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Submitted by:
Nalin kumar
Rajesh kumar Mishra
Roopam Nayak


New Delhi

This report marks the completion of the two week industrial training programme undertaken
as a part of M.F.Tech curriculum.
We are highly thankful to Mr. Devanshu Narang, C.E.O.,Sarla Fabric Pvt. Ltd. firstly for
permitting us to undertake this training at such a modern processing house and overall for
the facilities that were made available for us in all the possible ways during this period. We
are also thankful to Mr.Sachin (HR Dept.),for guiding us during the training period.
We are also indebted to all the staff members and the workers of the Sarla Fabric Pvt. Ltd.

We express my heartiest thanks to Dr. Rishi P. Jamdagni(Director),

Dr.S.K.Dhamija (Training Officer) Prof. A.K. Patra (H.O.D.,T.C.)

 Indian Textile Industry - Introduction

 Company Profile
Chapter I
 Group philosophy
 Group quality policy
 Organizational Structure

Chapter II  Weaving

Chapter III  Machines used in Weaving

TECHNOLOGIES USED  Machines used in Processing

Chapter IV
• Printing
• Sanforizing


 Indian Textile Industry - Introduction

 Company Profile

 Group philosophy

 Group quality policy

 Organizational Structure

The Textile Sector in India ranks next to Agriculture. Textile is one of India’s oldest industries
and has a formidable presence in the national economy in as much as it contributes to about
14 per cent of manufacturing value-addition, accounts for around one-third of our gross
export earnings and provides gainful employment to millions of people. The textile industry
occupies a unique place in our country. One of the earliest to come into existence in India, it
accounts for 14% of the total Industrial production, contributes to nearly 30% of the total
exports and is the second largest employment generator after agriculture.

Textile Industry is providing one of the most basic needs of people and the holds importance;
maintaining sustained growth for improving quality of life. It has a unique position as a self-
reliant industry, from the production of raw materials to the delivery of finished products, with
substantial value-addition at each stage of processing; it is a major contribution to the
country's economy. This paper deals with structure, growth and size of the Indian textile
industry, role of textile industry in economy, key advantages of the industry, textile industry
export and global scenario and strength, weakness, opportunities and treats of the Indian
textile industry.

Indian Textile Industry Structure And Growth

India’s textile industry is one of the economy’s largest. In 2000/01, the textile and garment
industries accounted for about 4 percent of GDP, 14 percent of industrial output, 18 percent of
industrial employment, and 27 percent of export earnings (Hashim). India’s textile industry is
also significant in a global context, ranking second to China in the production of both cotton
yarn and fabric and fifth in the production of synthetic fibers and yarns.
In contrast to other major textile-producing countries, mostly mostly small-scale, non
integrated spinning, weaving, cloth finishing, and apparel enterprises, many of which use
outdated technology, characterize India’s textile sector. Some, mostly larger, firms operate in
the “organized” sector where firms must comply with numerous government labor and tax
Most firms, however, operate in the small-scale “unorganized” sector where regulations are
less stringent and more easily evaded. The unique structure of the Indian textile industry is
due to the legacy of tax, labor, and other regulatory policies that have favoured small-scale,
labor-intensive enterprises, while discriminating against larger scale, more capital-intensive
operations. The structure is also due to the historical orientation towards meeting the needs
of India’s predominately low-income domestic consumers, rather than the world market.
Policy reforms, which began in the 1980s and continued into the 1990s, have led to
significant gains in technical efficiency and international competitiveness, particularly in the
spinning sector. However, broad scope remains for additional reforms that could enhance the
efficiency and competitiveness of India’s weaving, fabric finishing, and apparel sectors.

Structure Of India’s Textile Industry

Unlike other major textile-producing countries, India’s textile industry is comprised mostly of
small-scale, nonintegrated spinning, weaving, finishing, and apparel-making enterprises. This
unique industry structure is primarily a legacy of government policies that have promoted
labor-intensive, small-scale operations and discriminated against larger scale firms:

• Composite Mills. Relatively large-scale mills that integrate spinning, weaving and,
sometimes, fabric finishing are common in other major textile-producing countries. In
India, however, these types of mills now account for about only 3 percent of output in the
textile sector. About 276 composite mills are now operating in India, most owned by the
public sector and many deemed financially “sick.”
• Spinning. Spinning. is the process of converting cotton or manmade fiber into yarn to be
used for weaving and knitting. Largely due to deregulation beginning in the mid-1980s,
spinning is the most consolidated and technically efficient sector in India’s textile industry.
Average plant size remains small, however, and technology outdated, relative to other
major producers. In 2002/03, India’s spinning sector consisted of about 1,146 small-scale
independent firms and 1,599 larger scale independent units.
• Weaving and Knitting. Weaving and knitting converts cotton, manmade, or blended yarns
into woven or knitted fabrics. India’s weaving and knitting sector remains highly
fragmented, small-scale, and labor-intensive. This sector consists of about 3.9 million
handlooms, 380,000 “powerloom” enterprises that operate about 1.7 million looms, and just
137,000 looms in the various composite mills. “Powerlooms” are small firms, with an
average loom capacity of four to five owned by independent entrepreneurs or weavers.
Modern shuttleless looms account for less than 1 percent of loom capacity.

• Fabric Finishing. Fabric finishing (also referred to as processing), which includes dyeing,
printing, and other cloth preparation prior to the manufacture of clothing, is also dominated
by a large number of independent, small scale enterprises. Overall, about 2,300
processors are operating in India, including about 2,100 independent units and 200 units
that are integrated with spinning, weaving, or knitting units.

• Clothing. Apparel is produced by about 77,000 small-scale units classified as domestic

manufacturers, manufacturer exporters, and fabricators (subcontractors).

Growth of Textile Industry

India has already completed more than 50 years of its independence. The analysis of the
growth pattern of different segment of the industry during the last five decades of post
independence era reveals that the growth of the industry during the first two decades after
the independence had been gradual, though lower and growth had been considerably slower
during the third decade. The growth thereafter picked up significantly during the fourth
decade in each and every segment of the industry. The peak level of its growth has however
been reached during the fifth decade i.e., the last ten years and more particularly in the 90s.
The Textile Policy of 1985 and Economic Policy of 1991 focussing in the direction of
liberalisation of economy and trade had in fact accelerated the growth in 1990s. The
spinning spearheaded the growth during this period and man-made fibre industry in the
organised sector and decentralised weaving sector.
Size of Textile Industry in India
• The textile industry in India covers a wide gamut of activities ranging from production of
raw material like cotton, jute, silk and wool to providing high value-added products such as
fabrics and garments to consumers.
• The industry uses a wide variety of fibres ranging from natural fibres like cotton, jute, silk
and wool to man made fibres like polyester, viscose, acrylic and multiple blends of such
fibres and filament yarn.
• The textile industry plays a significant role in Indian economy by providing direct
employment to an estimated 35 million people, by contributing 4 per cent of GDP and
accounting for 35 per cent of gross export earnings. The textile sector contributes 14 per
cent of the value-addition in the manufacturing sector.
• Textile exports during the period of April-February 2003-2004 amounted to $11,698.5
million as against $11,142.2 million during the same period in the previous year, showing
an increase of around 5 per cent.
• Estimates say that the textile sector might achieve about 15 to 18 per cent growth this
year following dismantling of MFA.

Role Of Indian Textile Industry In The Economy

Textile industry plays a significant role in the economy. The Indian textile industry is one of
the largest and most important sectors in the economy in terms of output, foreign exchange
earnings and employment in India. It contributes 20 per cent of industrial production, 9 per
cent of excise collections, 18 per cent of employment in industrial sector, nearly 20 per cent
to the country’s total export earnings and 4 per cent ton the GDP. The sector employs nearly
35 million people and is the second highest employer in the country. The textile sector also
has a direct link with the rural economy and performance of major fibre crops and crafts such
as cotton, wool, silk, handicrafts and handlooms, which employ millions of farmers and crafts
persons in rural and semi-urban areas. It has been estimated that one out of every six
households in the country depends directly or indirectly on this sector.
India has several advantages in the textile sector, including abundant availability of raw
material and labour. It is the second largest player in the world cotton trade. It has the largest
cotton acreage, of about nine million hectares and is the third largest producer of cotton fibre
in the world. It ranks fourth in terms of staple fibre production and fourth in polyester yarn
production. The textile industry is also labour intensive, thus India has an advantage.

The key advantages of the Indian industry are

• India is the third largest producer of cotton with the largest area under cotton cultivation in
the world. It has an edge in low cost cotton sourcing compared to other countries.
• Average wage rates in India are 50-60 per cent lower than that in developed countries,
thus enabling India to benefit from global outsourcing trends in labour intensive
businesses such as garments and home textiles.
• Design and fashion capabilities are key strengths that will enable Indian players to
strengthen their relationships with global retailers and score over their Chinese
• Production facilities are available across the textile value chain, from spinning to garments
manufacturing. The industry is investing in technology and increasing its capacities which
should prove a major asset in the years to come.
• Large Indian players such as Arvind Mills, Welspun India, Alok Industries and Raymonds
have established themselves as 'quality producers' in the global market. This recognition
would further enable India to leverage its position among global retailers.
• India has gathered experience in terms of working with global brands and this should
benefit Indian vendors.

Government Initiatives
With a view to raise India's share in the global textiles trade to 10 per cent by 2015 (from the
current 3 per cent), the Ministry of Textiles proposes 50 new textile parks. Out of the 50, 30
have been already sanctioned by the government (with a cost of US$ 710 million). Set up
under the Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks (SITP), this initiative will not only make the
industry cost competitive, but will also enhance manufacturing capacity in the sector.
Government Initiatives
With a view to raise India's share in the global textiles trade to 10 per cent by 2015 (from the
current 3 per cent), the Ministry of Textiles proposes 50 new textile parks. Out of the 50, 30
have been already sanctioned by the government (with a cost of US$ 710 million). Set up
under the Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks (SITP), this initiative will not only make the
industry cost competitive, but will also enhance manufacturing capacity in the sector.
Apart from the above, a series of progressive measures have been planned to strengthen the
textile sector in India:
• Technology Mission on Cotton (TMC)
• Technology Upgradation fund Scheme (TUFS)
• Setting up of Apparel Training and Design Centres (ATDCs)
• 100 per cent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the textile sector under automatic route.
• Setting up two design centres in Gujarat in collaboration with National Institute of Fashion
• Setting up a Handloom Plaza in Ahmedabad with an estimated investment of US$ 24.6
• Revival plans of the mills run by National Textiles Corporation (NTC). Already, for the
revival of 18 textile mills, US$ 2.21 million worth of machineries has been ordered for the
upgradation and modernisation of these mills.
• Setting up a handloom mall with an investment of US$ 24.6 million at Jehangir Mill in
• Scrapping of the Textile Committee cess being collected from the textile and textile
machinery industry under the Textile Committee Act.
In a further bid to bolster the envisaged annual growth rate of 11 per cent, the Government
will also increase the TUF (Technology Upgradation Fund) from US$ 124 million in 2006-07
to US$ 211 million in 2007-08.
The Government of India has also included new schemes in the Annual Plan for 2007-08 to
provide a boost to the textile sector.
These include schemes for Foreign Investment Promotion to attract foreign direct investment
in textiles, clothing and machinery; Brand Promotion on Public-Private Partnership (PPP)
approach to develop global acceptability of Indian apparel brands; Trade Facilitation Centres
for Indian image branding; Fashion Hubs for creation of permanent market place for the
benefit of Indian fashion industry; Common Compliance Code to encourage acceptability
among apparel buyers and Training Centres for Human Resource Development on Public
Private Partnership (PPP) mode.


