specify a standard mitre bend or elbow;
NONSTANDARD for any other kind of bend.
RADIUS()= Radius of curvature of the bend in short length units. This entry is mandatory
for a NONSTANDARD bend and ignored for a STANDARD bend.
ANGLE()= Angle of the bend. This entry is mandatory for a NONSTANDARD bend
and ignored for a STANDARD bend.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4125
Example:
BEND ID=10, KMUL=60
BEND ID=10, KMUL=60, HOMOGENEOUS
BEND ID=10, NONSTANDARD, ANGLE=60, RADIUS=30, KMUL=50
CHECK
Describes a device that allows flow only in the direction defined by the FROM and TO
entries on the LINK statement.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
CHECK NAME=CHK1, ID(IN)=3.25, COEFF=0.91
CHOKE
Describes a device used to restrict fluid flow.
Note: If QMAX is specified in an internal link (flow from junction to junction or junction to sink) where
the link flowrate is unknown, a Fortunati or UEDA choke or valve must be added as part of the link.
PIPEPHASE will adjust the choke or valve size automatically as part of the network iterations in order to
meet the flow constraint.
ROUGHNESS()=0.0018 Pipe inside roughness in short length units. Use the qualifier REL to denote
roughness as a fraction of the pipe inside diameter.
CHISHOLM or
HOMOGENEOUS
Invokes the Chisholm or Homogeneous twophase flow model. Only
applicable if the fluid is twophase.
LAMBDA=1.0 The first parameter in the Chisholm equation.
C2=4.35 The second parameter in the Chisholm equation. The default is for a sharp
90° bend.
USER= Invokes a userdefined pressure drop method. A FORTRAN subroutine must
be written and linked with PIPEPHASE.
NUMBER=1 If you have more than one identical bend, you may use this entry to specify
how many there are in the link. Use this entry only when the properties of the
fluid do not change significantly.
ID()= Check valve inside diameter in short length units.
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
COEFFICIENT=1.0 Check valve discharge coefficient.
4126 Input Reference
Mandatory entries:
Note: The ID64 keyword will allow the user to specify the Choke diameter in terms of 64ths of an inch
which is the common and typical approach in the field. This option is available for all the chokes. However
for Case Study, Optimization, etc. data sections, the diameter variable must be referenced as ID. ID64 is
used only for input and the variable is merged with ID for all subsequent processing.
At least one pressure loss device before and after the choke must be present for the GF chokes to work
properly.
Optional entries:
The following keywords are applicable for the Gilbert Family of choke models:
Table 446: GF Model Coefficients
ID()=or
ID64
Choke inside diameter in short length units.
ID is in fine length units. ID64 is in 64ths of an inch
FN or
UEDA or
ORIFICE or
PERKINS
Calculation method. You must select ORIFICE if you have specified that the
fluid is singlephase on the CALCULATION statement in the General Data
Category of input. The FN (Fortunati) and PERKINS methods may only be
used for multiphase fluids. UEDA may only be used for Blackoil. PERKINS
is based on fundamental energy and mass balance equations and models both
critical and subcritical flow in a homogenous mixture with no mass
exchange between phases.
GILBERT or ROS
BAXENDELL or
ACHONG
Choke correlation for critical flow models
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
COEF=1.03 Choke discharge coefficient. Defaults to 1.03 for Fortunati, 1.0 for UEDA,
0.826 for Perkins and is calculated for ORIFICE.
CPCV=1.0 Specific heat ratio for the vapor phase. Used for UEDA and Fortunati only.
Used for noncompositional fluids.
WELL Use this keyword to indicate that the choke is in a well.
A=() The value of the A coefficient. Default values are specified as shown in the
table below, Table 446. The user can override these values
B=() The value of the B coefficient. Default values are specified as shown in the
table below, Table 446. The user can override these values
C=() The value of the C coefficient. Default values are specified as shown in the
table below, Table 446. The user can override these values
CPR=0.55 Critical pressure ratio at the onset of critical flow. The default value is 0.55.
GF Model A B C
Gilbert 10.0 0.546 1.89
Ros 17.4 0.500 2.00
Baxendell 9.56 0.546 1.93
Achong 3.82 0.650 1.88
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4127
Table 447: Choke Models and Applicable Fluid Types:
Besides the fluid type, a more general approach for choosing choke models in a network
system are:
• Good quality results for critical and subcritical flow (Perkins).
• Accurate prediction of the boundary between critical and subcritical flow (Perkins,
Fortunati)
• Smooth transition between the two types of flow (Perkins).
The last consideration is important in order to avoid convergence problems during
calculations of the whole system.
Example:
CHOKE NAME=CHOK, ID(MM)=25.4, FN, COEF=1.05
MCHOKE
This choke device allows you to specify the inlet pressure or flowrate through the choke.
PIPEPHASE solves the upstream subnetwork for the specified pressure or flowrate.
Then it solves the downstream subnetwork for the same flowrate. Now with the known
inlet and outlet pressure it sizes the choke.
Use MCHOKE to specify a flow boundary condition for the upstream network.
Mandatory entries:
Fluid Models Choke Models
Orifice Fortunati Ueda Perkins GF
Gas Y N N Y Y*
Liquid Y N N Y Y*
Condensate N Y N Y Y**
Blackoil N Y Y Y Y*
Steam N Y N Y N
Compositional N Y N Y Y**
* For Extended Models, see Equation 664 for the GF model choke. Use with caution.
** Program calculates this value using equivalent Blackoil values of GOR and Q
L
.
PUPS()= or Pressure at the upstream end of the choke.
QRATE()= or Flowrate through the choke.
PDOWN()= Pressure at the downstream end of the device. If you specify the downstream
pressure, PIPEPHASE treats the device as a conventional device with a
specified exit pressure and solves the network without use of the subnetwork
algorithm.
4128 Input Reference
Optional entries:
Example:
MCHOK NAME=MCH1, PUPS=2300, CPCV=1.45
MREGULATOR
This device introduces a pressure discontinuity into the defined network structure. Other
devices that invoke the same algorithm are MCOMPRESSOR and MCHOKE.
Use MREGULATOR to specify a flow boundary condition for the upstream network.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
MREG NAME=MRE1, QRAT=5600
CONTRACTION
Defines a contraction from a larger to a smaller diameter pipe.
Mandatory entries:
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
CPCV=1.4
COEF=1.0
Coefficient used by the Fortunati model.
FN or
PERKINS or
GF
Models maybe specified for MCHOKE.
PUPS()= or Pressure at the upstream end of the regulator.
QRATE()= or Flowrate through the regulator. For the blackoil model, you have the option
of specifying the subnetwork regulator flowrate of either oil, gas, water or
liquid with appropriate unit qualifiers. The default flow basis is oil. Thus you
can specify QRATE(GAS or WATER or LIQUID or OIL, unit qualifiers) =
for the requlator. For example, you can select QRATE(GAS,CFD) = 10, and
PIPEPHASE will seek a solution such that 10 cfd of gas is passed through
the regulator.
PDOWN()= Pressure at the downstream end of the device. If you specify the downstream
pressure, PIPEPHASE treats the device as a conventional regulator with a
specified exit pressure and solves the network without use of the subnetwork
algorithm.
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
IDIN()= or
NOMID=
Inside diameter of the inlet pipe in short length units. Nominal inlet pipe
diameter (in inches).
IDOUT()= or
NOMOD=
Inside diameter of the outlet pipe in short length units. Nominal outlet pipe
diameter (in inches).
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4129
Optional entries:
Example:
CONTRACT IDIN=6, IDOUT=4, ANGLE=135, HOMOGEN
ENTRANCE
Describes the entrance into a pipe from a larger volume such as a vessel.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
DESCRIPTION= Up to twenty characters of descriptive text for user information purposes
only.
SCHEDULE=40 Pipe schedule. Internal builtin table of schedule data will be used unless the
PIPSCHEDULE keyword is specified in the DEFAULT statement in the
General Data Category of input. In the latter case, either a default or user
defined table of pipe schedule data will be used.
Note: If a nominal diameter is not available for a userdefined schedule in the selected table,
PIPEPHASE will generate an error message. If the schedule is not defined, the default schedule 40 is used.
If a match cannot be found, PIPEPHASE will produce an error message.
ANGLE()=180 Angle of the contraction. A sudden contraction has a 180 degree angle.
K= Resistance coefficient. If you omit this entry, PIPEPHASE calculates a
resistance coefficient.
CHISHOLM or
HOMOGENEOUS
Invokes the Chisholm or Homogeneous twophase flow model. Only
applicable if the fluid is twophase.
LAMBDA=1.0 The first parameter in the Chisholm equation.
C2=0.5 The second parameter in the Chisholm equation.
USER= Invokes a userdefined pressure drop method. A FORTRAN subroutine must
be written and linked with PIPEPHASE.
NUMBER=1 If you have more than one identical contraction, you may use this entry to
specify how many there are in the link. Use this entry only when the
properties of the fluid do not change significantly.
IDPIPE()= or
NOMD=
Inside diameter of the downstream pipe in short length units. Nominal
downstream pipe diameter (in inches).
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
DESCRIPTION= Up to twenty characters of descriptive text for user information purposes
only.
SCHEDULE=40 Pipe schedule. Internal builtin table of schedule data will be used unless the
PIPSCHEDULE keyword is specified in the DEFAULT statement in the
General Data Category of input. In the latter case, either a default or user
defined table of pipe schedule data will be used.
4130 Input Reference
Example:
ENTRANCE IDPIPE=3.068, K=0.3, LAMBDA=1.2
EXIT
Describes the exit from a pipe into a larger volume such as a vessel.
Mandatory entries:
Note: If a nominal diameter is not available for a userdefined schedule in the selected table, an error
message will be generated by PIPEPHASE. If schedule is not defined, the default schedule 40 is used. If a
match cannot be found, PIPEPHASE will produce an error message
K=0.5 Resistance coefficient for sharp edged.
CHISHOLM or
HOMOGENEOUS
Invokes the Chisholm or Homogeneous twophase flow model. Only
applicable if the fluid is twophase.
LAMBDA=1.0 The first parameter in the Chisholm equation.
C2= The second parameter in the Chisholm equation. If you use the Chisholm
model, you must supply a value for C2.
USER= Invokes a userdefined pressure drop method. A FORTRAN subroutine must
be written and linked with PIPEPHASE.
NUMBER=1 If you have more than one identical entrance, you may use this entry to
specify how many there are in the link. Use this entry only when the
properties of the fluid do not change significantly.
IDPIPE= or
NOMD=
Inside diameter of the upstream pipe in short length units. Nominal upstream
pipe diameter (in inches).
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4131
Optional entries:
Example:
EXIT IDPIPE=2.15, K=0.7
EXPANSION
Defines an expansion from a smaller to a larger diameter pipe.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
DESCRIPTION= Up to twenty characters of descriptive text for user information purposes
only.
SCHEDULE=40 Pipe schedule. Internal builtin table of schedule data will be used unless the
PIPSCHEDULE keyword is specified in the DEFAULT statement in the
General Data Category of input. In the latter case, either a default or user
defined table of pipe schedule data will be used.
Note: If a nominal diameter is not available for a userdefined schedule in the selected table, then an error
message will be generated by PIPEPHASE. If schedule is not defined, then the default schedule 40 is used.
If a match cannot be found, PIPEPHASE will produce an error message.
K=1.0 Resistance coefficient for sharp edged exit.
CHISHOLM or
HOMOGENEOUS
Invokes the Chisholm or Homogeneous twophase flow model. Only
applicable if the fluid is twophase.
LAMBDA=1.0 The first parameter in the Chisholm equation.
C2= The second parameter in the Chisholm equation. If you use the Chisholm
model, you must supply a value for C2.
USER= Invokes a userdefined pressure drop method. A FORTRAN subroutine must
be written and linked with PIPEPHASE.
NUMBER=1 If you have more than one identical exit, you may use this entry to specify
how many there are in the link. Use this entry only when the properties of the
fluid do not change significantly.
IDIN()= or
NOMID=
Inside diameter of the inlet pipe in short length units. Nominal inlet pipe
diameter (in inches).
IDOUT()= or
NOMOD=
Inside diameter of the outlet pipe in short length units. Nominal outlet pipe
diameter (in inches).
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
DESCRIPTION= Up to twenty characters of descriptive text for user information purposes
only.
SCHEDULE=40 Pipe schedule. Internal builtin table of schedule data will be used unless the
PIPSCHEDULE keyword is specified in the DEFAULT statement in the
General Data Category of input.
In the latter case, either a default or userdefined table of pipe schedule data
will be used.
4132 Input Reference
Example:
EXPANSION IDIN=4, IDOUT=6, ANGLE=135
NOZZLE
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Note: If a nominal diameter is not available for a userdefined schedule in the selected table, then
PIPEPHASE will generate an error message. If the schedule is not defined, then the default schedule 40 is
used. If a match cannot be found, PIPEPHASE will produce an error message.
ANGLE()=180 Angle of the expansion. A sudden expansion has a 180 degree angle.
K= Resistance coefficient. If you omit this entry, PIPEPHASE calculates a
resistance coefficient.
CHISHOLM or
HOMOGENEOUS
Invokes the Chisholm or Homogeneous twophase flow model. Only
applicable if the fluid is twophase.
LAMBDA=1.0 The first parameter in the Chisholm equation.
C2= The second parameter in the Chisholm equation. If this entry is omitted,
PIPEPHASE calculates a value.
USER= Invokes a userdefined pressure drop method. A FORTRAN subroutine must
be written and linked with PIPEPHASE.
NUMBER=1 If you have more than one identical expansion you may use this entry to
specify how many there are in the link. Use this entry only when the
properties of the fluid do not change throughout the link.
COMP Invokes a compressible fluid expansion model. The model is for
homogeneous flow and is suited for situations in which the incompressible
models lead to large pressure rises across expansion. Only valid for
compositional systems.
IDPIPE()= or
NOMD
Inside diameter of the upstream pipe in short length units.
IDNOZZLE()= Inside diameter of the nozzle in short length units.
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
SCHEDULE=40 Pipe schedule.
Note: If a nominal diameter is not available for a userdefined schedule in the selected table, then
PIPEPHASE will generate an error message. If the schedule is not defined, then the default schedule 40 is
used. If a match cannot be found, PIPEPHASE will produce an error message
COEFFICIENT= Flow coefficient. If this entry is omitted, PIPEPHASE will
calculate a flow coefficient.
CPCV=1.4 Specific heat ratio for the vapor phase.
CHISHOLM or
HOMOGENEOUS
Invokes the Chisholm or Homogeneous twophase flow model.
Only applicable if the fluid is twophase.
LAMBDA=1.0 The first parameter in the Chisholm equation.
C2=0.5 The second parameter in the Chisholm equation.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4133
Example:
NOZZLE IDPIPE=4.6, IDNOZZLE=3.1
ORIFICE
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
ORIFICE IDPIPE=10, IDORIFICE=6, THICK, CPCV=1.5
TEE
Defines a tee piece in a pipeline.
USER= Invokes a userdefined pressure drop method. A FORTRAN
subroutine must be written and linked with PIPEPHASE.
NUMBER=1 If you have more than one identical nozzle, you may use this entry
to specify how many there are in the link. Use this entry only when
the properties of the fluid do not change significantly.
IDPIPE()= or
NOMD
Inside diameter of the upstream pipe in short length units.
IDORIFICE()= Inside diameter of the orifice in short length units.
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
SCHEDULE=40 Pipe schedule.
Note: If a nominal diameter is not available for a userdefined schedule in the selected table, then
PIPEPHASE will generate an error message. If the schedule is not defined, then the default schedule 40 is
used. If a match cannot be found, PIPEPHASE will produce an error message.
THIN or
THICK
Specifies whether a thin or thick orifice plate is used.
If t > 10 mm use the THICK option
If t s 10 mm use the THIN option
where t is the thickness of the orifice plate
COEFFICIENT= Flow coefficient. If you omit this entry, PIPEPHASE calculates a flow
coefficient.
CHISHOLM or
HOMOGENEOUS
Invokes the Chisholm or Homogeneous twophase flow model. Only
applicable if the fluid is twophase.
LAMBDA=1.0 The first parameter in the Chisholm equation.
C2=0.5 The second parameter in the Chisholm equation. The default is 0.5 for a thin
orifice plate or 1.5 for a thick orifice plate.
CPCV=1.4 Specific heat ratio for vapor phase.
USER= Invokes a userdefined pressure drop method. A FORTRAN subroutine must
be written and linked with PIPEPHASE.
NUMBER=1 If you have more than one identical orifice, you may use this entry to specify
how many there are in the link. Use this entry only when the properties of the
fluid do not change significantly.
4134 Input Reference
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
TEE IDPIPE=12, KMUL=20, ROUGH(REL)=0.0001
VALVE
Defines any type of valve gate valve, globe valve, angle valve, lift check valve, swing
check valve, stop check valve, ball valve, butterfly valve, plug valve, foot valve, etc.
Note: If QMAX is specified in an internal link (flow from junction to junction or junction to sink) where
the link flowrate is unknown, a choke or valve must be added as part of the link. PIPEPHASE will adjust the
choke or valve size automatically as part of the network iterations in order to meet the flow constraint.
IDPIPE()= or
NOMD=
Inside diameter of the upstream pipe in short length units. Nominal upstream
pipe diameter (in inches).
K= or
KMUL=
Enter one of these. K is the resistance coefficient. If you enter KMUL,
PIPEPHASE calculates the resistance coefficient by multiplying the friction
factor by KMUL. Recommended values of KMUL are 20 (through run) and
60 (through branch).
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
DESCRIPTION= Up to twenty characters of descriptive text for user information purposes
only.
SCHEDULE=40 Pipe schedule. Internal builtin table of schedule data will be used unless the
PIPSCHEDULE keyword is specified in the DEFAULT statement in the
General Data Category of input. In the latter case, either a default or user
defined table of pipe schedule data will be used.
Note: If a nominal diameter is not available for a userdefined schedule in the selected table, an error
message will be generated by PIPEPHASE. If schedule is not defined, the default schedule 40 is used. If a
match cannot be found, PIPEPHASE will produce an error message.
ROUGHNESS()=0.0018 Pipe inside roughness in short length units. Use the qualifier REL to denote
roughness as a fraction of the pipe inside diameter.
CHISHOLM or
HOMOGENEOUS
Invokes the Chisholm or Homogeneous twophase flow model. Only
applicable if the fluid is twophase.
LAMBDA=1.0 The first parameter in the Chisholm equation.
C2=1.75 The second parameter in the Chisholm equation.
USER= Invokes a userdefined pressure drop method. A FORTRAN subroutine must
be written and linked with PIPEPHASE. See UserDefined DP Correlations,
p. 4195, for further information.
NUMBER=1 If you have more than one identical tee, you may use this entry to specify
how many there are in the link. Use this entry only when the properties of the
fluid do not change significantly.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4135
Mandatory entries:
Table 448: Recommended Values of KMUL
Optional entries:
IDIN()= or
NOMID=
Inside diameter of the pipe in short length units. Nominal inlet pipe diameter
(in inches).
IDOUT()= or
NOMOD=
Inside diameter of the valve in short length units. Nominal outlet pipe
diameter (in inches).
K= or
KMUL=
Enter one of these. K is the resistance coefficient. If you enter KMUL,
PIPEPHASE calculates the resistance coefficient by multiplying the friction
factor by KMUL. Recommended values of KMUL are given in the
following table.
Valve Type Recommended Values of KMUL
Check Valve 200400
Butterfly Valve 2545
Foot Valve 75420
Ball Valve fully open 3
Globe Valve 50350
Angle Valve 50350
Swing Valve 50100
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
DESCRIPTION= Up to twenty characters of descriptive text for user information purposes
only.
SCHEDULE=40 Pipe schedule. Internal builtin table of schedule data will be used unless the
PIPSCHEDULE keyword is specified in the DEFAULT statement in the
General Data Category of input. In the latter case, either a default or user
defined table of pipe schedule data will be used.
Note: If a nominal diameter is not available for a userdefined schedule in the selected table, then
PIPEPHASE will generate an error message. If the schedule is not defined, then the default schedule 40 is
used. If a match cannot be found, PIPEPHASE will produce an error message.
ANGLE=180 Angle of the valve. This entry is used for a ball or gate valve with conical
inlet and outlet.
CHISHOLM or
HOMOGENEOUS
Invokes the Chisholm or Homogeneous twophase flow model. Only
applicable if the fluid is twophase.
LAMBDA=1.0 The first parameter in the Chisholm equation.
C2=1.5 The second parameter in the Chisholm equation. The default is for a gate
valve.
VELCON= Velocity constant. Use this entry to calculate the minimum velocity required
to keep a velocity dependent valve open. Invokes an output warning if the
fluid velocity is not sufficient.
USER= Invokes a userdefined pressure drop method. A FORTRAN subroutine must
be written and linked with PIPEPHASE.
4136 Input Reference
Example:
VALVE NAME=GAT1, IDIN=3.068, IDOUT=3, KMUL=60 $ GLOBE VALVE
VENTURIMETER
The Venturimeter only models the pressure loss up to the throat. If you wish to include the pressure recovery
effect of the Venturimeter outlet, then an EXPANSION device should immediately follow downstream.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
VENTURI IDPIPE=12,IDTHROAT=9.5, CPCV=1.45
NUMBER=1 If you have more than one identical valve you may use this entry to specify
how many there are in the link. Use this entry only when the properties of the
fluid do not change significantly.
IDPIPE()= or
NOMD=
Inside diameter of the upstream pipe in short length units.
IDTHROAT()= Inside diameter of the Venturimeter throat in short length units.
NAME= Up to four alphanumeric characters.
SCHEDULE=40 Pipe schedule.
Note: If a nominal diameter is not available for a userdefined schedule in the selected table, then
PIPEPHASE will generate an error message. If the schedule is not defined, then the default schedule 40 is
used. If a match cannot be found, PIPEPHASE will produce an error message.
COEFFICIENT= Flow coefficient. If a value is not supplied, PIPEPHASE uses builtin
correlations to calculate one.
CPCV=1.4 Specific heat ratio for the vapor phase.
CHISHOLM or
HOMOGENEOUS
Invokes the Chisholm or Homogeneous twophase flow model. Only
applicable if the fluid is twophase.
LAMBDA=1.0 The first parameter in the Chisholm equation.
C2= The second parameter in the Chisholm equation. If a value is not entered, the
Cparameter in Eqn. 677, is set to 5.3.
USER= Invokes a userdefined pressure drop method. A FORTRAN subroutine must
be written and linked with PIPEPHASE.
NUMBER=1 If you have more than one identical Venturimeter, you may use this entry to
specify how many there are in the link. Use this entry only when the
properties of the fluid do not change significantly.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4137
UNIT OPERATIONS Data Category of Input
Overview
The UNIT OPERATIONS Category of input allows unit operations to be included in a
simulation. UNIT OPERATIONS differ from FITTINGS and DEVICES in that they
have more than one statement. The general format is:
UnitKeyword NAME=
statementName keywords...
statementName keywords...
Statement Keywords See page...
UNIT None p. 138
CALCULATOR Unit Operation
CALCULATOR ({UID=, NAME=]
DIMENSION C(50), P(50), V(200), R(200), IX(9) p. 139
CONSTANT i, j, value/ ... p. 139
DEFINE P(i) AS SIMU = SIMU, CCLASS=<CClass>,
CNAME=<CName>,
VARIABLE=”<Variable Name>”, {INDEX=<Index No>}
RESULT i, text/... p. 140
PROCEDURE None p. 141
FORTRAN Statement p. 141
{DIMENSION var(), var(),...}
{INTEGER var, var,...}
{REAL var, var,...}
{nn var = expression}
{nn GOTO mm}
{nn CONTINUE}
{nn IF (expression) conditional clause}
{nn IF (expression) THEN}
{ELSEIF (expression) THEN}
{ELSE}
{ENDIF}
{nn DO mm IXi=i, j, k}
{nn DISPLAY R(i:j), P(i:j), C(i:j), V(i:j), IX(i:j)}
{nn OPEN(FILE=field, OVERWRITE or APPEND)
{nn OUTPUT R(i:j), P(i:j), C(i:j), V(i:j), IX(i:j)}
{nn TRACE option}
{nn STOP}
4138 Input Reference
UNIT
Introduces the section.
Mandatory entries: None.
Optional entries: None.
CALCULATOR
Introduces the Calculator unit operation. Calculator is a versatile utility module offering
much of the calculational power of FORTRAN. As a unit operation module, it may be
placed anywhere in the flowsheet calculation sequence. Using a simple language based
on FORTRAN 77, it computes a result or array of results for printout, for storage in a
stream vector, or for use by other unit modules. Its usefulness is limited only by the
imagination of the user. Typical applications include:
• Compute special stream properties for use by when optimizing the flowsheet.
• Compute process utility or operating costs for printout, convergence control or opti
mization.
• Compute equipment size and cost, based on calculated unit parameters, for printout
or optimization.
The CALCULATOR has two main sections:
• Calculator Setup
and
• Calculator Procedure.
The Calculator Setup section retrieves flowsheet variables involved in the calculations,
dimensions certain supplied arrays, defines invariant constants, sequences streams for
DO loop processing, and assigns descriptive labels to elements of the RESULTS vector.
The Calculator Procedure section contains FORTRANbased statements which perform
calculations.
Mandatory entries: None.
HYDRATES Unit Operation
HYDRATES {NAME=} p. 144
EVALUATE STREAM=, {PRES()=13.221, MAXPRES()=5861.31 and/or
POINTS=30 and/or DP()=, TESTIMATE=, ITEMP(),
MAXTEMP()=, and/or POINTS=30 and/or DT()=,
PTESTIMATE=, INHIBITOR(type)=}
p. 145
Statement Keywords See page...
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4139
Optional entries:
Other entries for GUI PFD Layout:;
DIMENSION
Optional statement in the Calculator Setup section of the Calculator unit. The
DIMENSION statement overrides default dimensions to declare the number of elements
in CALCULATOR supplied arrays C, P, V, R, and IX.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries:
CONSTANT
Mandatory statement only if the code in the Calculator Procedure section references
streams or cycles through a series of sinks, sources, or junctions using a DO loop. The
CONSTANT statement allows initialization of numerical values that remain unchanged
by any calculations in the procedure section. Note that integer values are converted to
floatingpoint numbers. All these constants are stored in array “C’’. The number of
elements in this array may be defined on the DIMENSION statement. Elements not
defined on the CONSTANT statement have large negative values.
UID= Unit identifier of the Calculator unit operation. Up to four alphanumeric
characters. Embedded blanks are not permitted
NAME=) Name of the Calculator unit operation. Up to four alphanumeric characters.
XCOR = xxx
YCOR = xxx
GUI Coordinates to place the icon on the PFD.
The user should not change this data..
C(index) Constant values defined in the Calculator Setup section. Used only on the right
hand side of assignment statements
P(index) Flowsheet parameters set by DEFINE statements. Used only on the right hand
side of assignment statements.
V(index) A floating point work array used on either the left or right hand side of
assignment statements. These elements are initialized to a large negative value
and are not available outside the calculator.
R(index) The array of calculator results, used on either side of assignment statements.
This results vector is available to other flowsheet modules external to the
CALCULATOR. These elements are initialized to a large negative value.
IX(index) An array of integer values. The form “IX(index)” is invalid on a DO statement.
It may be used on either side of assignment statements.
4140 Input Reference
Mandatory entries:
Note: When “j’’ is given, all elements of array “C’’ between “i’’ and “j’’ assume the specified value. If “j’’
is omitted, the single element specified by “i’’ is used. When “i’’ is missing, the next available element takes
the specified value.
Example: To initialize elements 3 through 11 of array “C’’ to zero, and elements 12 through
14 to 1.0, use:
CONSTANT 3, 11, 0.0/ 12, 14, 1.0
DEFINE
Optional statement. DEFINE allows retrieval of device or source/sink/junction values
from the flowsheet, and stores them as elements of the “P’’ array. Each DEFINE
statement initializes a single element. The number of elements in the “P’’ array may be
defined on the DIMENSION statement.
Mandatory entries: DEFINE P(i) AS SIMU=SIMU, CCLASS=<CClass>, CNAME=<CName>,
VARIABLE=“<Variable Name>”, {INDEX=<Index No>}
Example:
DEFINE P(1) AS SIMU=SIMU, CCLASS=SOURCE, CNAME=S001, VARIABLE="Temperature"
DEFINE P(3) AS SIMU=SIMU, CCLASS=SOURCE, CNAME=S001, VARIABLE="XLFEED(M)",*
INDEX=1
Note: Most CALCULATORS have as a minimum one DEFINE statement.
RESULT
Optional statement. The RESULT statement allows the user to supply descriptive labels
for each CALCULATOR result.
i, j These positive integers denote the beginning and ending element index in the
CONSTANT array.
value The value stored in elements “i’’ through “j’’ of array C.
Integer values are stored as floatingpoint numbers.
CCLASS = This refers the CCLASS of the device. All the valid entries for
<CClass> are listed in Table 455a in CASE STUDY Data Category of
Input starting on p. 153.
CNAME = This refers the Name of the NODE or LINK or DEVICE or PVT.
VARIABLE = This refers the Parameter. All the valid entries for <Variable Name>
are listed in Table 455a in CASE STUDY Data Category of Input
starting on p. 153.
INDEX = This refers the Array element index for Array variables (Component
Mol Fractions, DPDT Curves, etc.)
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4141
Mandatory entries:
Example:
RESULT 1, RELATIVE MB
PROCEDURE
The PROCEDURE statement is required.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries: None
FORTRAN Statements
Optional statements. You may supply any number of the following FORTRANlike
statements between the required PROCEDURE and RETURN statements. Each
statement contains a maximum of 80 characters. An ampersand (&) at the end of a line
indicates continuation on the following line. Note that an asterisk ( * ) is not valid as a
continuation marker, since it signifies multiplication.
All lines of code except the PROCEDURE statement may be preceded by a unique
numeric label from 1 to 99999 (shown as “nn’’ in this manual). The dollar sign ($)
causes all following data on the remainder of the line to be interpreted as a comment
rather than as code.
Note: Unlike FORTRAN, a “C’’ in column one does not designate a comment statement.
Example:
DIMENSION A(20,20), B(20), X(20)
REAL MASS
INTEGER COUNT, TAB(100)
Five real values are to be specified for the revenue (REVENU), profit (PROFIT), and
loss (LOSS) arrays corresponding to the years 2006 through 2010. The integer constants
2006 and 2010 are used (separated by commas) to denote the array bounds.
Example:
REAL REVENU(2006:2010), PROFIT(2006:2010), LOSS(2006:2010)
i, text/... Descriptive label for each calculator result. Labels may consist of up to
12 characters of text, but must not contain the characters = , ( ) * or &.
Embedded blanks are acceptable.
Statement Description
{DIMENSION var( ), var( ), ...} The DIMENSION statement is used to define one or twodimensional
arrays. Each subscript may be an integer constant, or two integer
constants separated by a colon to specify both the lower and upper
array bounds.
{INTEGER var, var, ...} Defines integer variables.
{REAL var, var, ...} Defines real variables.
4142 Input Reference
A variable may only appear once on these statements. The following is valid in standard
FORTRAN, but not in the CALCULATOR:
Example:
REAL MOLWT
DIMENSION MOLWT(50)
Both standard FORTRAN and the CALCULATOR accept this equivalent form:
REAL MOLWT(50)
Expressions
Table 449: Mathematical Operators
The operations on a given statement are executed in the following order:
1. Expressions within parentheses ( )
2. Functions
3. Exponentiation ( ** )
4. Multiplication and division ( * ,/)
5. Addition and subtraction (+,)
For calculations with the same precedence, expressions are evaluated from right to left
for exponentials, and left to right for all others.
Note: The CALCULATORsupplied arrays C and P may not appear on the left side of an assignment
statement.
{nn var = expression} The “expression’’ is governed by standard FORTRAN conventions. The
symbols for mathematical operations are given in Table 449 below.
Symbol Description
+ addition
 subtraction
* multiplication
/ division
** exponentiate (raise to a power)
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4143
Table 450a: Logical Operators in IF Statements
Table 450b: CALCULATOR Statements
Operator Description
.EQ. equal to
.NE. not equal to
.LT. less than
.GT. greater than
.GE. greater than or equal to
.LE. less than or equal to
.AND. both true
.OR. either true
.EQV. equivalent
.NEQV. not equivalent
.NOT. true/ false toggle
Statement Description
{nn GOTO mm} This is the standard FORTRAN statement that branches to label mm
unconditionally. “GO TO” written as two words is also supported.
{nn CONTINUE} This statement serves as a branch destination or the end of a DO loop. It
performs no calculations.
{nn IF (expression)
conditional clause}
This statement allows logical branching during calculations and conforms to
standard FORTRAN rules for “IF’’ statements. If the parenthetic expression is
true, it executes the conditional clause, which may be any procedure section
statement except RETURN, IF or DO. Table 450a lists logical operators
allowed in the expression.
{nn IF (expression)
THEN}
{ELSEIF (expression)
THEN}
{ELSE}
{ENDIF} The standard FORTRAN block “IF” statements are also supported. “ELSE IF’’
and “END IF’’ written as two words are also accepted. Block “IF’’ constructs
may be nested.
DO mm IXi= i, j, k} This statement defines the beginning of DO loops having a range extending
through statement label mm. IXn requires integer values for the initial and final
indices “i’’ and “j’’. The incremental step index “k’’ is optional and defaults
to 1.
{nn DISPLAY R( i : j ),
P( i : j ), C( i : j ), V( i : j ),
IX( i : j )}
The DISPLAY statement prints out array values during calculations. Only
CALCULATOR supplied arrays may appear in DISPLAY statements. The
position of DISPLAY statements in the procedure section determines when
values are printed. Entries “i’’ and “j’’ refer to the first and last elements of the
array to print. If “i’’ and “j’’ are absent, the entire array is printed.
4144 Input Reference
RETURN
The RETURN statement is required.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries: None
HYDRATES
Introduces the Hydrates unit operation, which predicts the pressure and temperature
regime in which the fluid at a node (source, sink, or junction) is vulnerable to hydrate
formation. Different ranges of temperature and pressure can be examined. Calculations
assume the presence of free water for hydrates to form.
The effect of NaCl, methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol
hydrate inhibitors can also be studied.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries: None
Other entries for GUI PFD Layout:;
{nn OPEN(FILE=fileid,
OVERWRITE or
APPEND)
The OPEN statement opens a file for CALCULATOR output. Only
CALCULATOR supplied arrays may be used. For PC, VAX, and UNIX
platforms, the default output name is <fileid>.CAL, where <fileid> is the
current input file name. A unique filename, up to 12 characters long, may be
specified, if necessary. However it will have a “.CAL’’ extension. Underscore
characters are not allowed (e.g., FILE_01). Any OPEN statement automatically
closes the previously opened file.
{nn OUTPUT R( i : j ),
P( i : j ), C( i : j ), V( i : j ),
IX( i : j )}
The OUTPUT statement performs the actual write to files. Multiple OUTPUT
statements may be supplied and may appear at any time following an OPEN
statement. Entries “i’’and “j’’are defined as for the DISPLAY statement. If
“i’’and “j’’are absent, the entire array is printed.
{nn TRACE option} Trace statements control printing an historical trace as calculations proceed.
This facilitates debugging the code in the CALCULATOR procedure.
Options are:
ON Prints line number, statement number, and (action taken/ new
variable value) as each statement executes.
BRANCH Prints TRACE information only for branching statements such as
IF, GOTO or DO.
OFF Turns off all TRACE options.
{nn STOP} This statement stops all flowsheet calculations and proceeds directly to the
output report. The solution flag for the entire flowsheet is set according to the
userdefined value of ISOLVE.
NAME= Name of the Hydrates unit operation. Up to four alphanumeric characters.
XCOR = xxx
YCOR = xxx
GUI Coordinates to place the icon on the PFD.
The user should not change this data..
Statement Description
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4145
EVALUATE
Mandatory statement. Define one range of conditions through which hydrate formation
is to be investigated.
You may either define a range of pressures and PIPEPHASE will predict the temperature
profile which defines the incipient formation of hydrates, or you may define a range of
temperatures and PIPEPHASE will predict the pressure profile which defines the
incipient formation of hydrates. You may optionally define an inhibitor whose effect is to
be examined.
Mandatory entries:
Optional Entries for Pressure Range:
Mandatory Entries for temperature range:
Optional Entries for pressure and temperature range:
Example:
UNIT OPERATIONS
HYDRATES NAME=HYD1
EVALUATE STREAM=SNK3, IPRES=50, MAXPR=500, DP=10,&
INHIB(EG)=12
EVALUATE STREAM=JCT1, ITEMP=200, MAXTEMP=2000, POINTS=20
STREAM= Name of the node SOURCE, SINK or JUNCTION at which the fluid is to be
investigated.
IPRES()=13.221 Specify the initial pressure at which hydrate formation is to be investigated.
The default is equivalent to 0.1 ATM.
MAXPRES()= 5861.31
and/or
POINTS=30 and/or
DP()
Enter two out of three of: final pressure; number of points to be evaluated
between the initial and final pressures (maximum is 30); pressure increment
between points. The default for MAXPRES is equivalent to 400 ATM.
TESTIMATE= Estimate of incipient hydrate formation temperature at the initial pressure
point.
ITEMP()= Specify the initial temperature at which hydrate formation is to be
investigated.
MAXTEMP()=
and/or
POINTS=30 and/or
DT()=
Enter two out of three of: final temperature; number of points to be evaluated
between the initial and final temperatures (maximum is 30); temperature
increment between points.
PESTIMATE= Estimate of incipient hydrate formation pressure at the initial temperature
point.
INHIBITOR(type)= Weight percent concentration of inhibitor. If you omit this entry, noinhibitor
calculations are performed. Use the qualifier to define the type of inhibitor.
Allowable types are: NACL or SALT sodium chloride METH or MEOH
methanol EG ethylene glycol DEG diethylene glycol TEG triethylene
glycol
4146 Input Reference
EVALUATE STREAM=SRC2, INHIBITOR(NACL)=22.5
GASLIFT Category of Input
Gaslift analysis is used to investigate the effects of lift gas on well production. This
feature is restricted to Blackoil wells where the oil production is upward through the well
tubing and the lift gas is injected downward through the well casing.
Overview
There are four options for gaslift calculations:
1. Pressure profiles for fixed oil production rate and lift gas rate.
2. Oil production versus lift gas injection rate.
3. Location of gas injection valve to match desired tubing head (production string)
pressure.
4. Location of gas injection valve to match desired casing head (injection string) pres
sure.
All gaslift options have several common factors:
• Production fluid is restricted to blackoil.
• PVT data sets must be provided for the blackoil and lift gas.
• The blackoil is described as the SOURCE fluid. Well IPR data are provided in the
form of PI or Vogel coefficients. For options 1 and 2 only, well test data (on the
WTEST statement) may be used to calculate the IPR.
• The SINK statement is used to provide the tubing (oil production) wellhead pres
sure.
• The production string LINK must be named “PROD”. This link may include surface
and some types of equipment as well as tubing for all options except Option 4 which
is restricted to tubing only.
• Applicable pressure drop methods should be selected for the oil and lift gas flow
devices.
• The lift gas injection string LINK must be named “GASL”. This link must consist of
only annuli, corresponding to the well casing. No other types of flow or point
devices are allowed. The lift gas is always injected down the casing, enters the tub
ing at the specified valve location and then flows up the tubing with the reservoir oil
and gas.
• For all options, the lift gas rates are userspecified.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4147
In terms of problem input, all data categories are identical for the four Gaslift options
except the GASLIFT Category. This category is used to select the desired Gaslift option.
The following input statements are required for all Gaslift options:
Table 451: Gaslift Category of Input
GASLIFT
Introduces the section.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries: None
PCALC
Statement used for Gaslift Option 1 only.
Category Statement Description
GENERAL TITLE Introduces the Category
CALC Used to specify the GASLIFT calculation
PVT DATA PVT DATA Introduces the Category.
SET Used to identify the set number and to enter gravity and other data.
LIFTGAS Used to define lift gas properties.
STRUCTURE STRUCTURE Introduces the Category.
SOURCE Used to define a point where fluid enters the system
SINK Used to define a point where fluid leaves the system, including
estimating or defining outlet pressure and flowrate.
LINK Used to define a series of devices (flow devices, fittings and items or
process equipment).
TUBING Used to define the tubing in a well.
PIPE Used to define the pipes.
ANNULUS Used to define a well annulus
GASLIFT GASLIFT Introduces the Category.
PCALC Used to enter data for GASLIFT option 1.
CAPACITY Used to enter data for GASLIFT option 2.
LOCATION Used to enter data for GASLIFT options 3 and 4.
Statement Keywords See ...
GASLIFT None p. 147
{PCALC} PRESSURE()=, TEMPERATURE()=, RATE()=, DEPTH()=,
{DISSOLVE=100}
p. 147
{CAPACITY} PRESSURE()=, TEMPERATURE()=, RATE()=, DEPTH()=,
{DISSOLVE=100}
p. 148
{LOCATION} PRESSURE()=, TEMPERATURE()=, RATE()=, DEPTH()=,
{DISSOLVE=100}, ID()=, IDTUBING()=, COEFFICIENT=
p. 148
4148 Input Reference
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
PCALC PRES=950, TEMP=100, DISSOLVE=0, DEPTH=5900, RATE=1.0
CAPACITY
Statement used for Gaslift Option 2 only.
Mandatory entries:
Optional entries:
Example:
CAPACITY PRES=950, TEMP=100, DISS=0, DEPTH=5100, &
RATE=0.001/0.2/0.4/0.6/0.8/1.0/2.0/3.0/4.0
LOCATION
Statement used for Gaslift Options 3 and 4.
Mandatory entries:
PRESSURE()= Lift gas injection pressure at casing head.
TEMPERATURE()= Lift gas injection temperature at casing head.
RATE()= Lift gas injection rate in gas volume units.
DEPTH()= Vertical depth from well head to lift gas injection valve in long length units.
DISSOLVE= 100 Percent of soluble lift gas which dissolves in the well fluid, if conditions
permit.
PRESSURE()= Lift gas injection pressure at casing head.
TEMPERATURE()= Lift gas injection temperature at casing head.
RATE()= Up to nine lift gas injection rates in gas volume units, in ascending order,
separated by commas. Zero or negative entries are not allowed.
DEPTH()= Vertical depth from well head to lift gas injection valve in long length units.
DISSOLVE= 100 Percent of soluble lift gas which dissolves in the well fluid, if conditions
permit.
PRESSURE()= Lift gas injection pressure at casing head.
TEMPERATURE()= Lift gas injection temperature at casing head.
RATE()= Injection rate in gas volume units. Zero or negative entry is not allowed.
DEPTH()= Up to eight vertical depths from well head to lift gas injection valves in long
length units, in ascending or descending order, separated by commas.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4149
Optional entries:
Additional entries for Gaslift Option 4:
Example:
LOCATION PRES=750, TEMP=60, DISSOLVE=100, RATE=0.185, &
DEPTH=5500/5000/4500/4000/3000/2500/2000
LOCATION PRES=600, TEMP=80, RATE=0.4, &
DEPTH=10000/9500/9000/8500/8000/7500/7000/6500/6000, &
ID=0.125/6,0.25, IDTU=2.441/6,3.548, COEF=0.9/6,0.83
DISSOLVE= 100 Percent of soluble lift gas which dissolves in the well fluid, if conditions
permit.
ID()= Orifice inside diameters, in short length units, corresponding to the gaslift
injection valves. Format is:
ID=valve number,valve ID/valve number, valve ID/...
Inside diameters of missing valves default to the previous value.
IDTUBING()= Inside diameters of tubing above Gaslift valves, in short length units,
corresponding to the gaslift injection valves. Format is:
ID=valve number,tubing ID/valve number, tubing ID/...
Inside diameters of missing tubings default to the previous value.
COEFFICIENT= Orifice coefficients corresponding to the gaslift injection valves. Format is:
ID=valve number, coefficient/valve number, coeff./...
Coefficients of missing tubings default to the previous value.
4150 Input Reference
SIZING DATA Category of Input
Overview
The Sizing Data Category of input sizes pipes, and tubing . This category is optional.
Note that sizing is not available for depressuring only simulations as no network
calculations are performed for this case.
Table 452: Sizing Data Category of Input
SIZING
Introduces the category. This category is used for sizing pipes and tubing.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries: None
DEVICE
Identifies which pipe and tubing devices are to be sized.
Mandatory entries:
Example:
DEVICE NAME=PIP1, LIN2, PIP3
LINE
Optional statement. Defines the line sizes that are to be used by PIPEPHASE in
determining a diameter which satisfies the sizing criteria. If this statement is omitted,
standard API Schedule 40 inside diameters are used. These are (in inches):
Statement Keywords See ...
SIZING None p. 150
DEVICE NAME= p. 150
{LINE} ID()= or NOMD= p. 150
{MAXV} ERVELC=, VELOCITY()=, ID()= or DENSITY()= or NOMD= p. 151
NAME=name,name,... Enter the name(s) of the device(s) that you want sized. If you want all
devices to be sized, enter:
NAME=ALL
1.049 1.610 2.067 2.469 3.068 3.548 4.026 5.074 6.065
7.981 10.020 11.938 13.124 15.000 16.876 18.814 22.626
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4151
Mandatory entries:
Example:
LINE ID(MM)=26, 30, 35, 40
MAXV
Optional statement. Enter the maximum velocity criteria. If this statement is omitted,
PIPEPHASE will use the erosional maximum velocity criteria, V
EM
.
Mandatory entries: (for singlelink, nonflare systems only)
Example:
MAXV VELOCITY=20,300,22,19,18, ID=2,5.5,10,15,25
ID()=value,value,...
or
NOMD=value,value...
Enter the inside diameters to be tried in short length units. Entries must be in
ascending order.
Enter the nominal sizes to be tried in inches. Entries must be in ascending
order. Default SCHEDULE is used to get corresponding ID. If the NOMD is
not in the SCHEDULE list, it is ignored.
ERVELC= or Enter the erosional velocity constant to replace 100 in the above erosional
velocity equation.
VELOCITY()= Enter a set of maximum velocities corresponding to a set of inside diameters
or densities.
ID()= or
DENSITY()= or
NOMD=
Enter a set of inside diameters or twophase slip densities corresponding to
the set of maximum velocities. Entries should be in ascending order. ID is in
short length units. NOMD is in inches and the default SCHEDULE is used
to get corresponding ID. If the NOMD is not in the SCHEDULE list, it is
ignored.
V
EM
100
p
TwoPhaseSlip
 =
4152 Input Reference
TIMESTEPPING Data Category of Input
The TimeStepping Data Category of Input allows you to examine how network
performance is affected as reservoir pressure declines with cumulative production and as
changes are made to devices in the network.
After the initial solution of the network, you may impose changes and stipulate that
those changes take place at different times. For every time entered, the network is
simulated incorporating the changes you have specified up to and including that time
using the condition of the reservoir (or reservoirs) at the time of the change. A full set of
results is printed for every time step – this can result in significant printout.
Declining reservoir condition curves are input as tables in one or more of the IPR
devices in the Structure Data Category of input.
Note: This category is also used to determine the length of time between steps. Shorter time steps are more
accurate than longer time steps
Table 453: Timestepping Data Category of Input
TIMESTEPPING
Introduces the category. This category is evaluate effects of changes in reservoir
conditions.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries: None
CHANGE
Mandatory statement. On each CHANGE statement enter the changes to be made to one
device and the times at which the changes are to be effected. More than one change
statement may be used. If you do not want to change a device but simply want to
examine the effect of declining reservoir conditions with an unchanging network, simply
enter one CHANGE statement with a series of times.
Statement Keywords See ...
TIMESTEPPING None p. 152
CHANGE CCLASS=<CClass>, CNAME=<CName>, {LINK=<Link Name>},
VARIABLE=<Variable Name>, {INDEX=<Index No>},
{SETCALC=}, TIME=<Time>, VALUE=<Value>
p. 152
CCLASS= This refers the CCLASS of the Device. All the valid entries for <CClass> are
listed in Table 455a in CASE STUDY Data Category of Input starting on
p. 153.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4153
TIMESTEPPING
CHANGE CCLASS=PIPE, CNAME=PIP1, VARIABLE=PIPE ID, TIME=10, 20, 30,*
VALUE=4.0, 3.5, 3.0
CHANGE CCLASS=SOUR, CNAME=FEED, VARIABLE=PRESSURE, SETCALC=C1.CLC,*
TIME=10,30, VALUE=0001,0001
CHANGE CCLASS=PIPE, CNAME=GNETWORK, VARIABLE=PIPE ID, TIME=20, 40, VALUE=2,3
CHANGE CCLASS=PIPE, CNAME=GLINK, LINK=L001, VARIABLE=PIPE LENGTH, TIME=10,30,*
VALUE=10,50
Timestep changes will be taken as follows for this example:
TIME=10, 20, 30, 40 days
CASE STUDY Data Category of Input
Overview
The CASE STUDY Data Category of Input allows you to modify the base case input and
rerun the simulation. This category is optional. CASE STUDY and TIMESTEPPING
Data Categories of input are mutually exclusive.
Table 454: Case Study Category of Input.
CNAME = This refers the Name of the NODE or LINK or DEVICE or PVT. Use
GNETWORK to make GLOBAL changes in the network. Use GLINK along
with LINK = <Link Name> to make GLOBAL changes in a particular Link
<Link Name>.
LINK = Indicates that variable changes are to be for all Devices in the link <Link
Name>. This is used along CNAME = GLINK option.
VARIABLE = This refers the Parameter. All the valid entries for <Variable Name> are listed in
Table 455a in CASE STUDY Data Category of Input starting on p. 153.
INDEX = This refer the Array Element Index for Array Variables (Component Mol
Fractions, DPDT Curves, etc.)
SETCALC = Name of Calculator to retrieve data from.
TIME = The times, in days, at which the parameter(s) on this CHANGE statement are to
be changed. A maximum of 20 times may be used in any one CHANGE
statement. Use multiple change statements to specify more time steps.
VALUE = Enter up to 20 change values in the value of the identified variables. Should be
equal to the number to Time steps entered.
Statement Keywords See ...
CASESTUDY None p. 154
{DESCRIPTION} any text string p. 154
{RESTORE} None p. 154
{PARAMETER} CCLASS=<CClass>, CNAME=<CName>, {LINK=<Link Name>},
VARIABLE=<Variable Name>, {INDEX=<Index No>},
{SETCALC=}, VALUE=<Value>
p. 154
4154 Input Reference
CASESTUDY
Introduces the category. Each new case is headed by a CASE statement and there are no
limits on the number of cases which can be entered in a simulation input.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries: None
DESCRIPTION
Optional statement. Allows you to enter a description of the simulation. You are
restricted to one DESCRIPTION statement per case study. The information on this
statement is printed once at the start of the case study output.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries: Text string of up to 60 characters.
Example:
DESC Change pipeline ID to 3 inches
RESTORE
By default, each new case study uses the solution from the previous case as the initial
guess. Use this keyword to restore the original solution as the initial guess. Case study
changes are cumulative, but the restore option will reset device and node data back to the
base case values. Changes to compositions and some simulation data such as viscosity
data are not included in this logic and must be restored manually.
PARAMETER
This PARAMETER statement allows changes to be made to parameters on a node and/or
device. You may have as many PARAMETER statements as desired. The devices and
parameters that can be changed are listed in Table 455a.
CCLASS= This refers the CCLASS of the device. All the valid entries for <CClass>
are listed in Table 455a
CNAME= This refers the Name of the NODE or LINK or DEVICE or PVT.
Use GFROM and GNETWORK to make GLOBAL changes in the network.
Use GLINK along with LINK = <Link Name> to make GLOBAL changes
in a particular Link <Link Name>.
LINK = Indicates that variable changes to be made for all devices in the link <Link
Name>. This is used along CNAME = GLINK option.
VARIABLE= This refers the parameter. All the valid entries for <Variable Name> are
listed in Table 455a.
INDEX= This refer the Array Element Index for Array variables (Component Mol
Fractions, DPDT Curves, etc.)
SETCALC = Name of Calculator to retrieve data from.
VALUE= The new value to which you want the parameter changed.
The following keywords are only applicable to the optimizer.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4155
Example: Global variable change for pipes in network to 10 inch I.D
PARAMETER CCLASS=PIPE, CNAME=GNETWORK, VARIABLE= PIPE ID, VALUE=3
PARAMETER CCLASS=TUBI, CNAME=GFROM, VARIABLE= PIPE ID, VALUE=2
Example: Flow code changes for tubing in network using the BBM
correlation to the OLGA correlation.
PARAMETER CCLASS=TUBI, CNAME=GFROM, VARIABLE=FLOW CODE, VALUE=BBM
PARAMETER CCLASS=TUBI, CNAME=GNETWORK, VARIABLE=FLOW CODE, VALUE=OLGA
Sources
Table 455a: SOURCE (CCLASS = SOURCE) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization &
Calculator Variables:
CONLOWER Absolute lower values for optimizer constraint variables are changed
(Applies to valid constraint variables only.)
CONUPPER Absolute upper values for optimizer constraint variables are changed
(Applies to valid constraint variables only).
Variable
Available as a
Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
Fluid Type = Compositional
RATE(M) Molar Flow Rate X X
RATE(WT) Weight Flow Rate X X
RATE(LV) Standard Liquid Volume Flow Rate X X
RATE(GV) Standard Gas Volume Flow Rate X X
ERATE(WT) Weight Flow Rate Estimate X X
ERATE(LV) Std Liquid Volume Flow Rate Estimate X X
ERATE(GV) Standard Gas Volume Flow Rate Estimate X X
TEMPERATURE Temperature X X
PRESSURE Pressure X X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
GAS VISC Gas Viscosity X
OIL VISC Oil Viscosity X
WAT VISC Water Viscosity X
GAS FRACTION Gas Fraction X
LIQ FRACTION Liquid Fraction X
GAS MW Gas Molecular Weight X
OIL MW Oil Molecular Weight X
WAT MW Water Molecular Weight X
AVG MW Average Molecular Weight X
TOTAL ENTH Total Enthalpy X
GAS DENSITY Gas Density X
OIL DENSITY Oil Density X
WAT DENSITY Water Density X
XLFEED(M) Component Mole Fractions X X
XLFEED(WT) Component Weight Fractions X X
WOBBE Wobbe Index X
GHV Gross Heating Value X
GRATE WT S Gas Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
4156 Input Reference
