Ali Kilinc 11/15/2007

Development Chapters’ Notes
Definition of Development
Interested in any and all behavior growth or change over the entire lifespan o o When does it begin? When does it end? How long does it last?

 Females lifespan ≈ 90 years  Males lifespan <70<80 years

Life Stages
Development begins at contraception

 Two sex cells – each of which contains 23 chromosomes, totaling 46 (only
cells in the entire human body which only contains ½ the chromosomes)

 Two genes – one from father, one from mother
Genes: A. Dominant Gene – Only one is necessary to exhibit characteristic B. Recessive Gene – Both of the paired genes must be present to exhibit characteristic C. Polygenic Gene – Numerous genes are required to exhibit a characteristic

Birth Defects
Genetic Defect: When something goes wrong in the genetic structure  Trismy 47 [47th chromosome] (Down Syndrome)  Two different eye colors Congenital Defect: When something goes wrong in the uterine area Possible causes:

 Smoking during pregnancy → pre-mature baby  Drinking during pregnancy → Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: mild retardation

Ali Kilinc 11/15/2007

** Teratogen: Any influences in the environment that could have a potential effect on the fetus **

Infancy to Early Childhood
Birth to age 6
Development of a new baby Cont. Tips for pregnant woman:  Eat healthy foods  Don’t “eat for two” eat thinking about the nutrition for two  Exercise frequently; don’t exercise rigorously  Get a good OBGYN doctor ** TRUST: Most important factor in development ** Tasks  Readiness – the point in physical maturity at which the child is capable of achieving a task  Sensitivity Period – A period of time when the training of a skill is best applicable, occurs after signs of readiness | Average age of potty training: 21 months |  Trust: [A] When the baby informs you that they have a need [B] The main care-giver (you) take care of that need [C] Baby will eventually trust you  Independence –A behavior that should be reinforced and highly encouraged Development of Initiative – When the baby has the ability to initiate tasks by him/herself; able to do things alone ** ALWAYS purchase toys for your child that absolutely DEMAND imagination; don’t but toys that only encourage or provoke it **


Ali Kilinc 11/15/2007

Ages 7 to 12
 In general, when a child enters this phase, they also enter school o Homeschooled children tend to be socially retarded people

 Time when child sees other people equal to him in his environment o o Many new influences Parents must be aware of these new influences

 Industry (productivity): When a child is expected to perform certain tasks to a certain criteria o o A behavior that should be reinforced and highly encouraged Very important to develop this behavior in childhood

Ages 13 to 17

 Also known as “Teen Years” – Could also be known as task phase
 Identity Development: Knowing who you are o o Identity is usually developed by the parents The development of self-confidence is very important in this phase

 Physical Development: Refers to growth of the body o Asynchronous Growth: when parts of the body grow unevenly from each other

 Physiological Development: The change of an organism that is incapable from re-producing to an organism that IS CAPABLE o 65% Of all women are known to have a negative perception of their sexuality


Ali Kilinc 11/15/2007  To prevent this behavior, discuss certain changes with the individual before they actually happen, so both parties are prepared and the individual does not have any negative perceptions attached to any of the recent changes

 School: Individuals are expected to think ahead and plan out their lives on their own

Early Adulthood
Ages 18 to 35 Tasks
 Point in life, when at one point, one asks oneself these common question: o o What is my purpose in life? What is my meaning in life?  Nobody else besides the individual is required to agree with the individual’s life meaning

o o

Must find positive meaning in life Must peruse happiness
[Primary Task]

 Intimacy o

: Principally most people get married in this phase

27: Average age for marriage in the U.S.A.

 Career: Point in life when the individual would pick a career  Home: Most individuals buy a house at some point in this phase, and start a family

Roughly 35 to Retirement Tasks

 Tasks do not finish, diminish or disappear, but are highly alleviated  Most tasks of adulthood are completed (career & home)
 Generativity: Concern with establishing and guiding the next generation. Simply having or wanting children does 4

Ali Kilinc 11/15/2007 works are also

not achieve this. Socially-valued expressions of generativity. o o

Question asked: How/when will I accomplish something useful? Generativity Glow: When an older person is asked advice by a younger generation, and receives the advice. If the individual takes in the advice, the older person’s face glows.

 Midlife Crisis: Individuals feel like they have lost control in their lives or current relationship, and to change this, and re-gain control, they feel like a drastic change is necessary o o Not anywhere near as common as the general public thinks it is Short-term effect is much greater on the family, friends, and the individual Long-term effects are much dismal, and most of the crisis is solved at this point Woman AND Men are believed to experience midlife crisis at an equal rate



Later Life
Retirement to Death

 Also known as “terminal phase” – there is no leaving this phase without dying  Common Questions Asked:
I used to have a meaning, what now? I used to be a productive member of this society, what now?

 Integrity: A. Review of one’s life B. The search for meaning C. If and when this IS found D. Individual has integrity


Ali Kilinc  Despair: 11/15/2007

A. Review of one’s life B. The search for meaning C. Meaningful propose IS NOT found D. The individual has despair  Heavy loss of vigor in life (energy, vitality, strength, etc.)  Increase on medical problems  Thought and awareness of death is more frequent

Cognitive Development Theory
**Piaget** → Concerned with how thought process is developed → Concepts: A. Assimilation – When an individual takes a new experience and interoperates it using an old cognitive structure/view B. Accommodation – When an individual is faced with a new experience, the individual changes his/her cognitive structure/views to address the scenario/experience


Ali Kilinc 11/15/2007

1) Sensorimotor Stage – Birth to 2 years

 Life in this stage is mainly non-verbal  Children in this stage do not/cannot think (according to Piaget)
Object Permanence: The child has no awareness of the existence of things (objects, places, and people) that he/she cannot: see or hear or touch 2) Preoperational Stage – Age 2 to 7 years

 Children are egocentric
Egocentric: Limited in outlook and/or confined to things mainly relating to oneself. Unable to accept views of other people) 3) Concrete operation Stage – Age 7 to 11 years Primary Tasks A. Conservation – The ability to accept the concept that object do not change in mass, if they are only changed in shape or form (ex: stretching or compacting) B. Reversibility – The ability to accept the concept that things or tasks can be reversed 4) Formal Operation Stage – Age 11 and up

 The development, of the ability to think about hypothetical and
abstract thoughts ♦Highest level of development (according to Piaget)

Moral Development Theory
**KHOLBERG, Lawrence** → Concerned with how people make moral decisions

Theories of Morality


Ali Kilinc 11/15/2007

(A) Preconventional Morality: Morals based on consequences – with emphasis placed on reward and punishment (thought process before actions are made) (B) Conventional Morality: Morals are formed with only in the: interest and values of the community (common beliefs); with community (conformity) in mind (C) Postconventional Morality: Morality that develops through the individual’s own original, thought processes. Different and nonconforming to the general community; makes his own morals.  Only 20% of the postconventioally general public develops morals


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