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Edition 1997
GUIDELINE FOR EUROPEAN TECHNICAL APPROVAL
OF
METAL ANCHORS
FOR USE IN CONCRETE
Annex C: DESIGN METHODS FOR ANCHORAGES
Amended October 2001
2
nd
Amendment November 2006
3
rd
Amendment August 2010
EOTA©
Avenue des Arts 40
Kunstlaan,
1040 Brussels
European Organisation for Technical Approvals
Europäische Organisation für Technische Zulassungen
Organisation Européenne pour l’Agrément Technique
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ANNEX C Design methods for anchorages
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 3
1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................... 3
1.1 Type of anchors, anchor groups and number of anchors.......................................... 3
1.2 Concrete member ..................................................................................................... 4
1.3 Type and direction of load ........................................................................................ 4
1.4 Classification of the consequence of failure .............................................................. 4
2 Terminology and Symbols ............................................................................................................ 5
2.1 Indices ...................................................................................................................... 5
2.2 Actions and resistances ............................................................................................ 5
2.3 Concrete and steel ................................................................................................... 5
2.4 Characteristic values of anchors (see Figure 2.1) ..................................................... 6
3 Design and safety concept ............................................................................................................ 7
3.1 General .................................................................................................................... 7
3.2 Ultimate limit state .................................................................................................... 7
3.2.1 Design resistance ..................................................................................................... 7
3.2.2 Partial safety factors for resistances ......................................................................... 7
3.2.2.1 Concrete cone failure, splitting failure, pullout failure, pryout failure and concrete
edge failure............................................................................................................... 7
3.2.2.2 Steel failure ............................................................................................................... 8
3.3 Serviceability limit state ............................................................................................ 8
4 Static analysis ............................................................................................................................... 8
4.1 Noncracked and cracked concrete .......................................................................... 8
4.2 Loads acting on anchors .......................................................................................... 8
4.2.1 Tension loads ........................................................................................................... 9
4.2.2 Shear loads ............................................................................................................ 10
4.2.2.1 Distribution of loads ................................................................................................ 10
4.2.2.2 Determination of shear loads .................................................................................. 12
4.2.2.3 Shear loads without lever arm ................................................................................. 14
4.2.2.4 Shear loads with lever arm ...................................................................................... 15
5 Ultimate limit state ...................................................................................................................... 16
5.1 General .................................................................................................................. 16
5.2 Design method A .................................................................................................... 17
5.2.1 General .................................................................................................................. 17
5.2.2 Resistance to tension loads .................................................................................... 17
5.2.2.1 Required proofs ...................................................................................................... 17
5.2.2.2 Steel failure ............................................................................................................. 17
5.2.2.3 Pullout failure ......................................................................................................... 17
5.2.2.4 Concrete cone failure .............................................................................................. 17
5.2.2.5 Splitting failure due to anchor installation ................................................................ 21
5.2.2.6 Splitting failure due to loading ................................................................................. 21
5.2.3 Resistance to shear loads ...................................................................................... 22
5.2.3.1 Required proofs ...................................................................................................... 22
5.2.3.2 Steel failure ............................................................................................................. 22
5.2.3.3 Concrete pryout failure .......................................................................................... 23
5.2.3.4 Concrete edge failure.............................................................................................. 24
5.2.4 Resistance to combined tension and shear loads ................................................... 30
5.3 Design method B .................................................................................................... 31
5.4 Design method C .................................................................................................... 32
6 Serviceability limit state ............................................................................................................... 32
6.1 Displacements ........................................................................................................ 32
6.2 Shear load with changing sign ................................................................................ 32
7 Additional proofs for ensuring the characteristic resistance of concrete member ........................ 32
7.1 General .................................................................................................................. 32
7.2 Shear resistance of concrete member .................................................................... 33
7.3 Resistance to splitting forces .................................................................................. 34
3
Introduction
The design methods for anchorages are intended to be used for the design of anchorages under due
consideration of the safety and design concept within the scope of the European Technical Approvals (ETA) of
anchors.