GL RTE GV S Gas Lift Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GL RTE WT S Gas Lift Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE WT S Oil Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE WT S Water Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV S Gas Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE LV S Oil Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE LV S Water Volulme Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE WT A Gas Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
ORATE WT A Oil Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
WRATE WT A Water Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
GRATE GV A Gas Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
ORATE LV A Oil Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
WRATE LV A Water Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
RATE WT S Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
GL RTE GV A Gas Lift Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
GL RTE WT A Gas Lift Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
NODE GLGRAV Gas Lift Gravity X
NODE GLDENS Gas Lift Density X
GAS MW S Gas Molecular Weight @ Std Conditions X
OIL MW S Oil Molecular Weight @ Std Conditions X
WAT MW S Water Molecular Weight @ Std Conditions X
AVG MW S AVG Molecular Weight @ Std Conditions X
Fluid Type = Blackoil
RATE(LV) Standard Liquid Volume Flow Rate X X
ERATE(LV) Std Liquid Volume Flow Rate Estimate X X
TEMPERATURE Temperature X X
PRESSURE Pressure X X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
GOR Gas Oil Ratio X X
WATER CUT Water Cut X X
GAS VISC Gas Viscosity X
OIL VISC Oil Viscosity X
WAT VISC Water Viscosity X
GAS FRACTION Gas Fraction X
LIQ FRACTION Liquid Fraction X
GAS DENSITY Gas Density X
OIL DENSITY Oil Density X
WAT DENSITY Water Density X
WOBBE Wobbe Index X
GHV Gross Heating Value X
TRACE Component Mole Fractions X X
GRATE WT S Gas Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GL RTE GV S Gas Lift Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GL RTE WT S Gas Lift Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE WT S Oil Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE WT S Water Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
Variable
Available as a
Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4157
GRATE GV S Gas Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE LV S Oil Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE LV S Water Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV A Gas Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
ORATE LV A Oil Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
WRATE LV A Water Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
GL RTE GV A Gas Lift Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
GL RTE WT A Gas Lift Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
NODE GLGRAV Gas Lift Gravity X
NODE GLDENS Gas Lift Density X
NODE OGRAV Oil Gravity X
NODE GGRAV Gas Gravity X
NODE WGRAV Water Gravity X
Fluid Type = Condensate (Gas)
RATE(GV) Standard Gas Volume Flow Rate X X
ERATE(GV) Standard Gas Volume Flow Rate Estimate X X
TEMPERATURE Temperature X X
PRESSURE Pressure X X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
CGR Condensate Gas Ratio X X
WGR Water Gas Ratio X X
GAS VISC Gas Viscosity X
OIL VISC Oil Viscosity X
WAT VISC Water Viscosity X
GAS FRACTION Gas Fraction X
LIQ FRACTION Liquid Fraction X
GAS DENSITY Gas Density X
COND DENSITY Condensate Density X
WAT DENSITY Water Density X
WOBBE Wobbe Index X
GHV Gross Heating Value X
TRACE Component Mole Fractions X X
GRATE WT S Gas Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE WT S Oil Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE WT S Water Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV S Gas Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE LV S Oil Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE LV S Water Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV A Gas Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
ORATE LV A Oil Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
WRATE LV A Water Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
NODE GGRAV Gas Gravity X
NODE WGRAV Water Gravity X
NODE CGRAV Condensate Gravity X
Variable
Available as a
Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
4158 Input Reference
Fluid Type = Steam
RATE(WT) Weight Flow Rate X X
ERATE(WT) Weight Flow Rate Estimate X X
TEMPERATURE Temperature X X
PRESSURE Pressure X X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
QUALITY Steam Quality (wt) X X
GAS VISC Gas Viscosity X
WAT VISC Water Viscosity X
GAS FRACTION Gas Fraction X
LIQ FRACTION Liquid Fraction X
GAS DENSITY Gas Density X
WAT DENSITY Water Density X
GRATE WT S Gas Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE WT S Water Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV S Gas Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE LV S Water Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV A Gas Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
WRATE LV A Water Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
NODE WGRAV Water Gravity X
Fluid Type = Gas
RATE(GV) Standard Gas Volume Flow Rate X X
ERATE(GV) Standard Gas Volume Flow Rate Estimate X X
TEMPERATURE Temperature X X
PRESSURE Pressure X X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
GAS VISC Gas Viscosity X
GAS DENSITY Gas Density X
WOBBE Wobbe Index X
GHV Gross Heating Value X
TRACE Component Mole Fractions X X
GRATE WT S Gas Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV S Gas Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV A Gas Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
NODE GGRAV Gas Gravity X
Fluid Type = Liquid
RATE(LV) Standard Liquid Volume Flow Rate X X
ERATE(LV) Std Liquid Volume Flow Rate Estimate X X
TEMPERATURE Temperature X X
PRESSURE Pressure X X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
OIL VISC Oil Viscosity X
OIL DENSITY Oil Density X
ORATE WT S Oil Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE LV S Oil Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
Variable
Available as a
Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4159
Sinks
Table 455b: SINK (CCLASS = SINK) – Case Study, Time stepping, Optimization & Calculator
Variables
ORATE LV A Oil Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
NODE OGRAV Oil Gravity X
Variable
Available as a
Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
Fluid Type = Compositional
RATE(M) Molar Flow Rate X X
RATE(WT) Weight Flow Rate X X
RATE(LV) Standard Liquid Volume Flow Rate X X
RATE(GV) Standard Gas Volume Flow Rate X X
ERATE(WT) Weight Flow Rate Estimate X X
ERATE(LV) Std Liquid Volume Flow Rate Estimate X X
ERATE(GV) Standard Gas Volume Flow Rate Estimate X X
TEMPERATURE Temperature X
PRESSURE Pressure X X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
GAS VISC Gas Viscosity X
OIL VISC Oil Viscosity X
WAT VISC Water Viscosity X
GAS FRACTION Gas Fraction X
LIQ FRACTION Liquid Fraction X
GAS MW Gas Molecular Weight X
OIL MW Oil Molecular Weight X
WAT MW Water Molecular Weight X
AVG MW Average Molecular Weight X
TOTAL ENTH Total Enthalpy X
GAS DENSITY Gas Density X
OIL DENSITY Oil Density X
WAT DENSITY Water Density X
XLFEED(M) Component Mole Fractions X
XLFEED(WT) Component Weight Fractions X
WOBBE Wobbe Index X
GHV Gross Heating Value X
GRATE WT S Gas Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GL RTE GV S Gas Lift Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GL RTE WT S Gas Lift Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE WT S Oil Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE WT S Water Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV S Gas Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
Variable
Available as a
Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
4160 Input Reference
ORATE LV S Oil Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE LV S Water Volulme Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE WT A Gas Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
ORATE WT A Oil Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
WRATE WT A Water Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
GRATE GV A Gas Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
ORATE LV A Oil Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
WRATE LV A Water Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
RATE WT S Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
GL RTE GV A Gas Lift Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
GL RTE WT A Gas Lift Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
NODE GLGRAV Gas Lift Gravity X
NODE GLDENS Gas Lift Density X
GAS MW S Gas Molecular Weight @ Std Conditions X
OIL MW S Oil Molecular Weight @ Std Conditions X
WAT MW S Water Molecular Weight @ Std Conditions X
AVG MW S AVG Molecular Weight @ Std Conditions X
Fluid Type = Blackoil
RATE(LV) Standard Liquid Volume Flow Rate X X
ERATE(LV) Std Liquid Volume Flow Rate Estimate X X
TEMPERATURE Temperature X
PRESSURE Pressure X X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
GOR Gas Oil Ratio X
WATER CUT Water Cut X
GAS VISC Gas Viscosity X
OIL VISC Oil Viscosity X
WAT VISC Water Viscosity X
GAS FRACTION Gas Fraction X
LIQ FRACTION Liquid Fraction X
GAS DENSITY Gas Density X
OIL DENSITY Oil Density X
WAT DENSITY Water Density X
WOBBE Wobbe Index X
GHV Gross Heating Value X
TRACE Component Mole Fractions X
GRATE WT S Gas Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GL RTE GV S Gas Lift Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GL RTE WT S Gas Lift Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE WT S Oil Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE WT S Water Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV S Gas Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE LV S Oil Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE LV S Water Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV A Gas Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
Variable
Available as a
Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4161
ORATE LV A Oil Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
WRATE LV A Water Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
GL RTE GV A Gas Lift Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
GL RTE WT A Gas Lift Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
NODE GLGRAV Gas Lift Density X
NODE OGRAV Oil Gravity X
NODE GGRAV Gas Gravity X
NODE WGRAV Water Gravity X
Fluid Type = Condensate (Gas)
RATE(GV) Standard Gas Volume Flow Rate X X
ERATE(GV) Standard Gas Volume Flow Rate Estimate X X
TEMPERATURE Temperature X
PRESSURE Pressure X X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
CGR Condensate Gas Ratio X
WGR Water Gas Ratio X
GAS VISC Gas Viscosity X
OIL VISC Oil Viscosity X
WAT VISC Water Viscosity X
GAS FRACTION Gas Fraction X
LIQ FRACTION Liquid Fraction X
GAS DENSITY Gas Density X
COND DENSITY Condensate Density X
WAT DENSITY Water Density X
WOBBE Wobbe Index X
GHV Gross Heating Value X
TRACE Component Mole Fractions X
GRATE WT S Gas Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE WT S Oil Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE WT S Water Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV S Gas Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE LV S Oil Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE LV S Water Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV A Gas Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
ORATE LV A Oil Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
WRATE LV A Water Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
NODE GGRAV Gas Gravity X
NODE WGRAV Water Gravity X
NODE CGRAV Condensate Gravity X
Variable
Available as a
Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
4162 Input Reference
Fluid Type = Steam
RATE(WT) Weight Flow Rate X X
ERATE(WT) Weight Flow Rate Estimate X X
TEMPERATURE Temperature X
PRESSURE Pressure X X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
QUALITY Steam Quality (wt) X
GAS VISC Gas Viscosity X
WAT VISC Water Viscosity X
GAS FRACTION Gas Fraction X
LIQ FRACTION Liquid Fraction X
GAS DENSITY Gas Density X
WAT DENSITY Water Density X
GRATE WT S Gas Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE WT S Water Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV S Gas Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE LV S Water Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV A Gas Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
WRATE LV A Water Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
NODE WGRAV Water Gravity X
Fluid Type = Gas
RATE(GV) Standard Gas Volume Flow Rate X X
ERATE(GV) Standard Gas Volume Flow Rate Estimate X X
TEMPERATURE Temperature
PRESSURE Pressure X X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
GAS VISC Gas Viscosity X
GAS DENSITY Gas Density X
WOBBE Wobbe Index X
GHV Gross Heating Value X
TRACE Component Mole Fractions X
GRATE WT S Gas Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV S Gas Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV A Gas Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
NODE GGRAV Gas Gravity X
Fluid Type = Liquid
RATE(LV) Standard Liquid Volume Flow Rate X X
ERATE(LV) Std Liquid Volume Flow Rate Estimate X X
TEMPERATURE Temperature
PRESSURE Pressure X X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
OIL VISC Oil Viscosity X
OIL DENSITY Oil Density X
ORATE WT S Oil Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
Variable
Available as a
Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4163
Junctions
Table 455c: JUNCTION (CCLASS = JUNCTION) – Case Study, Time stepping, Optimization &
Calculator Variables
ORATE LV S Oil Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE LV A Oil Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
NODE OGRAV Oil Gravity X
Variable
Available as a
Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
Fluid Type = Compositional
RATE(M) Molar Flow Rate X
RATE(WT) Weight Flow Rate X
RATE(LV) Standard Liquid Volume Flow Rate X
RATE(GV) Standard Gas Volume Flow Rate X
TEMPERATURE Temperature X
PRESSURE Pressure X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
GAS VISC Gas Viscosity X
OIL VISC Oil Viscosity X
WAT VISC Water Viscosity X
GAS FRACTION Gas Fraction X
LIQ FRACTION Liquid Fraction X
GAS MW Gas Molecular Weight X
OIL MW Oil Molecular Weight X
WAT MW Water Molecular Weight X
AVG MW Average Molecular Weight X
TOTAL ENTH Total Enthalpy X
GAS DENSITY Gas Density X
OIL DENSITY Oil Density X
WAT DENSITY Water Density X
XLFEED(M) Component Mole Fractions X
XLFEED(WT) Component Weight Fractions X
WOBBE Wobbe Index X
GHV Gross Heating Value X
GRATE WT S Gas Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GL RTE GV S Gas Lift Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GL RTE WT S Gas Lift Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE WT S Oil Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE WT S Water Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV S Gas Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE LV S Oil Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE LV S Water Volulme Rate @ Std Conditions X
Variable
Available as a
Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
4164 Input Reference
GRATE WT A Gas Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
ORATE WT A Oil Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
WRATE WT A Water Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
GRATE GV A Gas Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
ORATE LV A Oil Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
WRATE LV A Water Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
RATE WT S Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
GL RTE GV A Gas Lift Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
GL RTE WT A Gas Lift Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
NODE GLGRAV Gas Lift Gravity X
NODE GLDENS Gas Lift Density X
GAS MW S Gas Molecular Weight @ Std Conditions X
OIL MW S Oil Molecular Weight @ Std Conditions X
WAT MW S Water Molecular Weight @ Std Conditions X
AVG MW S AVG Molecular Weight @ Std Conditions X
Fluid Type = Blackoil
RATE(LV) Standard Liquid Volume Flow Rate X
TEMPERATURE Temperature X
PRESSURE Pressure X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
GOR Gas Oil Ratio X
WATER CUT Water Cut X
GAS VISC Gas Viscosity X
OIL VISC Oil Viscosity X
WAT VISC Water Viscosity X
GAS FRACTION Gas Fraction X
LIQ FRACTION Liquid Fraction X
GAS DENSITY Gas Density X
OIL DENSITY Oil Density X
WAT DENSITY Water Density X
WOBBE Wobbe Index X
GHV Gross Heating Value X
TRACE Component Mole Fractions X
GRATE WT S Gas Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GL RTE GV S Gas Lift Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GL RTE WT S Gas Lift Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE WT S Oil Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE WT S Water Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV S Gas Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE LV S Oil Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE LV S Water Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV A Gas Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
ORATE LV A Oil Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
WRATE LV A Water Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
GL RTE GV A Gas Lift Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
GL RTE WT A Gas Lift Weight Rate @ Actual Conditions X
Variable
Available as a
Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4165
NODE GLGRAV Gas Lift Gravity X
NODE GLDENS Gas Lift Density X
NODE OGRAV Oil Gravity X
NODE GGRAV Gas Gravity X
NODE WGRAV Water Gravity X
Fluid Type = Condensate (Gas)
RATE(GV) Standard Gas Volume Flow Rate X
TEMPERATURE Temperature X
PRESSURE Pressure X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
CGR Condensate Gas Ratio X
WGR Water Gas Ratio X
GAS VISC Gas Viscosity X
OIL VISC Oil Viscosity X
WAT VISC Water Viscosity X
GAS FRACTION Gas Fraction X
LIQ FRACTION Liquid Fraction X
GAS DENSITY Gas Density X
COND DENSITY Condensate Density X
WAT DENSITY Water Density X
WOBBE Wobbe Index X
GHV Gross Heating Value X
TRACE Component Mole Fractions X
GRATE WT S Gas Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE WT S Oil Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE WT S Water Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV S Gas Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE LV S Oil Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE LV S Water Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV A Gas Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
ORATE LV A Oil Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
WRATE LV A Water Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
NODE GGRAV Gas Gravity X
NODE WGRAV Water Gravity X
NODE CGRAV Condensate Gravity X
Fluid Type = Steam
RATE(WT) Weight Flow Rate X
TEMPERATURE Temperature X
PRESSURE Pressure X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
QUALITY Steam Quality (wt) X
GAS VISC Gas Viscosity X
WAT VISC Water Viscosity X
GAS FRACTION Gas Fraction X
LIQ FRACTION Liquid Fraction X
Variable
Available as a
Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
4166 Input Reference
GAS DENSITY Gas Density X
WAT DENSITY Water Density X
GRATE WT S Gas Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE WT S Water Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV S Gas Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
WRATE LV S Water Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV A Gas Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
WRATE LV A Water Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
NODE WGRAV Water Gravity X
Fluid Type = Gas
RATE(GV) Standard Gas Volume Flow Rate X
TEMPERATURE Temperature X
PRESSURE Pressure X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
GAS VISC Gas Viscosity X
GAS DENSITY Gas Density X
WOBBE Wobbe Index X
GHV Gross Heating Value X
TRACE Component Mole Fractions X
GRATE WT S Gas Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV S Gas Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
GRATE GV A Gas Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
NODE GGRAV Gas Gravity X
Fluid Type = Liquid
RATE(LV) Standard Liquid Volume Flow Rate X
TEMPERATURE Temperature X
PRESSURE Pressure X
EPRESSURE Pressure Estimate X X
OIL VISC Oil Viscosity X
OIL DENSITY Oil Density X
ORATE WT S Oil Weight Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE LV S Oil Volume Rate @ Std Conditions X
ORATE LV A Oil Volume Rate @ Actual Conditions X
NODE OGRAV Oil Gravity X
Variable
Available as a
Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4167
Pipe
Table 455d: PIPE (CCLASS = PIPE) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, & Calculator
Variables
* Flow Correlation is not supported for Time Stepping and Optimization.
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
PIPE ID Pipe Inside Diameter X X
PIPE LENGTH Pipe Length X X
PIPE ELEV Pipe Elevation X X
ROUGHNESS Absolute Wall Roughness X X
RELROUGHNESS Relative Wall Roughness X X
FLOW EFF Flow Efficiency X X
PLM UPHILL Palmer Uphill Liquid Holdup Factor X X
PLM DOWNHILL Palmer Downhill Liquid Holdup Factor X X
FLOW CODE Flow Correlation* X X
U PIPE UValue X X
AMBIENT TEMP Ambient Temperature X X
PIPE THICKNS Pipe Wall Thickness X X
PIPE COND Pipe Wall Conductivity X X
H INSIDE Inside Film Heat Transfer Coefficient X X
H OUTSIDE Outside Film Heat Transfer Coefficient X X
THICKNS INS Insulation Thickness X X
INS COND Insulation Conductivity X X
BURIAL DEPTH Burial Depth X X
SOIL COND Soil Conductivity X X
PIPE DP Pressure Change X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
TOT PIPE LNG Total Pipe Length X X
TOT PIPE ELV Total Pipe Elevation X X
4168 Input Reference
Tubing
Table 455e: TUBING (CCLASS = TUBI) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, & Calculator
Variables:
* Flow Correlation is not supported for Time Stepping and Optimization.
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
TUBE ID Inside Diameter X X
TVD (DEPTH) Set Vert Depth to Tubing Btm X X
MWD (LENGTH) Set Meas Wireline Depth to Tubing Btm X X
MWD AND TVD Scaled MWD AND TVD Depths X X
CTVD(TO TOP) Vertical Depth to Tubing Top X
CTVD(DEPTH) Vertical Depth to Tubing Btm X
CMWD(TO TOP) Measured Wireline Depth to Tubing Top X
CMWD(LENGTH) Measured Wireline Depth to Tubing Btm X
ROUGHNESS Absolute Wall Roughness X X
RELROUGHNESS Relative Wall Roughness X X
FLOW EFF Flow Efficiency X X
U TUBE UValue X X
GEO TGRAD Geothermal Temperature Gradient X X
FLOW CODE Flow Correlation* X X
PLM UPHILL Palmer Uphill Liquid Holdup Factor X X
PLM DOWNHILL Palmer Downhill Liquid Holdup Factor X X
BTM HOLE P Bottom Hole Pressure X
TUBING DP Pressure Change X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4169
Annulus
Table 455f: Annulus (CCLASS = ANNU) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, & Calculator
Variables:
* Flow Correlation is not supported for Time Stepping and Optimization.
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
ANNULUS ID Annulus Casing ID X X
OD TUBE Annulus Tubing OD X X
TVD (DEPTH) Set Vert Depth to Annulus Btm X X
MWD (LENGTH) Set Meas Wireline Depth to
Annulus Btm
X X
MWD AND TVD MWD with Scaled True Vertical
Depth
X X
CTVD(TO TOP) Vertical Depth to Annulus Top X
CTVD(DEPTH) Vertical Depth to Annulus Btm X
CMWD(TO TOP) Measured Wireline Depth to
Annulus Top
X
CMWD(LENGTH) Measured Wireline Depth to
Annulus Btm
X
ROUGHNESS Absolute Wall Roughness X X
RELROUGHNESS Relative Wall Roughness X X
FLOW EFF Flow Efficiency X X
U ANNULUS UValue X X
FLOW CODE Flow Correlation* X X
PLM UPHILL Palmer Uphill Liquid Holdup
Factor
X X
PLM DOWNHILL Palmer Downhill Liquid Holdup
Factor
X X
GEO TGRAD Geothermal Temperature
Gradient
X X
BTM HOLE P Bottom Hole Pressure X
ANNULUS DP Annulus Pressure Change X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
4170 Input Reference
Compressors
Table 455g: COMPRESSOR (CCLASS = COMPR) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, &
Calculator Variables:
Pumps
Table 455h: PUMP (CCLASS = PUMP), ESP (CCLASS = ESP PUMP) – Case Study, Time Stepping,
Optimization, & Calculator Variables:
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change Decision
Objective
Constraint
Decision
SET POWER Power X X
SET PRESSURE Pressure X X
MAX POWER Maximum Power X X
MAX PRESSURE Maximum Pressure X X
STAGES Number of Stages X X
COMPR EFF Compressor Efficiency X X
RPM RPM X X
MAX RPM Maximum RPM X X
COMPR DP Pressure Change X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
REQ POWER Required Power X
Variable
Description
Available as a
Variable Parameter
Change Decision
Objective
Constraint Define
SET POWER Power X X
SET PRESSURE Pressure X X
MAX POWER Maximum Power X X
MAX PRESSURE Maximum Pressure X X
STAGES Number of Stages X X
MEAS LENGTH Set Meas Wireline Depth to Pump Btm X X
VERT DEPTH Set Vert Depth to Pump Btm X X
PUMP EFF Pump Efficiency X X
RPM RPM X X
MAX RPM Maximum RPM X X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
REQ POWER Required Power X
PUMP DP Pressure Change X
CTVD(TO TOP) Vertical Depth to Pump Top X
CTVD(DEPTH) Vertical Depth to Pump Btm X
CMWD(TO TOP) Measured Wireline Depth to Pump Top X
CMWD(LENGTH) Measured Wireline Depth to Pump Btm X
DEPTH CHANGE Pump Vertical Elevation Change X
PINTAKE Pump Intake Pressure X
FLD OVER PMP Submergence Depth (Fluid Over Pump) X X
CSG HEAD PRE Casing Head Pressure X X
GAS INGESTED Gas ingested by Pump X X
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4171
Heater
Table 455i: HEATER (CCLASS = HEAT) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, & Calculator
Variables:
Cooler
Table 455j: COOLER (CCLASS = COOL) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, &
Calculator Variables:
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
SET DUTY Duty X X
MAX DUTY Maximum Duty X X
SET TEMP OUT Set Outlet Temperature X X
MAX TEMP OUT Maximum Outlet
Temperature
X X
HEATER DP Pressure Change X X
COEF Pressure Drop
Correlation Coefficient
X X
EXP Pressure Drop
Correlation Exponent
X X
REQ DUTY Required Duty X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure
X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature
X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
SET DUTY Duty X X
MAX DUTY Maximum Duty X X
SET TEMP OUT Set Outlet Temperature X X
MIN TEMP OUT Minimum Outlet
Temperature
X X
COOLER DP Pressure Change X X
COEF Pressure Drop
Correlation Coefficient
X X
EXP Pressure Drop
Correlation Exponent
X X
REQ DUTY Required Duty X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure
X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature
X
4172 Input Reference
Completion
Table 455k: COMPLETION (CCLASS = COMPL) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, &
Calculator Variables:
Gaslift Valves
Table 455l: GAS LIFT VALVE (CCLASS = GAVL) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, &
Calculator Variables:
Chokes
Table 455m: CHOKE (CCLASS = CHOK) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, &
Calculator Variables:
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
TUNNEL LNGTH Tunnel Length X X
PERF DIA Perforation Diameter X X
SHOT DENSITY Shot Density X X
THICKNESS Thickness X X
PENE Penetration X X
LENGTH Perforation Length X X
PERMCRSH ZN Crushed Zone Permeability X X
PERMRESERV Reservoir Zone Permeability X X
COMPL DP Pressure Change X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure
X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature
X
PERMGRAVEL Gravel Permeability X X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
GV RATE Lift Gas Rate X X
DISSOLVE Soluble Dissolved Lift Gas (vol basis) X X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
CHOKE ID Inside Diameter X X
SET PRES OUT Set Outlet Pressure X X
SET PRES IN Set Inlet Pressure X X
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4173
Separators
Table 455n: SEPARATOR (CCLASS = SEPA) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, &
Calculator Variables:
CHK RATE(WT) Weight Flow Rate X X
CHK RATE(LV) Liquid Volume Flow Rate X X
CHK RATE(GV) Gas Volume Flow Rate X X
COEF Resistance Coefficient X X
COEFF A Gilbert Coefficient A X X
COEFF B Gilbert Coefficient B X X
COEFF C Gilbert Coefficient C X X
CRIT PRATIO Critical Pressure Ratio X X
CHOKE DP Pressure Change X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
Fluid Type: Compositional
SET GAS RATE Set Gas Rate X X
SET OIL RATE Set Oil Rate X X
SET H2O RATE Set Water Rate X X
GAS PERCENT Gas Percent X X
OIL PERCENT Oil Percent X X
H2O PERCENT Water Percent X X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
GAS RATE Removed Gas GV Rate @ Act Conditions X X
LIQ RATE Removed Liquid LV Rate @ Act Conditions X X
OIL RATE Removed Oil LV Rate @ Act Conditions X X
H2O RATE Removed Water LV Rate @ Act Conditions X X
GAS RATE(WT) Calculated Gas Mass Rate Removed X X
OIL RATE(WT) Calculated Oil Mass Rate Removed X X
H2O RATE(WT) Calculated Water Mass Rate Removed X X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
4174 Input Reference
Regulators
Table 455o: REGULATOR (CCLASS = REGU) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, &
Calculator Variables:
Fluid Type: Blackoil
SET GAS RATE Set Gas Rate X X
SET H2O RATE Set Water Rate X X
GAS PERCENT Gas Percent X X
H2O PERCENT Water Percent X X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
GAS RATE Removed Gas GV Rate @ Act Conditions X X
H2O RATE Removed Water LV Rate @ Act Conditions X X
GAS RATE(WT) Calculated Gas Mass Rate Removed X X
H2O RATE(WT) Calculated Water Mass Rate Removed X X
Fluid Type: Condensate (Gas)
SET OIL RATE Set Oil Rate X X
COND RATE Condensate Rate X X
SET H2O RATE Set Water Rate X X
OIL PERCENT Oil Percent X X
COND PERC Condensate Percent X X
H2O PERCENT Water Percent X X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
LIQ RATE Removed Liquid LV Rate @ Act Conditions X X
OIL RATE Removed Oil LV Rate @ Act Conditions X X
H2O RATE Removed Water LV Rate @ Act Conditions X X
OIL RATE(WT) Calculated Oil Mass Rate Removed X X
H2O RATE(WT) Calculated Water Mass Rate Removed X X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
REG PRESSURE Set Outlet Pressure X X
REG PSUCTION Set Inlet Pressure X X
REG RATE(WT) Total Weight Flow Rate X X
REG RATE(LV) Total Liquid Flow Rate X X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4175
Expanders
Table 455p: EXPANDER (CCLASS = EXPAND) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, &
Calculator Variables:
Valves
Table 455q: VALVE (CCLASS = VALV) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, & Calculator
Variables:
REG RATE(GV) Total Gas Volume Flow Rate X X
REG DP Pressure Change X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
VALVE DP Pressure Change X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
VALVE ID IN Inside Diameter at Inlet X X
VALVE ID OUT Inside Diameter at Outlet X X
VALVE K Resistance Coefficient X X
VALVE KMUL KValue Multiplier X X
VALVE ANGLE Angle X X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
4176 Input Reference
Injection
Table 455r: INJECTION (CCLASS = INJE) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, &
Calculator Variables:
DPDT Device
Table 455s: DPDT Device (CCLASS = DPDT) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, &
Calculator Variables:
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Paramete
r Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
SET INJ PRES Set Injection Pressure X X
SET INJ TEMP Set Injection Temperature X X
INJ TEMP Calculated Injection Temperature X
INJ PRES Calculated Injection Pressure X
INJECT DP Pressure Change X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
DP IN DPDT Pressure Difference X
DT IN DPDT Temperature Difference X
Q CV PT VAL Flowrates for Curve 1 X X
DP CV PT VAL Pressure Differences for Curve 1 X X
DT CV PT VAL Temperature Differences for Curve 1 X X
Q CV2 PT VL Flowrates for Curve 2 X X
DP CV2 PT VL Pressure Differences for Curve 2 X X
DT CV2 PT VL Temperature Differences for Curve 2 X X
Q CV3 PT VL Flowrates for Curve 3 X X
DP CV3 PT VL Pressure Differences for Curve 3 X X
DT CV3 PT VL Temperature Differences for Curve 3 X X
Q CV4 PT VL Flowrates for Curve 4 X X
DP CV4 PT VL Pressure Differences for Curve 4 X X
DT CV4 PT VL Temperature Differences for Curve 4 X X
Q CV5 PT VL Flowrates for Curve 5 X X
DP CV5 PT VL Pressure Differences for Curve 5 X X
DT CV5 PT VL Temperature Differences for Curve 5 X X
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4177
MCOMP
Table 455t: MULTICHANGE COMPRESSOR (CCLASS = MCOMP) – Case Study, Time Stepping,
Optimization, & Calculator Variables:
Bend
Table 455u: BEND (CCLASS = BEND) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, & Calculator
Variables:
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
SET POWER Power X X
MAX POWER Maximum Power X X
W MAX POWER Warn Maximum Power X X
SET PRES IN Set Inlet Pressure X X
SET PRES OUT Set Outlet Pressure X X
MAX PRES OUT Warn Max Outlet Pressure X X
POUT STG Stage Outlet Pressure X X
W MAX TEMP Warn Maximum Temperature X X
TEMP STG Stage Outlet Temperature X X
DUTY STG Stage Duty X X
DP STG Stage Pressure Change X X
STG ADIA EFF Stage Adiabatic Efficiency X X
STG POLY EFF Stage Polytropic Efficiency X X
COMPR DP Pressure Change X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
REQ POWER Required Power X
REQ DUTY Required Duty X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
BEND ID IN Inside Diameter at Inlet X X
BEND ROVERD Radius/Diameter Ratio X X
BEND ANGLE Angle X X
BEND K Resistance Coefficient X X
BEND KMUL KValue Multiplier X X
ROUGHNESS Absolute Wall Roughness X X
REL ROUGHNESS Relative Wall Roughness X X
4178 Input Reference
Check Valve
Table 455v: CHECK VALVE (CCLASS = CHEC) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, &
Calculator Variables:
CHISOLM LAMB Chisolm Lambda Coef X X
CHISOLM C2 Chisolm C2 Coef X X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
CHECK ID Check Diameter X X
COEF Discharge Coefficient X X
CHECK DP Pressure Change X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4179
Contraction
Table 455w: CONTRACTION (CCLASS = CONT) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, &
Calculator Variables:
Entrance
Table 455x: ENTRANCE (CCLASS = ENTR) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, &
Calculator Variables:
Exit
Table 455y: EXIT (CCLASS = EXIT) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, & Calculator
Variables:
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
CONTR ID IN Inside Diameter at Inlet X X
CONTR ID OUT Inside Diameter at Outlet X X
CONTR ANGLE Contraction Angle X X
CONTR K Resistance Coefficient X X
CHISOLM LAMB Chisolm Lambda Coef X X
CHISOLM C2 Chisolm C2 Coef X X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
ENTR ID OUT Inside Diameter at Outlet X X
ENTR K Resistance Coefficient X X
CHISOLM LAMB Chisolm Lambda Coef X X
CHISOLM C2 Chisolm C2 Coef X X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change Decision
Objective
Constraint Define
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
EXIT ID OUT Inside Diameter at Outlet X X
EXIT K Resistance Coefficient X X
CHISOLM LAMB Chisolm Lambda Coef X X
CHISOLM C2 Chisolm C2 Coef X X
4180 Input Reference
Expansion
Table 455z: EXPANSION (CCLASS = EXPANS) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, &
Calculator Variables:
Nozzle
Table 455aa: EXPANSION (CCLASS = EXPANS) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, &
Calculator Variables:
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
EXPNS ID IN Inside Diameter at Inlet X X
EXPNS ID OUT Inside Diameter at Outlet X X
EXPNS ANGLE Expansion Angle X X
EXPNS K Resistance Coefficient X X
CHISOLM LAMB Chisolm Lambda Coef X X
CHISOLM C2 Chisolm C2 Coef X X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
NOZZLE ID Nozzle Diameter X X
NOZZLE ID IN Inside Diameter at Inlet X X
NOZZLE K Resistance Coefficient X X
NOZZLE CPCV Specific Heat Ratio X X
CHISOLM LAMB Chisolm Lambda Coef X X
CHISOLM C2 Chisolm C2 Coef X X
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4181
Orifice
Table 455ab: ORIFICE (CCLASS = ORIF) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, &
Calculator Variables:
Tee
Table 455ac: TEE (CCLASS = TEE) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, & Calculator
Variables:
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
ORIFICE ID Orifice Diameter X X
ORIFIC ID IN Inside Diameter at Inlet X X
ORIFICE K Resistance Coefficient X X
ORIFICE CPCV Specific Heat Ratio X X
CHISOLM LAMB Chisolm Lambda Coef X X
CHISOLM C2 Chisolm C2 Coef X X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
TEE ID IN Inside Diameter at Inlet X X
TEE K Resistance Coefficient X X
TEE KMUL KValue Multiplier X X
ROUGHNESS Absolute Wall Roughness X X
REL ROUGHNESS Relative Wall Roughness X X
CHISOLM LAMB Chisolm Lambda Coef X X
CHISOLM C2 Chisolm C2 Coef X X
4182 Input Reference
IPR
Table 455ad: IPR (CCLASS = IPR) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, & Calculator
Variables:
Calculator Unit
Table 455ae: CALCULATOR UNIT (CCLASS = CALCULATOR) – Case Study, Time Stepping,
Optimization, & Calculator Variables:
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
DP Pressure Change X
OUTLET PRES Outlet Pressure X
OUTLET TEMP Outlet Temperature X
PPRES Reservoir Pressure Curve X X
AQCUM Reservoir Cum Production X X
AQOCUM Reservoir Oil Cum Production X X
AQLCUM Reservoir Liquid Cum Production X X
AQGCUM Reservoir Gas Cum Production X X
AQWCUM Reservoir Water Cum Production X X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
R(0001) Calculator Result R1 X X
R(0002) Calculator Result R2 X X
R(0003) Calculator Result R3 X X
R(0004) Calculator Result R4 X X
R(0005) Calculator Result R5 X X
R(0006) Calculator Result R6 X X
R(0007) Calculator Result R7 X X
R(0008) Calculator Result R8 X X
R(0009) Calculator Result R9 X X
R(00010) Calculator Result R10 X X
R(00011) Calculator Result R11 X X
R(00012) Calculator Result R12 X X
R(00013) Calculator Result R13 X X
R(00014) Calculator Result R14 X X
R(00015) Calculator Result R15 X X
R(00016) Calculator Result R16 X X
R(00017) Calculator Result R17 X X
R(00018) Calculator Result R18 X X
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4183
Optimization
Table 455af: OPTIMIZATION (CCLASS = OPTIMIZATION) – Case Study, Time Stepping,
Optimization, & Calculator Variables:
Objective Parameter
Table 455ag: OBJECTIVE PARAMETER (CCLASS = OBJECTIVE) – Case Study, Time Stepping,
Optimization, & Calculator Variables:
R(00019) Calculator Result R19 X X
R(00020) Calculator Result R20 X X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
OBJ FUNC Value of Objective Function X
BEST OBJ FNC Best Value for Objective Function X
ITERATION Maximum Number of Iterations X X
DEFPERT Default Relative Perturbation X X
OBJTOL Minimum Relative Change in
Objective
X X
VARTOL Minimum Relative Change in
Decision Var
X X
DEF ERR TOL Default Error Tolerance X X
DAMPING Number of Cycles with Damping X X
DFACTOR Variable Damping Denominator X X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
VALUE Current Value of Objective Parameter X
ACTIVE Status of Objective Parameter X X
COEF Coefficient for Objective Parameter X X
TARGET Target for Objective Parameter X X
ERROR Relative Error for Tuning Simulations X X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
4184 Input Reference
Constraint Variable
Table 455ah: CONSTRAINT VARIABLE (CCLASS = CONSTRAINT) – Case Study, Time
Stepping, Optimization, & Calculator Variables:
Decision Variable
Table 455ai: DECISION VARIABLE (CCLASS = DECISION) – Case Study, Time Stepping,
Optimization, & Calculator Variables:
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
VALUE Current Value of Constraint X
ACTIVE Status of Constraint Variable X X
TIME Time for Constraint Change X X
ALOWER Absolute Lower Limit X X
AUPPER Absolute Upper Limit X X
RLOWER Relative Lower Limit X X
RUPPER Relative Upper Limit X X
MLOWER Mechanical Lower Limit X X
MUPPER Mechanical Upper Limit X X
ERROR Relative Error of Constraint X
SHADOW PRICE Shadow Price X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
VALUE Current Value of Decision Variable X
ACTIVE Status of Decision Variable X X
PERT Relative Perturbation X X
TIME Time for Variable Change X X
ALOWER Absolute Lower Limit X X
AUPPER Absolute Upper Limit X X
RLOWER Relative Lower Limit X X
RUPPER Relative Upper Limit X X
MLOWER Mechanical Lower Limit X X
MUPPER Mechanical Upper Limit X X
CAPT COST Capital Cost for Decision Variable X X
SHADOW PRICE Shadow Price X
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4185
PVT Data
Table 455aj: PVT DATA (CCLASS = PVTDATA) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, &
Calculator Variables:
Network Data
Table 455ak: NETWORK DATA (CCLASS = NETW) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization,
& Calculator Variables:
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
OIL GRAVITY Oil Gravity X X
GAS GRAVITY Gas Gravity X X
WATER GRAV Water Gravity X X
COND GRAVITY Condensate Gravity X X
COMP(M) Component Mole Fractions X X
LIQ SHEAT Liquid Specific Heat X X
VISCOSITY Viscosity X X
TEMPERATURE Temperature for Viscosity X X
GAS SHEAT Gas Specific Heat Ratio X X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
OBJ FUNC Objective Function X
BEST OBJ FNC Best Objective Function X
PROD TIME Production Time X X
CUM PROD Cumulative Production X
PDAMP Pressure Damping X X
QDAMP Flowrate Damping X X
HALVING Interval Damping X X
MAXITER Maximum Number of Iterations X X
PRES TOLER Pressure Tolerance X X
SCALE FACTOR Scale Factor X X
MAX VEL GAS Maximum Gas Velocity X
MAX VEL LIQ Maximum Liquid Velocity X
MAX VSG Maximum Superficial Gas Velocity X
MAX VSL Maximum Superficial Liquid
Velocity
X
MAX MIX VEL Maximum Mixture Velocity X
MAX HL Maximum Liquid Holdup X
MIN VEL GAS Minimum Gas Velocity X
4186 Input Reference
LINK
Table 455al: LINK (CCLASS = LINK) – Case Study, Time Stepping, Optimization, & Calculator
Variables:
MIN VEL LIQ Minimum Liquid Velocity X
MIN VSG Minimum Superficial Gas Velocity X
MIN VSL Minimum Superficial Liquid
Velocity
X
MIN MIX VEL Minimum Mixture Velocity X
MIN HL Minimum Liquid Holdup X
NETWORK PIMB Minimum Pressure Imbalance X
STD TEMP Standard Temperature X X
STD PRES Standard Pressure X X
MIN TEMP Minimum Temperature X X
MIN PRES Minimum Pressure X X
MAX TEMP Maximum Temperature X X
MAX PRES Maximum Pressure X X
MAP NREMAP Network Remap Request X X
MAP NINSTAT Network Desired Active Status X X
RATE PERT Rate Perturbation X X
MAP NOUTSTAT Network Actual Active Status X X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
EFLOW RATE Flow Rate Estimate X X
FLOW RATE Flow Rate X
SET MAX RATE Set Maximum Flow Rate X X
SET MIN RATE Set Minimum Flow Rate X X
I PRES Inlet Pressure X
I TEMP Inlet Temperature X
O PRES Outlet Pressure X
O TEMP Outlet Temperature X
LENG PROFILE Length Profile X
ELEV PROFILE Elevation Profile X
TEMP PROFILE Temperature Profile X
PRES PROFILE Pressure Profile X
HLS PROFILE Slip Holdup Profile X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4187
HLNS PROFILE No Slip Holdup Profile X
VELG PROFILE Gas Velocity Profile X
VELL PROFILE Liquid Velocity Profile X
VELM PROFILE Mixture Velocity Profile X
I GRATE WT A Actual Gas Weight Rate @ Inlet X
I ORATE WT A Actual Oil Weight Rate @ Inlet X
I WRATE WT A Actual Water Weight Rate @ Inlet X
I GRATE GV A Actual Gas Volume Rate @ Inlet X
I ORATE LV A Actual Oil Volume Rate @ Inlet X
I WRATE LV A Actual Water Volume Rate @ Inlet X
O GRATE WT A Actual Gas Weight Rate @ Outlet X
O ORATE WT A Actual Oil Weight Rate @ Outlet X
O WRATE WT A Actual Water Weight Rate @ Outlet X
O GRATE GV A Actual Gas Volume Rate @ Outlet X
O ORATE LV A Actual Oil Volume Rate @ Outlet X
O WRATE LV A Actual Water Volume Rate @ Outlet X
I GAS DENS A Actual Gas Density @ Inlet X
I OIL DENS A Actual Oil Density @ Inlet X
I WAT DENS A Actual Water Density @ Inlet X
O GAS DENS A Actual Gas Density @ Outlet X
O OIL DENS A Actual Oil Density @ Outlet X
O WAT DENS A Actual Water Density @ Outlet X
I ENTHALPY Enthalpy @ Inlet X
O ENTHALPY Enthalpy @ Outlet X
MAX VEL GAS Maximum Gas Velocity X
MAX VEL LIQ Maximum Liquid Velocity X
MAX VSG Maximum Superficial Gas Velocity X
MAX VSL Maximum Superficial Liquid Velocity X
MAX MIX VEL Maximum Mixture Velocity X
MAX HL Maximum Liquid Holdup X
MIN VEL GAS Minimum Gas Velocity X
MIN VEL LIQ Minimum Liquid Velocity X
MIN VSG Minimum Superficial Gas Velocity X
MIN VSL Minimum Superficial Liquid Velocity X
MIN MIX VEL Minimum Mixture Velocity X
MIN HL Minimum Liquid Holdup X
GAS HOLDUP A Actual Cumulative Gas Holdup X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
4188 Input Reference
I GLF DENS A Actual Gas Lift Density @ Inlet X
I GTO DENS A Actual Total Gas Density @ Inlet X
O GLF DENS A Actual Gas Lift Density @ Outlet X
O GTO DENS A Actual Total Gas Density @ Outlet X
LIQ HOLDUP A Actual Cumulative Liquid Holdup X
Available as a
Variable Variable
Description
Parameter
Change
Decision
Objective
Constraint
Define
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4189
SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS Data Category of Input
Overview
The SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS Data Category of Input allows you to study the overall
performance of wells, pipelines and other single link systems as a function of one or two
parameters (or combinations of parameters) in the system. Multiple flow rates and
parameter variations can be simulated in a single Sensitivity Analysis run. This category
is optional.
Note: Before using this data section please read Nodal Analysis, p. 347. In the base case, both SOURCE
and SINK pressures must be supplied and the SOURCE RATE must be estimated.
Table 456: Sensitivity Category of Input
SENSITIVITY
Introduces the category.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries: None
NODE
Mandatory statement. Defines the Solution Node.
Statement Keywords See ...
SENSITIVITY None p. 189
NODE NAME= or BOTTOMHOLE or SINK p. 189
{DESCRIPTION} INFLOW= or OUTFLOW= p. 190
{INFLOW} CGR()=, COEFFICIENT()=, COMPOSITIONAL()=,
DISSOLVE()=, DP()=, DUTY()=, EFF()=, EXP()=, FLOWEFF()=,
GOR()=, ID()=, IDANNULUS()=, II()=, NAME=, NODE=,
ODTUBING()=, PENETRATION()=, PERCENT()=, PERFD()=,
PI()=, POWER()=, PRESSURE()=, QUALITY()=, RATE()=,
ROUGHNESS()=, SHOTS()=, STAGES()=, TEMPERATURE()=,
TOUT()=, TUNNEL()=, U()=, VOGEL()=, WCUT()=, WGR()=,
COMB=MULTI
p. 190
{OUTFLOW} CGR()=, COEFFICIENT()=, COMPOSITIONAL()=,
DISSOLVE()=, DP()=, DUTY()=, EFF()=, EXP()=, FLOWEFF()=,
GOR()=, ID()=, IDANNULUS()=, II()=, NAME()=,
ODTUBING()=, PENETRATION()=, PERCENT()=, PERFD()=,
PI()=, POWER()=, PRESSURE()=, QUALITY()=, RATE()=,
ROUGHNESS()=, SHOTS()=, STAGES()=, TEMPERATURE()=,
TOUT()=, TUNNEL()=, U()=, VOGEL()=, WCUT()=, WGR()=,
COMB=MULTI
p. 193
FLOW RATE()= p. 193
4190 Input Reference
Mandatory entries:
Example:
NODE NAME=TUB1
DESCRIPTION
Optional statements. Allow you to enter descriptions of the inflow and outflow
sensitivity analysis parameters. You need separate DESCRIPTION statements for Inflow
and Outflow.
Mandatory entries: None
Optional entries:
Example:
DESC INFLOW=RP2500, RP3000, RP3500
DESC OUTFLOW=ID2.0, ID2.5, ID3.0
INFLOW
Optional statement. Enter the details of the Inflow parameter and the values you wish to
use in the sensitivity analysis. You must supply either INFLOW or OUTFLOW or both.
The parameters that are accessible to the Sensitivity Analysis are divided into seven
categories, as defined in the table below. If you want to define a sensitivity parameter as
a group of variables, you may combine up to ten variables within one Category. You
may not combine variables in different categories.
NAME= or
BOTTOMHOLE or
SINK
Enter the name of the node between the Inflow and Outflow sections of the
link. If this is the name of a device, the Solution Node is at the inlet of that
device. Alternatively, use BOTTOMHOLE to place the Solution Node at the
flowing bottomhole of an injection well. Use SINK to locate the Solution
Node at the outlet of the last device, in which case the sink pressure can be
used as a Sensitivity Parameter.
INFLOW= Descriptions of the Inflow sensitivity parameter sets. Up to five strings of
up to twelve characters each, separated by commas. Each string corresponds
to an inflow parameter setting. This keyword cannot appear on the same
statement as OUTFLOW.
OUTFLOW= Descriptions of the Outflow sensitivity parameter sets. Up to five strings of
up to twelve characters each, separated by commas. Each string corresponds
to an outflow parameter setting. This keyword cannot appear on the same
statement as INFLOW.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4191
Category 1: Source
Category 2: Sink
Category 3: Devices
NODE=or STREAMID of the Source.
NAME= Name of the Source. This is the name that appears on the statement in the base
case. To be available to Sensitivity Analysis, the Source must be given a unique
name in the base case.
PRESSURE()=
PI()=
VOGEL()=
COEFFICIENT()=
EXP=
Enter up to five values of parameter(s) for a SOURCE, separated by commas.
You may not use qualifiers other than to change units of measurement. Refer to
the Structure Data Category of input for explanations of the keywords.
COMB=MULTI This multiple combination option calculates all possible combinations of up to
five specified inflow and/or outflow parameters and performs a sensitivity
analysis on all combinations.
NODE=or STREAMID of the Sink.
NAME= Name of the Sink. This is the name that appears on the statement in the base
case. To be available to Sensitivity Analysis, the Sink must be given a unique
name in the base case.
PRESSURE()=
II()=
COEFFICIENT()=
EXP=
Enter up to five values of parameter(s) for a SINK, separated by commas. You
may not use qualifiers other than to change units of measurement. Refer to the
Structure Data Category of input for explanations of the keywords.
COMB=MULTI This multiple combination option calculates all possible combinations of up to
five specified inflow and/or outflow parameters and performs a sensitivity
analysis on all combinations.
NAME= Name of the Device. This is the name that appears on the statement in the base
case. To be available to Sensitivity Analysis, the Device must be given a unique
name in the base case. The NAME entry on this statement must immediately
precede the data entries for the corresponding Device.
IDANNULUS()=
ODTUBING()=
ROUGHNESS()=
U()=
FLOWEFF=
Enter up to five values of parameter(s) for an ANNULUS, separated by commas.
You may not use qualifiers other than to change units of measurement. Refer to
the Structure Data Category of input for explanations of the keywords.
COEFFICIENT=
ID()=
Enter up to five values of parameter(s) for a CHOKE, separated by commas. You
may not use qualifiers other than to change units of measurement. Refer to the
Structure Data Category of input for explanations of the keywords.
PENETRATION()=
PERFD()=
SHOTS()=
TUNNEL()=
Enter up to five values of parameter(s) for a COMPLETION, separated by
commas. You may not use qualifiers other than to change units of measurement.
Refer to the Structure Data Category of input for explanations of the keywords.
DP()=
DUTY()=
TOUT()=
Enter up to five values of parameter(s) for a HEATER or COOLER, separated by
commas. You may not use qualifiers other than to change units of measurement.
Refer to the Structure Data Category of input for explanations of the keywords.
4192 Input Reference
Category 4: Noncompositional Source Properties
Category 5: Main Source Composition
Example:
INFLOW NAME=PMP1, PRES=250,260,270,280,290
TEMPERATURE()=
PRESSURE()=
Enter up to five values of parameter(s) for an INJECTION, separated by
commas. You may not use qualifiers other than to change units of measurement.
Refer to the Structure Data Category of input for explanations of the keywords.
DISSOLVE=
RATE()=
Enter up to five values of parameter(s) for a GLVALVE, separated by commas.
You may not use qualifiers other than to change units of measurement. Refer to
the Structure Data Category of input for explanations of the keywords.
ID()=
ROUGHNESS()=
U()=
FLOWEFF=
Enter up to five values of parameter(s) for a PIPE, separated by commas. You
may not use qualifiers other than to change units of measurement. Refer to the
Structure Data Category of input for explanations of the keywords.
EFF=
POWER()=
PRESSURE()=
STAGES=
Enter up to five values of parameter(s) for a COMPRESSOR or PUMP,
separated by commas. You may not use qualifiers other than to change units of
measurement. Refer to the Structure Data Category of input for explanations of
the keywords.
RATE()=
PERCENT=
Enter up to five values of parameter(s) for a SEPARATOR, separated by
commas. You may not use qualifiers other than to change units of measurement.
Refer to the Structure Data Category of input for explanations of the keywords.
ID()=
ROUGHNESS()=
U()=
FLOWEFF=
Enter up to five values of parameter(s) for a TUBING, separated by commas.
You may not use qualifiers other than to change units of measurement. Refer to
the Structure Data Category of input for explanations of the keywords.
COMB=MULTI This multiple combination option calculates all possible combinations of up to
five specified inflow and/or outflow parameters and performs a sensitivity
analysis on all combinations.
GOR()=
WCUT=
CGR()=
WGR()=
QUALITY=
Enter up to five values of PVT parameter(s), separated by commas. You may
not use qualifiers other than to change units of measurement. Refer to the
Structure Data Category of input for explanations of the keywords.
COMB=MULTI This multiple combination option calculates all possible combinations of up to
five specified inflow and/or outflow parameters and performs a sensitivity
analysis on all combinations.
COMPOSITION()= Enter up to five values of COMPOSITION parameter(s), separated by commas.
You may not use qualifiers other than to change the basis. Refer to the Structure
Data Category of input for explanations of the keyword.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4193
OUTFLOW
Optional statement. Enter the details of the Outflow parameter and the values you wish
to use in the sensitivity analysis. The OUTFLOW statement is formatted exactly the
same as the INFLOW statement. See INFLOW above for details. You must supply either
INFLOW or OUTFLOW or both.
FLOW
Mandatory statement. Defines the flowrates for which the Sensitivity Analysis is to be
performed.
Mandatory entries:
Sensitivity Examples:
SENSITIVITY
NODE SINK
DESC INFLOW=RESP2500,RESP2400,RESP2300,RESP2200,RESP2100
INFLOW NAME=RES, PRES=2500,2400,2300,2200,2100
DESC OUTFLOW=SINK500,SINK400,SINK300,SINK200
OUTFLOW NAME=SNK1, PRES=500,400,300,200
FLOW RATE=1000,2000,3000,4000,5000,5000,7000,8000
In this example, the reservoir pressure is the inflow parameter and the sink pressure is
the outflow parameter. In order to use the sink pressure, the Solution Node is defined as
SINK rather than NAME=SNK1.
SENSITIVITY
NODE NAME=SNK
INFLOW NAME=HTR1, DUTY=0,100,150, &
NAME=PIP1, U=0.025,0.05,1.5, &
NAME=PIP2, U=0.03,0.05,1.5
FLOW RATE=10000,12000,14000,16000,18000,20000
This example has an inflow parameter but no outflow. The inflow parameter is made up
of three variables  the heater duty and the heat transfer coefficients of the two pipes.
RATE()= Enter up to ten values of flowrate.
The flow basis is limited based on the fluid type as follows
Blackoil Liquid LV basis
Condensate Gas GV basis
Steam WT basis
Compositional LV, GV, WT basis
4194 Input Reference
PSPLIT Data Category of Input
The PSPLIT Data Category of input allows you to define a phase split table for the
preferential phase split at junctions in steam systems. This category must be supplied if
the USER model is specified on any JUNCTION statement. Only one table may be
defined for all junctions within the steam network.
Table 457: PSPLIT Category of Input
PSPLIT
Introduces the category.
TABLE
Mandatory statement. Defines the table for the user defined phase split.
Mandatory entries:
Example:
TABLE LIQP=10/20/30/40/50, GASR=10000,20000, &
GASP=88,78,67,57,46/ 87,77,66,56,46
Statement Keywords See ...
PSPLIT None p. 194
TABLE LIQP=liquid %/...,GASR=gas Reynolds No./..., GASP=gas %,gas %/... p. 194
LIQP= Up to 10 liquid weight percent values for the stream entering the junction,
separated by the slash (/) character.
GASR= Up to 10 values for gas Reynolds Number for the stream entering the
junction, separated by the slash (/) character.
GASP= Up to 10 sets of up to 10 gas weight percent values for the stream leaving the
junction and entering the outflowing link which has the smaller pipe inside
diameter for the first pipe in the link. The remainder of the flow goes into the
other link.
Each set must have the same number of entries, separated by commas, as the
number of LIQP values entered. There must be the same number of sets,
separated by the slash (/) character, as the number of GASR values entered.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4195
UserDefined DP Correlations
PIPEPHASE makes it possible to incorporate up to four usersupplied pressure drop
correlation methods: two for pipes and two for well flow devices (tubings and annulus).
The user methods may be designed for single or multiphase fluid flow and may be used
in the same simulation input as PIPEPHASE supplied methods.
The userwritten methods are selected in the same manner as the PIPEPHASE supplied