In textile Scenario
In exports Cotton yarns, fabric, made ups etc made largest chunk with US$ 3.33 Billion or
26.5% in textiles category, and Ready Made garments (RMG)-cotton including accessories
made largest chunk with 4.67 Billion US $ or 37.1 % of total exports. Whereas, manmade
yarn and fabrics in textiles group and RMG–Man made fibers constituted second position in
the two categories, respectively. Carpets and woolen garments are other items exported from

In global scenario
Developed countries' exports declined
from 52.2% share in 1990 to 37.8 % in
2005. And that of developing countries
increased from 47.8% to 62.2 % in the
same period. In 2003 the exports figures
in percentage of the world trade in
Textiles Group (for select countries)
The above chart clearly shows that export of world trade in textile group. Among world textile
group EU occupies 34.80% of export, next China at 15.90%, USA at 6.40%, Republic of
Korea at 6.00% Taipei, Ch at 5.50%, India and Japan at 3.80% respectively, Pakistan at
3.40%, turkey at 3.10% and Mexico at 1.20%.

In Clothing Sector the figures were as below
in 2007 in percentage of total experts

Export Scenario:
Textiles contributed 20% of India's exports to
about US $ 12.5 Billion. The Quota Countries Source:
mainly USA, EU (15) and Canada constituted
70 % of total garment exports and 40% of India's textiles exports. In non-quota countries
UAE is the largest market with 7% of textile exports and 10% of garment exports from India
The above table clearly depicts the export of
readymade garments for the last five years.
In the year of 2004-2005 the value of export
of readymade garment is 395.23 and in the
year 2008-2009 the value is 8200.00. From
2004-2005 it started increasing and in the
year 2007-2008 it declines and again in the India’s Exports: In US $ Billion Year 2008-09
year 2008-2009 it increases.

Indian Textile Industry – SWOT Analysis


• Indian Textile Industry is an Independent & Self-Reliant industry.

• Abundant Raw Material availability that helps industry to control costs and reduces the
lead-time across the operation.
• Availability of Low Cost and Skilled Manpower provides competitive advantage to industry.
• Availability of large varieties of cotton fiber and has a fast growing synthetic fiber industry.
• India has great advantage in Spinning Sector and has a presence in all process of
operation and value chain.
• India is one of the largest exporters of Yarn in international market and contributes around
25% share of the global trade in Cotton Yarn.
• The Apparel Industry is one of largest foreign revenue contributor and holds 12% of the
country's total export.
• Industry has large and diversified segments that provide wide variety of products.
• Growing Economy and Potential Domestic and International Market.
• Industry has Manufacturing Flexibility that helps to increase the productivity.

• Indian Textile Industry is highly Fragmented Industry.
• Industry is highly dependent on Cotton.
• Lower Productivity in various segments.
• There is Declining in Mill Segment.
• Lack of Technological Development that affect the productivity and other activities in whole
value chain.
• Infrastructural Bottlenecks and Efficiency such as, Transaction Time at Ports and
transportation Time.
• Unfavourable labour Laws.
• Lack of Trade Membership, which restrict to tap other potential market.
• Lacking to generate Economies of Scale.
• Higher Indirect Taxes, Power and Interest Rates.

• Growth rate of Domestic Textile Industry is 6-8% per annum.
• Large, Potential Domestic and International Market.
• Product development and Diversification to cater global needs.
• Elimination of Quota Restriction leads to greater Market Development.
• Market is gradually shifting towards Branded Ready-made Garment.
• Increased Disposable Income and Purchasing Power of Indian Customer opens New
Market Development.
• Emerging Retail Industry and Malls provide huge opportunities for the
• Apparel, Handicraft and other segments of the industry.
• Greater Investment and FDI opportunities are available.
• Competition from other developing countries, especially China.
• Continuous Quality Improvement is need of the hour as there are different demand
patterns all over the world.
• Elimination of Quota system will lead to fluctuations in Export Demand.
• Threat for Traditional Market for Power loom and Hand loom Products and forcing them for
product diversification.
• International labour and Environmental Laws.
• To balance the demand and supply.
• To make balance between price and quality.

The Indian textile industry has a significant presence in the Indian economy as well as in the
international textile economy. Its contribution to the Indian economy is manifested in terms of
its contribution to the industrial production, employment generation and foreign exchange
earnings. The industry also contributes significantly to the world production of textile fibres
and yarns including jute. In the world textile scenario, it is the largest producer of jute, second
largest producer of silk, third largest producer of cotton and cellulosic fibre\yarn and fifth
largest producer of synthetic fibre\yarn. Textile Industry is providing one of the most basic
needs of people and the holds importance; maintaining sustained growth for improving quality
of life. The Government of India has also included new schemes in the Annual Plan for 2007-
08 to provide a boost to the textile sector. These include schemes for Foreign Investment
Promotion to attract foreign direct investment in textiles, clothing and machinery etc.

Sarla Fabric Pvt Limited, established in 1994, is a part of Shahi Exports Group, one of the
largest garments Manufacturer and Exporter of India. Building upon its’ strength in state-of-
the-art fabric process house with a production capacity of 42 million meters per annum.
All kinds of Woven Fabrics like Poplin, Twill, Canvas, Cambric & Voile etc. weighing from
50 GSM to 500 GSM made of Cotton, Linen & Rayon blends and Stretch Fabrics are
processed to International standards. We process Georgette, Moss Crepe of Rayon and
Cotton Crepe. We print Reactive (Procion), Vat color discharge on reactive ground &
Sarla Fabric embarked upon a course of natural progression and entered into the fabric
manufacturing business in the year 2007. They have the in state-of-the-art weaving facility
with a capacity of 9 million meters per annum. The weaving plant is well equipped with the
latest technology of Air-jet Toyota looms; Beninger preparatory etc. & can weave all kind
of cotton grey fabric like Dobbies, Twills, Poplins & Yarn dyeds etc.
They supply the finished products to the world class buyers. Top five Buyers where they
supply our finished Products: 1) Wal-Mart, 2) Target, 3) GAP, 4) H&M, 5) Impulse etc.

• The Lab is approved by Wal-Mart, Target & GAP.

• Approved for (GOTS) Global Organic Textile Standard and (OE) Organic Exchange.
• Sarla Fabric Pvt. Limited is ISO 9001:2008 & ISO 14001:2004 certified Company.
Processing Machines

Name of Machine Make Country of origin Used for Process

Gas Singeing &
Gas Singe & Desizer Osthoff Germany

Continuous Bleaching Range Beninger Switzerland Scouring/Bleaching

Continuous Mercerising Range Beninger Switzerland Mercerising
Cold Pad-Batch Kusters Germany Dyeing
Pad-Dry Machine Beninger Switzerland Dyeing
Pad-Steam Range Beninger Switzerland Dyeing
Continuous Wash-Range Beninger Switzerland Washing/Soaping
Two Rotary Printing 12 Colour Laxmi India Printing
Rotary Printing 12 Colour Zimmer Austria Printing
Steamer/Ager Arioli Italy Print developing

Printing Screen
Rotary Screen Engraver Luescher Germany

Two Sanforiser Ronson India Zero-Zero machine

One Stenter m/c Ilsung Korea Finishing
Two Stenters SM Econ India Finishing
Peaching m/c Lafer Switzerland Emerising/Peaching

Name of Machine Make Country of origin Used for Process

Sixty Six Air Jet Looms Toyota Japan Weaving M/c

Direct Warping M/c Beninger Switzerland Yarn Warping

Sectional Warping M/c Prasanth Gammatex India Sectional Warping

Continuous Sizing M/c Beninger Switzerland Yarn Sizing

Name of Machine Make Country of origin Used for Process

Single Yarn Sizing Machine JYTYT machinery China Sizing

Automatic warping machine JYTYT machinery China Warping

Rapier Loom JYTYT machinery China Weaving

Proposed Machineries
• 45 Air-Jet and Rapier looms with 8 colors weft insertion facilities out of this some are
double beam facilities with E-shading.
• 8 chamber imported stenter for finish, Drying as well as curing of dyed and printed goods.
• Imported Curing/ Polymerize machine for curing after Pigment print.
• We will install 1kg and 8kg yarn dyeing machine for sampling yardage as well as Desk
loom preparation.
Apart from Computerized & Continuous Machines (Benninger AG) In Dyeing we also have
Jet Dyeing Machines, Soft flow, Jigger & Winches. Our Pretreatment Deptt. has the capacity
of producing 1,10,000mtrs. of bleached fabric per day & that of Dyeing Deptt. is 80,000
mtrs. per day.
In Printing apart from Rotary Printing Machines we also have a range of After-Treatment
Machines e.g. Continuous Ager, Loop Ager, Star Ager, Polymerizes & Washing ranges. The
capacity of Printing Deptt. is 55,000mtrs. per day. The Finishing Deptt. has the capacity to
finish 120,000 m of fabric per day.
In pursuit of Perfection-Laboratory – Sarla Fabric Ltd. is equipped with an ultra modern
laboratory, equipped with advanced & globally acclaimed equipment. The laboratory has a
Gretag Macbeth Colour matching system and Datacolor Computer Color Matching
System, coupled with a Datacolor automatic dispenser to eliminate any human error.
Laboratory has a Mathis Padder with Dryer & Steamer - a replica of Pilot plant of Bulk
Dyeing Machines. The Dyeing recipe formulations are done at the lab. stage only & the
same recipe is transferred to Bulk. Lab to Bulk Co-relation is perfectly documented & remains
above 95% every time.
For Exhaust Dyeing also the Lab has Datacolor Infra-Red Dyeing Equipment. Laboratory is
equipped with various Textile Testing Machines e.g. Tensile Strength Tester, Tear Strength
Tester, Abrasion Resistance & Pilling Resistance Tester. Shrinkage Test & Fabric Drape Test
& Color Fastness tests to various agencies e.g. Washing, Crocking; Light & Perspiration are
also done regularly. The Colour Management Group also handles the final product Shade
sorting & color related defects like listing & Center to Selvedge or Selvedge to Selvedge
problems etc. detection.
Despite all of the above SFPL is committed to sustain Environmental Balance through
conservation of water, energy and prevention of pollution. To achieve these following
activities is going on.
• We always insist to reduce the water consumption and recycle the waste water and power
saving as a control measure to save the natural resources,
• Reduce waste water by continual improvement in the process.
• To achieve the above object we have invested Rs 25 million in waste water recovery plant.
• Installed the wet scrubber to prevent air pollution through boiler chimney.
• We have an effective rain water harvesting system, which is not only helpful in recharging
the sub soil water but also helping in running ETP during the rainy season.
• We are maintaining greenery in our factory delicately.
• Implement ISO 14001:2004 (EMS) on 2010.