The design methods given in Annex C are based on the assumption that the required tests for assessing the
admissible service conditions given in Part 1 and the subsequent Parts have been carried out. Therefore
Annex C is a precondition for assessing and judging of anchors. The use of other design methods will require
reconsideration of the necessary tests.
The ETA’s for anchors give the characteristic values only of the different approved anchors. The design of the
anchorages (e.g. arrangement of anchors in a group of anchors, effect of edges or corners of the concrete
member on the characteristic resistance) shall be carried out according to the design methods described in
Chapter 3 to 5 taking account of the corresponding characteristic values of the anchors.
Chapter 7 gives additional proofs for ensuring the characteristic resistance of the concrete member which are
valid for all anchor systems.
The design methods are valid for all anchor types. However, the equations given in the following are valid for
anchors according to current experience only (see Annex B). If values for the characteristic resistance, spacings,
edge distances differ between the design methods and the ETA, the value given in the ETA governs. In the
absence of national regulations the partial safety factors given in the following may be used.
1 Scope
1.1 Type of anchors, anchor groups and number of anchors
The design methods apply to the design of anchorages in concrete using approved anchors which fulfil the
requirements of this Guideline. The characteristic values of these anchors are given in the relevant ETA.
The design methods are valid for single anchors and anchor groups. In case of an anchor group the loads are
applied to the individual anchors of the group by means of a rigid fixture. In an anchor group only anchors of the
same type, size and length shall be used.
The design methods cover single anchors and anchor groups according to Figure 1.1 and 1.2. Other anchor
arrangements e.g. in a triangular or circular pattern are also allowed; however, the provisions of this design
method should be applied with engineering judgement.
In general this design method is valid only if the diameter d
f
of the clearance hole in the fixture is not larger than
the value according to Table 4.1.
Exceptions:
 For fastenings loaded in tension only a larger diameter of the clearance hole is acceptable if a corresponding
washer is used.
 For fastenings loaded in shear or combined tension and shear if the gap between the hole and the fixture is
filled with mortar of sufficient compression strength or eliminated by other suitable means.
4
Figure 1.1 Anchorages covered by the design methods
 all loading directions, if anchors are situated far from edges (c > max (10 h
ef
, 60 d))
 tension loading only, if anchors are situated close to edges (c < max (10 h
ef
, 60 d))
Figure 1.2 Anchorages covered by the design methods
Shear loading, if anchors are situated close to an edge (c < max (10 h
ef
, 60 d))
1.2 Concrete member
The concrete member shall be of normal weight concrete of at least strength class C20/25 and at most strength
class C50/60 to EN 206 [8] and shall be subjected only to predominantly static loads. The concrete may be
cracked or noncracked. In general for simplification it is assumed that the concrete is cracked; otherwise it shall
be shown that the concrete is noncracked (see 4.1).
1.3 Type and direction of load
The design methods apply to anchors subjected to static or quasistatic loadings and not to anchors subjected to
impact or seismic loadings or loaded in compression.
1.4 Classification of the consequence of failure
Anchorages carried out in accordance with these design methods are considered to belong to anchorages, the
failure of which would comprise the stability of works, cause risk to human life and/or lead to considerable
economic consequences.
5
2 Terminology and Symbols
The notations and symbols frequently used in the design methods are given below. Further notations are given
in the text.