methods. The FCODE statement in General Data may be used to set user methods as
system defaults (see the General Data Category of input) or the user methods may be
individually selected on the PIPE statement via the FCODE keyword. User methods are
selected with the method codes UDP1 and UDP2.
Userdefined DP correlations must be written in FORTRAN 77 and follow the naming
and interface conventions described in this category. The subroutines are compiled with
and linked to the PIPEPHASE program, replacing dummy subroutines with the same
names.
The mechanics of program compilation and linking varies between computing platforms
and are outside the scope of this manual. Your SimSciEsscor representative can provide
you with specific information regarding your particular system configuration.
Userdefined correlations may also be used with any of the fittings available in
PIPEPHASE. Please contact SimSciEsscor for support in adding userdefined fitting
correlations. It is strongly recommended that userwritten subroutines be thoroughly
tested before incorporation into PIPEPHASE, since erroneous pressure drops will
typically cause solution failure for the iterative calculation methods used in
PIPEPHASE. After incorporation into PIPEPHASE, user methods may be tested for
reliability by comparison with results from similar PIPEPHASE pressure drop methods.
FORTRAN Standards
FORTRAN 77 coding standards should be observed to avoid any possible conflicts with
the PIPEPHASE program, which is written according to these standards.
Standard calls are provided to the PIPEPHASE Moody friction factor function and the
PIPEPHASE compositional equilibrium flash subroutine. The latter may be used to
determine physical, transport and thermodynamic properties for compositional fluids, as
well as the phase splits for these fluids. No user access is provided to the non
compositional fluid property routines used in PIPEPHASE.
Standard naming conventions must be used for the userwritten pressure drop
correlations. All transfer of information between these subroutines and PIPEPHASE is
accomplished through the subroutine argument lists.
The following good coding practices should also be observed when developing user
defined correlations:
4196 Input Reference
• Local variables should always be initialized, since many operating systems do not
perform this function.
• As appropriate, user subroutines should test for calculation error conditions, i.e.,
zero divides, exponent overflows, etc.
• Usercomputed results should be range tested as needed, with calculated results reset
to upper and lower bounds when necessary.
• Efficient coding practices should be observed, since the pressure drop subroutines
are called repetitively during the iterative calculations. Inefficient coding will
greatly increase the computing time.
• Only one RETURN statement should be used in the subroutine.
• No STOP statements should be used in the subroutine. Control must always be
returned to the PIPEPHASE calling routines.
• COMMENT lines should be used generously to simplify later analyses of the sub
routine and to assist SimSci support personnel should assistance be required.
User Subroutine Specifications
For pipes (horizontal device) the following subroutine names must be used:
• HUSER1  Pressure Drop Correlation Number 1
• HUSER2  Pressure Drop Correlation Number 2
• VUSER1  Pressure Drop Correlation Number 1 for vertical devices (TUBINGS,
ANNULUS)
• VUSER2  Pressure Drop Correlation Number 2 for vertical devices (TUBINGS,
ANNULUS)
The following argument list must be used for all user pressure drop correlations, where
HUSER1or HUSER2 is substituted for NAME, as appropriate:
SUBROUTINE NAME (PIN, TIN, POUT, TOUT, PAVG, TAVG, ICOMP,IFLU,
DIR, IBOT, IFLO, IVH, Z, DENO, DENG, DENW, DENL, VISO,
VISW, VISL, VISG, SFTO, SFTW, SFTL, QOPIP, QWPIP,
GPIP, QTPIP, VELSL, VELSG, VELT, SPGG, SPGO,
SPGW, DIAM, AREA, RUFF, AINCL, EFF, DELX, NOACC,
DELP, DEN2, DPDLF, DPDLW, NREG, HL, CMW)
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4197
The entries DELP, DEN2, DPDLF, DPDLW and NREG must be determined in the user
subroutine and passed back to PIPEPHASE. NREG defaults to zero. All other
arguments are data passed from the user subroutine. Note that the arguments “Z” and
“CMW” are vectors and a local DIMENSION statement should be placed in the user
subroutine as follows:
COMMON/TOTBIN/BINRLI(16)
DIMENSION Z(50), CMW(50)
The arguments are described below in Table 458. Note that the units given below
always apply, regardless of the DIMENSION statement units used for the problem. The
userdefined DP correlation is called for each calculation segment
Table 458: Pressure Drop Subroutine Arguments
Argument Description
PIN
TIN
POUT
TOUT
PAVG
TAVG
Segment Inlet Pressure, psia
Segment Inlet Temperature, °F
Estimated Segment Outlet Pressure, psia
Estimated Segment Outlet Temperature, °F
Segment Average Pressure, psia
Segment Average Temperature, °F
ICOMP Compositional Flag:
0 = Noncompositional
1 = Compositional
IFLU Fluid Type Flag:
0 = Single Phase Oil
1 = Single Phase Gas
2 = Single Phase Liquid
3 = Blackoil
4 = Condensate
5 = Steam or Compositional
IDIR Calculation Direction: 1 = Forward; +1 = Backward
IBOT = 0 when no IPR specified at source
= 1 for producing well with IPR specified at source
= 2 for injection wells
IVH = 1 for “vertical” devices. The pressure gradient returned is in the vertical
direction for vertical devices. Tubing and annuli are considered vertical
devices.
= 0 for “horizontal” devices. The pressure gradient returned is along the
device. Pipes are considered horizontal devices.
IFLO Flow Direction: +1 = FROM to TO nodes, 1 = TO to FROM nodes
Z Composition of Link, mol fractions, vector of 50
DENO
DENG
DENW
DENL
Oil Density, lb/ft
3
Gas Density, lb/ft
3
Water Density, lb/ft
3
Total Liquid Density, lb/ft
3
4198 Input Reference
VISO
VISW
VISL
VISG
Oil Viscosity, cp
Water Viscosity, cp
Total Liquid Viscosity, cp
Gas Viscosity, cp
SFTO
SFTW
SFTL
Oil Surface Tension, Dynes/cm
Water Surface Tension, Dynes/cm
Total Liquid Surface Tension, Dynes/cm
QOPIP
QWPIP
QGPIP
QTPIP
Oil Rate, ft
3
/sec
Water Rate, ft
3
/sec
Gas Rate, ft
3
/sec
Total Flow Rate, ft
3
/sec
VELSL
VELSG
VELT
Superficial Liquid velocity, ft/sec
Superficial Gas velocity, ft/sec
Total Velocity, ft/sec
SPGG
SPGO
SPGW
Gas Specific Gravity (Dry Air = 1.0)
Oil Specific Gravity
Water Specific Gravity
DIAM
AREA
RUFF
AINCL
EFF
DELX
NOACC
Pipe Inside Diameter, ft
Pipe Cross Sectional Area, ft
2
Pipe Roughness, inches
Pipe Inclination angle, radians (pos. upward flow, neg. downward flow)
Flow Efficiency, fraction
Segment Length, ft
Acceleration term flag:
=0 include acceleration term
=1 exclude acceleration term
DELP Total Pressure Change across Segment, psi, where a negative sign indicates
pressure decrease
DEN2 Insitu Multiphase Density, used for calculating elevation pressure drop, lb/
ft
3
DPDLF Friction Gradient, psi/ft
DPDLW Elevation Gradient, psi/ft
Argument Description (cont.)
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4199
Table 459: Flow Regime Code for Output Reports
Saving Data for Output
Certain data, calculated in the DP routine, need to be saved in the BINRL1 array for
output. These are listed below in Table 460. The BINRL1 array enters the subroutine
through the TOTBIN labeled common. If data is not saved properly, this data will be
missing in the output report
Table 460: Saving Data for Output.
NREG NREG Flow Regime Output Abbreviation
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Single Phase Gas
Single Phase
Segregated
Stratified
Wavy
Annular
Intermittent
Plug
Slug
Distributed
Bubble
Mist
Transition
Blank
1PH
1PH
SEGR
STRT
WAVE
ANNU
INTR
PLUG
SLUG
DIST
BUBL
MIST
TRAN
HL Liquid Holdup
CMW Component Molecular Weights, Vector of 50
Output Variable Description Units
BINRL1(1) SLIP DENSITY (LB/FT3)
BINRL1(2) NOSLIP DENSITY (LB/FT3)
BINRL1(3) FRICTION VISCOSITY (CENTIPOISE)
BINRL1(4) FRICTION DENSITY (LB/FT3)
BINRL1(5) SUPERFICIAL GAS VELOCITY (FT/S)
BINRL1(6) SUPERFICIAL LIQUID VELOCITY (FT/SEC)
BINRL1(7) FRICTION MIXTURE VELOCITY (FT/SEC)
BINRL1(8) NOSLIP HOLDUP (DIMENSIONLESS FRACTION)
BINRL1(9) FRICTION REYNOLDS NUMBER (DIMENSIONLESS)
BINRL1(10) FRICTION FACTOR (DIMENSIONLESS)
BINRL1(11) ACCELERATION GRADIENT (PSI/FT)
BINRL1(12) TOTAL PRESSURE GRADIENT (PSI/FT)
BINRL1(13) FRICTION PRESSURE DROP (PSI)
BINRL1(14) ELEVATION PRESSURE DROP (PSI)
BINRL1(15) TOTAL PRESSURE DROP (PSI)
BINRL1(16) FRICTION ID (IN)
4200 Input Reference
PIPEPHASE Flash Routine Interface
An interface is provided to the PIPEPHASE compositional flash routine. Based on a
user supplied pressure, temperature, and fluid composition, a variety of physical,
transport and thermodynamic properties are computed and returned. The phase split and
holdup data are also returned.
The following standard call may be used from the user subroutine to access the
PIPEPHASE compositional flash routine:
CALL PVTCMP (0, UNUM, TEMPIN, PRESIN, ENTH, QUAL, Z, DUM1, DUM2, AMW, &
X, Y, W, HLNS, WLR, DENO, DENW, DENG, SPGO, SPGW, &
SPGG, VISO, VISW, VISG, HO, HW, HG, SO, SW, SG, &
SFTO, SFTW, WTO, WTW, WTG, TCRIT, PCRIT, TRED, &
PRED, ZFAC, CONOIL, CONWAT, CONGAS)
The user subroutine supplies the parameters UNUM, TEMPIN, PRESIN, and Z (which
is supplied to the user subroutine by PIPEPHASE). The remaining arguments are
returned to the user subroutine by interface subroutine PVTCMP. Note that Z, X, Y, and
W are vectors and must be dimensioned on a local dimension statement as follows:
DIMENSION Z(50), X(50), Y(50), W(50), AMW(50)
The significance of the various arguments are shown below in Table 461. Note that the
data must be supplied and returned in the dimensional units as shown, regardless of the
units selected on the DIMENSION statement for problem calculations.
Table 461: FLASH Routine Entries
Argument Description
UNUM A unique number between 1 and 99 to identify the call to PFTCMP
TEMPIN Temperature for calculations, R
PRESIN Pressure for calculations, psia
ENTH Total enthalpy of fluid, Btu/lb
QUAL Mass Fraction Vapor for the fluid
Z Fluid Composition, mol fraction, vector of 50
DUM1, DUM2 Dummy variables
X Oil Phase Composition, mol fraction, vector of 50
Y Vapor Phase Composition, mol fraction, vector of 50
W Water Phase Composition, mol fraction, vector of 50
HLNS No slip holdup
WLR Water/Liquid Ratio, volume basis
DENO Oil Density, Lb/ft
3
DENW Water Density, Lb/ft
3
DENG Gas Density, Lb/ft
3
SPGO Oil Specific Gravity QQQ
SPGW Water Specific Gravity
SPGG Gas Specific Gravity (Dry Air = 1.0)
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4201
Note that the Z vector is supplied by PIPEPHASE in the calling vector for the user
defined DP correlation. Various temperatures and pressures are also supplied in the user
defined DP correlation argument list from PIPEPHASE.
Moody Friction Factor Interface
The user may retrieve Moody friction factors from PIPEPHASE through interface
function FMOOD. Friction factors are retrieved with the following calling sequence:
where:
Examples
Examples of userdefined DP correlations are given in this category. The FORTRAN
code is listed below. Note that these examples were developed for illustrative purposes
and SimSci therefore makes no guarantee as to their accuracy or applicability.
VISO Oil Viscosity, cp
VISW Water Viscosity, cp
VISG Gas Viscosity, cp
HO Oil Enthalpy, BTU/Lb
HW Water Enthalpy, BTU/Lb
HG Gas Enthalpy, BTU/Lb
SO, SW, SQ Oil, Water, and Gas Entropies (Not currently available)
SFTO Oil Surface Tension, Dynes/cm
SFTW Water Surface Tension, Dynes/cm
WTO Oil Phase Molecular Weight
WTW Water Phase Molecular Weight
WTG Gas Phase Molecular Weight
TCRIT Pseudocritical temperature, °R
PCRIT Pseudocritical pressure, psia
TRED Reduced Temperature
PRED Reduced pressure
ZFAC Gas Compressibility Factor
CONOIL Oil Thermal Conductivity, BTU/hrft °F
CONWAT Water Thermal Conductivity, BTU/hrft °F
CONGAS Gas Thermal Conductivity, BTU/hrft ÉF
FF = FMOOD (REYN, ROUGH)
FF = Moody Friction Factor
REYN = Reynolds Number
ROUGH = Pipe Relative Roughness
Argument Description
4202 Input Reference
Example 1 – Olimen’s Pressure Drop
The first example demonstrates the use of a useradded subroutine by calculating the
twophase pressure drop, using Olimen’s correlation with Eaton holdups and Moody
friction factors. The twothirds rule will be used for the pressure and temperature at
which the properties will be computed.
SUBROUTINE HUSER1
1 (PIN, TIN, POUT, TOUT, PAVG, TAVG, ICOMP, IFLU, IDIR, IFLOW,
2 Z, DENO, DENG, DENW, DENL, VISO, VISW, VISL,
3 VISG, SFTO, SFTW, SFTL, QOPIP, QWPIP, QGPIP,
4 QTPIP, VELSL, VELSG, VELT, SPGG, SPGO, SPGW,
5 DIAM, AREA, RUFF, AINCL, EFF, DELX, NOACC,
6 DELP, DEN2, DPDLF, DPDLW, NREG, HL, CMW)
C
C LOCAL DECLARATIONS
C
DIMENSION Z(50),CMW(50)
DIMENSION X(50),Y(50),W(50)
C
C CODE STARTS HERE
C
C USE TWOTHIRDS RULE TO FIND TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE
C
PUSE = PIN + (2. / 3.) * (PIN  POUT)
TUSE = TIN + (2. / 3.) * (TIN  TOUT) + 459.67
C
C WE NEED TO COMPUTE THE TOTAL MASS FLOW RATE UP FRONT BEFORE
C THE CURRENT AVERAGE PROPERTIES ARE DESTROYED.
C MASS RATE WILL BE IN LB/SEC
C
RMASS = QOPIP * DENO + QWPIP * DENW + QGPIP * DENG
C
C NOW CALL PIPEPHASE FLASH ROUTINE TO GET PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
C AT TUSE AND PUSE
C
UNUM = 99
C
CALL PVTCMP(0,UNUM,TUSE,PUSE,ENTH,QUAL,Z,DUM1,DUM2,AMW,
1 X,Y,W,HLNS,WLR,DENO,DENW,DENG,SPGO,SPGW,
2 SPGG,VISO,VISW,VISG,HO,HW,HG,SO,SW,SG,
3 SFTO,SFTW,WTO,WTW,WTG,TCRIT,PCRIT,TRED,
4 PRED,ZFAC,CONOIL,CONWAT,CONGAS)
C
C GAS HOLDUP AND NOSLIP TWOPHASE DENSITY
C
HGNS = 1.  HLNS
DENL = WLR * DENW + (1.  WLR) * DENO
DENNS = HLNS * DENL + HGNS * DENG
C
C VELOCITIES
C
QTPIP = RMASS / DENNS
IF (DENG .NE. 0.0) QGPIP = QUAL * RMASS / DENG
RMASSL = (1.  QUAL) * RMASS
IF (DENL .NE. 0.0) QLPIP = RMASSL / DENL
QWPIP = WLR * QLPIP
QOPIP = (1.  WLR) * QLPIP
VELSL = QLPIP / AREA
VELSG = QGPIP / AREA
VELT = QTPIP / AREA
C
C LIQUID SURFACE TENSION AND NOSLIP VISCOSITY
C
SFTL = WLR * SFTW + (1.  WLR) * SFTO
VISL = WLR * VISW + (1.  WLR) * VISO
VISNS = HLNS * VISL + HGNS * VISG
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4203
C
C NOSLIP REYNOLDS NUMBER
C
RNUM = 1488. * DENNS * VELT * DIAM / VISNS
C
C CALL PIPEPHASE ROUTINE TO GENERATE MOODY FRICTION FACTORS
C
FF = FMOOD(RNUM,RUFF)
C
C CALL PIPEPHASE ROUTINE TO COMPUTE THE EATON LIQUID HOLDUP
C
IF (HLNS .LT. 1.E6 .OR. HLNS .GT. 0.99999) GO TO 1000
C
CALL EEXHL (PUSE, VELSL, VELSG, SFTL, DENL,
1 VISL, VISG, DIAM, HL)
C
C HOLDUP IS COMING BACK IN HL  CHECK BOUNDARIES
C
IF (HL .LT. HLNS) HL = HLNS
IF (HL .GT. 1.0) HL = 1.0
GO TO 1010
1000 CONTINUE
IF (HLNS .LT. 1.E6) HL = 0.0
IF (HLNS .GT. 0.99999) HL = 1.0
1010 CONTINUE
C
C TWOPHASE DENSITY INCLUDING SLIP
C
DEN2 = HL * DENL + (1.  HL) * DENG
C
C MASS FLUX
C
BL = HL  HLNS
GTP = RMASS / ((1.  BL) * AREA)
C
C EFFECTIVE DENSITY AND OLIMENS ADJUSTED DENSITY
C
DEFF = DIAM * SQRT(1.  BL)
DOLI = (DENL * HLNS + DENG * HGNS) / (1.  BL)
C
C TOTAL FRICTION GRADIENT
C
DPDLF = 1. *(FF * GTP**2.) / (2. * DEFF* DOLI * 32.2 * 144.)
C
C ELEVATION GRADIENT
C FOR DOWNHILL FLOW USE STATIC HEAD FROM GAS ONLY.
C FOR UPHILL FLOW USE TOTAL TWOPHASE STATIC HEAD.
C
IF (AINCL .LT. 0.0) GO TO 2000
C
C UPHILL OR VERTICAL FLOW
C
DPDLW = 1. * DEN2 * SIN(AINCL) / 144.
GO TO 2010
C
C DOWNHILL FLOW
C
2000 CONTINUE
C
DPDLW = 1. * DENG * SIN(AINCL) / 144.
C
C TOTAL GRADIENT  NO ACCELERATION TERM BEING COMPUTED
C
2010 CONTINUE
C
DPDLT = DPDLF + DPDLW
C
C TOTAL PRESSURE DROP ACROSS CALCULATION INCREMENT
C
DELP = DELX * DPDLT
C
C ALL DONE RETURN TO PROGRAM
4204 Input Reference
C
RETURN
END
Example 2 – Fancher and Brown Pressure Drop
The second example calculates twophase pressure drop using the correlation of Fancher
and Brown. This routine is designed for use with noncompositional fluids.
SUBROUTINE HUSER2
1 (PIN, TIN, POUT, TOUT, PAVG, TAVG, ICOMP, IFLU, IDIR, IFLOW,
2 Z, DENO, DENG, DENW, DENL, VISO, VISW, VISL,
3 VISG, SFTO, SFTW, SFTL, QOPIP, QWPIP, QGPIP,
4 QTPIP, VELSL, VELSG, VELT, SPGG, SPGO, SPGW,
5 DIAM, AREA, RUFF, AINCL, EFF, DELX, NOACC,
6 DELP, DEN2, DPDLF, DPDLW, NREG, HL, CMW)
C
C PURPOSE: DEMONSTRATE THE USE OF THE USERADDED
C SUBROUTINE BY CALCULATING THE TWOPHASE PRESSURE
C DROP USING THE CORRELATION OF FANCHER AND BROWN.
C
C AUTHOR(S): SIMSCI
C
C COMPLETION DATE: 15 SEPTEMBER 2006
C
C LOCAL DECLARATIONS
C
DIMENSION Z(50),CMW(50)
DIMENSION X(50),Y(50),W(50)
REAL MWGAS, MOLGAS, LOGF
C
C CODE STARTS HERE
C COMPUTE THE NOSLIP HOLDUP AND TWOPHASE DENSITY
C
HLNS = (QOPIP + QWPIP) / QTPIP
WLR = QWPIP / (QOPIP + QWPIP)
DENL = WLR * DENW + (1.  WLR) * DENO
DEN2 = HLNS * DENL + (1.  HLNS) * DENG
C
WRITE (1,*) ‘DENO,DENW,WLR,DENL,DEN2 = ‘
C SINCE HOLDUP IS NOT CALCULATED BY FANCHERBROWN, SET THE LIQD
C HOLDUP TO THE NOSLIP HOLDUP
C
HL = HLNS
C
C CALCULATE THE GASLIQUID RATIO
C
GLR = 0.0
IF (QGPIP .EQ. 0.0) GO TO 1000
MWGAS = SPGG * 28.972
WTGAS = QGPIP * DENG
MOLGAS = WTGAS / MWGAS
VOLGAS = MOLGAS * 379.5
QLPIP = QOPIP + QWPIP
VOLLIQ = QLPIP / 5.615
GLR = VOLGAS / VOLLIQ
1000 CONTINUE
C
C COMPUTE THE FANCHERBROWN FRICTION FACTOR
C FRICTION FACTOR IS BASED ON THE GASLIQUID RATIO
C
RVD = DEN2 * VELT * DIAM
C
IF (GLR .GT. 1500) GO TO 1100
C
IF (RVD .GT. 15) GO TO 1050
LOGF = 11.96044 * (ALOG(RVD))**(1.83104)
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4205
GO TO 2000
1050 CONTINUE
LOGF = 0.09992  0.00106 * RVD
GO TO 2000
1100 IF (GLR .GE. 3000) GO TO 1150
LOGF = 0.37028  0.01151 * RVD
GO TO 2000
1150 CONTINUE
LOGF = 0.215  0.01 * RVD
2000 CONTINUE
FF = 10**LOGF
C
C COMPUTE THE TOTAL FRICTION GRADIENT
C
DPDLF = 1. * (FF * DEN2 * VELT**2.) / (2. * 32.2 * DIAM)
C
C COMPUTE THE ELEVATION GRADIENT
C
DPDLW = 1. * DEN2 * SIN(AINCL) / 144.
C
C COMPUTE THE TOTAL GRADIENT AND TOTAL PRESSURE DROP
C NO ACCELERATION TERM IS CALCULATED HERE
C
DELP = DELX * (DPDLF + DPDLW)
C
C ALL DONE  RETURN TO
C
RETURN
END
4206 Input Reference
UserDefined Viscosity Correlation
The UserDefined Viscosity Correlation allows the user to define a useradded liquid
viscosity of a blackoil model. This method is applicable only for blackoil fluid models.
Note: See p. 48 for keyword inputs.
Implementing the Correlation
The userwritten method is selected in the same manner as the normal viscosity method
such as API, Daqing, Twoelflin, etc.
Userdefined viscosity correlations must be written in FORTRAN 77 and follow the
naming and interface conventions described in this category. The subroutines are
compiled and linked to the PIPEPHASE program.
The mechanics of program compilation and linking varies between computing platforms
and are outside the scope of this manual. It is described in the installation manual for
each platform.
Your SimSci representative can provide you with specific information regarding your
particular system configuration. It is strongly recommended that userwritten
subroutines be thoroughly tested before incorporating into PIPEPHASE.
User Subroutine Specifications
The following argument list must be used for the user added viscosity correlation.
SUBROUTINE USRLIQVIS (QOPIP, QWPIP, DENO, DENW, SPGO, SPGW, PRES,
TEMP, VISL, QOSTD, QWSTD)
The following input variables are modified through the process of defining a user
defined viscosity.
Input Variable Description Units
QOPIP InSitu oil flow rate ft3/sec
QWPIP InSitu water flow rate ft3/sec
DENO InSitu oil Density lb/ft3
DENW IInSitu water density lb/ft3
SPGO Oil standard specific gravity
SPGW Water standard specific gravity
PRES Pressure psia
TEMP Temperature F
VISO Oil Viscosity cp
VISW Water Viscosity cp
QOSTD Oil standard flow rate ft3/sec
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4207
UserAdded Viscosity Subroutine  Output Arguments
Common Blocks
The following internal common blocks must be included in the order presented.
The variable names /parameters used in USRVIS.CMN file are tabulated below
User is allowed up to 40 userdefined constants in designing a liquid viscosity
correlation to be used in PIPEPHASE.
Note: New Method Name is stored in variable VISLMTH.
The USERVIS.CMN file contains the following lines. This file should never be changed.
PARAMETER (MX_CONS=40)
CHARACTER*16 VISLABL, VISLMTH
COMMON /USRVIS1/VISLCON (MX_CONS), NVISCONS, VISLABL (MX_CONS), VISLMTH
Example Implementation
The following example shows how a useradded viscosity can be implemented in
PIPEPHASE. The FORTRAN code is listed below. Note that this example was
developed for illustrative propose and SimSci therefore makes no guarantee as to its
applicability.
Example  Daqing Viscosity Correlation
SUBROUTINE USRLIQVIS
1 (QOPIP, QWPIP, DENO, DENW, SPGO, SPGW, VISO, VISW,
2 PRES, TEMP, QOSTD, QWSTD, VISL)
C PURPOSE: DEMONSTRATE THE USE OF THE USERADDED SUBROUTINE IN
C CALCULATING THE VISCOSITY USING DAQING CORRELATION.
C AUTHOR (S): SIMSCI
QWSTD Water Standard flow rate ft3/sec
Output Variable Description Units
VISL Liquid viscosity cp
PARAM.CMN System wide parameters
PRECIS.CMN Double precision statement
KCONS.CMN Dimensioning statement
USRVIS.CMN User defined viscosity
VISLCON (J) The Jth Constant for user defined Viscosity.
VISLABL (J) The Jth character label (16 characters) to describe VISLCON
VISLMTH Method label (16 characters)
NVISCONS Number of constants specified
Input Variable Description Units
4208 Input Reference
C INPUT ARGUMENT
C QOPIP  InSitu oil flow rate, ft3/sec
C QWPIP  InSitu water flow rate, ft3/sec
C DENO  InSitu oil Density, lb/ft3
C DENW  InSituSitu water density, lb/ft3
C SPGO  Oil standard specific gravity
C SPGW  Water standard specific gravity
C PRES  Pressure, psia
C TEMP  Temperature, F
C VISO  Oil Viscosity, cp
C VISW  Water Viscosity, cp
C QOSTD  Oil standard flow rate, ft3/sec
C QWSTD  Water Standard flow rate, ft3/sec
C OUTPUT ARGUMENTS
C VISL  Liquid viscosity, cp
C MANDATED PIPEPHASE INCLUDE FILES
INCLUDE 'PARAM.CMN'
INCLUDE 'PRECIS.CMN'
INCLUDE 'KCONS.CMN'
INCLUDE 'USRVIS.CMN'
C SPECIFY DEFAULT EQUATION CONSTANTS
CUT1 = 0.006
CUT2 = 0.74
C
C1 = 7.1546
C2 = 2.7885
C3 = 0.6
C
C4 = 7.2799
C5 = 2.8447
C6 = 0.6
C
C7 = 7.2244
C8 = 2.8506
C9 = 0.6
C
C10 = 1.0
C11 = 2.8461
C
C12 = 2.7183
C13 = 7.0
C
AA1 = 3.3811
CC1 = 1.562
CC2 = 2.7183
CC3 = 0.03702
CC4 = 35.0
C
CC5 = 2.7183
CC6 = 3.5
CC7 = 35.0
C
AA2 = 3.3811
CC8 = 0.3892
CC9 = 2.7183
CC10= 0.02237
CC11= 50.0
C
CC12 = 2.7183
CC13 = 3.5
CC14 = 1.0073
CC15 = 35.0
IF (NVISCONS.GT.0) THEN
C CHECK FOR THE USERDEFINED CONSTANT AND LABELS DECLARED
C
DO 100 J = 1, NVISCONS
IF (VISLABL (J). EQ.'CUT1') THEN
CUT1 = VISLCON (J)
ELSEIF (VISLABL (J). EQ.'CUT2') THEN
CUT2 = VISLCON (J)
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4209
ELSEIF (VISLABL (J). EQ.'C1') THEN
C1 = VISLCON (J)
ELSEIF (VISLABL (J). EQ.'C2') THEN
C2 = VISLCON (J)
ELSEIF (VISLABL (J). EQ.'C3') THEN
C3 = VISLCON (J)
ELSEIF (VISLABL (J). EQ.'C4') THEN
C4 = VISLCON (J)
ELSEIF (VISLABL (J). EQ.'C5') THEN
C5 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'C6') THEN
C6 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'C7') THEN
C7 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'C8') THEN
C8 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'C9') THEN
C9 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'C10') THEN
C10 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'C11') THEN
C11 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'C12') THEN
C12 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'C13') THEN
C13 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'AA1') THEN
AA1 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'CC1') THEN
CC1 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'CC2') THEN
CC2 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'CC3') THEN
CC3 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'CC4') THEN
CC4 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'CC5') THEN
CC5 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'CC6') THEN
CC6 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'CC7') THEN
CC7 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'CC8') THEN
CC8 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'AA2') THEN
AA2 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'CC9') THEN
CC9 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'CC10') THEN
CC10 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'CC11') THEN
CC11 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'CC12') THEN
CC12 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'CC13') THEN
CC13 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'CC14') THEN
CC14 = VISLCON(J)
ELSEIF(VISLABL(J).EQ.'CC15') THEN
CC15 = VISLCON(J)
ENDIF
100 CONTINUE
ENDIF
C
WTWAT = DENW * QWPIP
WTOIL = DENO * QOPIP
WATCUT = WTWAT / (WTWAT + WTOIL)
C
C When weight water cut is less than 0.006 use pure oil viscosity
C correlation
IF (WATCUT.LT. CUT1) THEN
4210 Input Reference
C Absolute temperature Kelvin conversion
TAVGC = (TEMP  32.0)/1.8 +273.15
SPLL = DENO/62.4
VIS1 = 10.0**(10**(C1  C2*LOG10 (TAVGC)))  C3
C
VIS2 = 10.0**(10**(C4  C5*LOG10 (TAVGC)))  C6
C
VIS3 = 10.0**(10**(C7  C8*LOG10 (TAVGC)))  C9
C
VISL = (VIS1 + VIS2 + VIS3)/3.0
VISL = SPLL * VISL
C
ELSEIF (WATCUT.GT. CUT2) THEN
PHIO = QOPIP / (QOPIP + QWPIP)
C
PHI = PHIO * (C10 + C11)
C
VISL = VISW * C12 ** (C13 * PHI)
ELSE
C
C Temperature to centigrade conversion
C
TAVGC = (TEMP  32.0)/1.8
IF (TAVGC.LE. 50.0) THEN
AA1 = 3.3811
C
CC = CC1 * CC2 ** (CC3 * (CC4 + TAVGC))
C
VISL = CC5 ** (AA1 + CC6 * WATCUT + CC * (CC7  TAVGC))
ELSE
AA2 = 3.3811
C
CC = CC8 * CC9 ** (CC10 * (CC11 + TAVGC))
C
VISL = CC12 ** (AA2 + CC13 * WATCUT  CC14
1 + CC * (CC15  TAVGC))
ENDIF
ENDIF
C 
C  END OF ROUTINE USRLIQVIS
C 
RETURN
END
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4211
Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR)
The inflow performance represents the production rate from the petroleum reservoir as a
function of the drawdown, which is the difference in pressure between the reservoir and
the flowing well.
UserDefined IPR
The inflow performance relationship (IPR) for a completion zone within a well is a
relationship defining the production rate from the formation as a function of the
drawdown. The drawdown is a measure of the driving force represented by the pressure
differential between the undisturbed reservoir and the flowing well (usually at the sand
face).
The IPR Model is defined as a type of PIPEPHASE device (other examples: PIPE,
PUMP, COMPLETION). Structurally, an IPR device should be configured downstream
of a pressureboundary source. It will be the first (or upstreammost) element in a link
representing the connection between the well source and the surface gathering system
(the exception will be an injection sink where it will be the last device before the
downstream sink). Like any other device, an IPR device is a subprogram where the inlet
flow conditions of pressure, temperature and enthalpy, are processed as a function of the
flow rate through the device to calculate the outlet pressure.
The output from the IPR device model are the downstream or outlet conditions of
pressure, temperature and enthalpy. For most IPR devices, where temperature and
enthalpy variations can be ignored, the only relevant output from the IPR model is the
outlet pressure. In certain instances, the value of one or more of the internal process
variables are of significance to the enduser (e.g., breakthrough time from a coning
model). These variables are the secondary output from an IPR device model.
Builtin Variable List
A comprehensive set of “builtin IPR variables” have been made available for use as
labels in a userdefined IPR. This set, created for the internallysupported IPR models,
represents most of the commonlyused variables in defining IPRs. Note that the set of
available real variables are further subdivided by defining a separate “indexed” category
of variables, to be used for defining tabular data related to timestepping and production
planning. Tables 462 through 465 show the lists of available variables.
Keyword Input
The keywords required for input to any userdefined model have been described
elsewhere. These keywords are required for two purposes:
• To add to the list of inbuilt variables as needed for a specific IPR; and
4212 Input Reference
• To define the IPR characteristics for each of the completion zones associated with an
IPR device.
Subprogram Structure
A model number is selected from the available slots (numbers 120 are reserved for
internal development). The model number will be the basis for the corresponding
subroutine name: IPRnn, where nn represents the model number in I2.2 format (e.g.,
SUBROUTINE IPR06, or SUBROUTINE IPR99). The calling arguments to the
standard IPRnn subroutine will be:
SUBROUTINE IPRnn (P, T, H, WT, QOSTD, QGSTD, QWSTD, IPRERR)
The following input variables are modified through the process of the IPR device from
inlet (upstream) to outlet (downstream) conditions:
Note that for isenthalpic, isothermal IPR models, the pressure is the only variable that
changes.
The input variables are defined as:
Note: The mass flowrate is applicable for composition and steam models.
The corresponding output variable:
Common Blocks
The following internal common blocks must must be included:
P pressure, psia
T temperature, deg F
H enthalpy, Btu/lb
WT mass flowrate, lb/sec
QOSTD oil flowrate at standard conditions, ft3/sec
QGSTD gas flowrate at standard conditions, ft3/sec
QWSTD water flowrate at standard conditions, ft3/sec
IPRERR  error code (0  no error)
PARAMS.CMN Systemwide parameters
PRECIS.CMN Double precision statement
KCONS.CMN Dimensioning statement
PRMIPR.CMN IPRrelated parameters
CUNIT.CMN Unit conversions
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4213
The following common block will be needed for IPR models that use the pseudo
pressure function utility:
The following local character declarations are needed to support the internal utility
modules and data handling facilities:
Data Extraction
The input data specific to an IPR defined through the keywords RVAL, IVAL and
ARRAY will be extracted through the following utility modules:
for extracting real values; and
for extracting integer values (note that an extract utility will not be provided for ARRAY
data in the initial release).
The variables in the calling arguments are:
Units Conversion Utility
The units conversion utility is described in , p. 4220.
IPRCON.CMN Insitu density values (lb/ft3) for IPR calculation; these variables may
be used to develop useradded IPRs:
CONGDN  gas density
CONODN  oil density
CONWDN  water density
MFPCMN.CMN  common block for pseudopressure utility
CHARACTER LABEL *(MXCHAR), IFOUND*1
CHARACTER*(MXCHAR) RLABEL(3), ILABEL(1)
SUBROUTINE RXTRCT (LABEL, NCHAR, IFOUND, RVAL)
SUBROUTINE IXTRCT (LABEL, NCHAR, IFOUND, RVAL)
LABEL  variable label defined in the keyword input
NCHAR  number of unique identifying characters in the label
IFOUND  character flag (Y/N) indicating whether label was found
RVAL/IVAL  specific real/integer value
4214 Input Reference
Calculation Utilities
The function of utility modules is to provide the developer of the useradded IPR with a
set of common tools that can reduce the development effort, provide consistency across
models, and eliminate the duplication of code. For the initial release, the calculation
utility modules provided have been restricted to a set of subroutines representing coning
calculations in horizontal wells. In particular, these are:
• The Giger coning model for determining the critical rate, and
• The Papatzakos method for calculating the time for breakthrough.
In addition this model will also determine the optimal well placement for dual (water
table and gas cap) drive reservoirs.
The Giger et al coning model calculates the critical oil production rate at which coning
occurs:
The output variable is:
The input variables are:
The Papatzakos et al. coning model calculates the breakthrough time for coning in a
horizontal well. For a dual cone model, when both gas cap and bottom water drive exist,
it also determines the optimal well placement in terms of the distance to the oilwater
contact in a vertical plane.
SUBROUTINE GIGER (KCAP, RKH, VISO, FVF, DENO, DENW, DENG, WSPA,
THICK, RLENG, QCRIT)
QCRIT  critical oil production rate, STB/D
KCAP  drive mechanism (1bottom water, 2gas cap, 3dual)
RKH  horizontal permeability, mD
VISO  oil viscosity, cp
FVF  oil formation volume factor, reservoir volume per unit stock tank volume
DENO  oil density, lb/ft3
DENW  water density, lb/ft3
DENG  gas density, lb/ft3
WSPA  spacing between horizontal wells (or drainage length), ft
THICK  thickness of oil producing zone, ft
RLENG  length of horizontal well, ft
SUBROUTINE PAPAT (KCAP, RKH, RKZ, VISO, FVF, DENO, DENW, DENG, RLENG,
THICK, PHI, QO, TBT, OPT)
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4215
The output variables are:
The input variables are:
Secondary Output Utility
An output utility module has been developed to report (both output report and Results
Access) internal variables of interest (e.g., results from coning model):
All of the calling arguments are input variables:
Example Implementation
The following is an example for a useradded IPR in slot 21 (slot numbers 120 reserved
for internal models). This is a simple PI model for an oil producing formation.
SUBROUTINE IPR21 (P,T,H,WT,QOSTD,QGSTD,QWSTD,IPRERR)
C This subprogram determines the flowing well pressure in an oil (or water) well
C from the reservoir pressure and the production rates. For injection wells,it
C computes the pressure in the reservoir from the incoming flowing well pressure.
TBT  time to breakthrough, days
OPT  optimal placement (distance to oil/water contact in a vertical plane), ft
KCAP  drive mechanism (1bottom water, 2gas cap, 3both)
RKH  horizontal permeability, mD
RKZ  vertical permeability, mD
VISO  oil viscosity, cp
FVF  oil formation volume factor, reservoir volume per unit stock tank volume
DENO  oil density, lb/ft3
DENW  water density, lb/ft3
DENG  gas density, lb/ft3
RLENG  length of horizontal well, ft
THICK  thickness of oil producing zone, ft
PHI  reservoir porosity
QO  oil production rate, STB/D
SUBROUTINE RINSRT (RVAL, NREAL, IVAL, NINT, RLABEL, ILABEL, MREAL, MINT)
RVAL  array of real values
NREAL  number of variables in RVAL array
IVAL  array of integer values
NINT  number of integers in IVAL array
RLABEL  20character label array corresponding to RVAL
ILABEL  20character label array corresponding to IVAL
MREAL  maximum number of variables in RVAL array (20)
MINT  maximum number of variables in IVAL array (5)
4216 Input Reference
C Note: this algorithm is not valid for gasbasis deliverability calculations.
C Input Arguments:
C P pressure, psia
C QOSTD oil flowrate, std.ft3/sec
C QWSTD water flowrate, std.ft3/sec
C Output Arguments:
C P pressure, psia
C IPER error flag (0  no error)
C Unused:
C WT mass flowrate, lb/sec
C QGSTD gas flowrate, std.ft3/sec
C Mandated PIPEPHASE include Files
INCLUDE ‘PARAM.CMN’
INCLUDE ‘PRECIS.CMN’
INCLUDE ‘KCONS.CMN’
INCLUDE ‘PRMIPR.CMN’
INCLUDE ‘CUNIT.CMN’
INCLUDE ‘MFPCMN.CMN’
C Mandated Declaration
CHARACTER LABEL *(MXCHAR), IFOUND*1
CHARACTER*(MXCHAR) RLABEL(3), ILABEL(1)
C Declarations for Output Utility
PARAMETER (MREAL = 20)
PARAMETER (MINT = 5)
DIMENSION RXVAL(MREAL), IXVAL(MINT)
C Initialize
IPRERR = 0
LABEL(1:4) = ‘ ‘
C Extract Deliverability Basis
LABEL(1:5) = ‘BASIS’
CALL IXTRCT (LABEL,4,IFOUND,IVAL)
IF (IFOUND. EQ. ‘Y’) THEN
IBASIS = IVAL
ELSE
IPRERR = 1
GO TO 999
ENDIF
C Extract Productivity Index
LABEL(1:2) = ‘PI’
CALL RXTRCT (LABEL,2,IFOUND,RVAL)
IF (IFOUND.EQ.’Y’) THEN
PI = RVAL
ELSE
IPRERR = 2
GO TO 999
ENDIF
C Extract Traverse Direction Flag
LABEL(1:2) = ‘FLOW’
C Default traverse: pressure drop
ISIGN =  1
CALL IXTRCT (LABEL,2,IFOUND,IVAL)
IF ((IFOUND .EQ. ‘Y’) .AND. (IVAL .EQ. 2)) ISIGN = + 1
C Note: this is just an illustration of the use of this flag (the only
C practical examples of pressure gain across a device would be a pump
C or a compressor model).
C Convert flowrate from internal units to user (keyword) units
ININDX = 2
INTCLS = 3
IOTNDX = IUTVEC (1, INTCLS, 1)
Q1 = TOBU (Q, INTCLS, ININDX)
Q = FROMBU (Q1, INTCLS, IOTNDX)
C Deliverability Basis
C Basis = liquid (oil & water)
IF (IBASIS .EQ. 2) THEN
Q = QOSTD + QWSTD
C Basis = oil
ELSEIF (IBASIS .EQ. 3) THEN
Q = QOSTD
ELSEIF (IBASIS .EQ. 4) THEN
C Basis = water
Q = QWSTD
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4217
C Unsupported basis
ELSE
IPRERR = 3
GO TO 999
ENDIF
C Calculate Drawdown
DD = PI * Q
C Secondary Output
RXVAL(1) = DD
RLABEL(1) = Pressure Drawdown =
CALL RINSRT (RXVAL, 1, IXVAL, 0, RLABEL, ILABEL, MREAL, MINT)
C Convert drawdown from user units to internal () units
INTCLS = 10
ININDX = IUTVEC (1, INTCLS, 1)
IOTNDX = 1
DD = TOBU (DD, INTCLS, ININDX)
C Calculate Downstream Pressure from Drawdown
P = P + ISIGN * DD
999 CONTINUE
RETURN
END
Variables and Arrays for UserDefined IPR Models
Real Variables
Table 462: Available Real Variables
(Usage: RVAL=LABEL1,X1/LABEL2,X2....)
CLAMINAR laminar flow coefficient in LIT formulation
COEF coefficient of gas deliverability equation
CPSS constant in pseudo steadystate equation
CTURBULENT turbulent flow coefficient in LIT formulation (default=0.0)
CUMVOL cumulative volume produced (default=0.0)
ECHG elevation change
EXP exponent of gas deliverability equation (default=0.5)
FVF liquid formation volume factor
ID diameter of tubular at sandface through which significant pressure drop occurs (used
when NSEG1)
KX permeability in xdirection
KY permeability in ydirection
KZ permeability in zdirection (vertical permeability)
LENGTH length of horizontal well, or producing zone thickness for vertical wells
MPCONS constant in pseudopressure integral (default=2.0)
PDEPTH depth of measurement point (default=sandface)
PMIN minimum pressure limit (also reference) for pseudopressure calc.
PMAX maximum pressure limit for pseudopressure calculation (default=reservoir pressure)
PI productivity index
PITURB coefficient of turbulent flow term in PI equation (default=0.0)
PRES reservoir pressure
QMAX maximum flowrate or absolute open flow potential (AOFP) in Vogels equation
RESA length (coarse) of reservoir in xdirection (perpendicular to well)
4218 Input Reference
Indexed Real Variables
Table 463: Available Indexed Real Variables (used for TABULAR)
RESB width (coarse length) of reservoir in ydirection (parallel to well)
RW wellbore radius
SKIN dimensionless reservoir infinitesimal skin (default=0.0)
SPI specific productivity index, PI per unit length (used when NSEG1)
THICKNESS average formation thickness
VISL liquid phase viscosity
VOGCONS constant in Vogels equation (default=0.2)
VOGEXP exponent in Vogels equation
XCORD xcoordinate of the horizontal well
Y1CORD y1coordinate of the horizontal well
Y2CORD y2coordinate of the horizontal well
ZCORD zcoordinate of the horizontal well
(Usage: RVAL=LABEL“ij”,X1/LABEL”ij”,X2....)
PRESi reservoir pressure at ith” cumulative production volume
TQCUMi “ith” cumulative (default fluid) production volume (for i=1,..,5); based on fluid model:
liquid  liquid volume
gas  gas volume
blackoil  oil and water volume
condensate  gas volume
compositional  mass
steam  mass
TQGCUMi “ith” cumulative gas production volume (for i=1,..,5)
TQLCUMi “ith” cumulative liquid production volume
TQOCUMi “ith” cumulative oil production volume
TQWCUMi “ith” cumulative water production volume
PWFij flowing well pressure at “ith” cumulative production (or reservoir pressure), for the jth”
point on the IPR curve (for j=1,...6)
QFij “jth” flowrate on the IPR curve for the “ith” cumulative production (or reservoir
pressure)
(Usage: RVAL=LABEL1,X1/LABEL2,X2....)
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 4219
Integer Variables
Table 464: Available Integer Variables
Note: For user defined IPR, each user has the freedom to define his or her own labels and interpret the data
in any way. The RXTRCT and IXTRCT utilities extract the real and integer data by label.
(Usage: IVAL=LABEL1,I1/LABEL2,I2....)
BASIS deliverability basis:
1 gas
2 liquid
3 oil
4 water
5 mass
DRAWDOWN
basis for drawdown calculation:
0 conventional (default): difference of squares of pressures for gas; difference in
actual pressures for liquid basis
1 difference in pseudopressure function m(p) for gasbasis, with the integration
constant equal to 2
2 difference in pseudopressure function m(p) for gas basis with integration constant
calculated from
T
sc
= standard temperature (519.67 °R)
P
sc
= standard pressure (14.7 psia)
T
res
= reservoir temperature
3 difference in m(p) for gas basis, with userspecified const
IMODEL
model used for curve fitting (default = linear interpolation)
1 Productivity index (straight line)
2 Vogel
3 Fetkovich
4 LIT
FLOW traverse direction:
1 forward (default)
2 reverse
NPSEG number of segments for pseudopressure calculations (default=50)
NSEG number of equal IPR segments; when NSEG 1, PIPEPHASE internally creates sub
surface sources. This feature is useful in modeling horizontal wells or excessively thick
vertical pay zones
Cons t tan
T
sc
P
sc
T
res
 =
4220 Input Reference
Arrays
Table 465: Available Arrays
(Usage: ARRAY=LABEL1,X1,X2,X3.../LABEL2,Y1,Y2,Y3...)
AQCUM cumulative reservoir fluid production; based on fluid model:
liquid  liquid volume
gas  gas volume
blackoil  oil and water volume
condensate  gas volume
compositional  mass
steam  mass
AQGCUM cumulative reservoir gas production
AQLCUM cumulative reservoir liquid production
AQOCUM cumulative reservoir oil production
AQWCUM cumulative reservoir water production
PPRES reservoir pressure (as a function of cumulative production)
DECLINERATE pressurecompressibility (p/z) decline rate for gas reservoirs
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 51
Chapter 5
Results
Chapter Contents
About This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Report Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Description of Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Input Reprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Intermediate Printout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Solution Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Input Reprint Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Thermodynamic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Component Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
General Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
PVT Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Network Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Source Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Structure Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Network Connectivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Sizing Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Nodal Analysis (Sensitivity). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Lift Gas Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
PVTGEN Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Intermediate PRINTOUT Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Network Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Inflow Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Solution Output Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Flash Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Separator Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Link Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Node Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Device Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Structure Data Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
52 Results
Velocity Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Results Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Link Device Detail Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Pressure and Temperature Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Pressure and Temperature Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Phase Envelope Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Phase Envelope Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Holdup and Velocity Report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Pressure Gradient Detail Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
TaitelDuklerBarnea Flow Regime Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Link Property Detail Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Viscosity and Density Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Friction and Surface Tension Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Heat Transfer Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Slug Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Case Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Nodal Analysis (Sensitivity). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Sphering Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Results Access System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
About This Chapter
This chapter contains information about the reports produced by PIPEPHASE. It
describes which reports are available and gives examples of many types.
The chapter first gives a full list of the reports available, along with brief descriptions.
The list is in the order in which the reports will appear in your output. If you want to
know what reports you must produce in order to get any specific information, this is
where to look. This chapter also tells you which reports are always produced, which are
produced by default, and which are produced only by specific request. The options to
request or suppress each report are also described.
The chapter then goes on to give examples of the reports. The examples are presented in
the same order as the list of reports. For clarity and brevity’s sake, the output shown is
not the complete output from a specific run. To illustrate the different features, selected
parts of the output are taken from examples given in the PIPEPHASE Application Briefs.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 53
Report Options
The PIPEPHASE ASCII output is designed to provide concise information within
80 columns. The main PRINT statement in the General Data Category of input (see the
PRINT statement in Chapter 4, Input Reference) controls the overall level of printout. A
number of printout options are available to enable you to select the amount of
information that you require. For example, if additional information for only some of the
links is required, you need only set the PRINT option on the LINK statements for the
ones you want. If the PRINT option is entered on any link, detail reports will not be
produced for links which do not also have the PRINT option.
If stream property tables are being generated, tables and plots of the properties against
temperature and pressure can be produced by using the PRINT and PLOT options on the
GENERATE statement.
The output is normally produced in the units of measurement you defined globally as
input units. Instead of this output, or in addition to it, you can request an output in a
different set of units using the OUTDIMENSION statement in the General Data
Category of the input.
Description of Reports
The output from a simulation is in three main sections that correspond to the three phases
of the PIPEPHASE simulation run. These are the input check and input data reprint,
intermediate solution history and output, and the final results output. PIPEPHASE will
only continue from one section to the next if no errors are detected. If errors are found,
either in the user’s input data or during the solution procedure itself, selfexplanatory
messages will be printed and the simulation will either terminate or, in the case of a
solution procedure error, PIPEPHASE will try to resolve the problem and continue with
the simulation.
Input Reprint
A reprint of your keyword input data file will always be created showing any syntax
errors you have made. If there are no syntax errors, PIPEPHASE then crosschecks the
data for logic and consistency. By default, it also prints out the full set of input data
which shows all the default values used, as well as the usersupplied data. All, or part, of
this full input data reprint can be suppressed, if desired.
The full input data reprint shows the data for all the data sections in the simulation. All
the possible categories of input are as follows:
54 Results
Table 51: Input Data Categories
A single simulation run cannot include all these data sections. For options, see PRINT,
p. 428.
Intermediate Printout
During solution of a network, PIPEPHASE iterates until it converges to within the error
tolerance you set or that is set by default. A summary of any errors or warnings
encountered during that iteration will be produced at the end of each iteration. The ITER
option on the PRINT statement can be used to request additional printout which shows
flowrates and pressures at each iteration of the solution path. This can be particularly
useful if you have inadvertently given conflicting specifications in the problem setup and
the program has failed to resolve the inconsistencies.
If well test data have been specified, the inflow performance coefficient is calculated
before the solution calculations and the report appears in the intermediate output.
Solution Output
The solution output is made up of a number of sections as shown below. These sections
are listed in the order they appear in the output report, although not all simulation modes
will produce all sections (see Chapter 3, Using PIPEPHASE).
Component Data General Data
Thermodynamic Data PVT Data
Assay Data Source Data
Structure Data Network Connectivity
Case Study Sizing Data
Time Stepping Data Optimization Data
PVTGEN Results Sensitivity Analysis Data
Table 52: Solution Output
To specify... See...
Flash Report
A flash report is produced by default for each node
in a compositional run unless property tables are
being used. This report contains the temperature,
pressure, composition, flowrate, and properties for
each phase present at each node. The flash report
can be suppressed by the FLASH=NONE option on
the PRINT statement.
P. 428 PRINT
Separator Report
A separator report is produced for each separator in
a compositional run unless property tables are being
used. This report contains the temperature, pressure,
composition, flowrate, and properties for each
separator product.
P. 428 PRINT
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 55
Link Summary
The link summary is produced by default for all
PIPEPHASE simulations and shows the flowrates,
pressure, temperature, and holdups for each link in a
tabular format. The flowrates displayed are the
volumetric rates at actual flowing conditions for
each phase. This report can be suppressed by the
SUMM=NEW option on the PRINT statement.
P. 428 PRINT
Node Summary
The node summary is produced by default and
shows the flowrates, pressure, and temperature at
each node in a tabular format. The flowrate is shown
for each phase, but the flow basis depends on the
fluid type. For a singlephase liquid or gas, standard
volumetric rates are shown. If the non
compositional fluid is steam, weight flowrates and
quality are printed. For a compositional fluid, weight
flowrates and gravity are also given. This report can
be suppressed by the SUMM=NEW option on the
PRINT statement.
P. 428 PRINT
Device Summary
The device summary is produced by default and
summarizes each device (pipe, fitting, or item of
process equipment) in the order in which they were
defined in the link. The table shows the correlation
used, inside diameter, length, elevation change,
liquid holdup and the outlet temperature, pressure
and liquid fraction. The device summary can be
suppressed by the DEVICE=NONE or
SUMM=NEW options on the PRINT statement.
P. 428 PRINT
Structure Data
Summary
The structure data summary is produced by default
and contains information for link devices including
length, elevation change and Kfactor. This report
can be suppressed by the SUMM=OLD option on
the PRINT statement.
P. 428 PRINT
Velocity Summary
The velocity summary is produced by default and
contains link fluid velocityrelated information such
as inlet and outlet velocities, critical velocity (see ,
Critical Flow  A Qualitative Description), pressure
gradient and the pressure drop per device. This
report can be suppressed by the SUMM=OLD
option on the PRINT statement.
P. 428 PRINT
Results Summary
The results summary is produced by default and
contains flow, pressure, temperature and quality
information for device inlet and outlet points. This
report can be suppressed by the SUMM=OLD
option on the PRINT statement.
P. 428 PRINT
Table 52: Solution Output (cont.)
To specify... See...
56 Results
Link Device Detail
Report
The DEVICE=PART or DEVICE=FULL option on
the PRINT statement generates a link device detail
report for every link in the simulation. The PRINT
option on the LINK statements can be used to
restrict the report to specific links. The report for
each link is in several sections:
P. 428 PRINT
P. 489 LINK
Pressure and Temperature Report  For pipes and
fittings, this shows the dimensions, pressure,
temperature, heat transfer coefficient, and ambient
temperature. For items of process equipment, the
calculated parameters, such as pump power or valve
resistance coefficient, are shown.
Pressure and Temperature Plots  If the
PLOT=FULL option is specified on the PRINT
statement, the pressure and temperature profiles
along the link are plotted.
Phase Envelope  For compositional fluids, a phase
envelope is produced when the PLOT=FULL option
is specified. A phase envelope plot and tabular data
are both shown.
Holdup and Velocity Detail Report  The liquid
holdup, liquid, gas and mixed phase fluid velocities,
flow regime, and sonic velocity are shown for each
calculation segment in the link.
Pressure Gradient Detail Report  This report is
only produced if the DEVICE=FULL option is
invoked on the PRINT statement. It shows the
pressure gradient and pressure drop in each
calculation segment and identifies the frictional and
elevation contributions of this value.
TaitelDukler Flow Regime Map  This is
produced for twophase flow in links by specifying
the MAP=TAITEL option on the PRINT statement
along with DEVICE=PART or DEVICE=FULL.
Table 52: Solution Output (cont.)
To specify... See...
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 57
Link Property
Detail Report
The PROPERTY=PART or PROPERTY=FULL
option on the PRINT statement generates a link
property detail report for every link in the
simulation. The PRINT option on the LINK
statements can be used to restrict the report to
specific links. The report for each link is in several
sections:.
P. 428 PRINT
P. 489 LINK
Viscosity and Density Results  This report shows
the viscosity and density at actual flowing
conditions for each phase at each calculation
segment.
Friction and Surface Tension Results  In addition
to the friction factor and surface tension, this report
shows the Reynolds number and the other properties
from which the friction factor is calculated.
Heat Transfer Calculations  This report is
produced only if the PROPERTY=FULL option is
specified on the PRINT statement. The report shows
fluid thermal conductivity and the thermal
resistances for each calculation segment. For
compositional or steam simulations, the phase
enthalpies are also shown. Hydrate formation is
flagged for compositional runs
Slug Report The SLUG option is used to create a Statistical Slug
Model report. DEVICE=PART or DEVICE=FULL
must be specified on the PRINT statement and the
report is only produced for single link calculations
with twophase flow at the outlet.
P. 428PRINT
Case Summary
This report is produced for all simulations which use
the case study feature. The report summarizes the
node pressures, temperatures and flowrates for each
case study to allow easy comparisons of the cases.
Sensitivity
Analysis
When the sensitivity analysis feature is used, none
of the standard link, node, or device reports are
produced. Instead, a special sensitivity analysis
output is generated. It compares the node pressures,
temperatures, and flowrates for each of the specified
inflow and outflow parameters. Results are
presented in tabular and graphical form.
P. 535Nodal Analysis
(Sensitivity)
Sphering Report
This report is produced for all sphering calculation
runs. It shows the pressure, temperature, and
flowrate in the zones in front of, and behind, the
sphere as it proceeds along the pipeline. It also
shows the slug delivery time and rate and the time
required for the pipeline to reestablish steady state.
P. 535Nodal Analysis
(Sensitivity)
Table 52: Solution Output (cont.)
To specify... See...
58 Results
Input Reprint Examples
The input data reprint can be lengthy for large networks and can be partially or fully
suppressed by entering INPUT=PART or INPUT=NONE on the PRINT statement in the
General Data Category of input. It is generally best to use the default (INPUT=FULL)
when first running a simulation and only reduce the amount of reprint when the data are
known to be correct. Even with INPUT=NONE, the keyword data file is always printed
to the output.
Thermodynamic Data
Component Data
The following data
section appears at the
front of the data
reprint when
INPUT=FULL is
entered on the PRINT
statement. Component
properties for the
thermodynamic set are
reprinted first.
DATA FOR SET 'SET01'
GRAYSON STREED PURE COMPONENT DATA
COMP CRITICAL CRITICAL ACENTRIC MOLAR SOLUBILITY
TEMPERATURE PRESSURE FACTOR VOLUME PARAMETER
DEG F PSIG BBL/LBMOL
     