Great organizations are built by the synergy of a great team. In case of SFPL, the total
number of employees is around 770

Work-Culture & Social Commitments

It is the constant endeavour of the management of SFPL to ensure that our employees find
the organization a great place to work and wish to stay here forever.
Our people friendly approach is reflected in our organization’s culture which is marked by
transparency, team orientation and receptivity to new ideas.
SFPL is not only committed towards maintaining a safe and healthy work environment inside
the organization but also dedicated to the cause of Corporate Social Responsibility, whereby
the company regularly takes initiatives that are not directly linked to its business.
SFPL is an equal opportunity employer, with no discrimination of any sort e.g., with regards to
region, caste, religion, gender etc. We do not employ child labour and abide by all statutory

• Faith in core competence in textile business.

• Customer orientation for a quick and positive response to the customer's need.
• Production of the best quality of premium market segments through TQM and zero defect
• Global orientation targeting at least 20-25% production for export.
• Timely delivery with consistent standards.
• Productive approach to the benefits of R&D and modern technology.
• Targeting excellence through continuous functional developments and innovations.
• Unflinching faith in individual's potential his growth and respect for human values.
• Developing relationship for benefit with business partners and dealers.
• Believing that trust is the foundation for durable relationship between the employer and
• Acceptance of change as a way of organizational growth.

• Quality should be built into company's products to not only meet customer requirements
continuously but also exceed them. The company shall achieve this through an interface
with the market place, access to state of the art technology, R&D process development
and adoption of innovative manufacturing and marketing strategies.
• The quality policy shall be implemented through a network of systems and procedures
understood and followed throughout the company.
• The quality policy shall be integrated with the company's main objectives :
1. To remain market leader in the quality.
2. Increase market share with focus on niche segments.
3. Improved productivity.
4. Cost reduction.
5. Reduction in percentage of seconds.
The management shall be committed to provide capital and human resources to achieve the
above objectives. A Company wide quality culture shall be created through training and
motivation of people at all levels of organization.


 Process flow

 Weaving

 Finishing
System Module Activity
Order development module-

To access activities involved in development of an order and to record orders
from developing stage.
1. Lab dip / design sample receiving from party.
2. Lab dip / design preparation.
3. Lab dip / design preparation sent to party for approval.
4. Approval confirmation / rejection from party.
5. Recording receive data for approval labdip.
6. Recording data related to shrinkage, design coverage, shade group and other technical
7. Introducing process flows to execute the order.

Department involved:-
Laboratory, design

An order is initiated far before it is introduced in the system, an order begins
with lab dip/ design development stage and for execution of an order in an improved way if is
preferable to start recording activities of an order from beginning. Receipt of an order
depends upon processing of lab dip, how often we are successful in meeting requirement
standards of our customers / buyers. Recording of data related of data to this development
will help management to measure performance of our development process. Through
analysis of this data management can identify areas of improvement and work on it and
result there of.
Production / PPC
• Production /PPC people can capitalize on experience of developing departments.
• Will help lab to generate recipe of dyed and chemical required for execution of an order.
• To determine of an order.
• Cost of an order will recorded from right stage.
• Providing basis for arriving at job rate, commercial shrinkage and other technical
• Process flow will help to accept a feasible due date to complete the under.
• Through analysis of received designs / lab dip, trends in market can be judged.
• Parties / customer appraisal analysis.
Top management
• Management can judge performance of departments involved in development.
• Identify areas of improvement.

Creating repeatable business processes is an important part of building and running an

effective organization. Well-designed and documented business processes are critical for the
success of business activities, whether the company is a small two- or three-person business
or a large corporation with hundreds of thousands of employees. Businesses that don't take
the time and care to create repeatable processes run the risk of quality and consistency
SARLA FABRIC PVT. LTD. is buying most of the raw material from Vardhman Group,
Nahar Group, Aditya Birla Group, Trident, and some of the raw material mainly of O.E. yarn of
coarse count from other suppliers.
• 100% cotton yarns for warp, weft and catch cord.
• Polyester cotton blended yarns.
• Cotton Lycra blended yarns.
• Polyester filament yarns for leno selvedge.
• Open end yarn
• Compact yarn
• Eli yarn

Yarn supplier
1. Auro Spinning Mills Baddi 13. VTM Ludhiana
2. Arihant Spinning Mill Malerkotla 14. Shivatex
3. V.S.G.M. 100% E.O.U. Baddi 15. Vaibhav
4. Arist Spinning Mills Baddi 16. Nitin spinners
5. V.M.T. Spinning Co. 17. Shrivishnu
6. Pratap Industries Ltd. (7s, 10s, 14s, 16s, O.E.) 18. Sandhya
7. Fertichem Cotspin Ltd. (7s, 10s, 14s, 1s, O.E.) 19. Rajapalayam
8. Indo Rama Industries Ltd. (Polyester Yarn) 20. Aruntex
9. Glofame Spinning. 21. S. Lalitha
10. Nahar Group 22. Thanjavar
11. Arti international ludhiana 23. Rajapa
12. Dhar Industries


One warper and one creel boy per machine per shift.
Yarn trolley man two per shit.
One sizer and one back sizer per machine per shit.
Beam carrier two per shift.
Mixing man two per shit.
Drawing in section
One drawer and one reacher per stand per shift.
Rewinding section
Two rewinder per shift
Floor cleaner
Morning shift - 2
Evening shift - 1
Night shift - 1
One fitter per shift.

Warping is a process of making warper's beam of specified number of ends,
pattern and width from uniform cones/cheeses of specified count. All the ends in sheet should
wound at almost uniform tension. The density of wound yarn beam should be uniform across
the width & from start to end of winding sheet. This beam further goes for sizing.


Temperature Range 27 C to 32 C
R.H. 60% to 66%
Types Of Warping Processes
Warping is divided into two types:-
a. Direct warping
b. Sectional warping

Direct Warping
It consists of preparing number of full width warping beam with required length,
called as one set. The total no of ends warped in number's of beam depending on the
capacity of creel. These all beams of one set put together on sizing creel for the sizing
process, which result in formation of weaver's beam.

Use Of Direct Warping

• Direct warping is used for the prepare a set of one color, either grey or dyed yarn.
• To prepare large set length i.e. to take large length of yarn in each warping beams of the
set & prepared number of small length sized beam from this set which reduce the warping
and sizing machine down time.
• Multi-color warps with complicated patterns can be formed successfully on this type. It
gives one set so less inventory and handling of beams is there.

Sectional Warping
If forms section by section on to the section drum of specified no of ends and
width. After completion of these sections, drum is unwound on the warper's beam that is then
sent to the sizing department.

Use Of Sectional Warping

Multicolored warp with complicated pattern like checks and strives etc. can be successfully
prepared. Only one beam is needed in one set, so less inventory & handling of beam is
Preparatory department has one direct warping machine.
1. Direct warping machines
Benniger Wpg. M/c (Ben- Direct 1000).

Direct warping machine

MAKE :- Ben-direct 1000
Benninger uzwill schwetz.
Benninger co. ltd. uzwill Germany
MODEL :- 2007
Maximum running speed - 1200 mpm
Normal running speed - it depends on the count of yarn

Yarn count Running speed

7s, 10, 14s, 16, 20s 800 m.p.m.
2/30s, 2/40s, 2/20s 800 m.p.m.
40s, 50s, 60s and above 600 m.p.m.

• Crawl speed (inching) 20 mpm

• Type of creel V creel
• Creel capacity 704
• Weight of a cone 1.5-2.5 kg
• Total guide bars 88
• Overhead cleaning By suction pipes
• Machine cleaning By compressor air.
• Brake system Hydraulic braking system
(Braking pressure 5.8 bar)
Direct drive from motor
positively driven from spindle and belt)
• M/c height 1800mm
• M/c Width useful width+1900mm
• M/c Weight 3500kg
• M/c Length 2120mm
• Air pressure 8-5 Bar
• Air consumption 3 m3/n at 5-bar
• Ambient Temperature 10-40 deg centigrade
• M/c to Creel Distance 4000mm
• Over all yarn tension 450 N
• Normal efficiency 94%
• Breaking Moment 1600Nm
• Sound Level less than 80 dB normal

Density in g/dm3 =warp length in m * No. of ends * dtex * 400

Warp Width*(D²–d²) *3.14

WARPER’S BEAM : Beam can be classified in different types-

1. Beam with serrated cones for centering and driven shape “c”
2. solid flange
3. Ribbed flange
4. Dyeing beam

Beam diameter

Maximum Minimum Empty(barrel) Weight

Other beam-1000-1016mm 800mm 300mm 1250kg(full beam)

Dyeing beam-520mm 300mm 150mm 800kg (800mm dia.)

Beam length 1800 mm
Maximum breaking torque 8500 Nm/flange

Creel measurements
Height between two packages 27.2 cms
Horizontal distance 24.5 cms
Fluff removal Internal blower

Yarn Passage
Cone  balloon breaker  tension bars  yarn stop motion  zig-zag comb  measuring
roller  press roller  warper's beam.

Drive To Various Parts

• To warpers's beam
Main motor  pulley  weaver's beam (attached to pulley)

There is clamping and declamping device attached to pulley which get the drives through
motors attached on each side. Apart from this there is presser roll which is given drive by
hydraulic system. This roller provides pressure to beam essential for proper winding. Friction
drive is not given as it may damage the yarn.