2.1 Indices
S = action
R = resistance
M = material
k = characteristic value
d = design value
s = steel
c = concrete
cp = concrete pryout
p = pullout
sp = splitting
u = ultimate
y = yield
2.2 Actions and resistances
F = force in general (resulting force)
N = normal force (positive: tension force, negative: compression force)
V = shear force
M = moment
F
Sk
(N
Sk
; V
Sk
; M
Sk
; M
T,Sk
) = characteristic value of actions acting on a single anchor or the fixture
of an anchor group (normal load, shear load, bending moment, torsion
moment)
F
Sd
(N
Sd
; V
Sd
; M
Sd
, M
T,Sd
) = design value of actions
h
Sd
N (
h
Sd
V ) = design value of tensile load (shear load) acting on the most stressed
anchor of an anchor group calculated according to 4.2
g
Sd
N (
g
Sd
V ) = design value of the sum (resultant) of the tensile (shear) loads acting
on the tensioned (sheared) anchors of a group calculated according
to 4.2
F
Rk
(N
Rk
; V
Rk
) = characteristic value of resistance of a single anchor or an anchor
group respectively (normal force, shear force)
F
Rd
(N
Rd
; V
Rd
) = design value of resistance
2.3 Concrete and steel
f
ck,cube
= characteristic concrete compression strength measured on cubes with a side length of 150 mm
(value of concrete strength class according to EN 206 [8])
f
yk
= characteristic steel yield strength (nominal value)
f
uk
= characteristic steel ultimate tensile strength (nominal value)
A
s
= stressed cross section of steel
W
el
= elastic section modulus calculated from the stressed cross section of steel (
32
d
3
t
for a round
section with diameter d)
6
2.4 Characteristic values of anchors (see Figure 2.1)
a = spacing between outer anchors of adjoining groups or between single anchors
a
1
= spacing between outer anchors of adjoining groups or between single anchors in direction 1
a
2
= spacing between outer anchors of adjoining groups or between single anchors in direction 2
b = width of concrete member
c = edge distance
c
1
= edge distance in direction 1; in case of anchorages close to an edge loaded in shear c
1
is the
edge distance in direction of the shear load (see Figure 2.1b and Figure 5.7)
c
2
= edge distance in direction 2; direction 2 is perpendicular to direction 1
c
cr
= edge distance for ensuring the transmission of the characteristic resistance (design methods B
and C)
c
cr,N
= edge distance for ensuring the transmission of the characteristic tensile resistance of a single
anchor without spacing and edge effects in case of concrete cone failure (design method A)
c
cr,sp
= edge distance for ensuring the transmission of the characteristic tensile resistance of a single
anchor without spacing and edge effects in case of splitting failure (design method A)
c
min
= minimum allowable edge distance
d = diameter of anchor bolt or thread diameter
d
nom
= outside diameter of anchor
d
o
= drill hole diameter
h = thickness of concrete member
h
ef
= effective anchorage depth
h
min
= minimum thickness of concrete member
l
f
= effective length of anchor under shear loading. For bolts of uniform crosssection over their
lengths the value of h
ef
has to be used as effective anchorage depth, and for anchors with
several sleeves and throats of crosssection, for example, only the length from the concrete
surface up to the relevant sleeve would govern.
s = spacing of anchors in a group
s
1
= spacing of anchors in a group in direction 1
s
2
= spacing of anchors in a group in direction 2
s
cr
= spacing for ensuring the transmission of the characteristic resistance (design methods B and C)
s
cr,N
= spacing for ensuring the transmission of the characteristic tensile resistance of a single anchor
without spacing and edge effects in case of concrete cone failure (design method A)
s
cr,sp
= spacing for ensuring the transmission of the characteristic tensile resistance of a single anchor
without spacing and edge effects in case of splitting failure (design method A)
s
min
= minimum allowable spacing
Figure 2.1 Concrete member, anchor spacing and edge distance
C2
7
3 Design and safety concept
3.1 General
The design of anchorages shall be in accordance with the general rules given in EN 1990. It shall be shown that
the value of the design actions S
d
does not exceed the value of the design resistance R
d
.
S
d
< R
d
(3.1)
S
d
= value of design action
R
d
= value of design resistance
Actions to be used in design may be obtained either from a published National Annex to EN 1991 or, in its
absence, to national regulations or, in their absence, to EN 1991 itself.
The partial safety factors for actions may be taken either from a published National Annex to EN 1991 or, in its
absence, to national regulations or, in their absence, to EN 1991 itself.
The design resistance is calculated as follows:
R
d
= R
k
/¸
M
(3.2)
R
k
= characteristic resistance of a single anchor or an anchor group
¸
M
= partial safety factor for material
3.2 Ultimate limit state
3.2.1 Design resistance
The design resistance is calculated according to Equation (3.2). In design method A the characteristic resistance
is calculated for all load directions and failure modes.
In design methods B und C only one characteristic resistance is given for all load directions and failure modes.
3.2.2 Partial safety factors for resistances
In the absence of national regulations the following partial safety factors may be used. However, the value of ¸
2
may not be changed because it describes a characteristic of the anchors.