1 90.14 693.65 0.1064 0.1940 6.0500
2 206.01 601.65 0.1538 0.2397 6.4000
3 274.96 514.36 0.1825 0.3010 6.7300
4 305.60 536.40 0.1953 0.2893 6.7300
5 369.03 475.71 0.2104 0.3349 7.0200
6 385.70 473.94 0.2387 0.3312 7.0200
7 423.16 547.27 0.2348 0.2944 7.6741
8 454.42 518.46 0.2548 0.3159 7.7260
9 483.27 493.03 0.2750 0.3367 7.7673
10 511.30 469.34 0.2961 0.3577 7.8024
This is followed by
the thermodynamic
method for each unit
operation (usually the
same).
THERMODYNAMIC SETS USED FOR EACH UNIT OPERATION
DEFAULT METHOD IS SET01
THERMODYNAMIC SET UNIT OPERATIONS
 
SET01
A list of the methods
used for each
thermodynamic
property is then
shown.
THERMODYNAMIC METHODS USED FOR EACH SET
THERMODYNAMIC SET SET01 (DEFAULT)
PROPERTY METHOD
 
KVALUE(VLE) GRAYSONSTREED
KVALUE(LLE) UNSPECIFIED
KVALUE(SLE) UNSPECIFIED
LIQUID ENTHALPY LEEKESLER
VAPOR ENTHALPY LEEKESLER
LIQUID DENSITY API
VAPOR DENSITY LEEKESLER
LIQUID ENTROPY CURLPITZER
VAPOR ENTROPY CURLPITZER
LIQUID VISCOSITY PETROLEUM
VAPOR VISCOSITY PETROLEUM
LIQUID CONDUCTIVITY PETROLEUM
VAPOR CONDUCTIVITY PETROLEUM
SURFACE TENSION PETROLEUM
LIQUID DIFFUSIVITY UNSPECIFIED
Note: The above is an extract from Example 3 of Applib files.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 59
General Data
In this example, the
first components are
from the library and
the rest are from an
assay.
COMPONENT NBP CRIT. TEMP. CRIT. PRES. CRIT. VOLM.
F F PSIG BBL/LBMOL
    
1 C2 127.534 90.140 693.648 0.4222
2 C3 43.726 206.006 601.652 0.5792
3 IC4 10.886 274.964 514.358 0.7503
. . . . .
. . . . .
7 NBP 111 111.803 423.164 547.267 0.8123
8 NBP 138 138.274 454.420 518.464 0.8810
9 NBP 163 163.294 483.268 493.027 0.9482
10 NBP 188 188.139 511.305 469.336 1.0173
COMPONENT ACEN. FACT. HEAT FORM. G FORM.
BTU/LBMOL BTU/LBMOL
   
1 C2 0.09860 36120.21 13810.45
2 C3 0.15290 44650.04 10139.64
3 IC4 0.17720 57870.16 9121.45
4 NC4 0.20130 54072.23 7169.22
. . . .
. . . .
7 NBP 111 0.23478 13716.71 MISSING
8 NBP 138 0.25480 30070.22 MISSING
9 NBP 163 0.27497 35014.72 MISSING
10 NBP 188 0.29608 40097.76 MISSING
Note: The above report is an extract from Example 3 of Applib files.
By default, fixed
properties are listed
for all components in
the simulation. This
includes library
components, defined
petroleum
components and assay
derived pseudo
components.
COMPONENT COMP. TYPE PHASE MOL. WEIGHT API
    
1 C2 LIBRARY VAP/LIQ 30.070 265.526
2 C3 LIBRARY VAP/LIQ 44.097 147.208
3 IC4 LIBRARY VAP/LIQ 58.124 119.788
. . . . .
. . . . .
7 NBP 111 ASSAY CUT VAP/LIQ 72.781 68.931
8 NBP 138 ASSAY CUT VAP/LIQ 79.282 65.928
9 NBP 163 ASSAY CUT VAP/LIQ 85.654 63.249
10 NBP 188 ASSAY CUT VAP/LIQ 92.207 60.727
This includes all the
dimensional units,
global default values,
flow codes and print
options.
CALCULATION OPTIONS
RUN TYPE........ NETWORK
FLUID TYPE...... LIQUID
HEAT BALANCE WILL BE TURNED OFF
DIMENSIONAL UNITS  ENGLISH
TEMPERATURE..... DEG F PRESSURE........ PSIG
MOLAR RATE...... MOLE/HR WEIGHT RATE..... LB/HR
LIQUID RATE..... GAL/MIN VAPOR RATE...... MM FT3/HR
COARSE LENGTH... FT FINE LENGTH..... IN
DENSITY/GRAVITY. DEG API VISCOSITY....... CP
DUTY............ MM BTU/HR POWER........... HP
VELOCITY........ FT/SEC
ADDITIONAL OUTPUT UNITS  SI
DEFAULTS
FLOW EFFICIENCY............ 100.00 PERCENT
HAZENWILLIAMS COEFF....... 150.00
ROUGHNESS.................. 0.00180 IN
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE........ 80.00 DEG F
TEMPERATURE GRADIENT....... 1.00 DEG F/100 FT
TUBING UFACTOR............ 1.000 BTU/HRFT2F
ANNULUS UFACTOR........... 1.000 BTU/HRFT2F
INSIDE FILM COEFFICIENT.... 0.000 BTU/HRFT2F
OUTSIDE FILM COEFFICIENT... 0.000 BTU/HRFT2F
RADIANT COEFFICIENT........ 0.000 BTU/HRFT2F
INSIDE DIAMETER  PIPE..... 4.026 IN
INSIDE DIAMETER  TUBING... 4.026 IN
INSIDE DIAMETER  ANNULUS.. 6.065 IN
THICKNESS  PIPE........... 0.200 IN
510 Results
PVT Data
CONDUCTIVITY  PIPE........ 29.000 BTU/HRFTF
THICKNESS  INSULATION 
LAYER 1.................. 0.000 IN
LAYER 2.................. 0.000 IN
LAYER 3.................. 0.000 IN
LAYER 4.................. 0.000 IN
LAYER 5.................. 0.000 IN
CONDUCTIVITY  INSULATION 
LAYER 1.................. 0.015 BTU/HRFTF
LAYER 2.................. 0.015 BTU/HRFTF
LAYER 3.................. 0.015 BTU/HRFTF
LAYER 4.................. 0.015 BTU/HRFTF
LAYER 5.................. 0.015 BTU/HRFTF
FLOW CODES
PIPE FLOW CODE IS HAZENWILLIAMS
REYNOLDS NUMBER(LAMINAR)..... 3000.0000
TUBING FLOW CODE IS MOODY
ANNULUS FLOW CODE IS MOODY
BASE CONDITIONS
STANDARD TEMPERATURE....... 60.00 DEG F
STANDARD PRESSURE.......... 0.000 PSIG
PRINT OPTIONS
INPUT........... GENERAL ASSAY COMPONENT
PVT FLOW TABLE METHOD
SOURCE STRUCTURE CASE STUDY
GAS LIFT W ANALYSIS
CONNECT......... FULL
PVTGEN.......... NONE
SUMMARY......... BOTH
DEVICE.......... PART
MAP............. TAITELDUKLERBARNEA
PROPERTY........ FULL
SEGMENTATION OPTIONS
LENGTH CHANGE  HORIZONTAL....... 2000.0 FT
VERTICAL......... 500.0 FT
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SEGMENTS....... 50
AUTOSEGMENT OPTION IS ................ ON
TARGET SEGMENT PRESSURE CHANGE........ 2.0000E+01 PSIG
TARGET SEGMENT TEMPERATURE CHANGE..... 5.0000E+00 DEG F
SEGMENT PRESSURE ERROR ............... 2.0000E01 PSIG
SEGMENT ENTHALPY ERROR ............... 5.0000E02 BTU/LB
NUMBER OF INTERNAL SEGMENT ITERATIONS. 25
Note: The above report is an extract from Example 1 of Applib files.
The gravity, viscosity,
and specific heat have
been entered for a
noncompositional
run. The default
options are also
shown.
PVT DATA SUMMARY
1 CORRELATION DATA SETS 0 ERRORS 0 WARNINGS
DEFAULT PVT METHODS OPTIONS
Z FACTOR METHOD.......... STANDING
LIQUID VISCOSITY METHOD.. FOR OIL VAZQUEZ (TUFFP)
FOR WATER BEAL
CORRELATION SET DATA
CORRELATION SET NUMBER 1
GRAVITY OF LIQUID......... 46.0620 DEG API
VISCOSITY OF LIQUID
32.00 DEG F ........ 0.3950 CP
122.00 DEG F ........ 0.2460 CP
SPECIFIC HEAT OF OIL...... 0.5250 BTU/LBF
Note: The above report is an extract from Example 1 of Applib files.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 511
Network Data
Source Data
In this example,
property tables have
been requested for a
compositional run
PVT DATA SUMMARY
1 CORRELATION DATA SETS 0 ERRORS 0 WARNINGS
CORRELATION SET DATA
CORRELATION SET NUMBER 1
PVT TABLE GENERATION DATA
SET NUMBER 1
TABLE TYPE.............. 1
NO. PRESSURE POINTS..... 4
INITIAL PRESSURE........ 10.0000 PSIG
PRESSURE DIFFERENCE..... 40.0000 PSIG
NO. TEMPERATURE POINTS.. 16
INITIAL TEMPERATURE..... 0.0000 DEG F
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE.. 30.0000 DEG F
PRESSURE TEMPERATURE
NO PSIG DEG F
  
1 10.000 0.00
2 50.000 30.00
3 90.000 60.00
4 130.000 90.00
5 120.00
6 150.00
7 180.00
8 210.00
9 240.00
10 270.00
11 300.00
12 330.00
13 360.00
14 390.00
15 420.00
16 450.00
TABLES OF THE FOLLOWING PROPERTIES WILL BE PRINTED
LIQ DENS
Note: The above report is an extract from Example 3 of Applib files.
The Solution
Methods/ Tolerances
are shown for network
calculations only.
SOLUTION METHODS/TOLERANCES
NETWORK SOLUTION METHOD IS PBAL
MAXIMUM ITERATIONS..................... 40
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF INTERVAL HALVINGS.... 3
CLOSED LOOP PREVENTION OPTION IS ...... ON
ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TOLERANCE............ 0.250 PSIG0
RATE PERTURBATION...................... 0.010000
METHOD OF INITIAL SOLUTION ESTIMATION.. FLOW = 2
ZERO FLOW IN CHECK VALVES.............. OFF
CHOKE CRITICAL FLOW MODEL (FORTUNATI) . EXPONENTIAL
NEW ACCELERATION OPTION IS............. OFF
Note: The above report is an extract from Example 11 of Applib files.
Compositional
source  the
composition of
defined components
as well as rate,
pressure and
temperature are
shown.
SOURCE FEED
PHASE IS MIXED
THIS SOURCE IS ON
PVT SET NUMBER............ 1
RATE...................... 1500000.0000 LB/HR
PRESSURE.................. 114.0001 PSIG
TEMPERATURE............... 60.00 DEG F
Note: The above report is an extract from Example 3 of Applib files.
512 Results
Structure Data
Blackoil source 
characterized by gas/
oil ratio and water cut.
A rate estimate was
entered for this
source. The Vogel
Index is only shown
when a value has been
entered.
SOURCE RES
THIS SOURCE IS ON
PVT SET NUMBER............ 1
ESTIMATED OIL RATE........ 50.0001 M3/HR
WATER CUT................. 5.00 PERCENT
GAS/OIL RATIO............. 320.0008 M3/M3
PRESSURE.................. 400.0000 BAR
TEMPERATURE............... 110.00 DEG C
Note: The above report is an extract from Example 2 of Applib files.
Condensate source 
condensate/gas ratio
and water /gas ratio
characterize the fluid.
The pressure was
estimated for this
source.
SOURCE 1
THIS SOURCE IS ON
RATE...................... 85.0000 MM FT3/DAY
WATER/GAS RATIO........... 0.0000 BBL/MM FT3
CONDENSATE/GAS RATIO...... 0.0000 BBL/MM FT3
ESTIMATED PRESSURE........ 263.0001 PSIG
TEMPERATURE............... 85.00 DEG F
Note: The above report is an extract from Example 9 of Applib files.
Noncompositional
liquid or gas  no
phase change data
may be entered.
SOURCE S1
THIS SOURCE IS ON
ESTIMATED RATE............ 499.9988 MM FT3/DAY
PRESSURE.................. 375.0001 PSIG
TEMPERATURE............... 97.00 DEG F
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 4 of Applib files.
Steam source  either
temperature or quality
must be supplied.
SOURCE STM
THIS SOURCE IS ON
PVT SET NUMBER............ 1
RATE...................... 33000.0000 LB/HR
QUALITY................... 97.00 PERCENT VAPOR
PRESSURE.................. 170.0001 PSIG
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 10 of Applib files.
All information,
including defaulted
parameters, is shown
for each flow device
and equipment item
along each link in the
simulation. Estimated
parameters at each
junction and sink are
also listed.
LINK 4
LINK IS FROM "J2 " TO "PROD "
DEVICE SA025, Z025, IS A PIPE
FLOW CODE IS BEGGSBRILL (MOODY)
INSIDE DIAMETER.............. 10.0000 IN
LENGTH....................... 5.0 FT
ELEVATION CHANGE............. 0.0 FT
FLOW EFFICIENCY.............. 100.00 PERCENT
HEAT LOSS COEFFICIENT........ 1.00000 BTU/HRFT2F
ROUGHNESS.................... 0.00180 IN
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE.......... 80.00 DEG F
DEVICE WA026, Z026, IS AN EXPANSION
FLOW CODE IS CHISHOLM
UPSTREAM INSIDE DIAMETER..... 10.00 IN
DOWNSTREAM INSIDE DIAMETER... 12.00 IN
EXPANSION ANGLE ANGLE...... 135.00 DEG
LAMDA (CHISHOLM PARAMETER)... 1.00000
C2 (CHISHOLM PARAMETER)...... CALCULATED
NUMBER OF DEVICES............ 1
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 513
Network Connectivity
Case Study
DEVICE SA027, Z027, IS A PIPE
FLOW CODE IS BEGGSBRILL (MOODY)
INSIDE DIAMETER.............. 12.0000 IN
LENGTH....................... 40.0 FT
ELEVATION CHANGE............. 0.0 FT
FLOW EFFICIENCY.............. 100.00 PERCENT
HEAT LOSS COEFFICIENT........ 1.00000 BTU/HRFT2F
ROUGHNESS.................... 0.00180 IN
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE.......... 80.00 DEG F
DEVICE SA028, E4 , IS A DPDT
THIS IS A SURFACE DEVICE
PRESSURE DROP CURVE
FLOWRATE, DELTA P DELTA T
LB/HR PSIG DEG F
  
1 0.500E+06 10.00 50.00
2 0.150E+07 5.00 40.00
DEVICE SA029, Z029, IS A PIPE
FLOW CODE IS BEGGSBRILL (MOODY)
INSIDE DIAMETER.............. 12.0000 IN
LENGTH....................... 40.0 FT
ELEVATION CHANGE............. 0.0 FT
FLOW EFFICIENCY.............. 100.00 PERCENT
HEAT LOSS COEFFICIENT........ 1.00000 BTU/HRFT2F
ROUGHNESS.................... 0.00180 IN
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE.......... 80.00 DEG F
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 3 of Applib files.
The connectivity
shows the sources,
junctions, and sinks. It
does not show any of
the flow devices
within the links.
NODE CONNECTIONS
 CONNECTIONS 
NODE NODE NAME NODE TYPE TO NODE VIA LINK
    
FEED FEED SOURCE J1 1
PROD PROD SINK J2 4
J1 J1 JUNCTION FEED 1
J2 2
J2 3
J2 J2 JUNCTION J1 2
J1 3
PROD 4
LINK CONNECTIONS
LINK LINK NAME FROM NODE TO NODE
   
1 1 FEED J1
2 2 J1 J2
3 3 J1 J2
4 4 J2 PROD
++
 
 ++ ++ ++ ++ 
 FEEDJ1..J2..PROD 
 SRCE .... .... SINK 
 ++ ++ ++ ++ 
   
   
 ++ 
 
 
 
++
Note: The above report is an extract from Example 3 of Applib files.
All the case studies
are summarized on
this report.
CASE NUMBER 1

NEW OLD
DEVICE NAME VARIABLE UNITS VALUE VALUE
=========================================================================
PIPE GFROM ROUGHNESS IN 0.00100
PIPE GNETWORK ROUGHNESS IN 0.00200
514 Results
Sizing Data
CASE NUMBER 2

NEW OLD
DEVICE NAME VARIABLE UNITS VALUE VALUE
=========================================================================
PIPE GFROM ROUGHNESS IN 0.00200
PIPE GNETWORK ROUGHNESS IN 0.00300
CASE NUMBER 3

NEW OLD
DEVICE NAME VARIABLE UNITS VALUE VALUE
=========================================================================
PIPE GFROM ROUGHNESS IN 0.00300
PIPE GNETWORK ROUGHNESS IN 0.00400
CASE NUMBER 4

NEW OLD
DEVICE NAME VARIABLE UNITS VALUE VALUE
=========================================================================
PIPE GFROM ROUGHNESS IN 0.00400
PIPE GNETWORK ROUGHNESS IN 0.00500
CASE NUMBER 5

NEW OLD
DEVICE NAME VARIABLE UNITS VALUE VALUE
=========================================================================
PIPE GFROM ROUGHNESS IN 0.00500
PIPE GNETWORK ROUGHNESS IN 0.00600
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 5 of Applib files.
The pipe sizes which
may be used during
the sizing calculations
are listed. If no sizes
were entered by the
user, the standard
Schedule 40 sizes
shown here are used.
LINE DATA
=========
PIPE
DIAMETER
IN
=========
1.049
1.610
2.067
2.469
3.068
3.548
4.026
5.074
6.065
7.981
10.020
11.938
13.124
15.000
16.876
18.814
22.626
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 10 of Applib files.
All the devices on this
list will be sized.
DEVICES TO BE SIZED
===================
NAME DEVICE TYPE
==== ===========
Z001 PIPE
Z002 PIPE
Z003 PIPE
Z004 PIPE
Z005 PIPE
Z006 PIPE
Z007 PIPE
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 10 of Applib files.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 515
Nodal Analysis (Sensitivity)
Lift Gas Data
This example shows
both an inflow and an
outflow section. The
inflow section has
5 source pressures and
the outflow has
4 different pipe
diameters.
SOLUTION NODE IS AT NODE C008 (INLET OF DEVICE IF IT IS A DEVICE NAME)
FLOW RATES, BBL/DAY 500.00 1500.00 2500.00 4000.00
6000.02 7000.01 8000.01 9000.00
10000.00 11999.99
INFLOW SECTION SENSITIVITY TO SOURCE
PARAMETERS
DESCRIPTION

CASE 1 DEPLETED
CASE 2 3YEARSPRES
CASE 3 LOWPRES
CASE 4 CURRENTPRES
CASE 5 HIGHPRESS
CASE 1 CASE 2 CASE 3 CASE 4 CASE 5
SOURCE ,S001
PRESSURE
PSIG 4000.00410 4500.00410 5000.00410 5500.00410 6000.00410
CASE 1 CASE 2 CASE 3 CASE 4 CASE 5
OUTFLOW SECTION SENSITIVITY TO STRUCTURE PARAMETERS
OUTFLOW SECTION NODAL ANALYSIS VARIABLES ARE CALCULATED IN
ONE TO ONE COMBINATION
DESCRIPTION

CASE 1 3INCH
CASE 2 35INCH
CASE 3 4INCH
CASE 4 5INCH
CASE 5 6INCH
CASE 1 CASE 2 CASE 3 CASE 4 CASE 5
PIPE ,P009
ID
IN 3.00000 3.50000 4.00000 5.00000 6.00000
PIPE ,P010
ID
IN 3.00000 3.50000 4.00000 5.00000 6.00000
PIPE ,P011
ID
IN 3.00000 3.50000 4.00000 5.00000 6.00000
CASE 1 CASE 2 CASE 3 CASE 4 CASE 5
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 12 of Applib files.
This report shows the
input data for the
selected gaslift option.
WELL CAPACITY CALCULATION
LIFT GAS INPUT PRESSURE... 950.0001 PSIG
LIFT GAS INPUT TEMPERATURE 100.00 DEG F
GAS ALLOWED TO DISSOLVE... 100.00 PERCENT
GASLIFT VALVE DEPTH....... 5900.0 FT
RATE,
CASE MM FT3/DAY
 
1 0.0010
2 0.2000
3 0.4000
4 0.6000
5 0.8000
6 1.0000
7 2.0000
8 3.0000
9 4.0000
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 7 of Applib files.
516 Results
PVTGEN Results
The stream is flashed
and properties are
calculated, at each of
the specified
temperature/pressure
pairs. This example
has 5 pressures and 16
temperatures and so
80 flashes are
required.
SET NUMBER 1
PRESSURE TEMPERATURE COMPOSITION
NO PSIG PSIA DEG F DEG F MOLE FRACT.
__ _____ _____ _____ _____ ______
1 0.0000 14.6959 0.00 0.00 0.003116
2 10.0000 24.6959 30.00 30.00 0.006055
3 50.0000 64.6959 60.00 60.00 0.007642
4 90.0000 104.6959 90.00 90.00 0.018506
5 130.0000 144.6959 120.00 120.00 0.011347
6 150.00 150.00 0.027595
7 180.00 180.00 0.022891
8 210.00 210.00 0.027509
9 240.00 240.00 0.037115
10 270.00 270.00 0.050918
11 300.00 300.00 0.049701
12 330.00 330.00 0.040284
13 360.00 360.00 0.035045
14 390.00 390.00 0.031831
15 420.00 420.00 0.029831
16 450.00 450.00 0.028681
80 POINTS FLASHED
STREAM MOLECULAR WEIGHT... 228.96
CRITICAL TEMPERATURE...... 789.97 DEG F
CRITICAL PRESSURE......... 310.16 PSIG
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 3 of Applib files.
Tables and plots may
be requested for any
of the fluid properties.
The Vapor Viscosity
tables are shown here.
LIQUID DENSITY DEG API
TEMPERATURE DEG F
PRESSURE 
PSIG 0.00 30.00 60.00 90.00 120.00 150.00 180.00
       
0.00 26.735 28.859 30.999 33.172 35.394 37.684 39.912
10.00 26.721 28.843 30.982 33.153 35.374 37.662 40.038
50.00 26.666 28.779 30.911 33.076 35.291 37.573 39.942
90.00 26.611 28.716 30.841 33.000 35.209 37.485 39.847
130.00 26.557 28.655 30.773 32.926 35.129 37.399 39.754
TEMPERATURE DEG F
PRESSURE 
PSIG 210.00 240.00 270.00 300.00 330.00 360.00 390.00
       
0.00 41.603 42.901 43.919 44.803 45.668 46.572 47.537
10.00 42.524 44.677 46.205 47.384 48.373 49.307 50.267
50.00 42.419 45.030 47.800 50.760 53.944 56.214 57.708
90.00 42.316 44.916 47.673 50.616 53.778 57.196 60.913
130.00 42.214 44.804 47.547 50.472 53.612 57.002 60.683
TEMPERATURE DEG F
PRESSURE 
PSIG 420.00 450.00
  
0.00 48.565 49.657
10.00 51.287 52.377
50.00 58.977 60.179
90.00 64.248 65.998
130.00 64.703 69.117
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 3 of Applib files.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 517
Intermediate PRINTOUT Example
For network calculations, the intermediate printout details the path that the program took
to get to the final solution.
Network Directory
If the ITER option is
not specified on the
PRINT statement,
then only the
maximum and RMS
(root mean square)
average pressure
imbalances are
printed.Spur links are
printed after the
network has
converged.
PAGE CONTENTS
———— ————————————————————————————————————————————
1 INTERMEDIATE PRINTOUT
CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE 0.5 PSI PRESSURE IMBALANCE AT SELECTED NODES
(RMS VALUE USED FOR STEPSIZE SELECTION)
ITERATION NUMBER 0.0
LINK FROM TO FLOW RATE PRESSURE IN PRESSURE OUT IMBALANCE
NAME NODE NODE M LB/HR PSIA PSIA PSIA
———— ———— ———— ——————————— ——————————— ——————————— ———————————
QI Q I 33.000 179.70 179.53
RE R E 40.000 179.70 176.64
WA W A 70.000 184.70 184.25
AB A B 62.000 184.25 183.29
MB M B 30.000 184.70 183.56 0.271
BD B D 2.000 183.29 183.27
ED E D 28.000 176.64 176.12 7.150
DF1 D F 27.073 183.27 179.17
DF2 D F 2.927 183.27 182.90 3.724
FG F G 20.439 179.17 179.01
FH F H 9.561 179.17 178.76
GH G H 5.439 179.01 178.99 0.223
IH I H 33.000 179.53 177.94 0.823
GN G N 15.000 179.01 177.77 3.073
MAX PRESSURE IMBALANCE = 7.150 PSI AT NODE D
RMS AVERAGE PRESSURE IMBALANCE = 3.541 PSI
First iteration:
ITERATION NUMBER 1.0
LINK FROM TO FLOW RATE PRESSURE IN PRESSURE OUT IMBALANCE
NAME NODE NODE M LB/HR PSIA PSIA PSIA
———— ———— ———— ——————————— ——————————— ——————————— ———————————
QI Q I 33.000 177.71 177.53
RE R E 40.000 181.81 178.79
WA W A 70.000 179.75 179.28
AB A B 62.000 179.28 178.29
MB M B 30.000 179.46 178.29 0.001
BD B D 2.000 178.29 178.28
ED E D 28.000 178.79 178.28 0.003
DF1 D F 22.954 178.28 175.28
DF2 D F 7.046 178.28 175.94 0.662
FG F G 22.481 175.28 175.07
FH F H 7.519 175.28 175.02
GH G H 7.481 175.07 175.03 0.013
IH I H 33.000 177.53 175.92 0.904
GN G N 15.000 175.07 173.81 0.894
MAX PRESSURE IMBALANCE = 0.904 PSI AT NODE H
RMS AVERAGE PRESSURE IMBALANCE = 0.585 PSI
518 Results
Inflow Performance
Second iteration:
ITERATION NUMBER 2.0
LINK FROM TO FLOW RATE PRESSURE IN PRESSURE OUT IMBALANCE
NAME NODE NODE M LB/HR PSIA PSIA PSIA
———— ———— ———— ——————————— ——————————— ——————————— ———————————
QI Q I 33.000 177.70 177.53
RE R E 40.000 182.49 179.48
WA W A 70.000 180.43 179.97
AB A B 62.000 179.97 178.98
MB M B 30.000 180.14 178.98 0.000
BD B D 2.000 178.98 178.97
ED E D 28.000 179.48 178.97 0.000
DF1 D F 22.270 178.97 176.16
DF2 D F 7.730 178.97 176.14 0.016
FG F G 22.617 176.16 175.95
FH F H 7.383 176.16 175.91
GH G H 7.617 175.95 175.91 0.000
IH I H 33.000 177.53 175.92 0.007
GN G N 15.000 175.95 174.69 0.007
MAX PRESSURE IMBALANCE = 0.016 PSI AT NODE F
RMS AVERAGE PRESSURE IMBALANCE = 0.007 PSI
These are spur links:
********************************************
PBAL SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER 2 ITERATIONS
********************************************
LINK FROM TO FLOW RATE PRESSURE IN PRESSURE OUT
NAME NODE NODE M LB/HR PSIA PSIA
———— ———— ———— ——————————— ——————————— ————————————
HS H S 18.000 175.91 174.66
HP H P 30.000 175.91 168.55
EL E L 12.000 179.48 178.93
BK B K 90.000 178.98 176.11
AJ A J 8.000 179.97 179.90
The IPR coefficient is
calculated from well
test data and used in all
subsequent
calculations.
INFLOW PERFORMANCE CALCULATION RESULTS