• To comb
Motor  through chain to shaft  comb attached on shaft.

The comb has a zig zag shape (9 ends, 13 ends) and it moves to and fro as well as up and
down. The main function of the comb is proper beam formation i.e. close packing and also
separation of threads. To and fro movement ensures the close packing of ends while up and
down movement is to evade reed damage by friction.
Comb is driven by three motors one for to and fro motion, one for up and down and third one
for controlling the comb dent density.
• Pre tension settings –
Here setting of tension rod depth is done through scale on the creel. Screw is set at the
required scale and then the shaft containing tension rod is engaged to the screw and then
the shaft containing tension rod is engaged to the screw and then the machine runs. The
tension rods are actuated mechanically It is actuated 3 sec after the machine starts.

Tension Kept For Different Counts


14s K, 16s K, 20s K 10-20

40s C, 50s C, 60 C 0-2

2/40s C, 2/60s C 7-11

Other Imp. Parts

• Yarn stop motion - this machine have electronic (capacitance based) type of yarn stop
motion. It actuated after 5 sec of machine start running.
• Pressure bar - to maintain tension in the yarn ends when the machine stops and during
running it releases its pressure.
• Yarn cutter - after finishing warping the ends are cut by a running yarn cutter which moves
horizontally in a slot.
• Fluff removal - by internal blower system.
• Microprocessor control and display system.

Creeling time :-
Yarn passed through pretension rods, drop wire time taken is 30 minutes Time for combing is
10 minutes so total time taken in creeling is 50 minutes.
• Advanced microprocessor than Ben-1000 and touch screen type of control panel and
display screen.
• Monitor on the creel front to show the exact position of the broken end otherwise total no.
of ends in the creel should be checked.
• Yarn passage and drive system same as Ben-dir 1000.
• Yarn stop motion is electronic with sensors.
• Pre tensioner settings are done on computer.
• Number of ends fed in the computer = no. of end stop motions.
• Advanced microprocessor display mechanism.
• Highly efficient brake system (with very small time). So the broken end doesn't wind on the
• Lay panel.

Warper's Check Report

The warper working on the beam is required to fill the report, which includes the data like
beam no., warper's name, no. of cones, length and the record of no. of breakage of each

Reasons Of End Breakage

End breakage may occur due to following reasons:-
• Spinning faults :- weak places, soft places, slubs, foreign matter (plastic/hair)
• Winding faults: - slough off, cut cone, entanglement, bad winding.
• Warping faults: - faulty stop motions, faulty thread passage, entanglement.
• Miscellaneous faults: - cone finish, others.
• According to norms breakage in warping should not be more than 0.2 breaks per 400
ends per 1000 m.
Bottom cones are rewound to get full cones and can be used in selvedge purpose of other.
One rewinding machines (drum driven) with over head blowing/cleaning system.

Rewinding m/c
Make RJK
No. of spindles 32 (16 on each sides)
Tensioner spring type
Speed 500-1000 rpm
Stop Motion electrical type

Passage of yarn through m/c :-

Creel  guide  tensioner  stop motion  winding drum  package

Object of sizing is to increase weaveabilty of warp yarns by improving their abrasion
resistance and strength which plays major role during shed formation at loom.
Good sizing depends upon three very import factors i.e.
• Size paste composition
• Method of preparation
• Its application to the warp yarns
The sizing paste should have film forming property on the yarn which increases its strength,
decreases its abrasion resistance; is still flexible on drying and which can be easily washed
out (desized).

Size Preparation
Size is prepared at the first floor and transferred to machine with the help of pipes. Size
preparation includes following steps -
Pre-mixer  cooking vessel  storage vessel  sizing machines (through
1. Pre-mixer - First all the chemicals are mixed here with the help of stirrer for 5 - 10 min.
Then mixture is transferred to cooking vessels through pipes. There is one premixer for all
cooking vessels. It has capacity of 1595 liters.
Bottom 5" have capacity of 110 Litre then capacity/inch is 29 Litre .

2. Cooking vessel - There are 2 cooking vessels each with a max.Capacity of 1200 litre
mfd by Karandas Becharadas & Sons (Ahamedabad). Cooking is done through direct and
indirect steam for 45 minutes. The conditions inside cooker are :
Pressure = 2.5-3 kg
Temperature = 130-1350C
Capacity: bottom 5" is of 90 litre then 27 litre per inch.

3. Storage vessel - From cooking vessel size is transferred to storage vessel where it is
stored at the temperature of 85-90 C and with continuous stirring for further transfer to
machine according to the requirements. Supervisor checks the viscosity and solid content
before transferring the prepared size to machine.

Size Ingredients
• Maize starch :- It is an adhesive and exhibits all the properties of native starch. It is non
• P.V.A. Evanol: - Better binder and suitable in case of P/C blends as it has affinity for
polyester also.
• Sico-12:- It is also an acrylic binder generally used for finer count Apart from these
antistatic agents, antifungal agents are also used. Antistatic agents are used for P/C
blended yarns and antifungal used if the beam is to be kept for longer duration.
Sizing Machines
Benninger Sizing Machine
Made = 2007
Capacity = 16 beams with 1 sectional beam
Size boxes = 2 (if cover factor is<50 than use only one size box
otherwise 2)
Squeeze rolls = 2 in each size box
Size rolls = 2 in each size box
Emerson roll = 2 in each size box
Feed roll = 2
Maximum running speed = 1235 mpm
Operative running speed = 80 mpm
Drying cylinders = 4+4+2+2+2=14
Teflon coated cylinders = 4+4+2=10
Cylinder's dia. = 800 mm
Cylinder's length = 2000 mm
Beam width = 1800 mm or 70.8"
Barrel dia. = 178 mm
Cylinder temperature for zone 1= 1450C
For zone 2= 145 0C
For Zone 3 = 1350C
For Zone 4 = 1350C
For Zone 5 = 1350C
It is always recommended to keep temperature of each zone lesser by 200C
Size box temperature: 900C
Beam stretch: 0.5-0.7/100m (fine)
0.8-1/100m (coarse)
Beam pressure: 1710 N (14 X…
Creel tension: 800 N (5 X…
Leasing tension: 11.5 X……gm/m
Winding tension 16 X……gm/m
Braking motion: Pneumatic auto control
Moisture regain: 7 (cotton), 4 (polyester/cotton)
Size level control: automatic
Some Important Points
• Single dip single nip system, hence more chances of yarn being left unsized.
• Though it has system for sectional beam but generally not preferred as single dip doesn't
give better pick up thereby increasing the chances of ball formation during weaving.
• All the drying cylinders are Teflon coated except the last two, as yarn dries completely
before reaching the last two cylinders.
• Brake is applied on the creel (beam) through belts.
• There is stretch encoder at feed roll, size roll, dryer motor, drag roll motor (i.e. Headstock)
and winder motor, which calculates the speed in each zone thereby giving stretch value in
each zone (generally 0.1-0.2%).

4500 ends are drawn/shift/2 operative for plain sorts.
Beam –guide bar- comb -warp stop pin- steel heald wire- profile reed - comb fixed with
parallel to heald.
1.2 –Thin for fine count
1.8 –Thick for coarse count
If machine condition will be good then, it can be used till 15-20 years.
Steel-tempered stainless steel
Profile reed – Mayur (left hand side greater width and RHS Smaller width)
-Takayama-(same width)
Type- Closed type drop pin
Material used-Copper
SIZE- 0.3*11*165
COLOUR SPECIFICATION :- White-Fine count (1.2),Brown-Coarse count (1.8)
LOOM SHED :- Here only one loom shed having a total of 54 looms. Looms are air jet
Toyota JAT 710.
Loom no. 1-48 are cam shedding & loom no.49-54 are E-Shedding.

Requirement For Air jet Loom

1.Warp beam and weft packages.
2.Maintained air pressure.
3.A pre-measuring device
4.A short quick air blast with nozzles to guide the weft.
5.A suction device at the receiving end.
6 .A take up & let off combination which is properly controlled.
7.Warp stop & weft stop devices.
8.A dobby (+ve or -ve) to lift the heald frames.
9.Proper temple to grip the fabric.

Main Features Of Air Jet Looms

1. The loom is compact without usual race board or bobbin change mechanism.
2. The m/c is provided with buttons for inching & reversing.
3. Cloth roll can be doffed while the m/c is running.
4. Microprocessor (information board) to indicate, stops, efficiency, reason of stop, no of
picks / min., loom speed, production in meters, loom angular motion, channel settings,
various loom timings.
5. 4 colors lamp indication system to indicate reason of m/c stoppage.
Lamp color White Red Green Yellow
Condition Stop switch pressed- Warp and Weft stop Leno selvedge,
Beam doffing, waste selvedge Electrical problem
optical safety sensor, stop
RH cover sensor

6. Cam shedding motion to raise and lower heald frames.

7. Drum pool system to wind 1 pick length extra over it.
8. Leno selvedge motion to bind up the fabric & prevent its unwinding.
9. Take up in some m/c is electronic otherwise a combination of 2 gears decide take up
10. Let off is electronically controlled and is provided with a servo motor.
11. Easing motion is provided in some looms to compensate for the difference in tension
during open and closed shed.
12. The range of pick density is 20 to 200 but used range is 50-140 .
13. It contains a completely enclosed, 3 phase induction motor with the built in D.C. single
plate excitation brake.

Study Of Jat710 Loom

Shedding Mechanism:
In 1 to 48 looms has + ve shedding mechanism by cam and 49 to 54 looms are-Shedding
(electronic shedding)
Weft insertion
In air jet looms pick is inserted by the compressed air pressure and requires measuring and
storage control devices. To ensure of smooth picking, the required weft for the next pick is
wound in advance on prewinder. While the loom is running, the weft of corresponding length
of one pick is supplied to FDP & storage is controlled in the FDP.
One pick length of weft is measured by releasing or hooking solenoid pin electrically. There
are two timings, one is for the first pick (at the start) & other is for running looms.
Nozzles In weft Insertion
• Tandem nozzle : provide yarn to main nozzle
• Main nozzle provides drag for pick insertion.
• Sub nozzle maintains the drag.
• Stretch nozzle keeps pick straight and stretched.
Weft package- accumulator(measuring drum)-tandem nozzle-main nozzle-sub nozzles
stretch nozzle
Selvedge Formation
It has full leno selvedge on both sides. Discs of leno assembly rotate once in every two picks.
Leno yarn used is 80 den. Polyester filament yarn to give a strong and fine selvedge.
Weft Stop Motion
Two electrically controlled weft stop feelers Wf1 & Wf2 are set on right side of
the loom. The distance between them is 125 mm. wf1 puts check on short pick and wf2 on
long pick. Std. Sensitivity of feelers-wf1-4 & wf2-8
Catch Cord
Picks on right side are interwoven with catch cord mechanism which gives smooth selvedge
and avoids tucking in of the right side picks into the fabric. 2/40s yarn is generally used and
is brought wpg. dept. as bottoms.

