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Development Chapters’ Notes
Definition of Development
Interested in any and all behavior growth or change over the entire lifespan o o When does it begin? When does it end? How long does it last?
Females lifespan ≈ 90 years Males lifespan <70<80 years
Development begins at contraception
Two sex cells – each of which contains 23 chromosomes, totaling 46 (only
cells in the entire human body which only contains ½ the chromosomes)
Two genes – one from father, one from mother
Genes: A. Dominant Gene – Only one is necessary to exhibit characteristic B. Recessive Gene – Both of the paired genes must be present to exhibit characteristic C. Polygenic Gene – Numerous genes are required to exhibit a characteristic
Genetic Defect: When something goes wrong in the genetic structure Trismy 47 [47th chromosome] (Down Syndrome) Two different eye colors Congenital Defect: When something goes wrong in the uterine area Possible causes:
Smoking during pregnancy → pre-mature baby Drinking during pregnancy → Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: mild retardation
** Teratogen: Any influences in the environment that could have a potential effect on the fetus **
Infancy to Early Childhood
Birth to age 6
Development of a new baby Cont. Tips for pregnant woman: Eat healthy foods Don’t “eat for two” eat thinking about the nutrition for two Exercise frequently; don’t exercise rigorously Get a good OBGYN doctor ** TRUST: Most important factor in development ** Tasks Readiness – the point in physical maturity at which the child is capable of achieving a task Sensitivity Period – A period of time when the training of a skill is best applicable, occurs after signs of readiness | Average age of potty training: 21 months | Trust: [A] When the baby informs you that they have a need [B] The main care-giver (you) take care of that need [C] Baby will eventually trust you Independence –A behavior that should be reinforced and highly encouraged Development of Initiative – When the baby has the ability to initiate tasks by him/herself; able to do things alone ** ALWAYS purchase toys for your child that absolutely DEMAND imagination; don’t but toys that only encourage or provoke it **
Ages 7 to 12
In general, when a child enters this phase, they also enter school o Homeschooled children tend to be socially retarded people
Time when child sees other people equal to him in his environment o o Many new influences Parents must be aware of these new influences
Industry (productivity): When a child is expected to perform certain tasks to a certain criteria o o A behavior that should be reinforced and highly encouraged Very important to develop this behavior in childhood
Ages 13 to 17
Also known as “Teen Years” – Could also be known as task phase
Identity Development: Knowing who you are o o Identity is usually developed by the parents The development of self-confidence is very important in this phase
Physical Development: Refers to growth of the body o Asynchronous Growth: when parts of the body grow unevenly from each other
Physiological Development: The change of an organism that is incapable from re-producing to an organism that IS CAPABLE o 65% Of all women are known to have a negative perception of their sexuality
Scribd.com/people/view/6555-Ali-TekBoi 11/15/2007 To prevent this behavior, discuss certain changes with the individual before they actually happen, so both parties are prepared and the individual does not have any negative perceptions attached to any of the recent changes
School: Individuals are expected to think ahead and plan out their lives on their own
Ages 18 to 35 Tasks
Point in life, when at one point, one asks oneself these common question: o o What is my purpose in life? What is my meaning in life? Nobody else besides the individual is required to agree with the individual’s life meaning
Must find positive meaning in life Must peruse happiness
: Principally most people get married in this phase
27: Average age for marriage in the U.S.A.
Career: Point in life when the individual would pick a career Home: Most individuals buy a house at some point in this phase, and start a family
Roughly 35 to Retirement Tasks
Tasks do not finish, diminish or disappear, but are highly alleviated Most tasks of adulthood are completed (career & home)
Generativity: Concern with establishing and guiding the next generation. Simply having or wanting children does 4
Scribd.com/people/view/6555-Ali-TekBoi 11/15/2007 works are also
not achieve this. Socially-valued expressions of generativity. o o
Question asked: How/when will I accomplish something useful? Generativity Glow: When an older person is asked advice by a younger generation, and receives the advice. If the individual takes in the advice, the older person’s face glows.
Midlife Crisis: Individuals feel like they have lost control in their lives or current relationship, and to change this, and re-gain control, they feel like a drastic change is necessary o o Not anywhere near as common as the general public thinks it is Short-term effect is much greater on the family, friends, and the individual Long-term effects are much dismal, and most of the crisis is solved at this point Woman AND Men are believed to experience midlife crisis at an equal rate
Retirement to Death
Also known as “terminal phase” – there is no leaving this phase without dying Common Questions Asked:
I used to have a meaning, what now? I used to be a productive member of this society, what now?
Integrity: A. Review of one’s life B. The search for meaning C. If and when this IS found D. Individual has integrity
Ali Kilinc Despair:
A. Review of one’s life B. The search for meaning C. Meaningful propose IS NOT found D. The individual has despair Heavy loss of vigor in life (energy, vitality, strength, etc.) Increase on medical problems Thought and awareness of death is more frequent
Cognitive Development Theory
**Piaget** → Concerned with how thought process is developed → Concepts: A. Assimilation – When an individual takes a new experience and interoperates it using an old cognitive structure/view B. Accommodation – When an individual is faced with a new experience, the individual changes his/her cognitive structure/views to address the scenario/experience
1) Sensorimotor Stage – Birth to 2 years
Life in this stage is mainly non-verbal Children in this stage do not/cannot think (according to Piaget)
Object Permanence: The child has no awareness of the existence of things (objects, places, and people) that he/she cannot: see or hear or touch 2) Preoperational Stage – Age 2 to 7 years
Children are egocentric
Egocentric: Limited in outlook and/or confined to things mainly relating to oneself. Unable to accept views of other people) 3) Concrete operation Stage – Age 7 to 11 years Primary Tasks A. Conservation – The ability to accept the concept that object do not change in mass, if they are only changed in shape or form (ex: stretching or compacting) B. Reversibility – The ability to accept the concept that things or tasks can be reversed 4) Formal Operation Stage – Age 11 and up
The development, of the ability to think about hypothetical and
abstract thoughts ♦Highest level of development (according to Piaget)
Moral Development Theory
**KHOLBERG, Lawrence** → Concerned with how people make moral decisions
Theories of Morality
(A) Preconventional Morality: Morals based on consequences – with emphasis placed on reward and punishment (thought process before actions are made) (B) Conventional Morality: Morals are formed with only in the: interest and values of the community (common beliefs); with community (conformity) in mind (C) Postconventional Morality: Morality that develops through the individual’s own original, thought processes. Different and nonconforming to the general community; makes his own morals. Only 20% of the postconventioally general public develops morals
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