WELL NAME PROD
IPR TYPE PI
TEST DATA TEST 1
FLOW RATE 421.1(BPD)
GOR 500.(CFBBL)
OUTLET PRESSURE 142.0(PSIG)
OUTLET TEMPERATURE 109.0(F)
CALCULATED RESULTS
FLOWING BOTTOMHOLE PRESS 1739.1(PSIG)
HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT 1.843(BTU/HRFT2F)
IPR COEFFICIENTS (CALCULATED)
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 7 of Applib files.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 519
Solution Output Examples
The solution output for PIPEPHASE can be very brief or extremely lengthy, depending
on the problem and the level of output selected. In general, it is best to start with the
default output and only request additional information where required. In large network
runs, put the PRINT keyword on only those links where specific information is desired.
Flash Report
By default, flash
reports are produced
for every node in a
compositional run
unless property tables
are being used. The
reports can be
suppressed by
specifying
FLASH=NONE on
the PRINT statement.
NODE SINK AT 6.7 DEG C AND 87.0 BAR
MOLE FRACTION
HYDROCARBON COMBINED TOTAL
COMPONENT VAPOR LIQUID1 VAP+LIQ1 LIQUID2 STREAM
     
N2 0.004003 0.000442 0.004000 0.000000 0.004000
CO2 0.004121 0.003518 0.004120 0.000000 0.004120
C1 0.957304 0.384112 0.956800 0.000000 0.956800
C2 0.033951 0.055872 0.033970 0.000000 0.033970
C3 0.000289 0.001288 0.000290 0.000000 0.000290
NC4 0.000099 0.001172 0.000100 0.000000 0.000100
NC5 0.000019 0.000588 0.000020 0.000000 0.000020
NC6 0.000009 0.000697 0.000010 0.000000 0.000010
C7PLUS 0.000204 0.552312 0.000690 0.000000 0.000690
TOTAL RATE (INLET TO NODE IF JUNCTION)
KG/HR 8.5815E5 4117.44 8.6226E5 0.00 8.6226E5
KGM/HR 5.1313E4 45.197 5.1358E4 0.000 5.1358E4
WT FRAC LIQ 0.004775 0.004775
PHASE PROPERTIES

MASS FRACTION 0.995225 0.004775 1.000000 0.000000 1.000000
VOLUME FRAC 0.999487 0.000513 1.000000 0.000000 1.000000
DENSITY LB/FT3 4.76 44.41 0.00
ACTUAL SPGR 0.577239 0.712141 0.000000
VISCOSITY CP 0.0132 0.2573 0.0000
ENTHALPY KCAL/KG 26.474 2.178 0.000 26.358
SURF TENS NEWTON/M 0.016 0.000
MOLECULAR WT 16.7238 91.1003 16.7892 0.0000 16.7892
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 5 of Applib files.
520 Results
Separator Report
Link Summary
A report is produced
for every separator
present in a
compositional run
unless property tables
are being used.
SEPARATOR S016 AT 20.6 DEG C AND 103.5 BAR
 MOLE FRACTION 
FLUID FLUID
COMPONENT FEED REMAINING REMOVED
   
CO2 0.009900 0.009900 0.000000
C1 0.200000 0.200000 0.000000
C2 0.210000 0.210000 0.000000
C3 0.520000 0.520000 0.000000
IC4 0.021100 0.021100 0.000000
NC4 0.014000 0.014000 0.000000
NC5 0.007500 0.007500 0.000000
NC6 0.007500 0.007500 0.000000
NC7 0.005000 0.005000 0.000000
NC10 0.005000 0.005000 0.000000
PHASE LIQUID LIQUID VAPOR
TOTAL, 10**3 KG/HR 111.82 111.82 0.00
WT PCT TOTAL LIQUID 100.00 100.00 0.00
ENTHALPY KCALKG 13.84 13.84 0.00
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 37.33 37.33 0.00
VAPOR PHASE

GAS MM M3/HR 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
DENSITY KG/M3 0.00 0.00 0.00
VISCOSITY CP 0.000 0.000 0.000
ENTHALPY KCALKG 0.00 0.00 0.00
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 0.00 0.00 0.00
LIQUID PHASE

LIQUID M3/HR 259.62 259.62 0.00
DENSITY KG/M3 430.70 430.70 0.00
VISCOSITY CP 0.066 0.066 0.000
ENTHALPY KCALKG 13.84 13.84 0.00
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 37.33 37.33 0.00
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 13 of Applib files.
This report shows the
rate, pressure, and
temperature at each
end of every link. By
default, the report
appears on every
PIPEPHASE output.
You may suppress it
by specifying the
SUMM=NEW option
on the PRINT
statement.
BASE CASE
LINK SUMMARY
RATE, PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE SUMMARY

FROM(F)
AND
TO(T) ACTUAL FLOW RATES*** PRESS: HOLDUP**
LINK NODE GAS OIL WATER PRESS: DROP TEMP: GAS LIQ
(MMCFD) (BPH) (BPH) (PSIG) (PSIG) (F) (MM (ABBL)
SCF)
         
1 FEED(F) 0.0000 4913.45 0.00 114.0* 60.0
J1 (T) 0.0000 5001.67 0.00 106.3 7.7 100.2 0.0000 8.0
SPHERE GENERATED VOLUME (BASED ON HL) = 0.0
SPHERE GENERATED VOLUME (BASED ON (HLHLNS))= 0.0
2 J1 (F) 0.0000 1942.03 0.00 106.3 100.2
J2 (T) 0.0000 1985.71 0.00 92.6 13.6 149.4 0.0000 9.7
SPHERE GENERATED VOLUME (BASED ON HL) = 0.0
SPHERE GENERATED VOLUME (BASED ON (HLHLNS))= 0.0
3 J1 (F) 0.0000 3059.65 0.00 106.3 100.2
J2 (T) 0.0000 3112.53 0.00 92.6 13.6 138.1 0.0000 9.7
SPHERE GENERATED VOLUME (BASED ON HL) = 0.0
SPHERE GENERATED VOLUME (BASED ON (HLHLNS))= 0.0
4 J2 (F) 0.0000 5098.21 0.00 92.6 142.5
PROD(T) 0.0000 5193.55 0.00 87.4 5.3 182.4 0.0000 11.7
SPHERE GENERATED VOLUME (BASED ON HL) = 0.0
SPHERE GENERATED VOLUME (BASED ON (HLHLNS))= 0.0
*  INDICATES KNOWN PRESSURE
** GAS VOLUME REPORTED AT USER STANDARD CONDITIONS
*** RATE REPORTED AT ACTUAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE CONDITIONS
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 3 of Applib files.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 521
Node Summary
Device Summary
This report shows the
rate, pressure, and
temperature at each
source, sink and
junction. By default,
the report on every
PIPEPHASE output.
You may suppress it
by specifying the
SUMM=NEW option
on the PRINT
statement.
BASE CASE
NODE SUMMARY
NODE PRES. GAS OIL WATER TOTAL TEMP
RATE GRAV RATE GRAV RATE GRAV RATE
(PSIG) (LBHR) (LBHR) (LBHR) (LBHR) (F)
         
FEED 114.0 * 0. 0.000 1500000. 0.870 0. 0.000 1500000. *60.0000
0.0000(MMCFD) 4919.48(BPH) 0.00(BPH)
J1 106.3 0. 0.000 0. 0.870 0. 0.000 0. *1.002E2
0.0000(MMCFD) 0.00(BPH) 0.00(BPH)
J2 92.6 0. 0.000 0. 0.870 0. 0.000 0. *1.424E2
0.0000(MMCFD) 0.00(BPH) 0.00(BPH)
PROD 87.4 0. 0.000 1.500E6 0.870 0. 0.000 1.500E6 1.824E2
0.0000(MMCFD) 4919.48(BPH) 0.00(BPH)
* INDICATES KNOWN PRESSURE OR FLOW
** FLOW RATES REPORTED AT USER STANDARD CONDITIONS
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 3 of Applib files.
This report gives
summary information
about each flow
device, fitting, and
equipment item in the
simulation. It appears
by default on every
output. You can
suppress it by
specifying
DEVICE=NONE or
SUMM=NEW on the
PRINT statement.
This example shows a
well with an IPR
device, tubing, and a
surface pipeline.
DEVICE SUMMARY
C
O  OUTLET  AVG.
LINK DEVI DEVI R INSIDE MEAS ELEV INSITU LIQ
NAME NAME TYPE R DIAM LENGTH CHNG PRESS: TEMP: GLR HOLDUP
(IN) (FT) (FT) (PSIG) (F) (CFBBL)
          
AB **JUNCTION** RATE= 33632.8 (BPD) 287.0 214.4 GLR= 617.
A 287.0 214.4
Z016 PIPE BB 19.000 70000.0 100.0 242.5 145.4 35. 0.31
B **JUNCTION** PRES= 242.5 (PSIG) TEMP= 159.0 (F)
A1A ***SOURCE*** RATE= 6827.4 (BPD) 2000.0 220.0 GLR= 617.
A1 2000.0 220.0
IPR1 IPR 0.000 0.0 0.0 1513.4 220.0 0. 0.00
Z002 TBNG HB 3.476 5000.0 5000.0 418.0 216.1 19. 0.45
Z003 PIPE BB 3.476 1000.0 0.0 287.0 214.5 30. 0.30
A **JUNCTION** PRES= 287.0 (PSIG) TEMP= 214.4 (F)
A ***SOURCE*** RATE= 6598.0 (BPD) 2000.0 220.0 GLR= 617.
A2 2000.0 220.0
IPR2 IPR 0.000 0.0 0.0 1520.1 220.0 0. 0.00
Z005 TBNG HB 3.476 5500.0 5200.0 388.4 215.4 22. 0.45
Z006 PIPE BB 3.476 800.0 5.0 287.0 214.1 31. 0.29
A **JUNCTION** PRES= 287.0 (PSIG) TEMP= 214.4 (F)
A3A ***SOURCE*** RATE= 6676.0 (BPD) 2000.0 220.0 GLR= 617.
A3 2000.0 220.0
IPR3 IPR 0.000 0.0 0.0 1497.8 220.0 0. 0.00
Z008 TBNG HB 3.476 5000.0 4950.0 424.7 216.0 19. 0.45
Z009 PIPE BB 3.476 1100.0 5.0 287.0 214.3 30. 0.30
A **JUNCTION** PRES= 287.0 (PSIG) TEMP= 214.4 (F)
A4A ***SOURCE*** RATE= 6595.4 (BPD) 2000.0 220.0 GLR= 617.
A4 2000.0 220.0
IPR4 IPR 0.000 0.0 0.0 1548.8 220.0 0. 0.00
Z011 TBNG HB 3.476 5500.0 5300.0 394.4 215.3 21. 0.45
Z012 PIPE BB 3.476 850.0 0.0 287.0 213.9 31. 0.29
A **JUNCTION** PRES= 287.0 (PSIG) TEMP= 214.4 (F)
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 8 of Applib files.
522 Results
Structure Data Summary
Velocity Summary
This report shows the
major parameters for
each item in the
simulation. By
default, the report
appears on every
PIPEPHASE output.
You may suppress it
by specifying the
SUMM=OLD option
on the PRINT
statement.
BASE CASE
STRUCTURE DATA SUMMARY
DEVICE DEVICE INLET DIA OUTLET DIA ELEVATION KMUL OR
LINK NAME TYPE (NOM/ID) (NOM/ID) LENGTH CHANGE K FACTOR
(IN) (IN) (FT) (FT)
       

LINK EN1 ENTR 3.068 3.068 0.0 0.0 0.5
LINK PIP0 PIPE 3.068 3.068 4.0 0.0
LINK PMP1 PUMP 0.0 0.0
LINK PIP1 PIPE 3.068 3.068 30.0 0.0
LINK GAT1 VALV 3.068 3.000 0.0 0.0 13.0
LINK BEN1 BEND 3.000 0.0 0.0 30.0
LINK PIP2 PIPE 3.068 3.068 10.0 10.0
LINK BEN2 BEND 3.000 0.0 0.0 30.0
LINK PIP3 PIPE 3.068 3.068 70.0 0.0
LINK BEN3 BEND 3.000 0.0 0.0 30.0
LINK PIP4 PIPE 3.068 3.068 30.0 30.0
LINK BEN4 BEND 3.000 0.0 0.0 30.0
LINK EX1 EXIT 3.068 3.068 0.0 0.0 1.0
This report shows
velocities and pressure
drops for all flow
devices. By default,
the report appears on
PIPEPHASE output.
You may suppress it
by specifying the
SUMM=OLD option
on the PRINT
statement.
BASE CASE
VELOCITY SUMMARY
PRESSURE
DEVICE DEVICE MIXTURE VELOCITY CRITICAL GRADIENT PRESSURE
LINK NAME TYPE (INLET/OUTLET) VELOCITY (INLET/OUTLET) DROP
(FPS) (FPS) (PSIFT) (PSIG)
      
LINK EN1 ENTR
LINK PIP0 PIPE 4.41 4.41 0.00 7.3E3 7.3E3 2.932E2
LINK PMP1 PUMP
LINK PIP1 PIPE 4.41 4.41 0.00 7.3E3 7.3E3 0.2
LINK GAT1 VALV
LINK BEN1 BEND
LINK PIP2 PIPE 4.41 4.41 0.00 0.35 0.35 3.5
LINK BEN2 BEND
LINK PIP3 PIPE 4.41 4.41 0.00 7.3E3 7.3E3 0.5
LINK BEN3 BEND
LINK PIP4 PIPE 4.41 4.41 0.00 0.35 0.35 10.4
LINK BEN4 BEND
LINK EX1 EXIT
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 523
Results Summary
Link Device Detail Report
Invoking DEVICE=PART or DEVICE=FULL on the PRINT statement in the General
Data Category of input produces a series of detailed link reports. If the user specifies the
PRINT option on any individual LINK statements, detailed reports will be produced for
those links only.
This report shows the
rate, pressure, and
temperature for each
flow device. By
default, the report
appears on every
PIPEPHASE output.
You may suppress it
by specifying the
SUMM=OLD option
on the PRINT
statement.
BASE CASE
RESULTS SUMMARY
DEVICE DEVICE MIXTURE PRESSURE TEMPERATURE QUALITY
LINK NAME TYPE FLOW RATE INLET/OUTLET INLET/OUTLET INLET/OUTLET
(GPM) (PSIG) (F) (FRAC)
      

LINK EN1 ENTR
LINK PIP0 PIPE 101.68 4.72E2 7.66E2 104.00 104.00 0.000 0.000
LINK PMP1 PUMP
LINK PIP1 PIPE 101.68 30.0 29.8 104.00 104.00 0.000 0.000
LINK GAT1 VALV
LINK BEN1 BEND
LINK PIP2 PIPE 101.68 29.7 26.2 104.00 104.00 0.000 0.000
LINK BEN2 BEND
LINK PIP3 PIPE 101.68 26.2 25.6 104.00 104.00 0.000 0.000
LINK BEN3 BEND
LINK PIP4 PIPE 101.68 25.6 15.2 104.00 104.00 0.000 0.000
LINK BEN4 BEND
LINK EX1 EXIT
524 Results
Pressure and Temperature Report
This report is
produced with the
DEVICE=PART or
DEVICE=FULL
option.
For some fittings, you
will see the entries
RES COEFF, which
is the resistance
coefficient and
2PHASE MULT,
which is the two
phase multiplier
applied to the
resistance coefficient.
The entry FL is an
abbreviation for flow
and has the associated
entry SU for
subcritical or CR for
critical.
BASE CASE
LINK "LINK" DEVICE DETAIL REPORT
PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE REPORT

DEVICE MWD OR TVD
NAME LENGTH I OR
AND SEGM INSIDE FROM & ELEV CALC CALC OVERALL AMB
TYPE NO DIAM. INLET O CHNG PRESS TEMP UFACT TEMP
(IN) (FT) (FT) (PSIG) (F) (BTU/ (F)
HRFT2F)
         
EN1 0000 3.068 0.0 I 0.0 4.10E3 104.0 RES COEF 2PHASE MULT FL
(ENTR) 0.0 O 0.0 4.7E2 104.0 0.5000 1.0000 SU
PIP0 0000 3.068 0.0 I 0.0 4.7E2 104.0 80.0
(PIPE) 0001 1.0 0.0 5.5E2 104.0 287.596 80.0
0002 2.0 0.0 6.2E2 104.0 287.596 80.0
0003 3.0 0.0 6.9E2 104.0 287.596 80.0
0004 4.0 O 0.0 7.7E2 104.0 287.596 80.0
PMP1 0000 0.0 I 0.0 7.7E2 104.0 AVG.POWER/STAGE HP
(PUMP) AVAILABLE 4.1
REQUIRED 2.0
SPEED(RPM) 0.0000
0.0 O 0.0 30.0 104.0 EFFICIENCY 0.90
PIP1 0000 3.068 0.0 I 0.0 30.0 104.0 80.0
(PIPE) 0001 7.5 0.0 29.9 104.0 287.596 80.0
0002 15.0 0.0 29.9 104.0 287.596 80.0
0003 22.5 0.0 29.8 104.0 287.596 80.0
0004 30.0 O 0.0 29.8 104.0 287.596 80.0
GAT1 0000 3.068 0.0 I 0.0 29.8 104.0 RES COEF 2PHASE MULT FL
(VALV) 3.000 0.0 O 0.0 29.8 104.0 0.2905 1.0000 SU
BEN1 0000 3.000 0.0 I 0.0 29.8 104.0 RES COEF 2PHASE MULT FL
(BEND) 0.0 O 0.0 29.7 104.0 0.5355 1.0000 SU
PIP2 0000 3.068 0.0 I 0.0 29.7 104.0 80.0
(PIPE) 0001 2.5 2.5 28.8 104.0 287.596 80.0
0002 5.0 2.5 28.0 104.0 287.596 80.0
0003 7.5 2.5 27.1 104.0 287.596 80.0
0004 10.0 O 2.5 26.2 104.0 287.596 80.0
BEN2 0000 3.000 0.0 I 0.0 26.2 104.0 RES COEF 2PHASE MULT FL
(BEND) 0.0 O 0.0 26.2 104.0 0.5355 1.0000 SU
PIP3 0000 3.068 0.0 I 0.0 26.2 104.0 80.0
(PIPE) 0001 17.5 0.0 26.0 104.0 287.596 80.0
0002 35.0 0.0 25.9 104.0 287.596 80.0
0003 52.5 0.0 25.8 104.0 287.596 80.0
0004 70.0 O 0.0 25.6 104.0 287.596 80.0
BEN3 0000 3.000 0.0 I 0.0 25.6 104.0 RES COEF 2PHASE MULT FL
(BEND) 0.0 O 0.0 25.6 104.0 0.5355 1.0000 SU
PIP4 0000 3.068 0.0 I 0.0 25.6 104.0 80.0
(PIPE) 0001 7.5 7.5 23.0 104.0 287.596 80.0
0002 15.0 7.5 20.4 104.0 287.596 80.0
0003 22.5 7.5 17.8 104.0 287.596 80.0
0004 30.0 O 7.5 15.2 104.0 287.596 80.0
BEN4 0000 3.000 0.0 I 0.0 15.2 104.0 RES COEF 2PHASE MULT FL
(BEND) 0.0 O 0.0 15.1 104.0 0.5355 1.0000 SU
EX1 0000 3.068 0.0 I 0.0 15.1 104.0 RES COEF 2PHASE MULT FL
(EXIT) 0.0 O 0.0 15.0 104.0 1.0000 1.0000 SU
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 1 of Applib files.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 525
Pressure and Temperature Plots
Plots are produced for
each link when
PLOT=FULL is present
on the PRINT
statement. A
temperature plot is also
generated (not shown
here). The plots are
produced with the
DEVICE=PART and
DEVICE=FULL
options.
SURFACE PRESSURE PLOT FOR LINK
30.0 +PPPPPPPPPPPPP++++++++
 P  P    
 P  P    
 P  P    
27.0 + P  P    +
 P  PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP  
 P   PPPPPPPPPPP  
 P    P 
24.0 +P+++P+
 P    P 
 P     P 
 P     P 
P 21.0 + P     P +
R  P     P 
E  P     P 
S  P     P 
S 18.0 +P++++P+
U  P     P 
R  P     P 
E  P     P 
15.0 + P     P +
 P     
 P     
 P     
P 12.0 +P+++++
S  P     
I  P     
G  P     
9.0 + P     +
 P     
 P     
 P     
6.0 +P+++++
 P     
 P     
 P     
3.0 + P     +
 P     
 P     
 P     
0.0 PPP++++++++++
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0
DIST. FROM 1ST SURFACE DEVICE INLET FT
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 1 of Applib files.
526 Results
Phase Envelope Summary
This report is produced
for compositional fluids
when the PLOT=FULL
option is present on the
PRINT statement. The
report is produced with
the DEVICE=PART
and DEVICE=FULL
options.
PHASE ENVELOPE SUMMARY (USING SRK)

TEMPERATURE PRESSURE
F PSIG DESCRIPTION
   
1 846.01 0.000 DEW POINT
2 882.53 9.534 DEW POINT
3 913.32 21.450 DEW POINT
4 945.27 39.228 DEW POINT
5 977.91 65.749 DEW POINT
6 1010.23 105.313 DEW POINT
7 1010.86 106.263 INTERPOLATED FROM SPECIFIED TEMP OR PRES
8 1015.73 114.004 INTERPOLATED FROM SPECIFIED TEMP OR PRES
9 1040.28 164.337 DEW POINT
10 1063.78 252.390 DEW POINT
11 1071.09 339.714 CRICONDENTHERM
12 1069.31 383.749 DEW POINT
13 1053.24 471.965 DEW POINT
14 1034.19 517.456 DEW POINT
15 1023.02 534.712 CRITICAL POINT
16 1011.92 547.550 BUBBLE POINT
17 982.98 567.154 BUBBLE POINT
18 953.39 572.792 CRICONDENBAR
19 894.20 556.061 BUBBLE POINT
20 834.90 515.069 BUBBLE POINT
21 777.18 460.866 BUBBLE POINT
22 725.73 405.645 BUBBLE POINT
23 679.63 353.606 BUBBLE POINT
24 637.97 306.327 BUBBLE POINT
25 599.99 264.189 BUBBLE POINT
26 565.08 227.043 BUBBLE POINT
27 532.78 194.523 BUBBLE POINT
28 502.72 166.185 BUBBLE POINT
29 474.63 141.573 BUBBLE POINT
30 448.28 120.252 BUBBLE POINT
31 440.12 114.004 INTERPOLATED FROM SPECIFIED TEMP OR PRES
32 429.67 106.263 INTERPOLATED FROM SPECIFIED TEMP OR PRES
33 400.12 85.907 BUBBLE POINT
34 378.03 72.189 BUBBLE POINT
35 357.12 60.372 BUBBLE POINT
36 337.29 50.201 BUBBLE POINT
37 318.48 41.449 BUBBLE POINT
38 300.59 33.920 BUBBLE POINT
39 283.58 27.442 BUBBLE POINT
40 267.37 21.869 BUBBLE POINT
41 237.18 12.937 BUBBLE POINT
42 209.63 6.302 BUBBLE POINT
43 172.61 0.632 BUBBLE POINT
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 3 of Applib files.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 527
Phase Envelope Plot
This plot is produced
for compositional
fluids when the
PLOT=FULL option
is present on the
PRINT statement. The
plot is produced with
the DEVICE=PART
and DEVICE=FULL
options.
P H A S E E N V E L O P E
P 750.+++++++++++
: : : : : :
R : : : : : :
: : : : : :
E 675.+ : : : : +
: : : : : :
S : : : : : :
: : : : : :
S 600.++++++
: : : : P : :
U : : : : B B: :
: : : : :C :
R 525.+ : : : : D +
: : : : B : :
E : : : : : :
: : : :B : D :
450.++++++
P : : : : : :
S : : : B: : :
I : : : : : :
G 375.+ : : : : D +
: : : B : : :
: : : : : T :
: : : : : :
300.+++B+++
: : : : : :
: : : B : : :
: : : : : D :
225.+ : : B : : +
: : : : : :
: : : B : : :
: : B : : D :
150.++B++++
: : : : : :
: X X : IB : : DI :
: : B : : : :
75.+ : B : : D: +
: : BB : : : :
: : BB : : D : :
: B:BB : : D D : :
0.++BB+++++D++++
0. 125. 250. 375. 500. 625. 750. 875. 1000. 1125. 1250.
T E M P E R A T U R E F
I = INTERPOLATED B = BUBBLE D = DEW
X = TRAVERSE T = T EXTREMUM P = P EXTREMUM
C = CRITICAL
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 3 of Applib files.
528 Results
Holdup and Velocity Report
The TD FLOW REGM
column heading refers
to the TaitelDukler
Barnea flow regime.
The report is produced
with the
DEVICE=PART and
DEVICE=FULL
options
HOLDUP AND VELOCITY DETAIL REPORT

DEVICE
NAME LIQUID HOLDUP SUPERFICIAL TD
AND SEG. NO LIQ GAS MIX . FLOW FLOW SONIC
TYPE NO. SLIP SLIP TOTAL VEL VEL VEL REGM REGM VEL
(AGAL) (FPS) (FPS) (FPS) (FPS)
          
(ENTR) 0000
EN1 0001
PIP0 0000
(PIPE) 0001 1.00 1.00 3.840E1 4.41 0.00 4.41 DIST 1PH 0.00
0002 1.00 1.00 7.681E1 4.41 0.00 4.41 DIST 1PH 0.00
0003 1.00 1.00 1. 4.41 0.00 4.41 DIST 1PH 0.00
0004 1.00 1.00 2. 4.41 0.00 4.41 DIST 1PH 0.00
(PUMP) 0000
PMP1 0001
PIP1 0000
(PIPE) 0001 1.00 1.00 4. 4.41 0.00 4.41  1PH 0.00
0002 1.00 1.00 7. 4.41 0.00 4.41  1PH 0.00
0003 1.00 1.00 10. 4.41 0.00 4.41  1PH 0.00
0004 1.00 1.00 13. 4.41 0.00 4.41  1PH 0.00
(VALV) 0000
GAT1 0001
(BEND) 0000
BEN1 0001
PIP2 0000
(PIPE) 0001 1.00 1.00 14. 4.41 0.00 4.41 DIST 1PH 0.00
0002 1.00 1.00 15. 4.41 0.00 4.41 DIST 1PH 0.00
0003 1.00 1.00 16. 4.41 0.00 4.41 DIST 1PH 0.00
0004 1.00 1.00 17. 4.41 0.00 4.41 DIST 1PH 0.00
(BEND) 0000
BEN2 0001
PIP3 0000
(PIPE) 0001 1.00 1.00 24. 4.41 0.00 4.41 DIST 1PH 0.00
0002 1.00 1.00 30. 4.41 0.00 4.41 DIST 1PH 0.00
0003 1.00 1.00 37. 4.41 0.00 4.41 DIST 1PH 0.00
0004 1.00 1.00 44. 4.41 0.00 4.41 DIST 1PH 0.00
(BEND) 0000
BEN3 0001
PIP4 0000
(PIPE) 0001 1.00 1.00 47. 4.41 0.00 4.41 DIST 1PH 0.00
0002 1.00 1.00 50. 4.41 0.00 4.41 DIST 1PH 0.00
0003 1.00 1.00 52. 4.41 0.00 4.41 DIST 1PH 0.00
0004 1.00 1.00 55. 4.41 0.00 4.41 DIST 1PH 0.00
(BEND) 0000
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 1 of Applib files.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 529
Pressure Gradient Detail Report
DEVICE=FULL is
required to produce this
report.
PRESSURE GRADIENT DETAIL REPORT

DEVICE
NAME
AND SEGM. PRESSURE GRADIENT PRESSURE DROP
TYPE NO: FRIC ELEV TOTAL FRIC ELEV
(PSIFT) (PSIFT) (PSIFT) (PSIG) (PSIG)
      
EN1 0000
(ENTR) 0001
PIP0 0000
(PIPE) 0001 0.0073 0.0000 0.0073 7.33E3 0.0
0002 0.0073 0.0000 0.0073 7.33E3 0.0
0003 0.0073 0.0000 0.0073 7.33E3 0.0
0004 0.0073 0.0000 0.0073 7.33E3 0.0
(PUMP) 0000
PMP1 0001
PIP1 0000
(PIPE) 0001 0.0073 0.0000 0.0073 5.50E2 0.0
0002 0.0073 0.0000 0.0073 5.50E2 0.0
0003 0.0073 0.0000 0.0073 5.50E2 0.0
0004 0.0073 0.0000 0.0073 5.50E2 0.0
(VALV) 0000
GAT1 0001
(BEND) 0000
BEN1 0001
PIP2 0000
(PIPE) 0001 0.0073 0.3394 0.3467 1.83E2 0.8
0002 0.0073 0.3394 0.3467 1.83E2 0.8
0003 0.0073 0.3394 0.3467 1.83E2 0.8
0004 0.0073 0.3394 0.3467 1.83E2 0.8
(BEND) 0000
BEN2 0001
PIP3 0000
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 1 of Applib files.
530 Results
TaitelDuklerBarnea Flow Regime Map
Link Property Detail Report
Note: This option can generate very large output files.
The DEVICE=PART or
DEVICE=FULL entry
is required together
with the
MAP=TAITEL option
to produce this report.
The characters on the
report indicate the
type of flow as
follows:
I = intermittent flow
A = annular flow
D = dispersed bubble
W = stratified wavy
S = stratified smooth
!+++++!
20.00+ DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD AAAAAAAAA+
! DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD AAAAAAAAAA!
! DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD AAAAAAAAAAA!
! DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD AAAAAAAAAAAAA!
10.00+ DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAA+
! DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! DDDDDDDDDDD IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! DDDDD IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAA+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
1.00+ IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA+
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
VSL ! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
0.10+ IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA+
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAA W AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAA WW AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAA WW AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAA WWW AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
! IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAA WWW AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!
0.01+ IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII AAA WWW AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA+
!+++++!
0.1 1.0 10.0 100.0 300.0
VSG
VSL = SUPERFICIAL LIQUID VELOCITY (MPS)
VSG = SUPERFICIAL GAS VELOCITY (MPS)
+ = OPERATING POINT
PRESSURE= 25.0061(BAR)
TEMP: = 101.1447(C)
ANGLE = 0.6878(DEG)
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 2 of Applib files.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 531
Viscosity and Density Results
Friction and Surface Tension Results
Detailed property
tables for any or all
links are produced by
specifying the
PROPERTY=PART
or
PROPERTY=FULL
options.
BASE CASE
LINK "1 " PROPERTY DETAIL REPORT
VISCOSITY AND DENSITY RESULTS

DEVICE
NAME
AND SEGM VISCOSITY DENSITY
TYPE NO OIL LIQ VAP LIQ VAP SLIP NOSLIP
(CP) (CP) (CP) (LB/CF) (LB/CF) (LB/CF) (LB/CF)
        
Z001 0000
(PIPE) 0001 2.305 2.305 0.000 54.372 0.000 54.372 54.372
Z002 0000
(TEE ) 0001
Z003 0000
(PIPE) 0001 2.303 2.303 0.000 54.370 0.000 54.370 54.370
E1 0000
(DPDT) 0001
Z005 0000
(PIPE) 0001 1.583 1.583 0.000 53.416 0.000 53.416 53.416
Z006 0000
(VENT) 0001
Z007 0000
(CONT) 0001
Z008 0000
(PIPE) 0001 1.582 1.582 0.000 53.415 0.000 53.415 53.415
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 3 of Applib files.
This report shows the
friction factor and the
parameters used to
calculate it. The
report is produced by
specifying the
PROPERTY=PART
or
PROPERTY=FULL
options.
FRICTION AND SURFACE TENSION RESULTS

DEVICE
NAME LIQ
AND SEGM FRICTION FRIC. REYNOLDS SURFACE
TYPE NUM. DENSITY VELO ID. VISCOSITY FACTOR NUMBER TENSION
(LB/CF) (FPS) (IN) (CP) (DN/CM)
        
Z001 0000
(PIPE) 0001 54.372 9.76 12.000 2.305 0.0156 3.4248E5 29.83
Z002 0000
(TEE ) 0001
Z003 0000
(PIPE) 0001 54.370 14.05 10.000 2.303 0.0155 4.1134E5 29.83
E1 0000
(DPDT) 0001
Z005 0000
(PIPE) 0001 53.416 9.93 12.000 1.583 0.0150 4.9879E5 27.87
Z006 0000
(VENT) 0001
Z007 0000
(CONT) 0001
Z008 0000
(PIPE) 0001 53.415 14.30 10.000 1.582 0.0150 5.9868E5 27.87
532 Results
Heat Transfer Calculations
PROPERTY=FULL
must be specified to
produce this report.
The HYD column
indicates whether or not
hydrates can form:
N  not in hydrate region
I  type I hydrates
formed
II  type II hydrates
formed
U  unable to predict
HW  in hydrate region
but not enough free
water present
P  Hydrate region but
insufficient free water
PW  Water & Hydrates
but not enough water
NW  Water & Hydrate
formation
HW  Water & Hydrate
HEAT TRANSFER CALCULATIONS

DEVICE FLUID
NAME THERMAL THERMAL RESISTANCE ENTHALPY HYD
AND SEGM CONDUCT INSIDE INSULAT SURROUN
(TYPE) NO: IVITY FILM PIPE ION DING LIQ VAP
(KCMC) (HRM2 (HRM2 (HRM2 (HRM2 (KCALKG) (KCALKG)
C/KCAL) C/KCAL) C/KCAL) C/KCAL)
         

(PIPE) 0001 0.045 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.000 55.712 N
0002 0.045 0.0005 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 0.000 53.112 N
0003 0.045 0.0005 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 0.000 50.225 N
0003 0.045 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.000 50.225 N
0004 0.046 0.0005 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 0.000 47.785 N
0005 0.046 0.0005 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 0.000 44.759 N
0006 0.046 0.0005 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 29.174 42.169 N
0007 0.047 0.0005 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 27.765 39.939 N
0008 0.048 0.0005 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 26.494 37.990 N
0009 0.048 0.0005 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 25.338 36.305 N
0010 0.049 0.0004 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 24.271 34.866 N
0011 0.050 0.0004 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 23.274 33.658 N
0012 0.051 0.0004 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 22.774 33.099 N
0012 0.051 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 22.774 33.099 N
0013 0.052 0.0004 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 22.331 32.633 N
0014 0.053 0.0004 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 21.480 31.815 N
0015 0.054 0.0004 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 20.663 31.160 N
0016 0.055 0.0004 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 19.878 30.660 N
0017 0.056 0.0004 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 19.122 30.296 N
0018 0.056 0.0004 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 18.603 30.106 N
0018 0.056 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 18.603 30.106 N
0019 0.056 0.0003 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 18.026 30.051 P
0020 0.057 0.0003 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 17.234 30.077 P
P011 0000
(PIPE) 0001 0.057 0.0003 0.0002 0.0000 0.0534 16.819 30.112 P
S013 0000
(SEPR) 0001
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 13 of Applib files.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 533
Slug Report
SLUG is specified with
DEVICE=PART or
DEVICE=FULL to
produce these reports.
The Brill, Norris or
Scott method may be
used for the slug
calculations.
The report will not
appear if the flow is not
twophase or if
conditions are outside
the range of the
correlation.
Note: With
DEVICE=FULL, you
will get output for the
total liquid in slug unit.
This is equal to the
Slug volume + Tail
Volume + Total holdup
associated with the
slug.
SLUG SIZING AND SLUG DELIVERY MODEL (BRILL ET AL)

PREDICTED MEAN SLUG LENGTH = 635.4 M
THE PREDICTED MAX SLUG LENGTH FROM CORRELATION IS TOO LARGE
ADJUSTED MEAN SLUG LENGTH = 312.5 M
84.1300 PERCENT PROBABILITY THAT SLUG LENGTH IS .LE. 515.2 M
97.7200 PERCENT PROBABILITY THAT SLUG LENGTH IS .LE. 849.3 M
99.8600 PERCENT PROBABILITY THAT SLUG LENGTH IS .LE. 1393.1 M
99.9900 PERCENT PROBABILITY THAT SLUG LENGTH IS .LE. 2006.7 M
99.9999 PERCENT PROBABILITY THAT SLUG LENGTH IS .LE. 3365.5 M
SLUG DELIVERY

THE GAS BUBBLE VELOCITY IS = 7.2 M/SEC
THE LIQUID FILM VELOCITY IS = 0.9 M/SEC
THE GAS VELOCITY IS = 6.7 M/SEC
50.0000 PERCENTILE SLUG

THE LIQUID SLUG DELIVERY TIME IS= 43.38 SECS
SLUG DELIVERY MODEL NOT APPLICABLE
84.1300 PERCENTILE SLUG

THE LIQUID SLUG DELIVERY TIME IS= 71.51 SECS
SLUG DELIVERY MODEL NOT APPLICABLE
97.7200 PERCENTILE SLUG

THE LIQUID SLUG DELIVERY TIME IS= 117.89 SECS
SLUG DELIVERY MODEL NOT APPLICABLE
99.8600 PERCENTILE SLUG

THE LIQUID SLUG DELIVERY TIME IS= 193.37 SECS
SLUG DELIVERY MODEL NOT APPLICABLE
99.9900 PERCENTILE SLUG

THE LIQUID SLUG DELIVERY TIME IS= 278.54 SECS
SLUG DELIVERY MODEL NOT APPLICABLE
99.9999 PERCENTILE SLUG

THE LIQUID SLUG DELIVERY TIME IS= 467.14 SECS
SLUG DELIVERY MODEL NOT APPLICABLE
*** NOTE: THE STATISTICAL SLUG MODEL IS APPLICABLE
IF THE DOWN STREAM END OF THE PIPELINE
IS HORIZONTAL OR NEAR HORIZONTAL AND
IF UPSTREAM TERRAIN EFFECTS ARE NOT FELT
AT THE DELIVERY POINT (END OF THE PIPELINE)
IF SLUG OCCURRING REGION IS LESS THAN 4300.182 M
SLUG LENGTHS WILL BE SMALLER THAN PREDICTED
BY MODEL
SEVERE SLUGGING CALCULATIONS

SEVERE SLUGGING GROUP NUMBER = 6.370
EXPECTED SLUG LENGTH = 32.967 M
*** NOTE: SEVERE SLUGGING GROUP NUMBER ANALYSIS
IS VALID ONLY IF A PREDOMINANTLY
DOWNWARD SLOPING PIPELINE IS FOLLOWED
BY A VERTICAL UPWARD PIPE AT THE END
OF THE LINK
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 5 of Applib files.
534 Results
Case Summary
This report is always
produced to
summarize case study
results. It shows the
node pressures,
temperatures, and
flowrates for each
case.
BASE CASE
PRESSURE TEMPERATURE FLOW RATE
NODE PSIG DEG F LB/HR
   
FEED 114.0 60.0 1500000.00
J1 0.106E+03 0.100E+03 0.00000E+00
J2 0.926E+02 0.142E+03 0.00000E+00
PROD 87.4 182.4 1500000.00
CASE STUDY 1
PRESSURE TEMPERATURE FLOW RATE
NODE PSIG DEG F LB/HR
   
FEED 125.0 60.0 1500000.00
J1 0.117E+03 0.100E+03 0.00000E+00
J2 0.104E+03 0.142E+03 0.00000E+00
PROD 98.4 182.4 1500000.00
CASE STUDY 2
PRESSURE TEMPERATURE FLOW RATE
NODE PSIG DEG F LB/HR
   
FEED 114.0 60.0 1500000.00
J1 0.107E+03 0.100E+03 0.00000E+00
J2 0.932E+02 0.142E+03 0.00000E+00
PROD 88.0 182.4 1500000.00
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 3 of Applib files.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 535
Nodal Analysis (Sensitivity)
The only output
produced when the
nodal analysis feature
is used shows
comparisons of
pressure, temperature,
and flowrate at the
defined node for the
combinations of inflow
and outflow
parameters. Plots are
produced for pressure
and temperature (only
pressure is shown
here).
If a well completion
zone is included in the
analysis, the pressure
drop across it is also
produced.
SOLUTION NODE IS AT INLET OF DEVICE CHK1
NODAL ANALYSIS
600.0 +++++++++++++
      AA
      AAA 
      AAA 
540.0 +     AAA +
     AA 
     AAA  
     AAA  
480.0 ++++AAA++
    AAAA   
    AAA   
   AAA   
420.0 +   AAAA    +
   AAA    
P   AAA    
R   AAAA     BBB
E 360.0 ++AAA++++BBBBB+
S 111111111***1111111111111111111  BBBBB 
S  AAAA   111111111111*****1111111111111
U  AAA    BBBBBB  
R 300.0 **2222222222222222222222222222*BBBBBB   +
E    BBBBBB222222222222222222222222222222
  BBBBBB    CCCC
33333333333 BBBBB    CCCCCCC 
B 240.0 +BBB**3333333333333333333333333333333******33333333333
A  BBBBB    CCCCCCCCC  
R BBB   CCCCCCCCCC   
  CCCCCCCC   DDDDDDDDDDD
180.0 + CCCCCCC   DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD +
 CCCCCC  DDDDDDDDDD   
CCCC  DDDDDDDDDD    
 DDDDDDDDDD     
120.0 DDDDD++++++
      
      
      
60.0 +      +
      
      
      
0.0 +++++++++++++
40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 65.0 70.0
FLOW RATE (M3/HR)
KEY... 1  450 BAR 2  400 BAR 3  350 BAR
A  3 1/2 IN DIA B  4 IN DIA C  4 1/2 IN DIA
D  5 IN DIA
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 15 of Applib files.
Pressure and
temperature tabular
reports are also
produced for both
inflow and outflow
variables. Only the
pressure table is shown
here.
If a well completion
zone is included in the
analysis, tabular data
for the pressure drop
across it are also
shown.
SOLUTION NODE IS AT INLET OF DEVICE CHK1
NODE PRESSURES FOR INFLOW VARIABLES (BAR)

INFLOW VARIABLE
RATE 
(M3/HR) 450 BAR 400 BAR 350 BAR
   
40.00 345.55 298.31 252.33
50.00 340.58 293.29 247.17
60.00 334.56 287.18 240.86
70.00 327.46 279.96 233.36
NODE PRESSURES FOR OUTFLOW VARIABLES (BAR)

OUTFLOW VARIABLE
RATE 
(M3/HR) 3 1/2 IN DIA 4 IN DIA 4 1/2 IN DIA 5 IN DIA
    
40.00 305.95 210.59 154.65 119.39
50.00 390.88 264.47 191.75 146.16
60.00 482.32 320.82 230.05 173.69
70.00 582.13 379.92 269.56 201.94
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 15 of Applib files.
536 Results
The final nodal
analysis report lists the
pressure and flowrate
at the inter sections of
the inflow and outflow
curves  i.e., the
operating points of the
system.
SOLUTION NODE IS AT INLET OF DEVICE CHK1
INFLOWOUTFLOW CURVE INTERSECTION POINTS

INFLOW OUTFLOW RATE PRESSURE
CASE CASE (M3/HR) (BAR)
   
450 BAR 3 1/2 IN DIA 44.41 343.36
4 IN DIA 62.08 333.08
400 BAR 4 IN DIA 54.61 290.47
350 BAR 4 IN DIA 47.07 248.68
4 1/2 IN DIA 62.30 239.13
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 15 of Applib files.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 537
Sphering Report
This report follows the
liquid slug in front of
the sphere.
SLUG ZONE
SLUG SLUG
SLUG SLUG EDGE PRESS: EDGE
TIME VELO: LENGTH PRESS: DROP DISTANCE
(SECS) (FPS) (FT) (PSIA) (PSIA) (FT)
     
19.0 26.20 20.1 346.5 4.5 514.4
38.0 26.09 40.0 345.6 5.7 1024.7
57.0 26.10 59.8 343.4 6.9 1534.9
76.0 25.99 79.4 342.6 8.1 2038.9
95.0 25.99 99.6 340.4 9.4 2549.1
The slug delivery report
starts when the front of
the slug reaches the end
of the pipeline.
SLUG DELIVERY

PRESS:
SLUG SPHERE BEHIND
TIME VELOCITY VELOCITY SPHERE
(SECS) (FPS) (FPS) (PSIA)
   
9.8 13.89 13.89 274.9
19.6 13.89 13.89 273.6
29.4 13.89 13.89 272.4
39.2 13.93 13.93 271.3
48.9 13.99 13.99 270.6
58.6 14.05 14.05 269.6
68.3 14.10 14.10 268.6
77.9 14.16 14.16 267.5
87.5 14.21 14.21 266.5
97.1 14.26 14.26 265.4
SLUG DELIVERY TAKES 181.3 SECS.
Finally, the time
required for the
pipeline to return to
steady state is shown.
STEADY STATE NOT REACHED YET. TIME IS 30329.94 SECS.
STEADY STATE NOT REACHED YET. TIME IS 30492.76 SECS.
STEADY STATE NOT REACHED YET. TIME IS 30655.57 SECS.
STEADY STATE NOT REACHED YET. TIME IS 30818.38 SECS.
STEADY STATE NOT REACHED YET. TIME IS 30981.19 SECS.
STEADY STATE NOT REACHED YET. TIME IS 31144.01 SECS.
STEADY STATE FLOW IS REESTABLISHED AFTER 31306.8 SECS
Note  The above report is an extract from Example 6 of Applib files.
538 Results
Results Access System
Specifying
DATA=FULL on the
PRINT statement
creates a binary file
which can be used by
the GUI to produce
graphical and tabular
reports.
This example shows
where the selected
link lies on the phase
envelope. The hydrate
and water saturation
curves are also
shown.
Note: For Windows
GUI users only.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 61
Chapter 6
Technical Reference
Chapter Contents
About This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
An Introduction to Fluid Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Basic Fluid Flow Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
The Steady State Flow Process — SinglePhase Fluids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Laminar and Turbulent Singlephase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Laminar Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Laminar and Transitional Flow Inside Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Turbulent Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
NonNewtonian Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
TwoPhase Fluid Flow in Pipes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Liquid & Gas Holdup  Slip & NoSlip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
TwoPhase Mixture Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Single and TwoPhase Pressure Drop Correlations in PIPEPHASE. . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Critical Flow  A Qualitative Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
SinglePhase Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
TwoPhase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Mechanistic Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Ansari. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Xiao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
TACITE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
OLGA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Recommendations on Pressure Drop Correlations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Solution Algorithms Used in PIPEPHASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
The Calculation Segment and Iteration Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
The Calculation Segment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Default Segment Calculation Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
The SHORTPIPE Segment Calculation Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
The Single Link Calculation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
The Network Calculation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Definition of a Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
62 Technical Reference
Pressure Balance Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Mass Balance Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
How to Set up a Network Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Fluid Models Used in PIPEPHASE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
NonCompositional Fluid Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Singlephase Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Gas Compressibility (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Gas Density (r
G
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Gas Viscosity (m
G
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Gas Specific Heat Capacity (Cp
G
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
SinglePhase Liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Hydrocarbon Liquid Viscosity (m
l
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Beggs and Robinson Correlation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Standing Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Glaso Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Vazquez and Beggs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Oilwater Viscosity (uL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Woelflin's Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Water Viscosity (m
w
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Blackoil (and Other Empirical Methods) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Solution GasOil Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Solution GasWater Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Fluid Mixing Rules for Blackoil Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Condensate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Steam Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Compositional Fluid Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Accuracy of Compositional Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Properties Calculated Using the Compositional Fluid Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Equilibrium KValues (Phase Split) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Heat Transfer in Flow Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Heat Transfer for NonCompositional Fluids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Heat Transfer for Compositional Fluids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (Uvalue) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Equations used in PIPEPHASE to Calculate Resistances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Inside film resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Pipe resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Insulation resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Buried surroundings (e.g., soil resistance) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Fluid surroundings (e.g., air, water). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Additional inside/outside resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Radiation film resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Partially Buried Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Heat Transfer in Wellbores95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Equipment & Fittings Flow Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Compressor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
DPDT Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 63
Chokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
SinglePhase Gas and SinglePhase Liquid Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Gilbert Family (GF) of choke models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Algorithm: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Network Solving Algorithm with a GF Choke in Source Link(s) . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Network Solving Algorithm with a GF Choke in Internal and Sink Link(s) . . . 63
Extensions of the GF Model Applicability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Errors and Warnings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Other Fluid Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Check Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Heaters and Coolers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
SinglePhase Gas and SinglePhase Liquid Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Compositional and Steam Fluid Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Separators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Blackoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Condensate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Compositional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
TwoPhase Flow Pressure Drop Corrections for Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Chisholm Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Homogeneous Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Completion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Converging Network Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
User Requirements for this Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
General Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Simulation Input Granularity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Estimates of Pressure and Flowrate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Network Structure and Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Maximum Number of Iterations (NM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Iteration History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Specific Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Link ShutIns (NM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Flowrate Estimation in Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Guidelines on UserEstimation of Link Flow Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Recommendations for Networks which Include Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Other Problems In Network Convergence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Specific Keyword Assistance in Converging Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
PBAL Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
MBAL Solution Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
SubNetwork Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Frequently Asked Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
FAQ 1: What are the merits of the Kfactor and Kmultiplier in
fitting pressure drops? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
FAQ 2: Should one use “equivalent lengths” inside links with twophase
flow to represent fitting pressure drops? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
FAQ 3: How do you explain a pressure recovery over an expansion device? . . . . . . . . 99
FAQ 4: Why does PIPEPHASE have two network solution
64 Technical Reference
methods (Flare and Network)?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
FAQ 5: What is the relation between discharge coefficients used in valve
sizing and the Kfactor used to define pressure drop? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
FAQ 6: What is the relation between the flow coefficient of a valve (Cv)
and the Kfactor for the valve? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
FAQ 7: What is the relation between the JouleThomson effect
and adiabatic flashing?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
FAQ 8: How can I make PIPEPHASE use my own mixture physical
property data in compositional fluidtype simulations? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
FAQ 9: How can I increase the speed of execution of a simulation run?. . . . . . . . . . . 110
FAQ 10:What are the *.GR1, *.GR2, *.GR3, and *.GR4 files that are
produced when I run PC PIPEPHASE?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Data Transfer System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Procedure for Accessing PRO/II Stream Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Extracting Component Data and Temperature for a
Source – PRO2 Keyword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Extracting Component Data, Pressure and Temperature for a
Source – PR2F Keyword. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Extracting Pressure Estimate, Component Data, and Temperature for a
Source – PR2E Keyword. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Restrictions on the Use of the Stream Data Transfer Facility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
About This Chapter
This chapter provides detailed information regarding the calculation procedures used for
all aspects of the PIPEPHASE program. The chapter is not intended to be a complete
work on multiphase flow or thermodynamic theory. Instead, it aims to provide sufficient
background theory and simulation guidelines so that a user can be more confident in
using the program and making better engineering decisions prior to executing the task.
An Introduction to Fluid Flow
Basic Fluid Flow Theory
Except where specified otherwise, the term “fluid” is used in this chapter to denote either
a singlephase gas, singlephase liquid, or a multiphase stream comprising a gas phase
and one or more liquid phases.
As with any field of scientific analysis, it is worthwhile to take time to understand the
fundamentals behind the basic pressure drop equation. This pressure drop equation,
which is derived from the general energy equation, is given in its simplest form in
equation (61):
(61) AP
TOT
AP
ELEV
AP
FRIC
AP
ACCEL
+ + =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 65
A summary of this derivation procedure is provided here for reference purposes.
The Steady State Flow Process — SinglePhase Fluids
A fluid passing from point 1 to point 2, in Figure 61 below, must be subject to the
general principle of the conservation of energy. This states that, at steady state, the
enthalpy of the fluid at point 1, plus any work performed on or by the fluid, plus any heat
taken from or added to the fluid, must equal the enthalpy of the fluid at point 2.
Figure 61: Conservation of Energy  Fluid Flow in a Simple System
The steady state energy balance equation is shown in equations (62a)(62c):
(62a)
(62b)
(62c)
where:
Q = heat added to, or taken away from, the fluid (e.g., by a heat exchanger, or by
transfer to or from the surroundings)
W
s
= shaft work done on or by the fluid (e.g., by a pump, or in a turbine)
Note: The subscript S is used to distinguish work exchanged by the fluid
through a shaft from that work done by the fluid itself on the system in
entering and leaving the control volume under study. This is the pV
component of equation (62c).
U = fluid internal energy
p = fluid pressure
V =
fluid specific volume
Energy input to system = Energy output from system
(Heat Exchange + Shaft Work Exchange + Internal Energy +
Fluid Work + Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy)
in
=
(Internal Energy + Fluid Work + Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy)
out
Q W
s
U
1
p
1
V
1
mv
1
2
2g
c
 mZ
1
g
g
c
 + + + + + U
2
p
2
V
2
mv
2
2
2g
c
 mZ
2
g
g
c
 + + + =
66 Technical Reference
Changing the basis of equation (62c) to that of unit mass, and looking at differential
changes rather than macrosystem changes results in equation (63):
(63)
where:
The specific enthalpy change, dh, in a system is defined as:
(64a)
Equation (64a) can also be written as:
(64b)
For a reversible system:
(65)
from the Second Law of Thermodynamics, for reversible work, w
rev
, and heat, q
rev
:
(66)
and
(67)
m = fluid mass flowrate
1/gc = proportionality/dimension constant
g = gravitational constant
v = fluid velocity
Z = elevation of the fluid, referenced to one (arbitrary) datum level
u = specific internal energy of the fluid
q = specific heat exchanged
w
s
= specific shaft work
r = fluid density
du d
p
p

\ .
 
vdv
g
c

g
g
c
dZ dq dw
s
+ + + + + 0 =
dh du d pV ( ) + =
dh du d
p
p

\ .
 