Weft cutting motion

Weft is cut on either side by a pair of scissors. On left side it cuts the continuous
when it's been laid. On right hand side it cuts the catch cord to the waste bin.LH
cutter timing-25-30 deg
Beating up :-
Done by the reed which is of tunnel type (profile reed) in crank angle 340 deg
Take Up Motion:-
Mechanical type of + ve take up motion where a pick change wheel is changed
according to the requirement.
Single beam let-off motion:-
An electronically controlled let-off motion detects the warp tension applied to tension
roller with load cell(set at the right side of the m/c),and then the difference between
the detected tension and the pre-set tension is calculated on the computer in order to
control the speed of the servo motor.
Positive easing motion
It correct the warp tension difference caused at shed opening and closing, by tension
roller adjustment positively. It is used for spun yarn weaving.
Easing amount:
distance b/w the positions (shed closing &opening time) of tension roller.
Negative Easing Motion:
It correct the warp tension difference caused shed opening and shed closing by
negative adjusting tension roller with buffer spring. It is used for filament yarn
Toyota Loom Cycle
• pin = 80-200
• Ist = 90-200
• Fill first = 90-200
• Main = 90-176
• Ist = 100
• Fill first = 100
• Aux. = 94-170
• Main Ist = 104
• Fill Ist = 104
• sub #1 = 90-170
#2 = 100-180
#3 = 120-200
#4 = 140-220
#5 = 160-250
• Shed opening = 60-65
• Shed crossing = 320
• Pick arrival = 240

Toyota Jat 710 Dimensions

Size = 398cm * 200cm * 165cm
Net weight = 2850 kg
Gross weight = 3000 kg
• Single back rest
• Positive shedding device, staubli with hydraulic leveling.
• Lip in the reed system :good for filling stops
good for corrugation/stop mark.
• Speed up to 1200 rpm (max.)
• Suitable for fine to coarse type of fabrics. [cover factor up to … in plain]
• Automatic jet control [pick arrival steady]
• Single hole nozzle (relay), 3 ht, 20 nozzle angle.
• Mechanical take up having large range of pick density.
• + ve let off, electronically controlled.
• + ve easing motion.
• Electrical warp stop motion with six serrated bars.
• Max. 6 frame designs can be woven in cam shedding and maximum 12 frame designs can
be woven in e-shedding
• Suitable for basic weave.
It is a modern high speed weaving m/c with an innovative system of weft insertion via air
nozzle in order to provide drastically improved productivity, saved labour & improved working
The air which is expelled by the main nozzle during its movement extrains the weft & drags it
through the warp sheet
Maintenance Schedule
• Cam box oil level
• Oil filter cleaning
• Working of central lubrication system
Three monthly
• Shock absorbed step change.
• Main cuter & selvedge cutter working.
• Cloth pressure roll rubber strip condition checked.
• R.H.S. planetary shaft play.
• Take up motion full maintained.
• Shedding cam lever single roller double roller alignment
• main cutter selvedge drive checked
• Grease pipe line checked.
• Air filters condition.
Two yearly
• Top lever fully maintained.
• Pneumatic maintenance included all solenoid valve cleaning relay nozzle condition
direction & height checked& adjusted, pipe condition checked.
The main function of this department is fabric inspection and folding of rolling of fabric.
Cloth- Inspection machine – Folding machine – grading packing (bale formation )
Mending (reworking)
• 10 points system (Japanese system).
• 4 Point system (America system).
Here the system used is 4 point. IN this system the faults are catalogued on the basis of fault
length as shown below.
0-3 inches- 1 point
3-6 inches- 2 point
6-9 inches- 3 points
9 inches and above 4 points
Hence according to the length of the faulted each is assigned respective points. A total o f38
points per 100 m of cloths are acceptable. The piece with more than 18 points per 100 m is
rejected. The faults with 4 points are considered as major damage and that with single points
are considered as minor damages. S in 100 of cloth 4 major and 22 minor damages are the
acceptance limit beyond which the piece is rejected.

Here the fabric is graded according to the fault in the fabric.
a. Fresh piece
b. Domestic
c. Rejection
d. Cut piece, rags and chindi
Machine In Folding
a. Inspection machines- there are total 9 inspection machines for The fabric inspection,
Manufacture is Almac. The speed of the inspection is kept 20-25 mpm.
b. Folding or flatting machines- There are 2 folding machines used for forming the bale of
the fabric.
c. Rolling machine- there is one rolling machine for forming the roll of the cloth
d. Bale pressing machine- There are 2 bale pressing machine for pressing the bale.
e. Mending table- There mending tables for reworking i.e. for mending the damages if

Faults Noted In Folding

• Minor faults- this includes slub, stains and contamination
• Major faults- this includes the faults like bent pick, double pick, thick place stain mark, oily

Mendable Damages
The damages which could be reworked include pick, snarling, ball formation and double
After packing most of the fabric is then send for dyeing and finishing in AURO TEXTILE
Quality Assurance (R& D Department)
The work of R&D department is research and development of processes for controlled and
better efficiency and quality of weaving and also to check the quality of the raw material and
the processes.

The Main Function Of The Department

•Selection of raw material
•Process control
•Process development
•Product testing
•Quality assurances
•Specification tests

Instruments Used In R & D Lab

1. Tension meter- it is used to study warp tension during warping beam tension on loom.
Standard tension is l cN/tex.
2. Digital thread counter (Make - paramount) – It is used for counting EPI & PPI.
3. Weighing scale- There are two weighing scales
i) Make- Atco
Capacity- 2.4 kg
ii) Make- Ohaus
Capacity- 210 g
4. Circular cutter- It is used for measuring the GSM of the fabric.
5. Stirrer- It is used for stirring the solution for checking the viscosity.
6. Tachometer- It is used for measuring rpm.
7. Shore hardness tester- It is used to check the hardness of cone and cheese.
8. Yarn appearance tester- Make is Kamal Metal Ltd. It is used for checking yarn
9. Automatic twist tester- It is used to determine the twist (or TPI) of to yarn.
7. Single yarn strength tester- It is used to measure the strength of the single yarn.
8. Besslay balance- Make is paramount. It is used to check the count of the yarn.
9. Moisture meter- It is used to measure the solid content percentage of the material.
10. Tearing strength tester- It is used to measure the tearing strength of the fabric in both
weft and warp direction. The sample to be tested is cut with template of came size and
the mounted between the jaws. After release of the quadrant scale the reading is noted a
soon as cloth tears completely.
11. Lea strength tester- It is used to measure the lea strength. First the lea of 120 yards is
made, weighed and then the breaking load id measured with the help of the instrument.
Also the CSP of the lea could be determined with the help of the formula.
12. CSP =avg. actual count* avg. actual strength.
13. Refractometer- It is used the solid content in sizing/ other sizing chemicals
Processing Department
The processing department provides fully processed (dyed or printed) fabric after
undergoing the finishing treatment. It consists of the following processes:
• Desizing & Scouring
• Bleaching
• Mercerising
• Dyeing
• Printing
• Finishing


Singeing And Desizing
Usually an emulsifying agent is added to the sizing mixture to facilitate its subsequent
removal from the cloth. It is necessary to remove the size (i.e. to desize) from the cloth;
otherwise the hydrophobicity of the wax and the tallow hinder the subsequent dyeing and
printing processes. Wax and tallow are removed during scouring while the starch is removed
during desizing. Thus desizing is the term usually restricted to the process of removal of
starch (of the size) from the cloth.
Chemically, starch is poly α-glucopyranose in which straight chain (amylose) and branched
chain (amylopectins) polymers are present. Both the constituents of starch are insoluble in
water, but they can be solubilised by hydrolysis of these long chain compounds to shorter
ones. Thus under suitable conditions starch ca be progressively hydrolysed to the following
STARCH (insoluble) → DEXTRIN (insoluble) → SOLUBLE DEXTRIN (soluble) →
MALTOSE (soluble) → α-GLUCOSE (soluble).
The main purpose of scouring cotton fabric is to remove natural as well as added impurities
of essentially hydrophobic character as completely as possible and leave the fabric in a
highly absorptive condition without undergoing physical or chemical damage significantly and
also to make the goods suitable for removing the natural colouring matter of cotton during the
subsequent bleaching process. This process consists in circulating hot alkaline liquors,
usually under pressure through a regularly packed column of of desized fabric for 8 - 24

The two types of desizing methods practised in Sarla Fabric Pvt. Ltd. are:
• Enzymatic desizing
• Oxidative desizing
Machine Used: Osthoff, Germany.
Model: VP99
Enzymatic Desizing
Enzymes liquefy starch in enzymatic desizing process. Enzymes are fairly sensitive to
temperature changes from the optimum. Bacterial desizing agents are active over a wider
temperature range and have certain other advantages, like tolerance of variation in pH.
Enzymes suffer from one disadvantage that if the conditions of temperature and pH are not
favourable, their desizing activity is destroyed. An outstanding feature of enzyme desizing is
the specific nature of the enzyme action.
In enzymatic desizing, the following auxiliaries are used:
• PHC → Enzyme
•ANTOX → Chelating Agent
•XNI → Stain Remover

Trough Batching
Speed Dwell Time Batching
GLM Temperature Pressure
(m/min) (sec) Time (hrs)
(ºC) (bar)
<100 90-100 65 16 2.5 8-10
100-200 80 65 19 2-2.5 8-10
200-300 70-80 65 20 2-2.5 8-12
300-400 70-75 70 21 1.5-2 10-12
>400 70 70 21 1.5-2 10-12
Oxidative Desizing
In the oxidative desizing, hydrogen peroxide is used as the desizing agent. In oxidative
desizing the starch is oxidised and this process is also known as grey chemicking.
In oxidative desizing, the following chemicals are used:
•H2O2 → Desizing Agent
•ANTOX → Chelating Agent
•Hostapol MRN → Wetting Agent
•SIFA M → Stabiliser
•SPS → Oxidising Agent
•Caustic → Scouring/Maintain pH

Speed Dwell Time Batching Batching
GLM Temperature
(m/min) (sec) Pressure (bar) Time (hrs)

<100 90-100 RT 16 2.5 24

100-200 80 RT 19 2-2.5 24
200-300 70-80 RT 20 2-2.5 24


• Hydrogen peroxide is a universal bleaching agent and is used extensively for the
bleaching of cotton materials. The advantages in its use are:
• It can be employed for bleaching fibres like wool, silk and jute also;
• It requires less manipulation of fabric and hence less labour;
• The loss in weight in bleaching is less than that with hypochlorite bleaching;
• Less water is required with peroxide bleaching and there is no need for souring after
• Peroxide bleached goods are more absorbent than hypochlorite bleached goods;
• After yellowing of white goods bleached with peroxide is less than with hypochlorite
bleached goods;
• Peroxide bleaching is safer in regard to chemical degradation and
• Continuous scouring and bleaching in one operation is possible by employing peroxide.