3.2.2.1 Concrete cone failure, splitting failure, pullout failure, pryout failure and concrete edge failure
The partial safety factors for concrete cone failure, pryout failure and concrete edge failure (¸
Mc
), splitting failure
(¸
Msp
) and pullout failure (¸
Mp
) are given in the relevant ETA.
For anchors to according current experience the partial safety factor ¸
Mc
is determined from:
¸
Mc
= ¸
c
.
¸
2
¸
c
= partial safety factor for concrete = 1.5
¸
2
= partial safety factor taking account of the installation safety of an anchor system
The partial safety factor ¸
2
is evaluated from the results of the installation safety tests;
see Part 1, 6.1.2.2.2.
Tension loading
¸
2
= 1.0 for systems with high installation safety
= 1.2 for systems with normal installation safety
= 1.4 for systems with low but still acceptable installation safety
Shear loading (concrete pryout failure, concrete edge failure)
¸
2
= 1.0
For the partial safety factors ¸
Msp
and ¸
Mp
the value for ¸
Mc
may be taken.
c
2
8
3.2.2.2 Steel failure
The partial safety factors ¸
Ms
for steel failure are given in the relevant ETA.
For anchors according to current experience the partial safety factors ¸
Ms
are determined as a function
of the type of loading as follows:
Tension loading:
¸
Ms
=
/f f
1.2
uk yk
> 1.4 (3.3a)
Shear loading of the anchor with and without lever arm:
¸
Ms
=
uk yk
/f f
1.0
> 1.25 f
uk
< 800 N/mm
2
(3.3b)
and f
yk
/f
uk
< 0.8
¸
Ms
= 1.5 f
uk
> 800 N/mm
2
(3.3c)
or f
yk
/f
uk
> 0.8
3.3 Serviceability limit state
In the serviceability limit state it shall be shown that the displacements occurring under the characteristic actions
are not larger than the admissible displacement. For the characteristic displacements see 6. The admissible
displacement depends on the application in question and should be evaluated by the designer.
In this check the partial safety factors on actions and on resistances may be assumed to be equal to 1.0.
4 Static analysis
4.1 Noncracked and cracked concrete
If the condition in Equation (4.1) is not fulfilled or not checked, then cracked concrete shall be assumed.
Noncracked concrete may be assumed in special cases if in each case it is proved that under service
conditions the anchor with its entire anchorage depth is located in noncracked concrete. In the absence of other
guidance the following provisions may be taken.
For anchorages subjected to a resultant load F
Sk
< 60 kN noncracked concrete may be assumed if Equation
(4.1) is observed:
o
L
+ o
R
< 0 (4.1)
o
L
= stresses in the concrete induced by external loads, including anchors loads
o
R
= stresses in the concrete due to restraint of intrinsic imposed deformations (e.g. shrinkage of
concrete) or extrinsic imposed deformations (e.g. due to displacement of support or
temperature variations). If no detailed analysis is conducted, then o
R
= 3 N/mm
2
should be
assumed, according to EC 2 [1].
The stresses o
L
and o
R
are calculated assuming that the concrete is noncracked (state I). For plane concrete
members which transmit loads in two directions (e.g. slabs, walls) Equation (4.1) shall be fulfilled for both
directions.
4.2 Loads acting on anchors
In the static analysis the loads and moments are given which are acting on the fixture. To design the anchorage
the loads acting on each anchor shall be calculated, taking into account partial safety factors for actions
according to 3.1 in the ultimate limit state and according to 3.3 in the serviceability limit state.
With single anchors normally the loads acting on the anchor are equal to the loads acting on the fixture. With
anchor groups the loads, bending and torsion moments acting on the fixture are distributed to tension and shear
forces acting on the individual anchors of the group. This distribution shall be calculated according to the theory
of elasticity.
9
4.2.1 Tension loads
In general, the tension loads acting on each anchor due to loads and bending moments acting on the fixture
shall be calculated according to the theory of elasticity using the following assumptions:
a) The anchor plate does not deform under the design actions. To ensure the validity of this assumption the
anchor plate shall be sufficiently stiff.
b) The stiffness of all anchors is equal and corresponds to the modulus of elasticity of the steel. The modulus
of elasticity of concrete is given in [1]. As a simplification it may be taken as E
c
= 30 000 N/mm
2
.
c) In the zone of compression under the fixture the anchors do not contribute to the transmission of normal
forces (see Figure 4.1b).