+ =
du
1
p

\ .
 
dp pd
1
p

\ .
 
+ + =
du dq
rev
dw
rev
– =
dw
rev
pdV =
pd
1
p

\ .
 
=
dq
rev
TdS – =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 67
where:
Therefore, equation (64a) may be rearranged to make du the subject and equations (66)
and (67) can be substituted into relationship (65). The resultant expression may then be
directly substituted into equation (63), to create equation (68):
(68)
Equation (67) is valid for a truly reversible process. In reality, due to irreversibilities
such as friction, there will always be losses inherent in any process. Equation (67) for
irreversible processes then becomes:
(69)
where:
If the assumption is made that there is no shaft work performed by, or on, the fluid
(w
s
=0), then expression (69) becomes:
(610)
Figure 62: Schematic Representation of Piping Inclination
A pipe, inclined at an angle u to the horizontal, as shown in Figure 62, will effect a
change to the vertical dZ term in equation (610). Since dZ = dL sin u, multiplying
equation (610) through by p/dL gives:
(611)
ds = the differential specific entropy change in a system
T = the absolute temperature value at which q is exchanged
Lw = lost friction work
Tds
dp
p
 d
p
p

\ .
 
d
p
p

\ .
 
vdv
g
c

\ .
 
g
g
c
dZ dq dw
s
+ + + + + – + 0 =
dq – dL
w
+ TdS =
dp
p

vdv
g
c

g
g
c
dZ dL
w 0 =
+ + +
dp
dL

pvdv
g
c
dL

g
g
c
p u sin p
dL
w
dL
 + + + 0 =
68 Technical Reference
Equation (611) can then be rearranged and integrated over a pipe length AL to give the
familiar steady state pressure drop equation (612). The resulting equation is known as
Bernoulli’s equation for the case of integrating for fluids of constant density, or as
Euler’s equation when used for an ideal fluid, where the loss term, A(pL
w
), is set to zero.
(612)
When computing the total pressure drop, Ap, the lost work due to friction must be
expressed in more common terms. The loss component from equation (611), p(dLw/
dL), can be more explicitly defined by performing a simple force balance on a section of
circular pipe between the wall shear stress (which accounts for the frictional losses) and
pressure forces (Figure 63).
Figure 63: Force Balance on Circular Pipe Section
(613)
where:
Equation (613) can be written as:
(614)
Substituting for dL
w
into equation (615) gives:
(615)
t
w
= shear stress, or shear resistance to flow
d
i
= internal pipe diameter
Ap –
g
g
c
ALp u A pL
w
( )
A pv
2
( )
2g
c
 + + sin =
p
1
p
1
dp
dL
dL –
\ .
 
tg
c
d
i
2
4
 – t
w
td
i
( )dL =
dp
dL

\ .
 
FRICTION
4g
c
t
w
d
i
 p
dL
w
dL

\ .
 
= =
dp
dL

pvdv
g
c
dL

g
g
c
p u sin
4g
c
t
w
d
i
 + + + 0 =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 69
For both laminar (streamline) and turbulent flow, a dimensionless friction factor, f, is
defined as the ratio of shear stress to the fluid kinetic energy per unit volume:
(616)
Equation (616) represents one of the original friction factor formulations as defined by
Fanning. The DarcyWeisbach (or Moody
1
) friction factor, f
d
, is used in PIPEPHASE
and is defined as being four times larger than the Fanning factor:
(617)
Note: The superscripts given in the text in this chapter refer to the appropriate entry in
C.
Substituting equation (617) into the pressure loss component of equation (615) gives:
(618)
The general pressure drop expression for a singlephase fluid can then be rewritten as:
(619)
Note: Users of SI or Metric units of measure: The unit of force in SI and Metric unit sets
is the Newton. The Newton is defined so as to make the proportionality constant, g
c
,
unity, thus eliminating it from equation (619).
Laminar and Turbulent Singlephase Flow
Laminar Flow
At low velocities, a singlephase fluid in pipes flows in one direction, and the velocity
within the pipe changes across the plane perpendicular to its axis, from a maximum in
the center of the pipe, to zero at the pipe wall. For a circular pipe, the velocity profile is a
parabola (see Figure 64), where the fluid particles move in straight, parallel paths in
layers, or laminae. The term laminar flow is therefore used to describe this condition. In
f
FANNING
t
w
pv
2
2

2t
w
pv
2
 = =
f
d
t
w
pv
2
8

8t
w
pv
2
 = =
dp
dL

\ .
 
FRICTION
t
w
td
i
g
c
A
i

f
d
pv
2
8g
c

\ .

 
td
i
td
i
2
4

\ .

 
f
d
pv
2
2g
c
d
i
 = = =
dp
dL
 –
g
g
c
p u sin
f
d
pv
2
2g
c
d
i

pvdv
g
c
dL
 + + =
610 Technical Reference
laminar flow systems, analytical laws relating shear stress (and hence friction) to the rate
of angular deformation may be applied. Since the viscosity of the fluid is dominant in
laminar flow, this suppresses any tendency toward turbulent conditions (see below).
Figure 64: Laminar Flow in a Circular Pipe
For a laminar flowing fluid, the following equation for the DarcyWeisbach friction
factor can be derived analytically from Poiseuille’s equation:
(620)
where:
Laminar and Transitional Flow Inside Pipes
PIPEPHASE incorporates the unified correlation developed by Churchill
76
for heat
transfer calculations. This correlation spans the laminar and turbulent regions, and it
calculates a constant Nusselt number of 4.36 when the Reynolds number falls below
2300. Therefore, the user has no control over the critical Reynolds number below which
laminar conditions are applied. In other words, the keyword entry of
“LAMINAR=value” has no influence in calculating the heattransfer coefficient.
However, the Churchill correlation has not been implemented for calculating the friction
factor. Therefore, the keyword entry of “LAMINAR=value” will still be used to
influence the friction pressure drop calculations.
Reynolds Number
For the benefit of fluid flow studies, a dimensionless value representing the ratio of a
fluid’s inertia forces to its viscous forces has been defined. This is known as the
Reynolds number, Re, and is commonly utilized as an indication of the turbulence of the
fluid. For circular pipes, the Reynolds number is defined as:
(621)
u= fluid viscosity
f
d
64u
pvd
i
 =
Re
pvd
i
u
 =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 611
This number is used as a basis for many pressure drop and heat transferrelated
correlations.
Turbulent Flow
As the flowrate of a fluid is increased from laminar flow conditions, the fluid particles
begin to move randomly in all directions of flow, and in a more haphazard fashion as
velocities increase. As the flowrate increases even further, the fluctuations in the
behavior of the particles becomes more significant, and the flow is termed turbulent.
Typically, the transition between laminar flow and full turbulent flow occurs over a
region between Reynolds numbers of 2000 and 3000.
Figure 65: Turbulent Flow in a Circular Pipe
It then becomes impossible to track the movement of an individual particle, and the
velocity profile of the fluid becomes correspondingly more uniform, or flat, in the plane
perpendicular to the axis of the pipe (see Figure 65). It is not possible to predict the
friction factor associated with turbulent flow using the same analytical methods as for
laminar conditions. To better predict friction factors under turbulent conditions,
experimental observations are combined with the previous theoretical fluid flow
relationships. Friction factors for turbulent flow are then defined empirically – usually in
terms of the Reynolds number, Re.
The DarcyWeisbach friction factor, f
d
, has been found to be a function of Reynolds
number alone in the case of smooth pipe walls, and for rough pipe walls as a function of
both Reynolds number and the relative roughness of the pipe inside wall. Relative
roughness is a dimensionless quantity, and is thought to be more indicative than absolute
pipe roughness on the effect on pressure gradient.
The relative roughness is usually abbreviated in its equation form, c/d, where c is the
absolute pipe mean roughness, and d is the (smooth) pipe inside diameter. An example of
a friction factor expression for singlephase flow in circular pipes with rough walls is
shown in equation (622), which was developed by Colebrook
2
:
(622)
1
f
d
 1.74 2log
10
2c
d
i

18.7
Re f
d
 +
\ .

 
– =
612 Technical Reference
To solve these types of equations usually requires an iterative procedure to determine f
d
.
In standard texts these equations are represented as graphs of friction factor versus
Reynolds number, containing lines of constant c/d (see Figure 66).
Figure 66: Friction Factor Chart (SemiLog f
d
vs Log R
e
) – after Moody
NonNewtonian Flow
All previous and subsequent discussions in this chapter refer to socalled “Newtonian”
fluids (where shear stresses are postulated to be directly proportional to the time rate of
deformation of a fluid element). NonNewtonian fluids do not obey newtonian flow
dynamics, and include common fluids such as some oil/water mixtures, mud, cement,
and a variety of plantprocessed slurry streams. NonNewtonian fluids can behave in
different ways in response to a constant shear force  such as decreasing viscosity (so
called pseudoplastic or thixotropic [for timedependent responses] fluids) or increasing
viscosity (socalled dilatant or rheopectic [for timedependent responses] fluids). Non
Newtonian fluids can be modeled in PIPEPHASE currently only by specifying an
appropriate userdefined pressure drop method (see Chapter 3, Input Reference).
TwoPhase Fluid Flow in Pipes
Up until this point in our discussion of fluid flow, all assumptions have been for single
phase fluids. In the topics covering laminar and turbulent flow, it was seen that fluid flow
theory can take us only as far as singlephase, laminar flow. Once the laminar to
turbulent flow transition is made for singlephase fluids, modeling the flow becomes
complex. Fluid flow theory then enters a gray area where empirical correlations and
experimental observation account for a large portion of key areas in the prediction of
pressure drop. All salient equations describing twophase flow build on existing single
phase equation forms. However, they are far more empirical than their singlephase
equivalents due to the complex nature of multiphase flow.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 613
In singlephase laminar flow, fluid properties such as density, p, and viscosity, u, must be
known prior to any pressure drop formulation being applied (see equations (619) and
(620)). This concept is relatively simple for a singlephase fluid – simple temperature
and pressuredependent correlations and mixing rules can be applied with confidence for
all but the heaviest and nonideal of fluids. However, the definition and meaning of two
phase fluid physical properties such as density or viscosity requires further discussion.
Clearly some type of viscosity and density must be used in the overall pressure drop
expression, and since the only physical data available to the researcher and engineer are
viscosities of both phases in isolation, a suitable mixing rule for the twophases must be
formulated. Before this can be accomplished, there must be a knowledge of the relative
amounts of both phases existing at the point of interest in the pipe. The term holdup is
commonly used to describe this quantity.
Liquid Holdup and Superficial Velocities
Two quantities are used extensively in twophase flow analyses, the superficial velocity
of each phase, and the liquid or gas holdup.
The superficial velocity is defined as the velocity at which onephase would travel if it
alone occupied the whole pipe, and can be calculated from volumetric flowrates:
(623a)
(623b)
where:
subscripts G and L refer to the gas (vapor) and liquid phase respectively
The fluid mixture velocity is then defined as the velocity of the total mixture, and can be
shown to be equal to the sum of the component superficial velocities:
(624a)
(624b)
where:
subscript M refers to the mixture
q = volumetric flowrate of the phase
A = crosssectional area of the pipe
vs = superficial velocity of the phase
v
sL
q
L
A
 for the liquid =
v
sG
q
G
A
 for the gas =
v
M
q
L
q
G
+
A
 =
v
M
v
sL
v
sG
+ =
614 Technical Reference
Liquid & Gas Holdup  Slip & NoSlip
Liquid holdup, H
L
, is defined as the fraction of the pipe’s crosssectional area occupied
by liquid (see Figure 67):
(625)
For the complementary gas holdup:
(626)
For a given steadystate “snapshot” of a twophase fluid flowing in a pipe, there can be
two feasible liquid holdup scenarios – slip liquid holdup (where the gas and liquid are
traveling at different velocities) and noslip liquid holdup (where both phases are
actually traveling at the same speed). These concepts are important in the study of two
phase flow systems, and will be utilized fully when describing twophase pressure drop
correlations. In either scenario the liquid holdup varies from a value of one for all liquid
flow, to zero for all gas flow. The term positive slip is used to describe situations where
the gas is traveling faster than the liquid, and negative slip for the reverse situation.
Figure 67: Liquid and Vapor Holdup
The slip velocity is defined as the difference between the actual gas and liquid
velocities:
(627)
Now,
(628a)
(628b)
H
L
A
L
A
 =
H
G
A
G
A
 =
v
s
v
G
v
L
– =
v
G
q
G
A
G
 =
v
L
q
L
A
L
 =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 615
Then from equations (623a), (623b), (625) and (626) it is simple to show that, for
cases of noslip w here v
G
= v
L
:
(629)
where:
Therefore, the noslip liquid holdup can be shown to be a function only of the superficial
velocities of each phase, and is thus simple to calculate if the volumetric flowrate of each
phase is known.
In a majority of twophase flow situations, however, the noslip assumption is false, and
should not be used for reasonable pressure drop predictions. This is typically because of
the flow pattern, and/or the topology of the piping system (which can encourage slip
conditions through inclined and vertical pipe sections). In these cases, liquid holdups
must be calculated from empirical correlations.
Once the liquid holdup value has been determined for the segment of piping under study,
then its first use is in calculating actual gas and liquid velocities from their
corresponding superficial values (from equations (626), (628a) and (628b)):
(630)
TwoPhase Mixture Properties
A twophase fluid mixture density, p
m
, can be defined using the holdup as the weighting
factor between both phases. Although some researchers use different formulations,
equation (631) represents one of the most common relationships for density used to
calculate the elevation term in the pressure drop equation (in this equation H
L
refers to
either the slip or noslip liquid holdup):
(631)
The viscosity of a fluid is used in all pressure drop correlations, at least in the
determination of the friction factor, f
d
, via the Reynolds number, R
e
. It is also typically
used within correlating parameters in more empiricallybased methods. This can be seen
in the twophase pressure drop correlations given in Table A6a through Table A6e,
TwoPhase Pressure Correlations. These types of equation formulated for twophase
viscosities are more varied than those developed for density (above), since the concept of
a mixture viscosity is more difficult to comprehend. A typical formulation for mixture
viscosity is shown in equation (632):
ì
L
= noslip liquid holdup
ì
L
H
L NO SLIP – ,
v
sL
v
M
 = =
v
L
q
L
AH
L
 =
p
M
p
L
H
L
1 H
L
– ( )p
G
+ =
616 Technical Reference
(632)
In dealing with twophase flow, surface tension is another physical property which
affects pressure drop. It is typically used as a correlating property in determining slip
liquid holdup, as well as in determining the different flow regimes (described later).
In systems involving a wet hydrocarbon mixture, there will often be enough water
present to form a separate, second liquid phase. A majority of the current, accredited
industrystandard methods are available in PIPEPHASE. In each method only one liquid
phase is considered to be present. Therefore, when two liquid phases actually exist, they
are bulked together to form one liquid phase. The physical transport properties required
by the pressure drop method for the bulk liquid are then calculated by weighting the
relative amounts of each phase present. Liquid viscosity, density and surface tension are
all calculated in this fashion. In equation (633), any of these properties can substituted
for x:
(633)
where:
Other viscosity mixing rules, e.g., the API methods and the Woelflin procedure (for
cases involving waterinoil emulsions) are also available in PIPEPHASE.
TwoPhase Flow Pressure Drop
The formula for calculating the pressure drop for twophase fluids in pipes is analogous
to the equivalent singlephase flow version shown in equation (619), except that the
friction factor and physical properties are replaced by their twophase equivalents:
(634)
Note: The definitions of the mixture density (p
M
) and mixture friction factor (f
M
) terms
are specific to the correlation in which they are employed.
The pressure loss term in equation (634) includes a twophase friction factor, f
M
. In the
past, researchers have spent a majority of effort in developing predictive correlations for
the twophase friction factor, as well as the slip liquid holdup term.
Flow Regimes
x = liquid viscosity, density, or surface tension
VOLFR = volume fraction
subscripts HC and WAT refer to the hydrocarbon and aqueous phase respectively
u
M
u
L
H
L
u
G
H
G
=
x
L
x
HC
VOLFR
HC
x
WAT
VOLFR
WAT
+ =
dP
dL
  –
g
g
c
p
M
u sin
f
M
p
M
v
M
2
2g
c
d
i

p
M
v
M
dv
M
g
c
d
L
 + + =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 617
When two fluids with different physical properties flow together in the same pipe, there
will be a wide range of possible flow regimes. A flow regime (or flow pattern) is
essentially a description of the flow structure, or distribution of one fluid phase relative
to the other. For example, for upward flow of air and water in an inclined pipe, the
dominant flow regime is generally described as either mist flow or slug flow. Different
inclinations of pipe, together with the direction of flow, both have a major effect on the
actual flow regime. Several correlations have been developed specifically for one type of
topology and flow direction (see A). The types of flow regime encountered include, but
are not limited to, those shown in Figure 68. Depending on the researcher, categories of
flow regime may be labeled differently.
Figure 68: Flow Regimes in TwoPhase Flow (using Beggs & Brill Terminology)
A flow regime map is generally included as a “frontend” to most modern twophase
pressure drop calculation methods. The TaitelDuklerBarnea map, for example, is a
graphical representation of flow regime correlated against superficial gas and superficial
liquid velocities. Once the respective superficial velocities are known (for example,
calculated from equations (623ab)), the flow regime can be easily read off the graph.
Depending on which flow regime is suggested for those superficial velocities, a regime
specific correlation for liquid holdup is then invoked. It must be noted at this point that
618 Technical Reference
different pressure drop correlations begin with a different flow map, since the link
between resultant pressure drop and flow regime has typically been made by regression
during the experimental phase of the research.
Note: The flow regime predicted by an individual pressure drop correlation may not
reflect the actual regime encountered in reality, but the use of this regime in that
particular correlation will produce the results as correlated and expected by the
researchers.
One of the latest flow pattern predictions is the TaitelDuklerBarnea
3
model. The Taitel
DuklerBarnea flow map can be used as a good yardstick to determine which flow
regime will actually prevail. The user can then utilize this map to design out undesirable
topological components of a piping run which are found to instigate severe losses, or
which produce mechanical and/or operational problems. Knowledge of the twophase
flow patterns and holdup behavior allow the engineer to make better decisions, whether
mechanically retrofitting an existing system, or when developing a new design.
In the holdup and velocity detail report section of the output to PIPEPHASE, both the
flow regime (FLOW REGM) as predicted by the pressure drop correlation, and the flow
regime (TD FLOW REGM) predicted by the TaitelDukler map are presented to the
user for reference (PRINT DEVICE=FULL must be selected in the General Data
Category of input).
Steps to determine flow Pattern using TD method:
Operational Variables: Flow Rates q
L
and q
g
Geometrical Variables: d, α
Physical Properties: ρ
L
, ρ
g,
μ
L
, μ
g
, σ
• Calculate equilibrium liquid level (holdup) from combined momentum equation
• Check transition A: stratified flow or non stratified flow
• If stratified, check transition C: smooth stratified or wavy stratified
• If nonstratified, check transition B or D
• Transition B: intermittentannular transition
• Transition D: intermittentbubble transition
The decision path is shown below:
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 619
Figure 69: Decision Path
Transition Criterion
Generalized TD Flow Pattern Map
620 Technical Reference
Figure 69a: Generalized TD Flow Pattern Map
Single and TwoPhase Pressure Drop Correlations in PIPEPHASE
In PIPEPHASE the available pressure drop correlations for flow in circular pipes fall
into four categories:
1. Single phase gas
2. Single phase liquid
3. Twophase fluid
a) Standard correlations
b) Hybrid correlations
c) High velocity correlations
4. Userdefined correlations
Categories (1) and (2) are relatively straightforward (see the discussion in the previous
sections on singlephase fluid flow), and are generally based on the basic pressure drop
equation (619).
Category (3) is divided into three types of correlation:
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 621
a) Standard correlations which have been incorporated directly into the PIPEP
HASE program from their published form.
b) Socalled “hybrid correlations” which mix components of certain standard cor
relations to produce new correlations.The components that are taken from the
standard correlations include the holdup method, the pressure drop components 
friction, elevation and acceleration, and the flow map method. The mixes
between components of standard correlations have been made such that the rele
vant transplants are consistent with the original correlation. This results in a
wider choice of correlations from which a field data match may be found. In
addition, more confidence may be gained in bracketing a solution value by the
use of similar correlations. See Appendix A for a detailed breakdown of these
hybrid correlations.
c) High velocity correlations, which have been developed as enhancements to stan
dard correlations. These correlations may be used to model high accelerational
fluid systems where the standard correlations would normally break down.
Category (4) is a facility for users to implement their own pressure drop correlation(s)
for pipes and/or for fittings. Further details on flow through fittings are given in later
sections.
Critical Flow  A Qualitative Description
It can be shown that when a singlephase, compressible fluid flows in a pipe of constant
diameter the velocity of the fluid cannot physically exceed the velocity of sound in the
fluid medium. The term sonic velocity is used to describe the velocity of sound in the
medium.
Critical or choked flow may be described by an example.
Consider a compressible fluid flowing in a horizontal pipe of uniform diameter and fixed
inlet pressure. As the outlet pressure is gradually decreased, the flowrate will gradually
increase. This trend will continue until the mass flux (i.e., velocity) reaches a maximum
possible value at the outlet. Further lowering of the outlet pressure does not increase the
flowrate. This flow condition is called critical, or choked flow. The outlet pressure at
which critical flow is initiated is called the critical pressure.
622 Technical Reference
Figure 610: Relationship Between Critical Velocity and Liquid Holdup
This phenomenon of critical flow is observed for singlephase gas as well as twophase
gasliquid flow. For singlephase gas, the critical flow is reached when the velocity
reaches sonic velocity. For multiphase flow situations, sonic velocity and critical flow
velocity are not equal in magnitude.
A plot of critical velocity versus the liquid holdup generates an unusual Ushaped curve
(see Figure 611). This indicates that the critical velocity for twophase flow (H
L
> 0.0)
may be much less than the critical velocity for gas only flow (H
L
= 0.0). The minimum
critical velocity is reached at a liquid holdup value of approximately 0.5.
The Pressure Discontinuity
When the critical, or choked flow condition has been reached, further lowering of the
outlet pressure does not increase the flowrate. In reality, a pressure (and temperature)
discontinuity occurs at the outlet of the pipe. Referring to Figure 611, to the left of the
discontinuity, the velocity is critical and the pressure is critical pressure. To the right of
the discontinuity, the flow is subcritical and the pressure is set pressure, which is less
than the critical pressure.
For flow in a pipe of uniform cross sectional area, a pressure discontinuity and critical
flow can normally occur only at the outlet of the pipe. This implies that critical flow can
potentially occur where the flow area changes to a higher value (such as expansions).
In reality, the pressure discontinuity manifests itself as a shock wave. Critical flow is
therefore often accompanied by an intense rhythmic dissipation of energy and vibrations.
A localized increase in the rate of heat transfer may also be observed.
Note: Currently, PIPEPHASE solves for critical flow in chokes only.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 623
Figure 611: Pressure Discontinuity
SinglePhase Flow
Table 61 lists recommendations for the singlephase pressure drop correlations
available in PIPEPHASE. The recommendations are provided to help the user choose the
most appropriate correlation for a given application. For users who need more
information, see A.
Note: The original Panhandle B and Weymouth correlations for gas flow were
reformulated to separate the pressure losses due to friction, elevation, and acceleration.
Equivalent friction factors were also derived.
Table 61: Recommendations for SinglePhase Pressure Drop Correlations
Correlation Recommendations
Gases
Panhandle B Good for long and/or large diameter pipes.
Weymouth Good for short and/or small diameter pipes.
Moody (default) Applicable for all diameters and lengths. Especially good for
high velocity lines since acceleration losses are considered.
American Gas Association Recommended by the American Gas Association.
Liquids
HazenWilliams Applicable for low viscosity fluids like water and gasoline.
Should not be used for high viscosity fluids.
Moody (default) Applicable for fluids over a wide range of conditions.
624 Technical Reference
TwoPhase Flow
The available twophase empirical correlations for Horizontal and Inclined Flow are
listed in Table A2, Recommendations for TwoPhase Pressure Drop Correlations
Note: BBM correlation is recommended for all angles.
In addition, PIPEPHASE offers several hybrid correlations, see Table A4, Hybrid
Models Summary.
Note: MukherjeeBrill correlation is recommended for inclined pipeline profiles
especially for downward twophase flow.
While the extensive selection of correlations available in PIPEPHASE offers a variety of
methods for predicting twophase fluid flow behavior, it also presents the typical user,
who is not necessarily an expert in fluid flow methods, with a problem in selecting the
appropriate correlation. Table A2, Recommendations for TwoPhase Pressure Drop
Correlations, presents a set of recommendations for selecting the appropriate correlation
from the range of available choices.
Mechanistic Models
PIPEPHASE supports the following mechanistic twophase flow correlations:
• The Ansari model for vertical flow
• The Xiao model for horizontal and nearhorizontal flow
• The comprehensive TACITE hydrodynamic model, and
• The comprehensive OLGA hydrodynamic model.
Note: TACITE and OLGA are steadystate implementations of commercial transient
codes.
A brief description for each of these methods is provided in the following sections.
Ansari
The Ansari
77
method, developed at the Tulsa University Fluid Flow Projects (TUFFP) is
a comprehensive mechanistic model for upward twophase flow, covering each of the
flow patterns encountered as well as the corresponding transitions.
The model first determines the existing flow pattern from the transition relationships.
These transitional relationships are based primarily on the work of Taitel et al.
78
and
Barnea
79
.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 625
When dispersed bubble flow is predicted, the flow characteristics are modeled on the
basis of a homogeneous, noslip model. At lower liquid velocities, the bubble flow
model, based on an analysis of the bubble rise velocity, is an extension of the work by
Caetano
80
. The slug flow model is characterized by a series of Taylor bubbles separated
by liquid slugs. Separate models have been formulated for both developing and fully
developed slug flow, depending on the nature of the Taylor bubble. The analysis is based
on the work of Fernandes
81
, Caetano
80
, and Sylvester
82
. Annular flow is characterized by
a liquid film surrounding a gas core, comprising of both gas and entrained liquid
droplets. The annular flow model is based on Barnea’s analysis, originally developed for
flow pattern prediction.
The acceleration component of the pressure drop has been ignored for all flow regime
models.
Experimental validation of the Ansari model was achieved by comparing predictions
against the data available for vertical wells in the TUFFP Databank. This included some
of the recent data obtained from Arco’s operations in the Prudhoe Bay field in Alaska.
Xiao
Like the Ansari work, the Xiao
83
model was also developed at TUFFP. It is a
comprehensive mechanistic model developed for horizontal and nearhorizontal
pipelines. Flow pattern prediction, which forms the basis of the analysis, were based on
the pioneering work of Taitel and Dukler
84
and its subsequent extensions.
The Taitel and Dukler twofluid formulation has been used as the basis for the stratified
flow model. Interfacial shear has been addressed through a combination of the separate
approaches by Andritsos and Hanratty
85
, and Baker et al.
86
The treatment of the annular
flow geometry, under the assumption that flow in the gas core is homogeneous, is similar
to the twofluid stratified flow model. The Oliemans et al.
87
model, originally developed
for vertical annular flow, was used to represent interfacial friction and liquid entrainment
Intermittent flow was characterized by alternating liquid slugs and gas pockets, with a
stratified layer flowing along the bottom of the pipe. The Taitel and Barnea
88
approach
was used to develop the fundamental slug flow model, with the Taitel and Dukler
approach to shear stress modified for the specific flow geometry.
Field validation was based on the American Gas Association (AGA) database, as well as
field data presented by Mcleod et al. A majority of the validation was based on
comparison of model predictions against smallscale laboratory data.
TACITE
The TACITE hydrodynamic model is the steadystate basis for a comprehensive
transient simulator. The details of the model are outlined in the work of Pauchon et al.
89
626 Technical Reference
TACITE, which is applicable for any pipe inclination, is based on the concept of
characterizing any flow pattern as a combination of two basic geometries: separated and
dispersed. Slug flow, for example, may be described as a combination of the stratified
and dispersed flow patterns.
The bases for the formulation are the transport equations for multiphase flow. These
include separate mass conservation equations for each of the two phases, and combined
momentum and energy balances. The remaining equation, defining closure, is obtained
from the prevailing flow pattern.
For dispersed flow, the closure equation is the drift flux relationship for the gas velocity
as a function of the mixture velocity, where the bubble diameter is obtained by balancing
the work of surface tension with turbulent dissipation.
For stratified flow, the pressure gradient term in the separate gas and liquid momentum
balance equations are equated. The interfacial shear stress term is approximated from the
law proposed by Andritsos and Hanratty.
90
The intermittent flow regime is treated as a periodic structure of dispersed and separated
flows. The slug velocity is determined from an extension to relationship proposed by
Nicklin et al.,
91
using Andreussi and Bendiksens
92
void fraction model for the liquid
slug.
Validation of TACITE is based on data collected from a variety of sources, including the
Boussens databank, stratified flow data obtained by TUFFP, and data obtained from the
MPE project of BHRG. It has also been validated with field data collected by ELF
Aquitaine and TOTAL. Two of these applications have been for gas condensate lines
(NE Frigg, Zuidvaal), while the third was an oil (black) and gas line (Alwyn). TACITE is
presently being tested against the database developed by a consortium of oil companies
and research organizations for the MIRANDA project.
OLGA
The OLGA model has been described by Bendiksen et al.
93
The physical model, valid
across the range of inclination angles, is based on separate conservation of mass
relationships for the gas and liquid phases, as well as for the entrained liquid droplets.
The additional equations in the formulation are momentum balances for each of the two
phases, and a combined mixture energy balance.
As with any other mechanistic approach, the application of the conservation equations is
flow patterndependent. In particular, the friction factor and wetted perimeter terms are
based on the predicted geometry of the flow distribution. As such, the first step in the
algorithm is the determination of the flow pattern, based on the local distribution of two
phase parameters.
OLGA has been compared with data from various experimental facilities, covering a
wide range of pipe sizes, fluids, inclination angles and operating conditions. The bulk of
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 627
this data was obtained from experiments at the SINTEF TwoPhase Flow Laboratory in
Norway. The model was also tested with good agreement against a number of oil field
facilities.
Recommendations on Pressure Drop Correlations
For recommendations on SinglePhase Methods and TwoPhase and Compositional
Methods, see A.
Solution Algorithms Used in PIPEPHASE
The Calculation Segment and Iteration Methodology
The Calculation Segment
PIPEPHASE works in segments to determine the pressure, temperature, holdup, and
flow pattern distribution in all flow devices: pipe, tubing string or annulus. A segment is
the smallest calculation increment of a larger length of pipe as shown in Figure 612.
Segmentspecific results can be seen in the detailed report for flow devices in the
PIPEPHASE output file.
Separate segment sizes can be specified for all horizontal (pipe) and vertical (tubing,
annulus) flow devices, either as segment length or the number of segments per device,
through the General Data Category of input. These options should be considered prior to
any simulation involving significant changes in fluid density. Almost all multiphase and
singlephase gas applications, as well as singlephase liquid models with sharp thermal
gradients fall under this classification.
For blackoil, condensate and singlephase systems, the segment length is defaulted to a
value equal to the length of the flow device (i.e., no segmentation). For compositional or
steam systems, a flow device may be internally divided, automatically by PIPEPHASE,
into several compositional segments based on a maximum limit to the enthalpy change
per segment.
Figure 612: The Calculation Segment
Note: In Figure 612, m represents the total mass flowrate of fluid.
628 Technical Reference
A shorter segment size will increase the accuracy of the simulation at the expense of
computation time. If you are unsure of an optimal segment size, the simulation should be
run first with default segmenting. In subsequent runs, you should adjust segment sizes on
the basis of the results of the prior simulations until the optimal point is identified.
Default Segment Calculation Procedure
Figure 613 outlines the segment calculation procedure for every pipe, tubing, and
annulus for compositional or steam systems. The procedure for implementing the
pressure drop equations for flow devices described in the section titled, An Introduction
to Fluid Flow, is iterative, since average conditions of pressure and temperature are
required to calculate the phase equilibria and physical properties that are required by the
pressure drop and energy balance calculations. To achieve this, PIPEPHASE employs an
inner loop for the convergence on pressure, and an outer loop for enthalpy convergence.
For blackoil or singlephase fluids where there are no enthalpy calculations, the segment
calculation procedure reduces to a single iteration loop.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 629
Figure 613: Default Segment Pressure and Temperature Calculation Procedure
630 Technical Reference
The SHORTPIPE Segment Calculation Procedure
The user has the option of employing a different algorithm for the calculation segment,
known as the SHORTPIPE method (Figure 614). This method is activated from the
CALCULATION statement in the General Data Category of input. Instead of using an
iterative procedure to find average temperature and pressure over a segment, this method
uses the inlet conditions to the segment on which to base all property and flash
calculations. This technique therefore avoids any iteration, and is much faster than the
default method. The user should consider using the SHORTPIPE method in the
following situations (with associated restrictions):
Simulations where pipe runs contain fluids undergoing small pressure changes relative
to the node inlet pressure. In these cases, fluid properties do not change significantly
over a segment, and the assumption of using inlet conditions is valid. Using the
SHORTPIPE method under these conditions will reduce the execution time
considerably.
1. In high velocity/accelerational systems such as flare simulations where link conver
gence has been encountered. In these cases, the reverse of case (1) is true, and fluid
properties change significantly across a given segment. Therefore, in switching to
the SHORTPIPE method, the user should increase the number of segments per pipe
(i.e. reduce the segment size) to increase each SHORTPIPE calculation segment
accuracy.
2. In large compositional systems. In these cases, using the default segment calculation
method results in very long execution times. In these situations the SHORTPIPE
method may be specified in order to reduce execution times, but the number of seg
ments per pipe should be generally increased to ensure accurate physical property
and flash calculations across each segment.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 631
Figure 614: SHORTPIPE Segment Calculation ProcedureSHORTPIPE Segment Calculation
Procedure
632 Technical Reference
The Single Link Calculation Method
This method simulates the single link algorithm which is used for line sizing, nodal
analysis, and other simulation models that focus on a single link in the system. There are
two possible solution scenarios for this method as shown below.
Figure 615: Single Link Calculation Method Options
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 633
PIPEPHASE divides the pipe sections into segments as defined by the user in the input,
and then uses a “marching” algorithm to achieve pressure drop and heat transfer results.
The term “marching” is used to describe the stepbystep process by which PIPEPHASE
solves calculation segments sequentially.
Scenario A:
This is the simplest request of the single link method, and is a straightforward once
only pass from source to sink.
Note: The flowrate in this scenario can be fixed at either the source or sink node.
Scenario B:
With the pressure drop fixed over the link, the single link procedure must iterate on
flowrate until an outlet pressure is achieved which matches that specified by the
user.
The Network Calculation Method
A typical network which can be solved using PIPEPHASE’s network solution algorithm
is shown in Figure 616.
Figure 616: A Typical Network
634 Technical Reference
Definition of a Network
A PIPEPHASE network is defined as a system of two or more links joined together. A
link is defined as a connection between two nodes. A node can be a sink (where fluid
leaves the system), a source (where fluid enters the system), or a junction (where two
links join together).
The network solution algorithm can be used to solve any type of pipeline network, from
complex, multiphase looped systems tosinglephase gas transmission lines .
Internally, PIPEPHASE generates a set of material and pressure balance equations from
the input data, and proceeds to solve these equations simultaneously using a Newton
Raphson scheme and a matrix solver. As will be seen in the following section, almost
any combination of flow and pressure node conditions can be solved, which gives you
tremendous flexibility in solving a wide variety of problems.
Pressure Balance Method
The methodology for determining the pressure and flow distribution in a pipeline
network is based on a pressure balance (PBAL) solution algorithm.
From a network flow balance, the PBAL algorithm first identifies the set of starting link
flows which is the minimum set of link flow rates that completely define the network flow
distribution. Spur links, which are flowratespecified isolated sections that do not affect
the rest of the solution, are identified and solved, independently of the general network
solution.
The primary variables for the solution matrix are the starting link flowrates and all
unknown pressure values at source boundaries. Pressure imbalances are computed at all
fixed pressure sink or junction node boundaries, as well as at nodes with two or more
incoming flows.
NewtonRaphson iterations are employed to solve the nonlinear equation set. The
elements of the solution Jacobian can be determined from the partial derivative of the
node pressures with respect to the incoming link flowrates and the corresponding
upstream pressures.
Mass Balance Method
The mass balance (MBAL) solution method is used to provide PBAL with a good initial
estimate of the flow and pressure distribution in the network. The algorithm is based on
the principle that the sum of all flows into (and out of) all nodes in a network must equal
zero. Mathematically, the sum of all junction flows can be expressed as nonlinear
functions of the nodal pressure and temperature distribution in the network. The MBAL
algorithm solves the nonlinear set of equations by decoupling the network temperature
field from the pressure field. NewtonRaphson iterations are used to solve the nonlinear
set of equations for nodal pressures. The solution for the decoupled temperature field
follows from the conservation of energy at the junction nodes.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 635
How to Set up a Network Problem
There are some basic rules common to any type of simulation which are listed below
along with the rules which must be followed in setting up a network problem in
PIPEPHASE.
• Before the PIPEPHASE program is used, you should write down the objective of the
simulation, i.e., list which answers you want from the program output. This step pro
vides a focus which saves time and effort in entering data into the program.
• The network that is to be simulated should then be translated into a network dia
gram, similar to the one shown in Figure 616. Here the diagram consists only of
nodes (sources, junctions and sinks), links, and alphanumeric names for each node,
which can be up to four characters. Importantly, the network diagram includes
arrows on each link to denote assumed input flow direction, and also marks the loca
tion and label of major items of process equipment, if relevant.
• The number of nodes in the system should then be counted, and next to each node a
pressure (P) and flowrate (Q) annotation should be added.
• In a direct analogy with Kirchoff’s Laws in electrical engineering theory, any net
work must be configured such that the total number of pressures (P’s) and flowrates
(Q’s) that are fixed by the user must equal the number of nodes present in the sys
tem, or
(635)
To assist in setting up networks and to follow good simulation practice:
• Each boundary node should have one fixed value and one estimated value.
• At least one boundary node pressure must be fixed.
In Figure 616, there are 7 nodes, and hence the number of P’s and Q’s to be fixed must
equal 7 (i.e., the total number of P = and Q = ). All other P’s and Q’s are to be
calculated by the program. The P’s and Q’s to be calculated by PIPEPHASE must be
given an estimated value, either by the user in the input data, or automatically allocated
by the program itself (denoted by P = and Q = ). With this equality rule in mind,
the user has full flexibility in which node P and Q values are to be fixed, and which are
to be calculated. The flowrate, Q, at a junction is zero, and is therefore always a fixed
value. This is because at steady state, the net flow at the junction point is given by:
(636)
Therefore,
E P Q + ( )
FIXED
ENodes E P Q + ( )
TO BE CALCULATED
= =
Q
i n
Q
out
=
636 Technical Reference
(637)
• You may then specify the details of the structure within the links. The devices
appearing in each link should be ordered sequentially in the direction dictated by the
FROM=/TO= statement (see 4), or, in the case of loop links, the expected direction
of flow.
• Assuming all other categories of input are satisfied, you are then ready to run the
simulation. When problems are encountered, a printed iteration history can assist in
diagnosing which course of action to take to produce a solution. To do this, use the
ITER keyword in the PRINT statement prior to executing the run.
There are several additional tips on the setting up of networks, and these are given in a
later section on Converging Network Simulations.
Fluid Models Used in PIPEPHASE
PIPEPHASE allows you to choose between two different categories of fluid models:
• NonCompositional fluid,
and
• Compositional fluid
All heat transfer and pressure drop calculations performed by the program use certain
fluid physical properties. The accuracy of these fluid properties is therefore of primary
importance in system modeling. This section of the technical reference will enable you
to choose the most appropriate method(s) for fluid properties, and to be conversant with
the program default methods as detailed in the main manual text.
NonCompositional Fluid Models
There are five fluid types under this category:
• Singlephase gas
• Singlephase liquid
• Blackoil
• Condensate
• Steam
These fluid models predict bulk fluid properties from the gas or liquid gravities (or
densities) alone, and thus are useful in systems where there is little information known
concerning stream compositions.
Q
net
0 =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 637
Singlephase Gas
This fluid model is used when there is no liquid phase present throughout the simulation.
The gas specific gravity is used to calculate required physical properties.
Gas Compressibility (z)
You have the choice between the StandingKatz
7
(default) and HallYarborough
7
(for wet
or dry gases) correlations to calculate the gas compressibility (zfactor). StandingKatz
data were taken from experiments with natural gas only, and the resultant zfactor
accuracies are strongly reliant on a precise specific gravity entry. StandingKatz is also
able to correct for the existence of contaminants such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or
hydrogen sulfide. The HallYarborough methods for dry and wet gases result from
curvefitting original StandingKatz data, and are also able to correct for the existence of
contaminants. Both methods correlate zfactor as a function of specific gravity,
temperature and pressure.
Gas Density (p
G
)
This is calculated from:
(638)
Gas Viscosity (u
G
)
You have the choice between the Lee
8
(default, shown below) and the Katz
9
correlations.
Both correlations calculate the gas viscosity as a function of specific gas gravity,
temperature, and pressure. The Katz method uses experimental data in the range 40
400ºF and 1<P
r
<20.
Lee (default)
(639)
(640)
(641)
where:
T
A
= Temperature in Rankine
p
G
PM
zRT
 =
u
G
0.0001K 0.0433Xp¸
G
P
zT

\ .
 
exp =
K
9.4 0.02M + ( )T
A
1.5
209 19M T
A
+ + ( )
 =
X 3.5
986
T
A
  0.01M + + =
638 Technical Reference
Gas Specific Heat Capacity (Cp
G
)
Specific heat is calculated as a function of temperature (ºF) using the correlation:
(642)
where:
SinglePhase Liquid
The single liquid phase fluid model is used when there is no gas phase present
throughout the simulation. The liquid specific gravity is used to calculate required
physical properties. With the noncompositional singlephase fluid model the you are
able to specify the liquid as water or hydrocarbon, and in doing so activate the relevant
default physical property correlations.
Hydrocarbon Liquid Viscosity (u
l
)
You have the choice between the TUFFP (Beggs/Robinson)
10
(default, described below)
and BealStanding/ChewConally
11
correlations for hydrocarbon liquid viscosity
calculations. The latter method is based on an API gravity of 60 or lower, and a
temperature of 300ºF or lower. Also, PIPEPHASE sets a minimum viscosity of 0.2 cP
and a maximum of 10,000 cP for the BealStanding/ChewConally method.
Beggs and Robinson Correlation
The TUFFP (Beggs/Robinson) correlation is based on gravities in the range 16 < API <
58, temperatures in the range 70 < T (ºF) < 295, and pressures in the range 0 < P (psig) <
5250.
When oilwater emulsions are formed, the viscosity is calculated from the Woelflin
correlation for tight, medium, or loose emulsions (Figure 617), or from a userspecified
curve of viscosity ratio versus water cut.
Standing Correlation
Beal had presented a graphical correlation to determine deadoil viscosity. However,
Standing was able to present Beal's correlation with a mathematical equation for deadoil
viscosity. The API gravity and temperature should be known. The pressure should be 1
atm and temperature expressed in R. Refer 62.
Glaso Correlation
This correlation has been found to be extremely accurate for the ranges it has been
recommended to be used. Glaso had derived the empirical correlation using data from
North Sea. Refer Table 62.
T = Temperature in ºF
CpG = Heat capacity in BTU/lb
C
pG
0.39 0.00085 T 100 – ( ) + =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 639
Vazquez and Beggs
Vazquez gave a correlation that accounted for increase in viscosity of oil, at a pressure
above bubble point. However, this correlation is applicable for some specific data
ranges, also presented in the Table 62. This method is used as default in PIPEPHASE.
Note: Vazquez and Beggs correlation is not applicable for dead oil
Oilwater Viscosity (u
L
)
API Procedure
Oilwater mixture viscosity may be determined from volumetric mixing, or by the
following API Procedure 14B. Refer Table 62 for the correlation.
Woelflin's Correlation
William Woelflin presented data that could be used to estimate the viscosity of a brine
inoil type of emulsion from a known cleanoil viscosity. He proposed that the emulsions
produced by incremental addition of water and mechanical mixing, the viscosity of the
resulting emulsion increases exponentially with the watercut, up to a point where the
viscosity drops sharply to a value close to that of the parent water. The point at which the
viscosity drops sharply is the inversion point, marking the inversion of the emulsion.
Refer Figure 617.
However, weakness of this approach lies in the following assumptions:
The reference graph takes no account of the varying degrees of mixing in practice but
assumes total emulsification of the oilwater mixture. This may lead to overestimation
of pressure loss in pipes.
It is inaccurate to assume that all oils have the same inversion watercut. The error in
equipment specification due to this assumption could be large, especially for water cuts
close to the inversion point.
640 Technical Reference
Figure 617: Emulsion Viscosity Ratio (Woelflin)
Table 62: Correlations to Calculate Oil Viscosity
Name Correlation Notes
BEGGS &
ROBINSON
70
Used for Ranges:
16 < API < 58
70 < T (ºF) < 295
0 < P (psig) < 5250
STANDING
72 Where
and Temperature expressed in
o
R
Use for Pressure = 1 atm
GLASO
71
Where
K = 3.141 X 10
10
T = system temperature in
o
F
Considered as the most accurate correlation for
deadoil viscosity.
Ranges
VAZQUEZ &
BEGGS
73
Where
Ranges
Pressure = 141 to 9515 psia
Gas Solubility = 90.3 to 2,199 scf/stb
Viscosity = 0.117 to 148 cp
Gas Specific Gravity = 0.511 to 1.351
Oil Gravity = 15.3 to 59.5
o
API
*Applicable unsaturated crude oils.
u
L
10
x
1 – =
X
10
3.0324 0.02023API –
T
1.163
 =
u
od
0.32
1.8 10
7
×
¸
API
4.53
 +
\ .