Machine Used: BENNINGER

Model: AG CH - 9240
H2O2: 15 ml/kg
ANTOX: 4 ml/kg
MRZ: 4 ml/kg
ZMIN: 7.5 ml/kg
NaOH: 10 ml/kg
Speed: 50 m/min
Injecta: 400 kg/hr
IMPT. Pressure: 0.55 kN
Steamer Time: 6 min

• All organic material will be placed at specified area at the time of receiving.
• Clean the machine as per guideline.
1) Take fresh water in all washing compartments and Impecta and clean. Drain the water and
again take fresh water for production.
2) As we are using all chemicals, which are GOTS certified, same chemicals can be used for
3) Guide rolls at entry points must be cleaned with hot water.

List Of Certified Chemicals For Gots/Organic Cotton

Hydrogen peroxide
Wetting agent : Hostapol MRZ Liq, Cottoclarin BL
Sequestering : SIRRIX 2UDI.IN Liq Verolan NFE, Securon 28 IN
Stabilizer : Stabilizer SUF.IN, Ruco-stab OKM, Stabilol ZM.IN
Acetic Acid
• All the organic material should be on batches only, not on pallet or polyethene.
• Cover all batches with polyethene and seal with green tape.
• After Osthoff, organic material should be rotated on specified rotating station only.
• Organic material will not be processed on any machine with normal fabric.

Sr No. Recipe

H2O2 :35 ml/kg

Chelating Agent( ANTOX) :1.5 ml/kg
1 Full White Wetting Agent (MRN): 2.5 ml/kg
Stabilizer(SIFAM) : 9.0 ml/kg
NaOH : 15/480Be
H2O2 :40 ml/kg
Chelating Agent( ANTOX) :2.5 ml/kg
Full White
2 Wetting Agent (MRN): 4.0 ml/kg
(Bottom Weight )
Stabilizer(SIFAM) : 12.0 ml/kg
NaOH : 27/480Be
H2O2 :15 ml/kg
Chelating Agent( ANTOX) :1.5ml/kg
RFD of Cotton/ Voil & Camb
3 Wetting Agent (MRN): 5.0 ml/kg
(70-130 glm )
Stabilizer(SIFAM) : 6.0 ml/kg
NaOH : 16/480Be
H2O2 :22 ml/kg
Chelating Agent( ANTOX) :2.5ml/kg
4 RFD of Poplin (140-200 glm ) Wetting Agent (MRN): 5.0ml/kg
Stabilizer(SIFAM) : 8 ml/kg
NaOH : 22/480Be
H2O2 :35 ml/kg
Chelating Agent( ANTOX) :2.0 ml/kg
RFD of Heavy Weight Fabric
5 Wetting Agent (MRN): 4.0ml/kg
(140-200 glm )
Stabilizer(SIFAM) : 10.0 ml/kg
NaOH : 25/480Be

Wetting Agent :5ml/kg

6 Scouring of Cotton Voil Chelating Agent (ANTOX) – 2 ml/kg
NaOH : 22.5/480Be

Wettin Agent :3.5ml/kg

Scouring of 60s Cambric &
7 Chelating Agent (ANTOX) : 2 ml/kg
NaOH : 30/480Be

Wettin Agent :4.0gpl

8 Scouring of Poplin Chelating Agent (ANTOX) : 2 ml/kg
NaOH : 40/480Be
Mercerisation is “the process of subjecting a vegetable fibre to the action of a fairly
concentrated solution of a strong base so as to produce great swelling with resultant
changes in fine structure, dimensions, morphology and mechanical properties”. Higher lustre,
increased tensile strength, and high dye affinity are the deired qualities in mercerised cotton.
The main object of mercerisation is to improve lustre. However, the process is also carried
out sometimes to enhance dyeability, to remove crease mark and to remove neps from the
fabric. The mercerisation treatment consists of swelling the cotton fibre with 20 to 23%
caustic soda solution at room temperature under tension for specified duration. Tension
during mercerisation is necessary to improve lustre.
In commercial mercerisation, caustic solutions used are in the range of 50º-60ºTw (52º-
54ºTw to be precise).

Machine Used: BENNINGER

Total threading length: 300 m
Caustic tank threading length: 100 m
Stabilising tank threading length: 50 m

Flow Of Material
Recipes Of The Mercerising Machine

Change over time

GLM Chemical Recipe Speed (m/min) Temperature (ºC) (sec)

<100 Caustic 60 60 4-5

220-230 gpl
100-200 Caustic 50 60 4-5
230-240 gpl
200-300 Caustic 40 60 4-5
260-270 gpl
300-400 Caustic 40 60-65 4-5
270-280 gpl
>400 Caustic 30-40 60-70 4-5
270-280 gpl
Dyeing is the process of colouring textile materials by immersing them in an aqueous solution
of dye, called dye liquor. Normally, the dye liquor consists of dye, water and an auxiliary. To
improve the effectiveness of dyeing, heat is usually applied to the dye liquor. The theory of
aqueous dyeing, is modified when an organic solvent is substituted for water.
The general theory of dyeing explains the interaction between dye, fibre, water and dye
auxiliary. More specifically, it explains:
• Forces of repulsion which are developed between the dye molecule and water; and
• Forces of attraction which are developed between the dye molecules and fibres.
These forces are responsible for the dye molecules leaving the aqueous dye liquor and
entering and attaching themselves to the polymers of the fibres.
Fibre material can be dyed in any form during its manufacture from fibre to garment. The
most common forms used are fibre, yarn and cloth. It is most economical to dye at as late a
stage in the manufacturing sequence as possible.
The basic steps in any dyeing are:
• Impregnation with colour,
• Development/fixation of the colour,
• Aftertreatment,
• Drying.
Dyeing department
Conventional dyeing range
Jet dyeing machine
In this machine, both fabric and water moves. Here we give movement to the water
and fabric moves through the impact of jet of water. Both fabric and water moves in same
Jet dyeing machine is mainly used for polyester dyeing but it can be used for other quality
•Machine name Jet dyeing machine(u-shape)
•Manufacture Devrekha
•No. Of machine 4
•Capacity 350kg
•Nozzle pressure 3kg/cm2
•Dye used disperse, vat, reactive
•Fabric used cellulosic, synthetic
•Total liquor 600lt.
•Speed of fabric 400mt/min
In case of polyester:
• MLR 1:3
• Temperature 1300C
• pH 4-4.5

Soft flow machine

In this machine we use a roller called soft roller which help in reducing tension in fabric.
1. Machine name soft flow
2. Manufacture texfab india
3. No. Of machine 1
4. No. Of worker 2
5. Capacity 400kg
6. Quality light to medium fabric
7. Dye used disperse, vat, reactive
8. Temperature 1300C for PET, 60-700C for cotton
9. Nozzle pressure 0.5-1.0 bar
10. Total liquor 3600-4000lt
11. Fabric speed 200-300mt/min
Winch dyeing machine
For light weight quality fabric, this winch dyeing machine is used.
• Machine name winch dyeing
• Manufacture Shakti
• No. Of machine 8
• Capacity 100kg
• Used for washing of printed fabric Dyeing
• Form of material rope form
• Dye liquor 150-200lt
• Heating system direct
• Heating medium steam
• Time taken 12-14hr.

This machine is used for dyeing the cotton fabric. Fabric is used in open width form in
this machine. In this, cloth moves from one roller (let-off roller) to another roller (take-up
roller) through trough or liquor. After one complete turn, the movement of fabric get reversed
i.e. Let-off becomes take-up and take-up becomes let-off roller automatically thus the
required number of turns are given to the fabric. Thus in this machine, liquor is stationary
and fabric moves.
• Machine name Jigger(old)
• Manufacture Shakti
• No. Of jigger 6(2 for sample)
• No. Of worker 1 for 1 machine
• Capacity 250kg
• Heating system indirect to direct
• Speed of fabric 40-45mt/min
• MLR 1:2,1:4
• Diameter of roller 250mm
• Width of roller 2000mm
• Time for 1 batch 10-12hr(reactive)
• Production 2000m/day per machine
Hydraulic jigger
It is almost same as old jigger, but only change is that it is fully automatic,
microprocessor control and its capacity is high.
• Machine name hydraulic jigger
• Manufacture Shakti
• No. Of machine 1
• Capacity 350kg
• Trough capacity 2000lt
• Max. Temp. 100c
• Dyeing temp. 60-70c
• Heating system direct or indirect
Steps of dyeing in jigger Step temp.(0c) turns
1. Loading 50 -
2. Add resist salt 50 2
3. Dyeing 50 2
4. Salt addition10% 60 2
5. Dyeing 60 2
6. Salt addition30% 60 2
7. Dyeing 60 2
8. Salt addition60% 60 2
9. Fixation(soda ash) 70-80 4
10. Overflow wash R.T. 4
11. Soaping 80 4
12. Hotwash 50 2
13. Coldwash R.T 2
Continuous dyeing range
Two m/cs constitutes the whole continuous dyeing range.
A pad dry
B pad steam
Pad dry
1.M/c make Benninger (Germany)
2.Mangle make Kusters
3.Thread length 140 mts.
4.Man power required 1 operator+1helper
5.Speed 60 mts./ min
Brief description of the machine
Operation of the machine can divided into following sections
• Fabric is fed from batch
• Fabric is guided through rollers, tensioners and scray to the padding zone.
• Presence of scray helps to feed the fabric uninterruptedly during the change of the
• Fabric is padded with dye liqour in the kuster’s mangle present in this
• Capacity of the trough 60 litres
• Pneumatic and oil pressure is applied in the squeeze roller to get the uniform
expression through out the width of the fabric
• Padding pressure is

Left Middle Right

1.6 1.8 1.6

• Temperature of the liquor – room temperature

• Expression or pick up depends on the type of fabric
• Airing zone is there before the entry of fabric into ir drying unit to ensure proper migration
of dye particles inside the fibre matrix.
Infra red drying
• Air and propane gas are injected at very low pressure and these mixtures are heat
generated from this ignition heats up the ceramic plate, which becomes red hot and
generates IR wave.
• There are two IR drying columns, each consist of a set of three ceramic plates in between
which the fabric is passed.
• IR drying plates the migration of dye on fabric it dry up the fabric uniformly 30-40% of
moisture is removed by infrared drying

Hot flue drying

• It is divided into two chambers
• Fabric is passed over a no. Of rollers arranged at two different heights and is dried by hot
air circulated by four blower fans (2 at the bottom & 2 at the top), extra air is exhausted
from the top.
• Air is heated by passing over oils containing hot oil (therminol 55, coming from the thermo
• Temp. of the first chamber - 110º C
Second chamber - 120º C

Fan speed First chamber Second chamber

Hot air fan 20% 30%
Exhaust fan 35% 25%
Exhaust air Damper 85% 85%

Cooling cylinders
After drying the fabric it is cooled by passing it over two cooling cylinders (cooled by passing
chilled water). This cooling is done to minimize the selvedge to selvedge variation.
Defects During Pad – Dry System
• Dropping – mainly in hot flue dryer thus check suction system properly.
• Crease marks – takes place in hot flue dryer and in ir dryer.
• Tailing effect
• Dark to light shade
• Colour spots
• Colour spurs
• Power failure

pad system
• M/c make Benninger (Germany)
• Thread length 360 mts
• Man power required two operators and one helper
• Average operational speed 50-60 mts/min.
Purpose of the machine
• In this machine color (reactive or vat) color is developed on the fabric after it is
being pigmented in the pad-dry machine.
• This machine can also be used as washing machine, when the chemical input in
the machine is cut off and steamer is also kept out of operation.
Brief description about the machine
Feed zone
 Feed material is the output of the pad-dry machine in case of development
of the dyed fabric.
 Fabric is guided from the guide rollers, tensioners and scray to the padding
 Presence of scray at the feed helps in uninterrupted feeding of material at
the feed section.
 Fabric tension during is controlled automatically.
Padding zone
 Name :- booster padding mangle
 In this zone fabric is padded with developing chemicals
 Expression of the mangle :- 90-100%
 Capacity of the trough :- 60 lts.
 Padding chemical temp :-. Room temp
Steaming zone
 In this zone reaction of the developing chemical with the dye takes place.
 Thread length in the steamer50mts.
 Steam supply (dry steam) 112º C
 Steam mix temp. (saturated) 90º C
 Steamer inside temp. 99º C
 Roof heating 112º C

Washing zone
Purpose of washing zone
For reactive dyes
• Removal of the unfixed, partially deposited and hydrolysed dyes.
For vat dyes
• Removal of the unfixed, partially deposited and hydrolysed dyes.
• Soaping causes the aggregation of dye molecules inside the fibres after which
final shade is achieved.

Washing of fabric dyed with reactive dye

Chamber & sub-chamber no Purpose Chemicals Temp.
(in ºc)
15 Cold wash - 40
16 Cold wash - 40
17.1 Neutralisation Acetic acid 60
17.2 Hot wash - 95
18 Soaping Cibacel ds 1gpl 95
Cibacron rsk 0.5gpl
19.1 Soaping “ 95
19.2 Soaping “ 95
20 Hot wash - 95
21.1 Neutralisation Acetic acid 60
21.2 Washing - 60
Washing of fabric dyed with vat dye

Chamber & sub-chamber Purpose Chemicals Temp.

no. (in ºc)
15 Cold wash - 40
16 Cold wash - 40
17.1 Oxidation Resist salt 60
17.2 Oxidation Resist salt 60
18 Soaping Cibacel ds 1gpl 95
Cibacron rski o.5gpl
19.1 Soaping “ 95
19.2 Soaping “ 95
20 Hot wash - 95
21.1 Neutralisation Acetic acid 60
21.2 Hot wash - 60

Cooling zone
• No. of cooling cylinders - two
• Temp. of cooling water - room temp

Drying zone
 Type of drying vertical cylinder drying range
 No. Of drying cylinders 10+10
 Dimensions of cylinders 32” * 72”
 Pressure of steam in the cylinder 50 lbs/in sq
 Steam consumption 60 kg/hr/cylinder
Checking points :
• Level of the chemical liquor inside the kuster mangle is regularly checked.
• Conc. of NaOH (during development of reactive dyes) is checked.
• Conc. of hydrosulphite (during development of vat dyes) is checked.

Take 10 ml of hydros solution to be tested. To it add 10 ml of formaldehyde solution. Make it
to 250 ml. In the volumetric flask with distilled water. Take 25 ml> of the above prepared
solution end point of titration is brick red color
Hydros (gpl) = reading of burette * 4.35
Printing department can be divided into following sections
1. Printing studio.
2. Print color kitchen.
3. Printing section.
4. Curing and steaming section.
5. Washing zone.
Printing studio:-
Objective:- the main objective of the print studio is to transfer the design obtained from the
buyer on to a perforated screen, so that the design become print able. Tracers in this
department adjusts the repeat size of the design to a factor of 64.2 cms (the circumference of
the print roller) this enables a perfect repetition of the design during printing. The tracers also
make any alteration in the design as may be demanded by the party. The screen rollers once
prepared are preserved for future use.
Flow charts:
1. Receiving of order
• Order is received in the form of a
• Swatch
• Cad paper
• Hand made by artist
• Garment cutting
It also contains sample no, production no, buyer’s name, amount of production and delivery
2.Tracing the design:-the design samples comes to tracer who first makes the repeat size
of the design. The repeat size must be a factor of 64.02 cms which is the circumfrence of the
screen roller. Once the repeat size is adjusted the teacer finds number of colour present in
the design.then he traces each part of the design of different color on diferent paper called
tracing film (polyester paper) by fine nib with black ink.
3. Enlarging of repeat size:- each repeat unit of different color is enlarged on photo
sensitive paper by using violet light. Time taken in this process is 60-90 secs.
4. Developing:- the enlarged sheet is then developed in ammonia solution for 30-60 sec.
Design positive is produced on the photosensitive paper on which design part changes to
black colour. Hence the bld (bright light developed).
Flow Chart For Making Of Screen Rollers.
1.Rounding off: round screen made of nickel alloy (available from market) is rounded off by
placing it in a chamber at 180*c for 45min.
2.Coating:-ni- screen rollers are coated by photo emulsion & centiliser mixture.
3.Climetising:- here the chemical coating over the screen roller is dried by hot air at 45c for
20-25 mins.
4.Exposing:- coated Ni screen roller is mounted on a rubber which is inflated with air. Bld
negative is wrapped at one side (say lhs) of the roller other parts are covered by paper &
U.V. Light is projected on it for 3-4 mins. Same operation is done for the total width of the
screen roller. The design portion (black) of the negative prevents the U.V. Light to go through
it. So the photo emulsion under it remains soft U.V.ray falls on the other portion of the roller
& the photo emulsion over there gets hardened by chemical reaction.
5. Washing:- the roller is then washed by water in a water bath for 10 mins. Here unreacted
soft part of photo emulsion is washed off by a piece of sponge. now the design portion which
was turned to black on bld paper,becomes opaque on the screen roller, then the roller is
6.Checking:- the roller is then thoroughly checked. The pores of the design portion are
properly opened by water. Undesirable pores are also covered by colour.
7. Curing:- chemicals on the screen roller are cured in the curing m/c by hot air at 180c for
2 hrs.
8. Rechecking:- rechecking & reqd. Manipulation of the screen roller is done.
9. Preparation of rfp roll:- finally two aluminium rings are attached at both edges of the
roller with araldite. The roller is now ready for printing.
Design Department
In this design department , sample designs are developed on the computer with matching of
design as well as their creativity. They have used designing software and print out the design
on paper. If the design is very fine and complicated then it is prepared on paper by hand with
help of experts.
• Machine name hp design jet 500
• Manufacture hp
• Used for paper print
• Paper used mtltifilm,Transparent clear film
• Speed 6inch/min
• No. Of colour 4

Screen exposing techniques

Computerised screen exposing
Manual screen exposing

Computerised screen exposing

In this technique, coated nickel screen is fixed on machine and program of the design is
entered. Automatically design is drawn on the screen or engraved on screen as well as the
exposing of the screen takes place by U.V.. Light.
• No. Of machine 1
• Machine name luscher engraving & exposing
• Manufacture luscher
• Ink used wax black ink
• Length of machine 120inch
• No. Of cycle of engraving 1
• No. Of cycle of exposing 4
• Total time taken 15 min
Manual screen exposing
• Exposing time for 1 repeat 4-5min
• Exposing time for full screen 40-50min
• Screen length 50-60inch
Sample Printing machine
(Baby Printing machine)
• Machine name Digital printing machine
• No. Of machine 1
• Manufacture Nimaki textile jet Txz-1600
• Speed 10m/hr
• No. Of colour used 8
• Printing width 62inch
• Dyes taken pigment, reactive
Print colour kitchen

As the name suggest this section of printing of printing department is concerned with print
paste preparation, which is made readily available for printing. Two different methods for print
paste preparation, one for pigment and other for discharge printing.

For discharge print (in general)

Chemical Quantity ( in %)
Safolite 20
Soda ash 7
Pine oil 2
Glycerine 2
gum 6
Water 63
Total 100

For colour discharge, we use the same recipe but with the addition of colour (non-
Preparation of Hindustan gum
50kg of Hindustan gum powder is mixed with 100kg of water & fast stirring is done for 10-12
min. Then it is taken in a tumbler and slow stirring is done for 10-12 hrs. From this paste 6% is
added to the main stock paste.
Preparation of the printing paste
All the chemicals of stock paste are mixed thoroughly in the PVC container by means of a
motor driven stirrer for 1 to1.5 hrs again the vat colour as per the shade, is dissolved in water,
stirred well and mixed with the stock paste. This mixture is stirred for 10-15 min. This paste is
ready to be used for printing.
Printing section
Printing machine
• Name of m/c Rotary screen printing m/c
• Machine make Laxmi
• No. of machine 2
• Total no. of printing rollers 12
• No. of chamber in drying zone 5
• No. of dryer fans 10
• No. of exhaust fans 3
• No. of radiators 5
• Temp. of drying chambers 1090C, 1220C, 1370C, 1500C, 1380C
• Avg speed of m/c 20-40m/min
• Min. Speed of m/c 10-12m/min
• Max. Speed of m/c 40-50m/ min
• Length of machine 25.84m
• Width of machine 2.30m
• Type of blanket rubber blanket
• Length of blanket 16m
• Width of blanket 64inch
• Thickness of blanket 1mm
• Type of squeezee magnetic squeezee
• Drying medium hot air produced
By circulation of
Hot air over the
Pipes containing
Heated oil
Brief description of the m/c
Feed zone
Fabric passes over batch roll through guide rollers, there are two brass rollers followed two
suction to remove the floating fibres and dust on fabric surface

Printing zone
There is an endless rotating rubber conveyer in this zone. At first fabric is pasted with the
rubber conveyer by the pressure roller with the help of PVA then the fabric comes under the
printing roller through which the print paste is applied the pressure of the printing roller can
be adjusted by changing rod inside it. A single colour is applied by one printing roller
generally darker colour containing rollers are arranged gradually from back to front. Different
coloured print pastes are applied by different square shaped hollow and perforated rods
(squeeze) by individual pumps. The rubber conveyer is cleaned by water and doctor blade
under the machine.length of the fabric in this zone is 23 feets.fabric after printing zone enter
drying zone.