 
=
360
T 260 –

\ .
 
a 10
0.43 8.33 ¸
API
+ ) (
=
u
od
KT
3.444 –
¸
API
log ( )
a
=
a 10.313 T log ( ) 36.447 – =
20.1 ¸
API
48.1 s s 50 T 300 s s
u
o
u
ob
p
p
b

.

\

m
=
m 2.6p
1.187
10
a
=
a 3.9X10
5 –
( )p
5 –
– =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 641
Water Viscosity (u
w
)
You have the choice between the Beal (default) and ASME
12
steam table methods.
Specific Heat Capacity (Cp)
The specific heat capacity is evaluated as a function of oil gravity (degree API) and
temperature (degree F):
(643)
Blackoil (and Other Empirical Methods)
The blackoil model refers to a multiphase fluid model commonly used in industry. This
model predicts fluid properties from the specific gravities of the produced gas and oil,
and the corresponding volumetric phase ratio at reference conditions (gasoil or gas
liquid ratio). The phase split at in situ conditions is determined from empirical
correlations. The corresponding singlephase properties are then evaluated from their
respective fluid models.
API
PROCEDURE
For R > 1,
For R < 1,
Used for oilwater mixture.
Symbol Definition Units Subscript Definition
API
gravity degrees API b bubble point
formation volume factor bbl/stb o oil
M
molecular weight dimensionless od dead oil
P
pressure psia sc standard conditions
scf/stb g gas
dimensionless
T
temperature
o
R or
o
F
Name Correlation Notes
R
q
o
q
w
 =
u
L
u
1
u
2
u
3
+ =
u
L
u
2
1 2.5R + ( ) =
C
p
BTU / lb ( ) 0.33 0.0022 API 0.00055 T · + · + =
642 Technical Reference
The blackoil model assumes that the liquid at stock tank (i.e., at reference conditions of
pressure and temperature) remains in the liquid phase under all conditions. The separated
gas (at stock tank conditions), however is assumed to exist both as free gas in the vapor
phase, as well as dissolved gas in the liquid phase. This approximation is usually valid
for a crude oil that is heavier than 45 degrees API.
Note: In PIPEPHASE, the reference conditions for pressure and temperature are 14.70
psia and 60 degrees Fahrenheit, respectively.
Solution GasOil Ratio
The solution gasoil ratio is the volume of dissolved gas, expressed at standard
conditions, per unit volume of stock tank oil, at a given condition of pressure and
temperature. This ratio increases with pressure until all of the gas dissolves at the bubble
point pressure.
Table 63: Notes and References for SOLUTION GAS/OIL RATIO CORRELATIONS
Name Correlation Notes
LASATER
69 For
,
Use for API > 15
Use with VAZQUEZ FVF
Based on blackoils from Canada, the Western
and MidContinental US, and South America
Experimental accuracy was 7%
For y
g
, PIPEPHASE does a
piecewise curve fit
STANDING
72 For = ~ 1000
For P < 1000,
where
Use for API < 15
Based on California gascrude systems
Experimental accuracy was 10%
R
s
R
p
s
R
s
379.3 ( ) 35 ( )¸
o sc ,
M
o
 

y
g
1 y
g
–

=
y
g
vs.
P¸
g
T 460 + ( )
data
R
s
¸
g
Px ( )
1.20482
18 ( )
1.20482
 =
R
s
¸
g
x
P
13.46

\ .
 
0.93023
\ .
 
1.20482
=
x 10
0.0125API 0.000917 – ( )
=
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 643
Solution GasWater Ratio
The solution gaswater ratio is the volume of dissolved gas, expressed at standard
conditions, per unit volume of stock tank water, at a given condition of pressure and
temperature.
PIPEPHASE uses the Culbertson and McKetta correlation for calculating the solution
gaswater ratio. This correlation was developed for pure methane, which is the
predominant component in natural gases. It also assumes that the bubble point pressure
for the water is the same as that for the associated oil. In general, the accuracy of this
prediction is within five percent for natural gases.
Oil Formation Volume Factor
The oil formation volume factor is the in situ volume of the oil phase, comprising both
oil and dissolved gas, that is occupied by a unit volume of oil at stock tank conditions.
The formation volume factor is influenced by the amount of dissolved gas as well as the
compressibility of the oil. Below the bubble point pressure, the oil formation volume
VAZQUEZ
73
For ,
For ,
where
Newer and more general than the Lasater and
Standing correlations
Symbol Definition Units Subscript Definition
API
gravity degrees API b bubble point
B
formation volume factor bbl/stb o oil
g
specific gravity (60 F/60F) dimensionless s solution
M
molecular weight dimensionless p produced
P
pressure psia sc standard conditions
R
gas/oil ratio scf/stb g gas
SG
specific gravity at 100 psig dimensionless
T
temperature F
y
gas mole fraction dimensionless
Name Correlation Notes
API 30 s
R
s
SG ( ) P
1.0937
( )10
11.172A
27.64
 =
API 30 >
R
s
SG ( ) P
1.187
( )10
10.393A
56.06
 =
A
API
T 460 + ( )
 =
644 Technical Reference
factor increases as more gas dissolves with increasing pressure. Above the bubble point
pressure, the formation volume factor decreases with pressure due to compressibility
effects.
Table 64: Notes and References for Oil Formation Volume Factor Correlations
Name Correlation Notes
VAZQUEZ
73
For ,
For ,
Where
For P > Pb, see oil compressibility (discussed under
Blackoil Physical Properties).
Use for API> 15
STANDING
72
For ,
Where
For P > Pb, see oil compressibility (discussed under
Blackoil Physical Properties).
Experimental accuracy was 5%
Symbol Definition Units Subscript Definition
API
gravity degrees API b bubble point
B
formation volume factor bbl/stb o oil
g
specific gravity (60 F/60F) dimensionless s solution
M
molecular weight dimensionless p produced
P
pressure psia sc standard conditions
R
gas/oil ratio scf/stb g gas
SG
specific gravity at 100 psig dimensionless
T
temperature F
y
gas mole fraction dimensionless
P P
b
< and API 30 s
B
0
1 4.67x10
4 –
R
s
0.175Dx + ( ) + =
10
4 –
1.8106R
s
Dx10
8 –
–
P P
b
< and API 30 s
B
0
1 4.67x10
4 –
R
s
0.11Dx + ( ) + =
10
4 –
0.1337R
s
Dx10
8 –
–
D
T 60 – ( )API
SG
 =
P P
b
<
B
0
0.972 0.000147F
1.175
+ =
F R
s
¸
g
0.5
¸osc
 1.25T + =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 645
Water Formation Volume Factor
The water formation volume factor is the in situ volume of water occupied by a unit
volume of water at stock tank conditions. Since the solubility of gas in the water is
negligible when compared to oil, its effect on the water formation volume factor is
ignored in PIPEPHASE. Water formation volume factors are computed from water
densities, using the 1967 ASTM formulations.
Surface Tension
Surface tension is an important parameter in flow pattern prediction. Oil surface tension
is computed as a function of oil and gas gravity as well as pressure and temperature from
the empirical work of Baker and Swerdloff. Gaswater surface tension is calculated as a
function of pressure and temperature, using the method proposed for Katz et al for
methane. The overall gasliquid surface tension is obtained from volumetric averaging.
Fluid Mixing Rules for Blackoil Models
Fluid mixing occurs when two (or more) links having fluid coming into one node.
Consider the following case in the below figure:
Gathering Network System
646 Technical Reference
Fluid flows from sources A1, A2, and A3 to junction node A. Then, the combined fluid
flows through link AB.
Assume that the sources are associated with different PVT data sets to represent their
fluid properties. What set of PVT properties are we going to use to calculate pressure
drop or heat transfer in link AB?
The combined (or composite) GHV value is calculated as follows:
GHV
c
= (Qg
A1
* GHV
A1
+ Qg
A2
* GHV
A2
+ Qg
A3
*GHV
A3
)/ (Qg
A1
+ Qg
A2
+ Qg
A3
)
where:
GHV
c
: Combined Gross Heating Value to be used in Link AB
Qg
A1:
Volumetric Gas Flow Rate at Standard Conditions in Source Node A1
GHV
A1:
Gross Heating Value for Fluid Coming from Source Node A1
Qg
A2:
Volumetric Gas Flow Rate at Standard Conditions in Source Node A2
GHV
A2:
Gross Heating Value for Fluid Coming from Source Node A2
Qg
A3:
Volumetric Gas Flow Rate at Standard Conditions in Source Node A3
GHV
A3:
Gross Heating Value for Fluid Coming from Source Node A3
Fluid properties like Oil Gravity, Gas Gravity, and Water Gravity for link AB are also
calculated as an average weighted volumetric average:
For Oil Gravity:
API
c
= (Qo
A1
* API
A1
+ Qo
A2
* API
A2
+ Qo
A3
*API
A3
)/ (Qo
A1
+ Qo
A2
+ Qo
A3
)
where:
API
c
: Combined Oil Gravity to be used in Link AB
Qo
A1:
Volumetric Oil Flow Rate at Standard Conditions in Source Node A1
API
A1:
Oil Gravity for Fluid Coming from Source Node A1
Qo
A2:
Volumetric Oil Flow Rate at Standard Conditions in Source Node A2
Node GHV (BTU/SCF)
A1 1200
A2 1100
A3 1250
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 647
API
A2:
Oil Gravity for Fluid Coming from Source Node A2
Qo
A3:
Volumetric Oil Flow Rate at Standard Conditions in Source Node A3
API
A3:
Oil Gravity for Fluid Coming from Source Node A3
Condensate
PIPEPHASE simulates gas condensate systems using the API Procedure 14B model. For
these systems, gas may or may not condense depending on the in situ pressure and
temperature. This model assumes no liquid is present below the dew point pressure. In
situ condensate flowrate is calculated by multiplying the standard volumetric flowrate by
a pseudoformation volume factor (pseudoFVF).
The pseudoFVF is the ratio of in situ condensate mass to the mass of condensate at
stock tank conditions. The model assumes the condensate density is constant and equal
to the density at stock tank conditions. (Since densities are assumed constant, the
definition is based on mass.) The pseudoFVF is a function of condensate specific
gravity, dew point pressure, pressure, and temperature.
Dew point pressure, mass phase split (mass distribution between the liquid and vapor
phases), and surface tensions of condensate and water are calculated from empirical
relationships. Dew point pressure is a function of condensate specific gravity and
temperature.
Note: Mixing methods are the same as blackoil.
Steam Model
Although the methods used are actually compositional, the steam fluid model is listed in
this category because its use is activated by a statement which does not fall under the
compositional fluid model category. This model involves a pressureenthalpy
formulation in order to calculate a pressure and temperature traverse. For water systems
modeled with the steam method, PIPEPHASE uses the methods given in Table 65 for
calculating fluid properties:
Table 65: Steam Property Calculation Methods
Property Method
Steam quality and enthalpy SimSci steam package
53
Steam viscosity SimSci component library
Water enthalpy SimSci steam package
Water viscosity Bingham & Jackson
data
32
Steam and water densities ASME steam tables (1967)
648 Technical Reference
Compositional Fluid Models
Compositional Fluid Modeling is a method for describing a flow stream based on its
pure and other pseudocomponents. Equilibrium phase splits and homogeneous phase
properties are determined by blending the properties of the stream constituents.
Accuracy of Compositional Modeling
The accuracy of a compositional fluid model depends on the accuracy of the pure
component properties, the accuracy and applicability of the thermodynamic property
(phase split, enthalpy, density) generator selected, and the accuracy of the mixing
correlations used in stream transport property calculations.
The compositional fluid model in PIPEPHASE is based on stream composition data
input by the user. Pure component properties are taken directly from the PIPEPHASE
component data library (Appendix A). For petroleum (pseudo) components, the
equivalent “pure properties” are calculated using industry standard characterization
methods based on gravity, normal boiling point, and molecular weight.
Properties Calculated Using the Compositional Fluid Model
The following properties are determined for each component:
• Equilibrium Kvalues (phase split)
• Gas and liquid enthalpies
• Gas and liquid densities
• Gas and liquid viscosities
• Surface tension
• Gas and liquid thermal conductivities
Equilibrium KValues (Phase Split)
Equilibrium Kvalues are used to predict the phase split for a given composition,
pressure, and temperature.
Table 72 lists notes and references for the Kvalue methods currently available in
PIPEPHASE. The references indicated in this table are given in C. These correlations
were developed for, and are applicable primarily to hydrocarbon systems. Some of the
equationofstate methods require component properties such as critical temperature,
critical pressure, and acentric factor. For pure components this information is available
in PIPEPHASE’s data libraries, but for pseudocomponents this information must be
predicted empirically. The methods so used and available in PIPEPHASE are given
below:
• Cavett Method
54
– default method, widely used in industry
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 649
• Cav80 Method
55
– same as Cavett, but uses 1980 API Technical Data Book method
• LeeKesler
23
• Twu
56
Table 66: Notes and References for Equilibrium Kvalue Correlations for Compositional Fluids
Correlation Equation of State Notes
SoaveRedlichKwong
27
SoaveRedlichKwong • Gives reasonable results for a wide
range of conditions including
cryogenic temperatures and pressures
up to 5000 psia.
• Correctly predicts the homogeneous
(dense) phase.
• Predicts phase behavior in the critical
region. However, calculations become
unstable at the critical point.
• Results for hydrogenaromatic
systems may be poor.
PengRobinson
22
PengRobinson • Notes listed under SoaveRedlich
Kwong also apply to PengRobinson.
LeeKeslerPlocker
23
Modified • Mixing rules handle mixtures of
asymmetric molecules better than
BenedictWebbRubin mixing rules.
• Inaccurate near the critical point. Do
not use for Tr > 0.96.
BenedictWebbRubin
StarlingTwu
29
BenedictWebbRubin
StarlingTwu
• Generates data for a full range of
fluids including light gases, synthetic
fuel, and coal tar.
• Incorporates Starling’s binary
interaction data modified by Twu.
ChaoSeader
31
Hildebrand equation for
liquid activity coefficients,
Redlich Kwong equation for
vapor fugacity
• Valid ranges: 0500 F (20250C);
<1500 psia (10,000 kPa)
• For hydrocarbons except methane,
valid for 0.5 < Tr < 1.3.
• Should not be used when the
concentration of H
2
and CH
4
in the
liquid phase exceeds 20% of the other
dissolved gases.
• Uses special coefficients for N
2
, H
2
S,
and CO
2
developed from data with
< 5% CO
2
or H
2
S at < 400 F (200 C)
and < 1000 psia (7000 kPa).
• Not recommended for fluids with > 5
mol% CO
2
or H
2
S.
650 Technical Reference
Enthalpy
The energy balance part of the iterative calculation segment solution procedure is based
on fluid enthalpy. Fluid enthalpies are calculated (except for the JohnsonGrayson
correlation) from the relationship:
(644)
where
Table 67 lists notes and references for the enthalpy correlations currently available in
PIPEPHASE.
Table 67: Notes and References for Enthalpy Correlations for Compositional Fluids
GraysonStreed
32
• Valid ranges: 0–800 F (20–450 C);
< 3000 psia (20,000 kPa).
• Extension of ChaoSeader.
• Often used for hydrogenrich systems
and heavy ends.
• Has been extrapolated to 1000 F
(550 C) with good results.
Braun K10
33
• Valid ranges: > 100 F (40 C);
< 100 psia (700 kPa).
• Good for low pressures only.
• Good for heavy ends.
• Results found reasonable up to 1200 F
(650 C).
H = Enthalpy
H* = Ideal gas enthalpy of the mixture
AH = Enthalpy deviation for the mixture
Correlation Notes
SoaveRedlichKwong
27
• Comparisons with experimental values show an average deviation of
1 Btu/lb.
• Produces reasonable results for nonhydrocarbons when Tc, Pc and are
known.
PengRobinson
22
• Essentially the same as the SoaveRedlichKwong correlation except
uses the PengRobinson equation of state.
• See notes listed above for SoaveRedlichKwong.
Correlation Equation of State Notes
H H
*
AH – H
*
RT z 1 – ( ) T
P d
T d

\ .
 
v
P – V d
·
V
í
+ + = =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 651
Heat Transfer in Flow Devices
The effect of heat transfer in flow devices can significantly alter the overall accuracy of
the simulation. The addition or removal of a small amount of heat to or from a system
may alter the physical properties of the fluid enough to cause a significant change in the
pressure drop across a device. Therefore, in certain systems, the accurate simulation of
heat transfer is important for the reliable prediction of pressure drop.
The heat transfer to a flow device is calculated in two ways depending on whether the
fluid model is noncompositional or compositional.
Note: See The Calculation Segment, p. 627, for a discussion of the calculation
segment, and Enthalpy, p. 650 for the logic for enthalpy balancing
LeeKesler
25
• Recommended by the API Technical Data Book.
• Results good for a wide variety of hydrocarbon mixtures.
• Covers a wide range of reduced pressure and temperature.
• Gives reasonable results for slightly polar chemical mixtures.
• Uses a threeparameter corresponding states principle.
• Developed from two equations of state similar to the BenedictWebb
Rubin equations.
LeeKeslerPlocker
23
• Modification of the LeeKesler correlation.
• See notes listed above for LeeKesler.
BenedictWebbRubin
StarlingTwu
29
• Computes deviations from ideal gas enthalpies.
CurlPitzer
19
• Good for P
r
< 10, 0.35 < T
r
< C 4.0 for liquids, 0.6 < T
r
< 4.0 for
gases.
• Limited to nonpolar mixtures.
• Predicts both liquid and gas enthalpies.
• Relates deviation from ideal gas enthalpy to T
r
, P
r
, and for the
mixture.
• Uses the mole average acentric factor and calculates mixture T
c
and P
c
from mixing rules by Stewart, Burkhart, and Voo.
JohnsonGrayson
46
• Essentially an ideal enthalpy correlation for petroleum fractions.
• Useful for heavy ends between 0 and 1200 F (20–650 C). May be
extrapolated to higher temperatures.
• Should not be used for C4–C5 or lighter mixtures.
• Calculates gas phase corrections using the CurlPitzer equation.
Correlation Notes
652 Technical Reference
Heat Transfer for NonCompositional Fluids
For noncompositionally (empirically) defined fluids, PIPEPHASE assumes that the heat
transferred from the fluid to its surroundings is equal to the heat change in the fluid
itself. In differential form, the heat transferred from the fluid to the surroundings is given
by:
(645)
where:
The change in the fluid temperature due to heat transfer from the fluid is given in
differential form as:
(646)
where:
In order to calculate the fluid temperature changes, equations (645) and (646) are set
equal, and integrated over the segment length L.
A special numerical integration yields an approach to an exponential curve, where the
fluid temperature approaches the ambient temperature.
Heat Transfer for Compositional Fluids
Heat transfer for compositionallydefined fluids or PIPEPHASE’s steam fluid model is
calculated using an enthalpy balance. Over each calculation segment, a change in
enthalpy may result from a change in fluid kinetic energy, a change in fluid potential
energy, or energy lost to or gained from the surrounding medium. This enthalpy balance
is given by equation (647).
(647)
dq = rate of heat transfer from the fluid to the surroundings
U = overall heat transfer coefficient
AT = temperature difference between fluid and the surroundings
dA = area through which heat flows and on which U is based = td dL
d = diameter
L = length
= rate of heat change in the fluid (
denotes difference with Eqn. (645))
m = mass flowrate
Cp = specific heat capacity of the fluid
= differential change in fluid temperature (
denotes difference with Eqn. (645))
dq UATdA =
dq
·
mC
p
dT
·
=
dq
·
dT
·
AH AH
KE
AH
PE
Q
out
+ + =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 653
where:
Equation (647) can be further expressed as:
(648)
where:
Figure 618: Heat Transfer for Compositional Fluid Models and Steam
Figure 618 (a) represents the analytical solution of equation (648). This would be the
result if PIPEPHASE were able to compute an infinite number of segments. Instead,
PIPEPHASE uses numerical integration techniques. Therefore, as shown in Figure 618
(b) and (c), the approach to reality (Figure 618 (a)) becomes closer with the more
calculation segments you specify.
AH = Overall change in enthalpy
AH
KE
= Change in enthalpy due to kinetic energy
AH
PE
= Change in enthalpy due to potential energy
Q
out
= Energy change with surrounding medium
AP = Estimated change in pressure over the segment (psia)
P = Average pressure in the segment (psia)
Az = Vertical elevation change over the segment (ft)
AL = Length of the segment (ft)
d = Reference diameter on which U is based (usually di or do)
T
avg
= Estimated average temperature in the segment (ºF)
T
G
= Ambient Temperature at the middle of the segment (ºF) = T
Ga
 (T
grad
)(Az)
T
Ga
= ambient temperature at the middle of the previous segment (ºF)
T
grad
= Temperature gradient (ºF per ft. elevation)
v
m
= Mixture velocity
v
sG
= Superficial gas velocity
AH
v
m
v
sG
AP –
778 ( ) 3217 ( )P

Az
778 ( )

Utd T
avg
T
G
– ( )AL
3600 ( ) m ( )
 – + =
654 Technical Reference
The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (Uvalue)
For pipes in PIPEPHASE, the Uvalue defaults to a value of 1.0 BTU/hrft
2
ºF unless
you specify otherwise in the input. PIPEPHASE is able to rigorously calculate the U
value and also allows you to override individual heat transfer coefficients, if desired.
Figure 619 shows a crosssection of a pipe, including each “layer” through which heat
must pass to be transferred from the fluid to the surroundings, or viceversa. These layers
have an overall resistance comprised of the sum of the resistances of the individual
layers.
Figure 619: Pipe Heat Transfer Resistances
The Uvalue for a pipe is calculated from:
(649)
The overall resistance is given by:
(650)
where:
R
inside, film
= Boundary layer on the inside of the pipe
R
pipe
= Material from which the pipe is made
R
insulation
= Insulation (up to five concentric layers)
R
surr
= Surroundings (soil, air, water or userdefined)
R
inside
= An additional resistance inside the pipe (optional)
U
1
EResis ces tan
 =
EResi s ces tan R
i nsi de fil m ,
R
pipe
R
i nsul ati on
R
surr
R
i nside
R
outsi de
R
rad
+ + + + + + =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 655
Equations used in PIPEPHASE to Calculate Resistances
Inside film resistance
(651)
where:
The Reynolds number is given by equation (56):
(652)
Pipe resistance
(653)
where:
Insulation resistance
(654)
where:
R
outside
= An additional resistance outside the pipe (optional)
R
rad
= Radiation (optional)
d = pipe inside diameter
kf = thermal conductivity of the film
Re = Reynolds number
di = pipe inside diameter
do = pipe outside diameter
kp = thermal conductivity of pipe
subscript j refers to the Jth layer of insulation (1sJs 5), and as applied to the diameter, d,
subscript J refers to the outer diameter of the Jth layer, and J1 refers to the inside
diameter of the Jth layer.
R
insi de fi lm ,
d
0.27k
f
Re
0.8
 =
Re
p
L
ì
L
p
G
ì
G
+ ( ) v
L
v
G
+ ( ) d
i
( ) 124.016 ( )
ì
L
u
L
ì
G
u
G
+
 =
R
pipe
dlog
e
d
o
d
i
( )
24k
p
 =
R
insulat ion
1
24
  d
1
k
j

log
e
d
j
d
j 1 –

j 1 =
n
¯
\ .


 
=
656 Technical Reference
Buried surroundings (e.g., soil resistance)
(655)
where:
Fluid surroundings (e.g., air, water)
(656)
The Reynolds number in equation (656) is given by:
(657)
Additional inside/outside resistance
(658)
(659)
where:
Note: You can supply the inside and outside heat transfer coefficients by using the
HINSIDE and HOUTSIDE keywords.
Radiation film resistance
(660)
D = depth from top of soil to pipe center line
Dt = diameter of pipe plus insulation
k
surr
= thermal conductivity of surroundings
H
inside
= Additional inside heat transfer coefficient (BTU/hrft
2
ºF)
H
outside
= Additional outside heat transfer coefficient (BTU/hrft
2
ºF)
R
surr
dlog
e
2D 4D
2
D
t
2
– ( )
0.5
+ ( ) D
t
 
24k
surr
 =
R
surr
d
o
12k
surr
10 Re
surr
( )1.3681 log  Pr
0.333
 =
Re
surr
181.89p
surr
v
surr
D
t
u
surr
 =
R
insi de
1 H
insi de
=
R
outside
1 H
out side
=
R
rad
1 H
rad
=
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 657
where:
Note: You can supply the radiative heat transfer coefficient by using the HRAD
keyword.
The additional inside resistance (R
inside
) is added to the Inside Film Resistance (R
inside
,
film) and the additional outside heat resistance, (R
outside
) is added to the fluid
surroundings resistance or buried surrounding resistance, (R
surr
).
If the radiation film resistance (R
rad
) is available, then this contribution is not added to
(R
surr
+ R
outside
) but rather treated as a parallel contributor in the following way:
(R
surr
+ R
outside
)*R
rad
/ (R
surr
+ R
outside
+ R
rad
) (661)
Partially Buried Pipes
It is possible for pipes to transfer heat to two different media (air and soil, for example)
simultaneously. To achieve this, PIPEPHASE allows negative values for the keyword
BDTOP. For example, values of BDTOP < 0 and BDTOP < OD indicates a partially
buried pipe.
For this situation, the program calculates two different values for the heattransfer
coefficient: one for the buried portion and the other for the exposed portion. Then, an
areaweighted equivalent value is calculated to represent the outside heattransfer
coefficient. The calculations do not take into consideration any variation in the wall
temperature between these two portions of the pipe.
Heat Transfer in Wellbores
95
Heat transfer in the wellbore is of particular importance in the simulation of hot fluid
Heat losses in the wellbore never reach a steady state. They attain a quasisteady state in
which the rate of heat loss is a monotonic decreasing function of time, dependent on the
rate at which heat is lost to the formation. The timedependent term in the overall heat
transfer coefficient which reflects the thermal resistance
95
of the formation as defined by
Ramey has been included in PIPEPHASE.
Additional PIPEPHASE capability in this area includes the ability to simulate heat
transfer effects in concentric and parallel tubing strings
Laminar Flow Heat Transfer
Laminar flow conditions typically exist in situations where viscous fluids are being
transported. The need for the accurate prediction of heat transfer effects becomes critical
on account of the temperature dependency of viscosity under such conditions.
PIPEPHASE uses Churchill’s approach for determining the heat transfer coefficient for
H
rad
= Radiative heat transfer coefficient (BTU/hrft2 ºF)
658 Technical Reference
both the laminar and transition regimes. Note that the friction factor derived from this
method is used solely for the purpose of calculating the heat transfer coefficient and does
not affect the hydraulic calculations in PIPEPHASE.
Equipment & Fittings Flow Devices
In addition to modeling pipes, PIPEPHASE also enables you to model items of process
equipment and pipe fittings inside links. These items are viewed as flow devices, and are
therefore treated in an analogous fashion to the pipe device available in the program. The
accurate modeling of process equipment, such as heaters, coolers and pumps, is
especially important in systems where pressure changes are largely due to these items,
rather than the piping runs.
The calculations associated with the equipment flow devices given in Table 68 are
discussed in this section.
Note: PIPEPHASE does not consider any length or elevation pressure drop effects
within these equipment types.
Table 68: Equipment Devices Modeled by PIPEPHASE
A discussion of the available fittings devices is presented later in this section.
Pump
The pump device should only be used for incompressible fluids. If the fluid is
compressible then the compressor unit should be used instead.
PIPEPHASE uses the standard GPSA pump equation to relate power and pressure
increase:
(662)
where:
Pump Compressor
DPDT device Choke
Check Valve Heaters and Coolers
Separators
Qv =
the volumetric flowrate (gpm)
n = the percentage pump efficiency
In equation (662), power is measured in horsepower, hp.
Power
Q
v
AP
1715n
 =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 659
Lost work (through pump inefficiency) is converted to heat, which may cause the fluid
temperature to rise. The resulting fluid temperature is given by equation (663).
(663)
where:
Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP)
The ESP model in PIPEPHASE is an extension of the basic pump model. ESPs are a
common method of artificial lift applicable to wells producing at rates ranging from a
few hundred barrels to thousands of barrels per day. The application of ESPs is limited
by excessive free gas and high temperatures associated with deep wells.
In addition to the head and efficiency curves required for the standard pump model in
PIPEPHASE, the performance of an ESP is characterized by a horsepower curve,
defined as a function of the flowrate. The effect of viscous fluids is modeled through the
Riling correction factor to the performance curves. PIPEPHASE also supports user
specified data on the effect of free gas on pump performance.
In order to reduce the gas injection rate, ESPs are sometimes configured with upstream
separators. PIPEPHASE will allow you to specify the gas injection percentage into the
pump based on this separator. The separated gas may be reinjected back into the
production stream or vented to the atmosphere.
Compressor
PIPEPHASE uses the standard GPSA equation to relate compressor power and outlet
pressure:
(664)
where:
o = the specific gravity of the fluid
T = the temperature in degrees Rankine (R)
Cp = the fluid specific heat capacity at constant pressure, and for compositional fluids is
equal to dH/dT, which is computed rigorously through flash calculations.
Subscripts inlet and outlet refer to the pump inlet and outlet conditions respectively.
zavg = the compressibility at average temperature and pressure
n
adia
the adiabatic compressor efficiency
T
outl et
T
i nlet
2.31AP
o

\ .
 
1
n 1 –

\ .
 
+
780C
P
 =
Power
1545mz
avg
T
inlet
P
2
P
1
( )
k 1 –
k

1 –
550Mn
adi a
k 1 – ( ) k  
 =
660 Technical Reference
Lost work (through inefficiency) is assumed to be converted to heat which may cause the
temperature of the fluid to rise:
(665)
DPDT Devices
DPDT devices simulate equipment for which no standard PIPEPHASE model exists.
These devices are typically used to model the performance of specially designed valves
and fittings. For these devices, you supply data relating the fluid flowrate, the pressure
change and temperature change in tabular form.
PIPEPHASE linearly interpolates this table during calculations, and therefore you
should ensure that data entered covers the whole range of anticipated equipment process
conditions. If the entered range of data is exceeded at any point in during the simulation,
PIPEPHASE uses the last tabular data point. Therefore if you are unsure as to the likely
simulation range, then a dummy high or low value should be entered in this device in
order that a reasonable value is selected by PIPEPHASE in any possible simulation
condition.
Chokes
The fluid model type you have chosen dictates which correlations are used for
calculating the pressure drop across a choke.
SinglePhase Gas and SinglePhase Liquid Models
For these fluid models, the choke pressure drop is calculated from equations (666–670)
based on a squareedged orifice (shown in Figure 620).
Cr = fluid specific heat capacity and constant volume
m = mass flowrate
M = average molecular weight of fluid
P
2
= outlet pressure
P
1
= inlet pressure
T
outl et
T
i nlet
T
i nlet
P
2
P
1
( )
k 1 –
k

1 –
n
adia
 + =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 661
Figure 620: Choke Model in PIPEPHASE — Schematic
(666)
(667)
(668)
(669)
(670)
where:
If a discharge coefficient of zero is input, PIPEPHASEwill calculate the coefficient from
the diameter ratio, , and the Reynolds number.
k = Specific heat ratio, Cp/Cv
Y = Gas expansion factor for nozzles
D
dis
= Orifice discharge coefficient
AP AP
1
AP
2
– =
AP
1
v
o
p
o
96.26YC ( )
2
p
1
 =
AP
2
v
o
p
o
2
64.4

v
2
2
p
2
64.4
 –
\ .


 
p
o
–
v
o
2
64.4
 1 
2
– ( )
2
144
Y 1 0.41 0.35
4
+ ( ) 1 k ( ) 1 P
o
P
1
– ( ) – =
 =
C D
di s
1 
4
– ( )
0.5
=
 d
0
d
1
=
662 Technical Reference
Gilbert Family (GF) of choke models
The Gilbert family (GF) (Gilbert, Ros, Baxendell, Achong) are 'critical flow only' choke
models. They do not model subcritical flow. For critical flow, the flow rate through a
choke is a linear function of inlet pressure, the other parameters in the model (ID,GLR)
being constant.
These choke models therefore do not predict choke outlet pressure and should not be
applied if flow is subcritical. This makes the model incomplete to be a standard/classic
PIPEPHASE device feature. To get around this problem and make the model sufficiently
complete in a consistent way, we have the following implementation:
a) Use of the Gilbert Family (GF) of choke models implies critical flow is
assumed at the choke. PIPEPHASE will determine what the critical flow would
be (for algorithm see below). For critical flow to physically occur the outlet
pressure needs to be equal or below Pcrit. Pcrit is the choke outlet pressure at the
onset of critical flow. Further lowering of the outlet pressure will not increase
the flow rate.
b) The user can nominate a critical pressure ratio Rcrit (=Poutlet/Pinlet) which
occurs at the onset of critical flow. PIPEPHASE output will notify if the calcu
lated pressure ratio is not consistent. If Rc<= Rcrit the results are consistent oth
erwise the GF choke models are inappropriate. The default Rcrit is set at 0.55.
c) The onus is on the user then, to determine what he should do about the choke
model selection.
Algorithm:
The GF choke models are represented by:
(671)
Where:
A,B,C are constants. The standard values of these constants are as follows:
P
1
= Inlet pressure (psia for Ros and psig for others)
ql = Liquid flow rate (stb/day)
R
p
= Producing GasLiquid Ratio Scf/stb
d Diameter of the choke in 64ths of an inch
P
l
Aq
l
R
p
B
d
C
 =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 663
Table 69: GF Model Constants:
Network Solving Algorithm with a GF Choke in Source Link(s)
1. Before the network algorithm begins, check for GF chokes in source links(only). For
each of these links there are 3 possible conditions:
a) Source Pressure is fixed flow rate, Q is estimated
b) Source Q is fixed and P is estimated
c) Source P and Q are fixed
2. If (a) then calculates intersection of the choke performance curve and the well per
formance curve (for devices before the choke) to determine the critical flow rate.
Pass the critical flow rate as the source flow rate for the network. From a network set
up point of view this 'source pressure specified' boundary condition is now replaced
by a source Q specified BC. Ensure that atleast one pressure of the new network is
set, to ensure the wellposedness of the network problem. If wellposedness is vio
lated then the program will fail to solve the problem.
3. If (b) determine required choke upstream pressure(usually well head pressure) from
the choke model. Then calculate required source pressure to satisfy the calculated
wellhead pressure and flow rate. Pass the critical flow rate as the flow rate to the net
work model. No BC alteration is necessary.
4. If (c) then simply calculate the choke upstream pressure and resize the choke diame
ter. Pass the set flow rate as the network source flow rate.
5. These ‘GF source links’ are then modified so that link calculations start at the first
device after the choke and the BC is changed if necessary so that flow rates are
specified and pressure is estimated.
6. Solve the modified network.
7. Make a final network run using the original link devices which by default will use
previously calculated choke outlet pressure for output. Check for pressure ratio con
sistency and generate appropriate output message if CPR rule (see above) is vio
lated.
Network Solving Algorithm with a GF Choke in Internal and Sink Link(s)
If more than one GF choke is specified in the source link or if GF chokes are present in
any internal links or sink links the choke calculations for these chokes will be simplified.
The CPR will simply be used to calculate the outlet pressure. The choke diameter will
GF Model A B C
Gilbert
10.0 0.546 1.89
Ros
17.4 0.500 2.00
Baxendell
9.56 0.546 1.93
Achong
3.82 0.650 1.88
664 Technical Reference
have no effect. Essentially the GF choke will simply act as a device which causes a
pressure drop based on the specified CPR. It is recommended that multiple GF chokes
in source links and GF chokes in internal links and sink links not be used unless the user
wants the intended effect as described.
Extensions of the GF Model Applicability
The GF chokes are classically applicable for blackoil systems (with GLR >0) only over a
reasonable range of GLR's. See equation 671.
To provide more flexibility to the user, PIPEPHASE has consistently extended the GF
choke concept to other fluid models which are 2phase(vaporliquid) at standard
conditions for compositional and condensate (LGR>0) fluid models. The user needs to
exercise care when applying it for cases where the standard GLR for these fluids fall
beyond the applicable range. It would behoove the user to first match field data to the
above model and correlate the values of A, B and C coefficients before modeling the
chokes in PIPEPHASE.
The model has been further extended (to give additional user flexibility) for single phase
fluid models LIQUID and GAS. If any fluid model predicts single phase liquid at
standard conditions, the program arbitrarily sets the value of R
p
to 1 in equation (671). If
any fluid model predicts single phase vapor at standard conditions, the program uses the
following equation:
(672)
Q
g
is the standard gas flow rate in mscf/day.
Other variables are the same as described above.
It would behoove the user to first match field data to the gas or liquid models and
correlate the values of A and C coefficients (B being not applicable) before modeling the
chokes in PIPEPHASE.
The GF choke models are not allowed for steam models.
Greater care should be used by the user in using these models for fluid models other than
Blackoil. It is recommended that the user incorporate/regress choke flow measured field
data to arrive at the proper values of A, B, C.
Errors and Warnings
If the network CAlculated Pressure Ratio (CAPR) is greater than the user specified CPR
then a warning message indicating the choke may be in subcritical flow will be printed
out.
P
l
AQ
g
d
C
 =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 665
Other Fluid Models
For these fluid models, PIPEPHASE calculates the choke pressure drop from the
correlations developed for multiphase fluids. The Fortunati method
57
involves two steps:
• A Fortunati curve is interpolated to determine whether the flow is subcritical or crit
ical.
• In the case of subcritical flow, the Fortunati curve is used to determine an outletto
inlet pressure ratio. From this ratio, the upstream or downstream pressure is calcu
lated. In the case of predicted critical flow, the critical pressure ratio is used to calcu
late the outlet pressure which is the maximum outlet pressure possible to allow
critical flow.
See References (96, 97) for additional information on the Perkins and Ueda choke
models.
Check Valves
Check valves are used to permit flow in one direction only. To effect this, the valve
closes to prevent backflow. In PIPEPHASE, these actions are similarly simulated and the
relevant pressure drop calculations use the squareedged orifice equations as per the
choke device implementation. If the flow is determined to be multiphase, PIPEPHASE
uses the same squareedged orifice equations, but assumes the fluid is a uniform mixture.
Heaters and Coolers
The fluid model type you have chosen dictates which correlations are used to relate the
heater or cooler duty to the fluid temperature change.
SinglePhase Gas and SinglePhase Liquid Models
(673)
Compositional and Steam Fluid Models
(674)
The pressure drop across the heater or cooler device can be modeled either by:
• Specifying the value directly
or
• Defining the coefficient and exponential term in the relationship:
(675)
Q mC
p
AT =
Q mAH =
AP=coeff .(rate)
exp
666 Technical Reference
where the rate is always expressed in units of pounds per second (lb/sec).
Separators
The phase split at separator conditions is determined from the fluid model equilibrium
calculations. The separator model then removes a userspecified percentage volume or
volumetric rate of fluid from a phase or phases.
Blackoil
The phase split is determined using the blackoil empirical correlations. Only gas may be
removed from the system.
Condensate
The phase split is determined from the condensate model equilibrium calculations.
Condensate and/or water may be removed from the system.
Compositional
The phase split is determined by a flash at separator pressure and temperature. Fluid may
be removed from any stream: gas, oil, and/or water.
Fittings
PIPEPHASE allows you to specify the pipe fittings shown in Table 610 as flow devices
within any link:
Table 610: Equipment Devices Modeled by PIPEPHASE
With the exception of the nozzle and venturimeter devices, all other fittings pressure
drop equations are taken from the Crane
59
manual. The nozzle and venturimeter pressure
drop equations have been taken from Blevins.
61
You are referred to these publications for
further details concerning these formulations.
TwoPhase Flow Pressure Drop Corrections for Fittings
The pressure drop equations for the fittings given in Table 610. These equations can
only be applied with any reliability to singlephase gas, or singlephase liquid flow. If a
twophase fluid flows through any of these devices, then the associated pressure drop
tends to be higher than the singlephase flow equivalent.
Expansion Contraction
Valve Bend
Orifice Nozzle
Venturimeter Entrance
Exit Tee
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 667
In PIPEPHASE you have two options to calculate a factor which is subsequently used as
a “twophase multiplier” to the standard singlephase pressure drop equations. These are
referred to as the CHISHOLM or HOMOGENEOUS methods. The general format for
this correction factor can be represented as:
(676)
where:
Chisholm Method
The twophase pressure drop across a fitting using the Chisholm model, AP
TP
, is given
by:
(677)
when:
The factor C in equation (677) is given by:
(678)
(679)
(680)
where:
u = the twophase multiplier for the standard pressure drop equation
K
FITTING
= the (singlephase) Kfactor for the fitting device
Kmul
FITTING
= the (singlephase) Kmultiplier (KMUL), or L/d, for the fitting device
f
d
= friction factor of the device
AP
L
and AP
G
= Pressure drops over the fitting with only singlephase liquid or singlephase gas
flowing respectively at the same total mass rate as the twophase fluid
v = Specific volume of the gas (v
G
), liquid (v
L
), or the difference between both phases
(v
G
 v
L
= v
GL
)
n = Constant in PIPEPHASE that is set to zero (the default value of ì is therefore 1.00).
The user is able to alter the value of ì directly in the fittings statements
AP
FITTING
uK
FITTING
pv
2
2g
c
 =
uKmul
FITTING
f
d
pv
2
2g
c
 =
u
AP
TP
AP
L
 1
C
X
 
1
X
2
 + + = =
C ì C
2
ì – ( )
v
lg
v
g

\ .
 
0.5
+
v
g
v
l

\ .
 
0.5
v
l
v
g

\ .
 
0.5
+ =
X
AP
L
AP
G

\ .
 
0.5
=
ì 0.5 2
2 n –
2 – ( ) =
668 Technical Reference
Changing either the ì or C
2
default values is only recommended when users are
experienced in the application of the Chisholm correlations. These default values have
been chosen to be conservative for a majority of applications.
Homogeneous Model
The homogeneous model requires no user input, and the u value appropriate to the
device is defined as:
(681)
where:
Completion
The method used to calculate the pressure drop depends on the fluid model and the
completion type. Table 611a lists the pressure drop relationships for well completions.
The Mcleod equations, used for openperforated completions are based on radial flow.
The Jones et al. equations, used for gravelpacked completions, are based on linear flow.
C
2
= Userdefinable constant in the above expression that defaults to a value of 0.50 in
PIPEPHASE (unless otherwise stated in 4)
x= Mass vapor quality
u 1
v
GL
v
L

\ .
 
x + =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 669
670 Technical Reference
Table 611a: Completion Models
Completion Type
(Reference) Openperforated (McLeod) Gravelpacked (Jones et al)
Turbulence
Coefficient
Fluid Model
Blackoil or Single
phase liquid
Singlephase Gas
Compositional
Multiphase or Steam/
Water Mixtures
 2.33x10
10
k
p
1.201
=  1.47x10
7
k
p
0.55
=
P
in
P
out
– Cq
L
Dq
L
2
+ =
C
u r
e
r
w
( ) ln
1.127x10
3 –
2
w
k
p
hN
 =
D
9.08x10
3 –
p
1
r
e

1
r
w
 –
\ .

 
4t
2
h
2
N
2
 =
P
i n
P
out
– Cq
L
Dq
L
2
+ =
C
u
L
L
1.127x10
3 –
k
grav
A
 =
D
9.08x10
3 –
p
L
L
A
2
 =
P
in
2
P
out
2
– Cq
g
Dq
g
2
+ =
C
1.424x10
3
uTZ r
e
r
w
( ) ln
k
p
hN
 =
D
3.16x10
12
¸TZ
1
r
e

1
r
w
 –
\ .
 
ln
4t
2
h
2
N
2
 =
P
in
2
P
out
2
– Cq
g
Dq
g
2
+ =
C
8.93x10
3
uTLZ
k
grav
A
 =
D
1.24x10
10 –
¸TLZ
A
2
 =
P
i n
P
out
– Cq
m
Dq
m
2
+ =
C
u
m
r
e
r
w
( ) ln
1.127
m
x10
3 –
2
w
k
p
hN
 =
D
9.08x10
3 –
p
1
r
e

1
r
w
 –
\ .