Drying zone
There are five chambers in this zone containing five radiators. Hot oil is circulated through
the radiators and the blowers circulate the hot air. For pigment printing drying temp. is around
160 deg and for discharge printing it is around 140deg.generally the temp. of first two
chambers is kept lower than the subsequent chambers. Fabric after drying goes to delivery

Delivery zone
Fabric coming from drying zone passes through guide rollers and is lapper into the trolley.
Factors to be checked at the time of printing :-
• The design printed on the fabric coming out from the printing bed is checked carefully.
• Distortion of the design occurs mainly due to chocking of the printing rollers or due to the
floating fibres attached with the printing rollers.
• Sponge wetted with water to avoid chocking is used to wash printing rollers
• Again a dummy roller is fitted at the beginning of the printing bed the surface of which is
coated by gum. When fabric passes through the surface of this roller it arrests the floating
fibres attached to the fabric
• For a broad design it is checked whether the fabric coming out from the delivery zone is
properly dried or not. Temperature of the drying chambers are increased if necessary.
• The level of the color in the PVC container is checked. It is also checked whether colors
are coming out from the squeeze properly.
• The cleaning system of the rubber conveyer under the printing bed and the PVC
application to it is also checked.
Curing & Steaming Section
Continous ager (steaming m/c.)
• Name of the m/c continous ager m/c
• Maker name gayatri m/c
• Thread length 200 m
15 m/min (normal)
6-8 m/min (min.)
50 m/min (max.)
• Drying system steaming
• Steaming time 8-2 min.
• Temperature of m/c 101º c for discharge
150-180º c for pigment
• Pressure of steam at feed 18-20 kg./cm sq
• Roof heating system by hot oil

Brief description of the m/c

The m/c contains 26 guide rollers each at the top & at the bottom, both feed and delivery
takes place from the front side of the m/c. Fabric simply passes through the series of guide
rollers during the process. Both direct & indirect system of heating are in this m/c. Water is
heated by hot oil pipes located below the m/c, to generate indirect steam, another purpose of
steam is to saturate the direct steam to be applied on the fabric. The roof of the m/c is
heated to about 130 - 140º c to avoid steam condensation of the steam & hence dropping on
the fabric. Direct steam is also applied at the feed and delivery to avoid droppings.
Discharging agent present in the printing paste forms a fume inside the m/c with the help of
saturated steam, which actually develops the color on the fabric surface.
Special features :
• Both curing (for pigment) & steaming (for discharge) can be carried out in this m/c for curing
there are 2 radiators & 2 blowers.
• Pre steaming arrangement is here to avoid dropping in the fabric.
• Both feed & delivery are on same side of the m/c

Defects :
• Tearing of the fabric inside the m/c.
• Dropping of water droplets on the fabric. This occurs if roof temp. Is inadequate or steam
contains water molecules.
• Insufficient development. This occurs amount of safolite in the print paste is low, level of
water in tank is low or amount of steam is sufficient.

Loop Ager
 Name of the m/c loop ager
 Machine make Swastik textile Engineers pvt. Ltd.
 Machine speed 15 m/min(normal) 1-2 m/min (min.) 30 m/min(max.)
 Steaming time 6-15 min.
 Temp. with in the m/c 101º c for discharge
 Roof heating system steam
 No. of exhaust 2
 No. of loops formed inside the m/c 30
Brief description of the m/c
In this m/c the feed and delivery is located on different sides of the m/c. Fabric loop is formed
at the feed by a loop former situated at the feed. The fabric inside the m/c is moved by means
of guide bars. Since the fabric is in loop from so the length of the fabric and hence steaming
time is more roof is steam heated to avoid droppings. Water tanks are there at the right hand
side of the m/c water is heated by hot oil to produce steam. Discharging agent present in the
print paste forms a fume inside the m/c with help of saturated steam, which actually develops
the color on the fabric surface channels of exhaust system are located inside the m/c to avoid
droplets loop length and speed of the m/c is adjusted according to the nature of the fabric and
the nature of design.
Special features of the m/c :
• As the fabric passes inside the m/c in loop form, more steaming time is available.
• Loop length inside the m/c can be varied so developing time can also be varied
according to the nature of the fabric and nature of design.
Defects :
• Tearing of the fabric inside the m/c.
• Dropping of water droplets on the fabric. This occurs if roof temp. Is not proper,
steam contains water particles.
• Insufficient developing. This occurs if amount of safolite in the printing paste is low,
level of water in tank is low or amount of steam is sufficient.
• Discharging of the base color at undesirable places. This occurs due to the following
• Safolite causes fumes of sulphur dioxide, which mixed with the steam and forms
fumes of sulphurous and sulphuric acid. These fumes damage the base color and
also the cellulose.
• If two neighboring loops touch each other side and if discharging agent of one loop
discharges the base solor of neighboring loops at undesirable places, patchy marks
appear in the fabric causing damage.
Washing Zone

Printed fabric is washed either in the continuous washing range or open width print washer.
Georgette or moscrepe fabric are washed in the width in the winch machine since the wet
strength of these are very low.

Brief Description Of The Machine

Feed the fabric is feed into the machine through guide rollers from trolley or palette.
First chamber fabric is passed over a special type of
perforated roller and cold water jet is
sprayed on the fabric.
Second chamber fabric is passed over a wire mesh in the
form of an extended pleated form. Water
jet is applied on the fabric from top. This
helps to remove impurities from the fabric.
Finishing Department
This department takes fabric from printing and dyeing department. Stenter machine is
commonly used in this department, main use of this m/c is to develop the feel of fabric and
to give the final touch. In discharge printing this m/c is used to develop the printed portion.


Machine name Stenter

Manufacturer Smecon
Speed :
For light weight fabric 69 m/min
For heavy weight fabric 20m/min
Pressure 1.5 bar in side
1.6 bar in centre
Drying tome - 30 sec
Blown fans 10
Exhaust fans - 3
No. Of radiators 5
Length of chamber 3m
Process type - continuous
Form of feeding open width form
Temp.(in 0C) of chambers :
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th

175 192 182 193 190 194

The main work of this m/c is to control the shrinkage of fabric..

Manufacturer Ramson
Process type continuous
Speed 50 m/min
Heating arrangement direct steam supply
Form of feeding open width form

Fabric is feeded to the m/c from feeding end and it passes through a rubber blanket running
in contact with hot shoe. Then it enters over a blanket running over a metal drum. Various
parameters of m/c setting are given below:
(a) main steam pressure 6kg/cm2
(b) drum rubber belt 2.5kg/cm2
(c) palmer 2kg/cm2
(d)speed of m/c 50m/min
Fabric is collected in trolley or batch after passing through m/c.

Non confirmity product

1.Shade is not matched
2.Shrinkage is not within limits
3.Different types of stains in fabric
4.Skew, bowing is observed in fabric
5.Rubber mark, of crease is observed in fabric
6.Centre-selvedge variation is observed
Preventive remedies:
1. Shade is not matched.
If difference is less ,then it is carried out in stenter by pigment topping.
If difference is higher and also the quality of material is high then it is matched in dyeing
2. Shrinkage is not within limit
In weft direction if shrinkage is greater than 3% then it is re-stretched and set the width to
keep shrinkage within limit.
In warp direction if the shrinkage is greater than 3% then it is de-sanforised to keep the
shrinkage within limits.
In case if shrinkage is too small that is less than 1% than it is re-sanforised to increase the
shrinkage but within 3% limit

3. Different types of stains in fabric

After several experiment, the chemical or route is decided by the concerned person in the lab.
The stain is removed from the fabric either in jig or by gunning.
If stain is not removed then fabric is converted in black shade.
4. Skew, bowing is observed in fabric
The fabric is re-stentered through bianco where skew-bowing is corrected.
5. Rubber mark, o-o crease is observed in fabric
During power failure in sanforiser rubber mark and o-o crease is occuered. This fabric is re-


 Machines used in Weaving

 Machines used in Processing


Used for
Name of Machine Make Country of origin Process

Sixty Six Air Jet Looms Toyota Japan Weaving M/c

Direct Warping M/c Beninger Switzerland Yarn Warping

Prasanth Sectional
Sectional Warping M/c India
Gammatex Warping

Continuous Sizing M/c Beninger Switzerland Yarn Sizing


Name of Machine Make Country of origin Used for Process

Gas Singeing &

Gas Singe & Desizer Osthoff Germany

Continuous Bleaching Range Beninger Switzerland Scouring/Bleaching

Continuous Mercerising Range Beninger Switzerland Mercerising

Cold Pad-Batch Kusters Germany Dyeing

Pad-Dry Machine Beninger Switzerland Dyeing

Pad-Steam Range Beninger Switzerland Dyeing

Continuous Wash-Range Beninger Switzerland Washing/Soaping

Two Rotary Printing 12 Colour Laxmi India Printing

Rotary Printing 12 Colour Zimmer Austria Printing

Steamer/Ager Arioli Italy Print developing

Printing Screen
Rotary Screen Engraver Luescher Germany

Two Sanforiser Ronson India Zero-Zero machine

One Stenter m/c Ilsung Korea Finishing

Two Stenters SM Econ India Finishing

Peaching m/c Lafer Switzerland Emerising/Peaching


A brief description of the Sarla Fabric Pvt. Ltd., Ghaziabad has been given in the report.
Studies of the various processes performed in the plant for the manufacture of RFD fabric,
dyed and printed fabric has been done to the optimum level. A brief account of the various
quality measures taken in the plant has also been given. Various parameters maintained in
the plant are also mentioned. Wherever possible, aid of the flow diagrams has also been
taken. We have put in our best for the compilation of this report.

Fiber to Fabric - Corbmann