 
4t
2
h
2
N
2
 =
p
m
w
m
1 x – w
m
xw
m
1 x – w
m
x + +
u
L
u
g
 =
p
m
p
g
x 1 x – p
L
+ =
P
i n
P
out
– Cq
m
Dq
m
2
+ =
C
u
m
L
1.127
m
x10
3 –
k
grav
A
 =
D
9.08x10
13 –
p
m
L
A
2
 =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 671
Table 611b: Symbology to Table 611a
Symbols
A
area open to flow, d
p
2
hSPF/4, ft
2
qg standard volumetric flow rate
d diameter qL, qm in situ volumetric flowrate, bbl/d
ì specific gravity (60 F/60 F) r radius, ft
h perforated interval, ft (Jones)
penetration depth, ft (Mcleod)
p
density, lb/ft
3
k permeability, (md) SPF shots/ft
L ft T temperature
u viscosity, cP N number of holes in perforated interval
P pressure, psia w mass flowrate
x quality
Subscripts
e perforation plus crushed zone p open perforated area
grav gravel w perforation
g gas in inlet of completion
L liquid out outlet of completion
m mixture
672 Technical Reference
Converging Network Simulations
This section aims to provide users of the network solution algorithms in PIPEPHASE
with more information on practical ways of converging simulations when difficulties
have been reported during the solution procedure.
Note: For an introduction on how the network solution methods operate, refer to 3:
User Requirements for this Section
To gain maximum benefit from this section, the user is assumed to have the following
information available:
A network diagram or sketch was detailed in an earlier section of this chapter, How to
Set up a Network Problem, p. 635. This diagram consists only of nodes, links, flow
direction arrows, major devices and labels for clarity. It is important that, particularly on
larger networks, the user check that the structure has been entered precisely according to
the network diagram.
Note: The importance of having a network diagram cannot be overstressed. Technical
support experience has shown that most problems relating to network simulations can be
attributed to the poor initial setup of the Structure Data Category of input.
You can have PIPEPHASE print out a simple box diagram of the structure once all data
has been entered. This is achieved, in the General Data Category of input, by including
the following statements:
• All pressures and flowrates (i.e., fixed or estimated) for each node should be clearly
marked on the network diagram. Any subsequent changes in problem definition to
assist convergence can be evaluated and implemented simply and quickly.
• A hard copy of the PIPEPHASE keyword file for the simulation. This allows you to
check categories other than the Structure Data Category of input where necessary, so
that all link flow device data can be referenced and checked.
• A list of the objectives of the simulation. You can then efficiently evaluate the
impact on simulation objectives of all possible changes in network configuration.
Recommendations for converging network simulations are broken into two main
categories.
CALC NORUN, ..... $$ Which stops PIPEPHASE from performing any calculations
PRINT CONNECT=FULL $$ Which activates the box structure diagram
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 673
• The first category gives general recommendations on how to set up networks to
avoid the majority of problems during the solution procedure (i.e., preventative mea
sures).
• The second category provides more specific examples on network algorithm anoma
lies, and provides direction on how to interpret warning or error messages. This
allows you to take any appropriate action necessary in order to achieve a solution.
General Recommendations
Simulation Input Granularity
Within the simulation itself, you must make common sense decisions concerning
which flow devices are important to the simulation and which are not. For high pres
sure drop systems such as in long pipe runs, it is unlikely that simulating all fittings
in every pipe run will enhance the simulation accuracy by any substantial degree.
However, in low pressure drop systems, the simulation of every part of each pipe
configuration may be critical to ascertaining the pressure drop accurately.
Estimates of Pressure and Flowrate
PIPEPHASE requires that estimates be supplied for either pressure and/or flowrate
at each node, depending on the configuration of network and type of network algo
rithm that have been chosen. These estimates may all be supplied by the user, or you
may specify (by not supplying estimates) that the program generates its own esti
mates where required, or a mixture of usersupplied and programgenerated esti
mates may be specified. Estimates of flowrates for sources or sinks must be supplied
by the user. Generally, you should supply pressure estimates only at nodes where a
value can be confidently predicted (normally from field data and experience, or from
other simulation runs). When estimates are supplied for pressure, you should ensure
that the data is consistent with the flow directions and are consistent with other esti
mated values. When you supply estimates for flowrates, you should ensure that they
are in approximate material balance with other estimated and fixed values.
• The Use of Junctions
The junction node should only be used in the following circumstances:
• The network structure dictates that one or more links are joining together or
splitting apart. The junction is used here as a structural node.
• The user requires the generation of a phase envelope or twophase flow map or
flash report (compositional runs only) at a particular point in the network which
is not described by any other node.
There are no other reasons for using junction nodes in addition to the given above.
As discussed in Chapter 2, Using PIPEPHASE, the network algorithm is a simulta
674 Technical Reference
neous solution procedure. Adding unnecessary nodes only serves to increase the size
of the matrix and so increase computing time. Therefore, while there is a tendency
for “neatness” in input by splitting long links into smaller links using junctions, the
user should bear in mind the possibility of detrimental effect on the simulation solu
tion procedure
Note: Outside of their use in the above list, junctions must be viewed as simulation
devices only, and should not be confused with any physical representation of the plant.
Network Structure and Topology
Following are basic guidelines for good simulation practice when setting up any net
work simulation in PIPEPHASE:
• There should be only one link to a sink node.
• There should be only one link from a source node.
• Unnecessary nodes (see The Use of Junctions above) should be eliminated.
• Definitions of flow direction in link statements should be checked for consis
tency with the overall network source(s)tosink(s) logic. Flow direction should
not form closed flow loops.
• When using the network algorithm, as a general rule, network simulations solve
more easily when more flowrates are input as fixed values, rather than fixing
pressure values. This is especially true in networks which include loops. By
swapping a fixed pressure for a fixed flowrate, you may still investigate the
effect of varying this pressure using multiple CASESTUDYs.
• Items of process equipment within links should have performances specified so
that their outlet conditions do not conflict with other nodes in the system. See
Figure 621 for a typical example of this erroneous input.
Figure 621: Process Equipment Definition
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 675
In this case, since node A and B flowrates have been fixed, the subsequent fixing of
both pump outlet pressures ensures that it is impossible to balance pressures at junc
tion C. This type of incorrect setup can be more easily identified in existing simula
tions, or avoided in future simulations, by referring to a previously prepared network
diagram.
Maximum Number of Iterations (NM)
By default, PIPEPHASE will use 20 iterations to try to reach a solution to network
problems. For large and complex systems, it is recommended that this number be
reduced so that minimum time is spent waiting for a potentially diverging simulation
to finish. This is particularly true for calculationintensive compositional fluid simu
lations. In the Network Data Category of input, if you specify SOLUTION MAX
ITER=5, then the simulation will stop after five iterations (if it has not already
reached solution). You may then diagnose whether additional iterations will produce
a solution, or alternatively which actions should be taken in order to achieve conver
gence. By using restart files, you can continue the simulation where it stopped.
Iteration History
You should include the statement PRINT ITER in the General Data Category of
input when running new or problematical simulations. This will ensure that the con
vergence history is printed both to the screen and to the output file, to facilitate fault
diagnosis.
Specific Recommendations
Link ShutIns (NM)
A link shutin is the description given to a link (a series of devices between two
nodes) which PIPEPHASE has closed down and removed completely from the solu
tion procedure.
Link shutins occur during the network solution procedure in these circumstances.
• When there is flow in the reverse direction through a check valve.
• When insignificant flowrates are determined for a link within a loop configura
tion.
Inspect the iteration history and look more closely at the first link which is causing
problems. If there are no obvious anomalies in the input after careful inspection, you
should first try to reformulate the local boundary node pressure and flowrate defini
tions (for example, swap a fixed pressure for a fixed flowrate). Secondly, you should
enter link flowrate estimates for all local links. When an internal link shutin occurs,
you may also see the “link shutin” error message.
676 Technical Reference
There is also an option in the Methods Data Category of input to instruct PIPEP
HASE not to reverse flows during solution (the NOFR keyword). Activating this
feature will assist particularly in loop configurations where the direction of flow is
known (for example cooling water networks). However, this option can generally be
detrimental in systems where the estimated flow directions are incorrect.
Flowrate Estimation in Links
In addition to ensuring that the best estimates are supplied for node pressures and
flowrates (or having PIPEPHASE generate estimates automatically), you may also
provide link flowrate estimates to assist PIPEPHASE’s own auto estimation logic.
PIPEPHASE has four methods for allocating link flowrates prior to the start of the
solution procedure:
• Flow Allocation Model 1
This is the default method, and allocates initial link flows based on the diameter of
the first pipe device that appears in the link. Therefore, once PIPEPHASE’s node
pressure estimation logic/usersupplied estimates has initialized each node with a
starting pressure, the link flowrate is found from the relation:
(682)
where:
subscript i represents the i
th
link
You should therefore ensure that the first pipe device input to each link structure is
approximately representative of the bulk of the link.
• Flow Allocation Model 2
This model assigns a flowrate to each link based on the relative frictional resistance
in that link, or:
(683)
where:
subscript j represents the j
th
link
Q
i
2
d
i
5
AP
i
·
Q
j
2
d
i
5
l
i

\ .

 
i 1 =
n
¯
j
AP
j
·
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 677
In this model, each pipe (from pipe 1 to pipe n) of diameter d and length l in the link
is taken into account in the link flow allocations.
Note: The flow allocation models 1 and 2 can be specified in the Methods Data
Category of input of input using the FLOWALLOCATION keyword
(FLOWALLOCATION=1 and FLOWALLOCATION=2 respectively)
• Flow Allocation Model 3
According to this model, PIPEPHASE initializes the nodal pressure distribution and
link flows of the network by solving an approximation to the equations that describe
the conservation of mass at network nodes. The solution algorithm that is used for
this model is essentially identical to that used by preliminary solution stage of the
MBAL flow balance algorithm. The only difference is that in multiphase systems the
BeggsBrillMoody (BBM) model is used to approximate the pressure drop across
links. In singlephase systems, the BBM model reduces to the Colebrook equation
used in the preliminary solution stage of the MBAL algorithm. Again, as is the case
with the MBAL algorithm, only average link fluid properties (e.g., qualities, noslip
holdup, viscosities, and densities) are used in the traverse calculations that accom
pany this flow allocation model.
• Flow Allocation Model 4
When selected, this option allows you to use initial estimates to the network solution
that are provided in a restart file. The restart file must be named filename.rst. For
example if the run file is named run.inp, the restart file must be named run.rst.
The PBAL algorithm of PIPEPHASE generates a restart file (with the rst suffix) at
the termination of a run. This file presents data on pressures and temperatures, as
well as data on link flows. You can modify this file, and can use it to initialize a sub
sequent run with the PIPEPHASE algorithm.
• Usersupplied Link Flow Estimates
To assist convergence, you may input link flow estimates to methods 1 and 2, in
order to selectively override internally generated values and so assist conver
gence. The use of userdefined link flow estimates should be necessary only in
sensitive and/or highly looped networks. There are different requirements for
each of the two flow allocations models. With the first model, described above,
the concept of a spur link in a simulation must be introduced.
The term spur link is used in PIPEPHASE to denote a link or set of links which,
for the purpose of the simultaneous network solution algorithm, can be decou
pled from the rest of the network.
678 Technical Reference
Figure 622: The Spur Link
In Figure 622, the sinks J, L and M all have fixed flowrates. Taking the individ
ual link KM as an example, the sink node M flowrate is known and therefore its
pressure must be calculated. This calculation is based only on the calculated
pressure at junction node K.
Therefore link KM can be “left out” of the network solution until the nodes on
which iteration must be performed (including node K) have reached a solution.
KM is thus known as a spur link. Similarly, since sink nodes L and M also have
known flowrates, the section of links to the right of junction node I then form a
larger spur link, since all of their pressure calculations rely on the solution to the
pressure at node I.
For flow allocation model 1, you must supply link rate estimates for all non
spur links. If any nonspur link flowrate estimations are not input by the user,
then all flowrate estimates revert back to those predicted by flow allocation
model 1, and any other user entries are ignored. If you are unsure which links
are spur links in the network, then set SOLUTION MAXITER=0 (in the Meth
ods Data Category of input), with PRINT ITER (in the General Data Category
of input). Those links printed out after the iteration history are the spur links
(see the Intermediate Printout Example in 5).
For flow allocation model 2, there is more flexibility in allowing you to selec
tively override internal program link rate estimates. If you wish to take advan
tage of this, then only those links which form the outlet of a node can be
supplied with user estimates, and all links arising from the same node must be
given estimates.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 679
Figure 623: Link Flowrate Estimates
As a theoretical example, for the network defined in Figure 623, you have dis
covered that by using PIPEPHASE’s flow allocation model 2, the output link
CF is being allocated only 10% of the total inlet rate to junction node C. Using
this model then subsequently causes convergence problems, as indicated in the
convergence history. You may then override this initial internal flow allocation
by supplying the value directly in the link statement. You must remember that
all links emanating from the node which produces link CF must also be given
rate estimates. In this example, this means that link CE must be given an esti
mate in addition to CF. The reason for this logic is that PIPEPHASE uses the
ratio of outflowing link rate estimates in allocating the actual link rate estimates.
Let us continue with this example, and track PIPEPHASE’s processes up to the
beginning of the simultaneous solution procedure. Let us first assume that the
flowrates at nodes A and B in Figure 623 have usersupplied estimates of 100
and 80 lb/hr respectively, and also that you expect the flows in links CF and CE
to be approximately equal. PIPEPHASE then follows the steps given in the
paragraphs below:
• First, PIPEPHASE takes all fixed and userestimated pressures at each node, and
based on these pressures produces its own estimates for nodes which have not
been supplied with any pressure value.
• Second, PIPEPHASE uses the flow allocation model (in this example, model 2)
to assign flowrates to each link. If you have supplied any flowrates, (in this case
let us assume that you have given estimates of 80 lb/hr for each of the links CF
and CE emanating from node C) then these will be summed together and a ratio
produced. In this case, the sum is 160 lb/hr, and the ratio is 50% to link CF and
50% to link CE.
680 Technical Reference
• Third, PIPEPHASE performs a material balance using estimated and fixed flow
rates at the source and sink nodes. In this example, the source rate estimates of
180 lb/hr total are fed to node C, where the userdefined split ratio of 50/50 is
used to produce link rate estimates of 90 and 90 lb/hr in links CF and CE (there
fore overriding the user’s incorrect estimates of 80 lb/hr per link). The material
balance algorithm is also an iterative process and will override userdefined sink
rate estimates where necessary to be consistent with fixed values elsewhere in
the network. This completes the initial estimation procedure for PIPEPHASE,
and the program will then continue to perform the simultaneous solution proce
dure until either convergence or the maximum iteration limit is reached.
Guidelines on UserEstimation of Link Flow Rates
If you suspect that PIPEPHASE’s flow allocation models are producing link flowrate
estimates which are causing the problem not to converge, then the values that are
predicted after mass balance (i.e., the third step in the above procedure) can be inspected
in the output, by specifying the statement SOLUTION MAXITER=0 in the Methods
Data Category of input.
For flow allocation model 1, user link flowrate estimates should be in material balance.
Convergence of the network problem may be placed completely offcourse if errors are
inadvertently made by the user in setting up unbalanced link rates for all nonspur links.
If the solution/iteration history to a problem suggests that by giving more iterations a
solution will be achieved, it is advised to use selected final link rates from the previous
solution, together with flow allocation model 1.
Recommendations for Networks which Include Loops
Guidelines presented previously in this chapter also apply to systems involving loops.
You should also be acquainted with the following guidelines so as to maximize the
possibility of solving even the most complex looped network.
• Hydrostatic Impossibilities
A common mistake in loop definitions is in the user defining inconsistent pipe eleva
tions in the links which comprise the loop. Referring to the example in Figure 624,
loop ABC has been defined by the user such that the absolute elevation of the pipe
device “x” in link BC is different (in this case, less) than the absolute elevation of
the pipe device “y” in link AC. This is an impossible situation, and PIPEPHASE
will indicate, in the iteration history, that a constant maximum error has been
reached.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 681
Figure 624: Elevation Inconsistency in Loop
• JumpOver Piping
Socalled “jumpovers” are short pipe runs that connect longer, parallel pipes in
order that flows in each pipe are relatively wellbalanced. These jumpover pipes are
usually of no hydrostatic significance, and the loop that is created by virtue of their
inclusion in the simulation can be eliminated by making the two junction nodes into
one, as is shown inFigure 625, with negligible loss in simulation accuracy.
Figure 625: JumpOver Line Simulation Technique
• General Tips for Loops Where the Flow Direction is Known or Unknown
Networks which include loops fall into two basic categories – those which all link
flow directions are known, and those which one or more link flow directions are
unknown.
682 Technical Reference
• Interval Halving and Loops Where Flow Direction is Known
In these simulations, you need to check all of the input link flow direction logic in
order to ensure all FROM=…., TO=…. link statements are as required, and to spec
ify the keyword NOFR in the Methods Data Category of input. This will ensure that
PIPEPHASE will not attempt to reverse flows during the solution procedure, and
therefore should assist in converging with these network types. A typical situation
encountered where the user has instructed PIPEPHASE not to reverse flow direc
tions (see also Using Regulators, below) is in interval halving. In links where a flow
reversal cannot occur, PIPEPHASE will instead halve the absolute change in flow
rate that has been predicted by the solution algorithm in order to try to prevent flow
reversal in the link.
Figure 626 shows a refinery case where the user has fixed the flowrates of sinks D
and E at values of 5,000 and 10,000 bpd respectively. In addition, the user has speci
fied in the input that no flow reversals are allowed (the schematic is part of a larger
network, upstream, and the FROM=..., TO=... definitions are as indicated in the first
diagram).
For iteration 1 (i=1), the upstream network is producing a feed to node A of 15,000
bpd, which is split accordingly to satisfy the two fixed sink flowrates. The flow
direction in loop link BC is as input by the user.
In the next iteration, 2, (i=2), the upstream network increases the next estimate for
the flow to node A to 20,000 bpd. PIPEPHASE then splits the flow according to its
solution algorithm, and finds that its first attempt requires the loop link CB to change
in flow direction in order to satisfy the fixed sink rate of 5000 bpd. Since the user has
instructed PIPEPHASE not to reverse flows from iteration to iteration, the program
then interval halves, by subtracting the CB link rate in iteration 2 (333 bpd) from
that in iteration 1 (+1000 bpd), and dividing the result by two. Therefore:
New interval halved link rate = 1000  (1000 + 333)/2 = +333.5 bpd
This new value results in a flowrate of 4,665 bpd required in link AB in order to sat
isfy the fixed sink rate D rate, and consequently requires 10,333.5 bpd in link AC.
This then demands that a flowrate of 15,000 bpd be fed to node A. Subsequently the
new iteration information is fed back to the upstream network.
It should be noted that if the user has incorrectly defined a loop link flow direction,
and then instructed PIPEPHASE (via NOFR or using a REGULATOR device) not to
reverse flows during simulation, the network will fail to converge. The interval halv
ing will continue until almost zero flow is found in the link. An error message is then
produced (or the link is shut in), and the user may inspect the iteration history to find
which link is producing the error by identifying the link which has nearzero flow.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 683
Figure 626: Interval Halving
• Loops Where Flow Direction is Unknown
Some network simulations include more than one loop configuration, where one or
more of the loops contains links in which the flow direction is not known to the user.
This is especially true in existing designs, and must be addressed in a special man
ner. Problems are usually not found in looped networks until at least one simulation
has been run. If the problem has not converged, the user can generate the full itera
tion output (using PRINT ITER in the General Data Category of input). The output
can be inspected to diagnose problems. Figure 627 shows a typical example of the
maximum error (i.e., pressure imbalance as reported in the iteration history) against
number of iterations:
Figure 627: Looped Network – Example Flow Reversal Problem
684 Technical Reference
This example shows that the network is converging successfully up until the point
indicated by the arrow. When this position has been reached, PIPEPHASE decides to
reverse the flow direction in one or more links of a particular loop. By reversing the
flow in this/these links, the solution path begins to diverge and a final solution
becomes unachievable. The user may inspect the iteration history to ascertain in
which link the flow reversal occurred first. Placing a regulator device in that link
will prevent the flow reversal.
• Using Regulators
A regulator is a device which is used to maintain flow at a fixed downstream pres
sure. In flow through such a regulator, if the inlet pressure is greater than the userset
pressure, then the outlet pressure becomes the userset pressure, and if the inlet pres
sure is less than the set pressure, then the outlet pressure is set equal to the inlet pres
sure. In network configurations involving loops, however, its use is almost
exclusively tailored to preventing flow reversals in loop links. Regulators are used in
looped networks mainly to assist convergence
Note: A general ruleofthumb is to restrict the use of regulators to an intelligent
minimum. The user should rarely need more than one such device installed per loop to
assist in convergence.
To prevent link flow reversal during solution, you should set the regulator outlet
pressure (in the flow direction) to an unrealistically high value (e.g., 9999 psig). This
action enables the use of the regulator as a convergence aid without affecting the
pressure traverse calculation in that link.
Regulators generally are of greatest use in situations where loop link flow reversals
cause a circular flow path (i.e., effectively a closed flow loop), or where a particular
flow reversal during solution causes a direct or indirect (via another link) problem
divergence. Both of these situations can be identified by close inspection of the iter
ation history.
A simple use of a regulator can be seen in Figure 628, where the flow directions are
known.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 685
Figure 628: Simple Use of Regulators to Assist Convergence
Use of two regulators in this example prevents the situation where flow travels from
node B to node C via one loop, and back to node B via the other.
Other Problems In Network Convergence
• Problem Solution Does Not Exist
There are network configurations that will not solve in any circumstances. These
networks are physically unrealistic and a solution will therefore never be obtained.
You can see where these situations have been encountered by messages which
include:
ERROR  ALL UNKNOWN PRESSURE AND RATES ARE WITHIN 0.100 PER
CENT OF UPPER OR LOWER BOUNDS (i.e., program limits have been reached
for pressure and rate values)
or
ERROR  SINGULAR MATRIX AT ITERATION *** NO PIVOT FOUND IN
COLUMN
(i.e., PIPEPHASE’s solution matrix has one or more zero values for pressures and/or
flowrates)
In either of these cases a previously drawn network diagram will identify any errors
made in the configuration.
686 Technical Reference
Specific Keyword Assistance in Converging Networks
The default parameters for the PBAL and MBAL algorithms are selected to achieve
satisfactory convergence for representative networks. However, you can encounter cases
in which the defaults require modification for successful solution of network flows.
PBAL Algorithm
This algorithm is sufficient for the overwhelming majority of problems you will
encounter. Nevertheless, there are cases in which the parameters that govern the
performance of this algorithm require your adjustment. The following section offers
assistance on the use of the adjustable parameters that modify the performance of the
PBAL algorithm.
The parameters that have the greatest effect on the performance of PBAL are the
parameters that control
• the initial estimation of link flows and junction pressures, and
• extent of damping (also relaxation) of the PBAL algorithm.
The former is controlled by adjustment of the FLOW allocation parameter, while the
latter is controlled by adjustment of the QDAMP, PDAMP, HALVINGS, NOLOOP and
NOFR keywords.
• Initial Solution Estimation. The FLOWALLOC keyword controls the procedure
used by PIPEPHASE to generate an initial estimate of the flowfield prior to the use
of the PBAL iteration procedure. In general, the performance of PBAL improves
with the selection of an allocation method that generates initial estimates of flows
and pressures that are closer to the converged solution of the network flow field.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 687
The FLOWALLOC keyword allows the user to specify one of four flow allocation
algorithms. The default is FLOWALLOC=1. In circumstances in which the default
allocation method is not satisfactory, you have the option of selecting two other flow
allocation models (FLOW=2 and FLOW=3), as well as the ability to generate initial
estimates from a previously generated restart file (FLOW=4). As described previ
ously, the allocation option (FLOW=3) requires the solution of an approximate; but,
nonlinear network flowfield. Because of the nonlinearity, there are several adjustable
parameters that can be used to control the convergence performance of the FLOW=3
allocation model. These are described below. The FLOW=4 option requires the use
of a previously generated restart file, and examples of its use are discussed below.
• PBAL UnderRelaxation Procedures. Even with the provided flow allocation
models, there can still be circumstances in which initial estimates are not sufficiently
close for the NewtonRaphson iterations used by PBAL to converge to a solution. In
these circumstances, a damping or underrelaxation of the NewtonRaphson steps
can be required to obtain a solution. The adjustable parameters that effectively con
trol the amount of damping in the Newton Raphson procedure include: QDAMP,
PDAMP, HALVINGS, NOLOOP, and NOFR. Some comments follow.
• QDAMP and PDAMP. These keywords control the magnitude of the Newton
Raphson corrections to the link flow distribution and the nodal pressure distribu
tion that are computed by PBAL. The use of QDAMP is appropriate when
PBAL is unable to converge because of large changes in link flows. Similarly,
the use of PDAMP is appropriate when PBAL fails to converge because of large
changes in nodal pressures in successive NewtonRaphson iterations.
Trial and error is required to select an appropriate magnitude for QDAMP and/
or PDAMP. If these magnitudes are set too low, then PBAL can require an
excessive amount of computational time to obtain a solution. On the other hand,
if these magnitudes are set too high, then PBAL can rapidly diverge from the
network solution. Clearly, the danger exists that through use of excessively
large values of QDAMP/PDAMP that an initially adequate (and occasionally
difficult to obtain) initial estimate can be lost within a few PBAL iterations.
Because of this, you are advised to save the restart file associated with the initial
estimate, and use the restart allocation option (FLOW=4) in the trial and error
searches for QDAMP/PDAMP.
• HALVINGS. This parameter controls the number of interval halvings that are
used by PBAL to correct the magnitude of changes to Newton Raphson correc
tions in the flow and pressure fields. The default value is (HALVINGS=3).
Increasing this parameter can effectively shrink the magnitude of the Newton
Raphson corrections in PBAL. You are generally not advised to modify this
parameter.
688 Technical Reference
• NOLOOP. As described in the manual this option effectively scales the magni
tude of NewtonRaphson corrections in PBAL so as to prevent the formation of
closed loops. The option can be appropriate in circumstances in which flow
reversals are expected in looped pipe networks.
• NOFR. This option is used to prevent the occurrence of flow reversals in suc
cessive NewtonRaphson iterations of the PBAL algorithm. This option is
appropriate in cases where PBAL fails to converge because of excessive flow
reversals, and the final distribution of link flows is known.
• FLOWALLOC=3. As described above, this algorithm estimates the initial net
work flowfield by solution of approximate; but, nonlinear equations that con
serve mass at network junctions. The equations are approximate because
• the BeggsBrillMoody (BBM) model with no acceleration is used to approxi
mate the pressure drop across links, and
• fluid properties are only evaluated at a fixed number of points (usually only one)
in a traverse across a link.
The nonlinear equations in the initialization scheme are solved by Newton
Raphson iteration. Generally, the default parameters in the SOLUTION and
TOLERANCE cards are sufficient to ensure that the initialization procedures
converges to a solution. However, there can be circumstances in which adjust
ment of the default settings are required. Some suggestions follow.
• Convergence. You can monitor the convergence of the solution procedure used
in the allocation method through use of the ITER keyword on the PRINT card.
Residuals in the changes of the pressure field between successive Newton Raph
son iterations, and the magnitude of flow imbalances at network nodes are dis
played in the iteration history display for the method. Generally the allocation
model will converge to a solution, so long as the displayed residuals of pressure
and flow decrease, more or less continuously, with successive iterations.
Occasionally, the residuals of either one or both of the displayed quantities will
exhibit a sustained increase with successive iterations. In these circumstances the
method will not converge, unless adjustments are made to default settings on the
SOLUTION card. The primary candidates for keyword adjustment are:
a) the extent of underrelaxation, or damping, to the Newton Raphson iterations
through use of the DAMP keyword,
b) the maximum number of allowed iterations through the use of the SUBITERA
TION keyword, and
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 689
c) in multiphase flows in networks (or gathering systems) with large elevation
changes the angle that governs the transition between noslip and slip flow
through use of the SLIP keyword.
• DAMP. In circumstances in which the iteration procedure fails, the user is
advised to increase the amount of damping or underrelaxation through the use
of the DAMP keyword. The default value of DAMP is 0.25. Damping is
increased by decreasing the value of DAMP, e.g., by equating DAMP to 0.05
instead of 0.25. The advantage to increased damping is increased stability in the
solution procedure. The disadvantage is a possible increased requirement for
computational time through an increase in the number of iterations to achieve a
solution.
• SUBITERATION. The default number of iterations for this method is 200. This
number might not be sufficient for the amount of damping that is required to
obtain a solution. In these circumstances the value of SUBITERATION should
be increased.
• SLIP. The solution procedure used for FLOWALLOC=3, can occasionally fail
with multiphase flows in networks or gathering systems with large elevation
changes. This occurs because the BBM method used to estimate link capacities
can admit more than one solution in links with elevation change. This problem is
alleviated by use of the noslip BBM model in links in which the elevation
change exceeds the angle define by SLIP.
• Tolerances. Occasionally, a display of the iteration history for the iterations
associated with FLOWALLOC=3 will show that the residuals have reached a
lower limit (for pressure change and/or flow imbalance) that exceeds the limits
on the TOLERANCE statement. This implies that the allocation model has
reached a best possible solution for the network. To reduce the number of subit
erations that are performed, on subsequent runs of PIPEPHASE, you can either
reduce the number of subiterations or can increase the values of PTOL and
QTOL on the TOLERANCE statement.
There are also circumstances in which an examination of the residual history shows
that the residuals for the allocation model are falling when either PTOL or QTOL are
reached. This implies that by lowering the tolerances PTOL and QTOL, the user
should be able to obtain an even better solution to the approximate network flow
field. The effort to do this, however, is often not necessary, as the PBAL algorithm
that follows the FLOWALLOC=3 initialization procedure does require an accurate
initial solution estimate.
• Miscellaneous Assists to PBAL Convergence. The keywords CHOKE and
WELLS on the SOLUTION statement, and the keyword QMIN on individual link
690 Technical Reference
statements offer additional features that can help the PBAL algorithm to converge to
a solution. The explanation is given below.
• CHOKE. The ability of the PBAL algorithm to converge to a solution of a pipe
network is often strained by the presence of one or several chokes that operate in
the regimes of critical flow. This occurs because the presence of chokes in criti
cal flow introduces a discontinuity into the pressure distribution within links.
629 below shows a typical choke performance curve. The NewtonRansom method has
no problem solving the network when the choke is in the subcritical flow region.
However, when the flow becomes critical, the Newton derivative approaches infinity and
the NR method mathematically breaks down. As a result the NR solver has great
difficulty finding a solution in the critical flow region.
Figure 629: Choke Performance Curve (Choke Outlet Pressure vs. Flow Rate)
In order to assist PBAL, there are 4 options:
The default method (CHOKE = 1) is to use an exponential broadening of the pressure
transition that accompanies critical flow. The PIPEPHASE choke model substitutes the
straight vertical line, denoting critical flow, with an exponential curve. This is the red
dashed line shown in 629 above. In this way the NewtonRansom solver finds it easier
to calculate a critical flow value for the choke. Option two (CHOKE = 2) replaces the
exponential curve with a straight line (i.e. blue dashed line shown in 629 above)
Engineers simulating a PIPEPHASE network containing chokes in critical flow will
often modify the slopes of these lines to make it easier for the NR solver to reach a
converged solution. The slope is adjusted by specifying the "Rate Tolerance".
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 691
See "Max Possible Error" illustrated in 629.
Clearly as the Rate Tolerance is increased, the solver finds it easier to reach a solution.
However, the critical flow rate calculated using this method has the potential to exceed
the actual critical flow rate by a fraction of the value specified in the Rate Tolerance
window. Generally the relative size of this flow rate error is small when compared to the
total flow rate of the well. This approach ensures the results generated give an accurate
picture of the true potential of the well.
In option 3 (CHOKE = 3), the user activates an algorithm in PIPEPHASE such that it
calculates the critical flow rate for the link before solving the network. This method is
only applicable for Source links where the pressure has been fixed. For such simulations,
"DP from Network" is the recommended choke method as its’ the most mathematically
stable and rigorous.
Figure 630: “DP from Network” Method
Figure 630: By selecting "DP from Network", (Choke=3) the user forces PIPEPHASE
to calculate the critical flow rate for a given Pin and set this as the Qmax constraint for
the link. The Critical flow rate is defined as the intersection of the Tubing Performance
Curve and the Critical Choke Performance Curve.
Once PIPEPHASE calculates the Critical flow rate, Qmax for the link is set to this value.
In other words it sets a constraint, which specified that as long as the BHP remains
constant, the flow rate in the link cannot exceed the calculated Critical flow rate. This
acts as a safety net to ensure that PIPEPHASE can never calculate an unrealistic flow
rate through the choke (i.e. for a given bottom hole pressure PipePhase will always
calculate a flow rate less than or equal to the Critical flow rate for the link). The Qmax
692 Technical Reference
logic enables PIPEPHASE to solve the Network rigorously and in a very stable manner
while at the same time preserving the physics of the choke flow as expressed in the
equations below.
(684)
(685)
where:
P
out
= Pressure down stream of the Choke
P
in
= Pressure upstream of the Choke
r
c
= Critical Pressure Ratio
Q
c
= Critical Flow Rate
Q = Flow rate through the choke
Note the Gilbert choke model only operates on the Critical Choke Performance Curve.
The Gilbert coefficients determine the slope of this line. Fortunati, Perkins, and Ueda on
the other hand can operate on the Critical Choke Performance Curve plus anywhere
within the SubCritical Flow Region.
For "Critical Pressure Ratio", (i.e. CHOKE=4) a different convention is used. Instead of
PIPEPHASE imposing constraints by way of an exponential or linear curve the
following equation is used.
For Q > Q
critical
(686)
This convention makes for a stable network model as the choke outlet pressure is simply
computed using above equation for the Critical Pressure Ratio. Ueda, Fortunati &
Perkins models can all predict critical flow and an associated critical pressure ratio. The
user can override the calculated critical pressure ratio by specifying a value in the Choke
unit DEW.
P
out
P
i n
 r
c
s
Q Q
c
s
P
out
P
i n
 r
c
s
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 693
Unfortunately as demonstrated in the diagram below, by calculating the outlet pressure
of the choke based solely on the critical pressure ratio, there are cases where this method
will quite happily predict flow rates through the choke far in excess of the real critical
flow rate for a given bottom hole pressure. As a result, this method is not recommended
when modeling chokes.
Figure 631: Choke Performance Curve
Figure 631: Choke Performance Curve as defined by Choke=4. Notice following this
curve it is possible to predict flow rates through the choke far in excess of the actual
critical flow rate. As a result, this method is not recommended when modeling chokes.
• WELLS. The occurrence of heading phenomena that accompanies upward,
multiphase flows in wells, can give rise to convergence problems in PBAL. The
WELLS option on the solution statement seeks to solve this problem by (1)
determining the minimum heading flow that is allowed in wells with specified
source pressures, and by (2) constraining flows in those wells to be greater than
that minimum flow rate. PBAL shutsoff the well in the event that the minimum
flow can not be maintained in the well.
• QMIN. This keyword appears on individual LINK statements. This keyword
constrains the minimum flow in links to be greater than a user specifiable value.
This feature can be useful in seeking the solution to network flows in which
links not associated with wells can display heading phenomena.
694 Technical Reference
MBAL Solution Algorithm
The MBAL solution algorithm offers an alternative to PBAL for the solution of single
phase network flows. As with PBAL, the defaults that govern the operation of this
algorithm can require adjustment for successful solution of network flow fields.
Suggested keywords for modification include: RELAX, DAMP, SUBITERATION,
QTOL, PTOL and TTOL. Explanations follow:
DAMP and RELAX. As with the NewtonRaphson procedure used with the
FLOWALLOC=3 option of PBAL, underrelaxation of NewtonRaphson steps can
be required with the MBAL algorithm. The keyword DAMP applies to the initial
solution estimate used by MBAL (this is the same algorithm that is used in the
PBAL initialization procedure FLOWALLOC=3), and the keyword RELAX applies
to the nonlinear MBAL solution procedure. The default value of both keywords is
0.25. A reduction in the value of these parameters is warranted in circumstances in
which an examination of the residual history (either flow imbalances or nodal pres
sures) does not show a sustained decrease. Please see above comments for the use of
the DAMP keyword in the FLOWALLOC=3 option of PBAL.
SUBITERATIONS. Because the MBAL algorithm is independent of PBAL, you
must ensure that sufficient iterations are allocated for the chosen level of under
relaxation through either DAMP or RELAX for the desired solution tolerances to be
attained. The default value of the parameter is 200.
QTOL, PTOL and TTOL. These define the required level of convergence for the
nodal flows, and the changes in the pressure and temperature fields. You are advised,
that often the application of the MBAL algorithm yields minimum values of these
quantities that exceed the specified values of QTOL, PTOL and TTOL. Often this
can not be changed. In these circumstances, you are advised to relax the solution
requirements for the MBAL algorithm.
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 695
SubNetwork Algorithm
Introduction
In a network, PIPEPHASE allows the user to specify upstream pressure or flow rate to a
Choke (MCHOK)/ Regulator (MREG) or the inlet pressure to a compressor
(MCOMPRESSOR). When these specifications are invoked, PIPEPHASE automatically
breaks the original network at the device inlet into two new separate subnetworks
(pseudolinks). PIPEPHASE then uses the subnetwork algorithm to rigorously solve the
resultant network.
If MCHOK is specified, PIPEPHASE will calculate the choke size that is required to
meet the specification. Similarly PIPEPHASE will calculate the Compressor Power if
the MCOMP with specified inlet pressure is invoked.
Figure 632: Original Link
When the specification as mentioned above are invoked for the devices, subnetworks are
formed with
• Upstream link containing all the devices before the break point
• Downstream link containing all the devices after the break point.
During the formation of subnetwork, a new sink (pseudo sink) is created for the
upstream link and simultaneously a new source (pseudosource) is created for the
downstream link. The upstream link retains the original link name but the downstream
link will be given an unique link name. The new nodes (pseudosink and pseudosource)
are also assigned internally generated unique names.
Many subnetworks will be created if several such devices are included in the network.
At calculation time the subnetwork containing the upstream link(s) is solved prior to the
subnetwork containing the downstream link(s). The flow coming out of the upstream
link (pseudo sink) is transferred to the downstream link (pseudo source); prior to the
calculation of the downstream subnetwork pseudo link.
A
B
Mreg or Mchok or
Mcomp
Inlet Pressure or Flowspecified
Link name = L1
696 Technical Reference
Figure 633: Broken Links (SubNetwork)
To properly set up subnetwork problems the following conditions must be met:
• Each pseudosink and pseudosource pair must occur in separated subnetwork.
• Each subnetwork's boundary conditions must be such that each subnetwork prob
lem is an independent wellposed network problem. Ensure that the boundary condi
tion of each subnetwork honors the required Network WellPosedness conditions.
• Each pseudolink must have atleast one pressure loss device (not counting the
MCHOK, MREG, or MCOMPRESSOR).
Some Network WellPosedness conditions that needs to be met for each subnetwork:
• At least one pressure in the network must be fixed.
• At least one sink or source must occur.
• Each link must have at least one device that has a consistent variation of pressure
drop as a function of flow rate (flowpressure drop performance relationship).
Frequently Asked Questions
This section presents and answers those queries most commonly asked through SimSci’s
worldwide technical support network. PIPEPHASE users and readers of this manual are
encouraged to provide feedback on the content and layout of this section to ensure future
editions of the manual are of practical use to the user.
A B
Mreg or Mchok or
Mcomp
Pressure or flow
specified sink
Link name = L1
Link name = ‘1’
‘2’ ‘ 3’
Flow specified
source
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 697
FAQ 1: What are the merits of the Kfactor and Kmultiplier in
fitting pressure drops?
Referring back to equation 618 where the form of the frictional pressure loss in a pipe of
circular crosssection was derived:
(687)
Integrating equation (687) over a section of pipe of length L gives:
(688)
If we now define the term “head”, which is gained or lost over a length of pipe L, as h
L
,
where AP = pgh
L
(for each pressure drop term in equation (619)), then the velocity in a
pipe changes at the expense of the “static”, or elevation head. Therefore the decrease in
the elevation head due to velocity is known as the “velocity head”:
(689)
The flow of fluid through a valve or other pipe fitting, such as an elbow, will also result
in a change in head. This may also be expressed in terms of the velocity head:
(690)
The loss term K in equation (690) is defined as the resistance coefficient, Kfactor, or
number of velocity heads. The Kfactor, therefore, can be viewed as a constant for any
particular valve or fitting, and independent of friction factor or Reynolds number. From
equation (688), the frictional pressure drop over a straight section of pipe is similarly
given by:
(691a)
where:
(691b)
dp
dL

\ .
 
FRICTION
f
d
pv
2
2g
c
d
i
 =
AP
f
d
pv
2
2g
c
d
 =
H
L
v
2
2g
c
 =
H
L
K
v
2
2g
c
 =
H
L
f
L
d

\ .
 
v
2
2g
c
 =
K f
L
d
 =
698 Technical Reference
(691c)
Therefore by equating equations (695) and (696), it can be seen that the Kfactor is
equivalent to (f L/d), where the ratio L/d is the equivalent length (in pipe diameters) of
straight pipe that will cause the same pressure drop as the valve or fitting under the same
flowing conditions.
Crane
59
presents evidence that in valves and fittings the Kfactor varies “…with size as
does the friction factor, f, for straight clean commercial steel pipe at flow conditions
resulting in a constant friction factor, and [the] equivalent length L/d tends toward a
constant for the various sizes of a given line of valves or fittings at the same flow
conditions.” This conclusion leads to the idea that instead of using a Kfactor, the
equivalent length, L/d, should instead be used as a constant multiplier of the friction
factor. The value of the constant should then be derived from field test data and
applicable to all sizes of the particular valve or fitting with which it is identified. In
PIPEPHASE the equivalent length constant, as reported in standard publications such as
Crane, is known as the Kmultiplier (keyword KMUL).
In summary, therefore, the Kmultiplier should always be chosen, if available, in
preference over a Kfactor value, since the Kfactor varies with the size of the valve or
fitting.
FAQ 2: Should one use “equivalent lengths” inside links with twophase
flow to represent fitting pressure drops?
The “Kfactor  pipe equivalent length” analogy was originally derived only for
incompressible single phase flow (see previous FAQ), where the pressure drop is due
only to friction. The analogy is also applicable for single phase compressible flow where
velocities and velocity changes (i.e., acceleration) are low.
However, for twophase flow in pipes the same analogy cannot be applied, and the use of
equivalent pipe lengths is not recommended as good simulation practice. The
“equivalent length” value (i.e., the Kmultiplier) multiplied by the prevailing friction
factor is not the same as the true Kfactor because the accelerational effects are not
considered in its evaluation. In typical piping system simulations these acceleration
terms may be significant and can cause pressure drops to be predicted which are much
higher than the Kfactor method. In the case of twophase flow, there is no direct
established procedure, equivalent to that presented in the previous FAQ, to derive the
“equivalent length” analogy, and therefore it should not be used in these situations. A
twophase multiplier, j, is used in PIPEPHASE (see a previous section in this chapter on
Fittings for further information) to correct the single phase pressure drop equation
(691a) for a fitting device to account for twophase flow.
K
MUL
L
d
 =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 699
FAQ 3: How do you explain a pressure recovery over an expansion
device?
An expansion is a device in PIPEPHASE which models the pressure change in a fluid
moving from one pipe diameter to another of larger diameter. The pressure change over
an expansion across which fluid is moving from one circular pipe to another circular
pipe of larger diameter (as opposed to a pipe exit, where no velocity recovery can occur),
consists of two terms:
1. Velocity head change
2. Friction head loss
Qualitatively, the velocity head tends to cause a pressure increase, and the friction
component causes a pressure decrease. The pressure drop equation over an expansion for
a single phase fluid can be shown to be (see Crane
59
, p211):
(692)
where:
subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the small and large diameter points respectively, and
K
exp
= the usersupplied Kfactor
If we define o as the ratio A
1
/A
2
, then it can be seen by inspection of equation (692) that
if 1o
2
 K
exp
> 0 then P
2
> P
1
and there is a pressure recovery.
This phenomenon occurs when the 1o
2
, or velocity head loss is larger than the frictional
pressure loss over the expansion (as calculated by the Crane methods). Pressure rises
over expansion devices are generally unusual, but if they occur in network simulations,
then PIPEPHASE may have trouble solving pressure balances because of this behavior.
In these cases the user should replace these devices with other devices exhibiting
equivalent, but continuous, pressure vs. flow behavior, such as DPDT devices or
alternative fittings with similar Kfactors.
(693)
Since PIPEPHASE evaluates conditions at the inlet conditions to the fitting, the velocity
head term can be expanded:
(694)
AP 1
A
1
A
2

2
– K
exp
–
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹p
L
v
2
2g
c
 =
AP – K
exp
pv
1
2
2g
c

A pv
2
( )
2g
c
 + =
A pv
2
( )
2g
c

p
L
2g
c
 v
2
2
v
1
2
– ( ) =
6100 Technical Reference
From the Conservation of Momentum equation, and using inlet densities:
(695)
(696)
(697)
(698)
Substituting equation (698) into equation (694), and reversing the signs gives equation
(683).
FAQ 4: Why does PIPEPHASE have two network solution
methods (Flare and Network)?
The Network solution method in PIPEPHASE is a general purpose algorithm, geared
towards solving as wide a variety of networks as possible. In the case of flare networks,
the nature of such systems dictates the possibility of very high velocities and perhaps
critical flow in parts of the system. The general purpose network algorithm (PBAL)
operates in a forwardmarching, simultaneous manner. Therefore if a discontinuity were
to occur at the end of a link in this algorithm, there may conceivably be multiple
solutions for the true outlet pressure of that node. In the Flare algorithm the algorithm
works backwards from the flare base, and therefore a check can be made at the
beginning of each link for critical flow. The upstream pressure which would be required
to achieve this condition can then be calculated.
FAQ 5: What is the relation between discharge coefficients used in valve
sizing and the Kfactor used to define pressure drop?
PIPEPHASE models the pressure drop across a device/fitting as:
(699)
where:
Ap = device pressure drop
q/A = mass flux per unit area
A
1
v
1
A
2
v
2
=
A
1
2
A
2
2

v
2
2
v
1
2
 =
A
1
A
2

\ .
 
2
1 –
v
2
2
v
1
2
–
v
1
2
 =
A pv
2
( )
2g
c

p
L
v
1
2
2g
c

A
1
A
2

\ .
 
2
1 – =
Ap
K
q
A

2
2p
u =
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 6101
The device Kfactor that appears in equation (699) can be related to the discharge
coefficient K
d
used to size valves in the API 520 (1993) formula for liquid relief:
(6100)
where:
In the limit of singlephase liquid flow, equation (6100) can be combined with equation
(699) to yield the following relation for Kfactor in terms of the valve discharge
coefficient K
d
and viscosity correction factor K
v
:
(6101a)
In the limit of high Reynolds number flows K
v
approaches 1, so that equation (6101a)
can be approximated as:
(6101b)
FAQ 6: What is the relation between the flow coefficient of a valve (Cv)
and the Kfactor for the valve?
The flow coefficient Cv of a valve is defined as the volumetric flux of water, in either
UK or US gallons per minute, at a temperature of 60° and at a pressure drop of one
pound per square inch (1 psia) across the valve (Crane, 1988).
The following expressions relate the resistance coefficient K to C
v
:
For valve flows in UK gallons per minute:
p = noslip fluid density
u = twophase fluid multiplier
K = device Kfactor
A = Required effective discharge area (in
2
)
Q = Flowrate (US gal/min)
K
d
= Effective coefficient of discharge for valve
K
w
= Correction factor due to back pressure (K
w
=1 for conventional valves)
K
v
= Correction factor due to viscosity as determined from Figure 32 of API 520 (1993)
G Specific gravity of the liquid at the flowing temperature referred to water = 1.0 at
70 F
AP Valve pressure drop
A
Q
38K
d
K
w
K
v

G
AP
 =
K
1
K
d
2
K
v
2
 =
K
1
K
d
2
 =
6102 Technical Reference
(6102a)
For valve flows in US gallons per minute:
(6102b)
where:
d = diameter of the value (in)
Clearly, the coefficient Cv can be related to the discharge coefficient K
d
of a valve
through equations (6102a) and (6102b).
FAQ 7: What is the relation between the JouleThomson effect
and adiabatic flashing?
Gases can often be cooled when subject to a sufficiently rapid expansion. The cooling
phenomenon, which is termed the JouleThomson effect, forms the basis of a number of
refrigeration processes. In everyday use, the JouleThomson effect can be seen in the
temperature fall that accompanies the rapid release of the contents of an aerosol can.
When flowing gases are allowed to expand from a higher pressure to a lower pressure
without producing work, i.e., across an insulated valve, the heat transfer effects are
negligible and the flow can be approximated as adiabatic. Furthermore, if the changes in
kinetic and potential energy are negligible, then the expansion can be approximated as
isenthalpic: see equation (64a). Thus:
(6103)
where:
H
1
and H
2
= the enthalpies upstream and downstream of the expansion
The temperature drop that accompanies the pressure drop across the expansion is termed
the JouleThomson
67
effect. In the limit of incremental changes in pressure, the
temperature change across the expansion is quantified by the JouleThomson coefficient:
(6104)
where:
C
v
24.9d
2
K
 =
C
v
29.9d
2
K
 =
AH H
2
H
1
– =
n
JT
T c
P o

\ .
 
H
=
PIPEPHASE Keyword Manual 6103
n
JT
= JouleThomson coefficient
Note: n
JT
can be either positive or negative. In an ideal gas, n
JT
is zero. The Joule
Thomson effect occurs in those gases