If in special cases the anchor plate is not sufficiently stiff, then the flexibility of the anchor plate shall be taken
into account when calculating loads acting on the anchors.
In the case of anchor groups with different levels of tension forces N
si
acting on the individual anchors of a group
the eccentricity e
N
of the tension force N
S
g
of the group may be calculated (see Figure 4.1), to enable a more
accurate assessment of the anchor group resistance.
10
Figure 4.1 Example of anchorages subjected to an eccentric tensile load N
g
S
If the tensioned anchors do not form a rectangular pattern, for reasons of simplicity the group of tensioned
anchors may be resolved into a group rectangular in shape (that means the centre of gravity of the tensioned
anchors may be assumed in the centre of the axis in Figure 4.1c).
4.2.2 Shear loads
4.2.2.1 Distribution of loads
The distribution of shear loads depends on the mode of failure:
a) Steel failure and concrete pryout failure
It is assumed that all anchors of a group take up shear loads if the diameter d
f
of the clearance hole in
the fixture is not larger than the value given in Table 4.1 (see Figures 4.2 and 4.6)
b) Concrete edge failure
Only the most unfavourable anchors take up shear loads if the shear acts perpendicular towards the
edge (see Figures 4.3 and 4.7). All anchors take up shear loads acting parallel to the edge.
Slotted holes in the direction of shear load prevent anchors to take up shear loads. This can be favourable in
case of fastenings close to an edge (see Figure 4.4)
If the diameter d
f
of the clearance hole is larger than given in Table 4.1 the design method is only valid if the gap
between the bolt and the fixture is filled with mortar of sufficient compression strength or eliminated by other
suitable means.
11
Figure 4.2 Examples of load distribution, when all anchors take up shear loads
Figure 4.3 Examples of load distribution when only the most unfavorable anchors take up shear loads
Figure 4.4 Examples of load distribution for an anchorage with slotted holes
12
Table 4.1 Diameter of clearance hole in the fixture
external diameter
d
1)
or d
nom
2)
(mm)
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
27
30
diameter d
f
of clearance
hole in the fixture (mm)
7
9
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
30
33
1)
if bolt bears against the fixture
2)
if sleeve bears against the fixture
In the case of anchor groups with different levels of shear forces V
si
acting on the individual anchors of the group
the eccentricity e
v
of the shear force V
S
g
of the group may be calculated (see Figure 4.5), to enable a more
accurate assessment of the anchor group resistance.
Figure 4.5 Example of an anchorage subjected to an eccentric shear load
4.2.2.2 Determination of shear loads
The determination of shear loads to the fasteners in a group resulting from shear forces and torsion moments
acting on the fixture is calculated according to the theory of elasticity assuming equal stiffness for all fasteners of
a group. Equilibrium has to be satisfied. Examples are given in Figures 4.6 and 4.7.
13
Figure 4.6 Determination of shear loads when all anchors take up loads (steel and pryout failure)
V
Sd
V
Sd
/ 3
V
Sd
V
Sd
/
4
V
Sd
/
4
b) Group of four anchors under a shear
load
V
Sd V
Sd,v
V
Sd,h
V
Sd,h
/4
V
Sd,v
/4
V
Sd,h
/4
V
Sd,v
/4
V
Sd,h
/4
V
Sd,v
/4
V
Sd,h
/4
V
Sd,v
/4
c) Group of four anchors under an inclined shear
load
T
Sd
s
1
s
2
V
anchor
V
anchor
r
V
anchor
V
anchor
d) Group of four anchors under a torsion moment
 
5 . 0 2
2
2
1
p
Sd
anchor
) 2 / s ( ) 2 / s (
I
T
V + · = with: I
p
= radial moment of inertia (here: I
p
= s
1
2
+ s
2
2
)
a) Group of three anchors under a shear load
14
Figure 4.7 Determination of shear loads when only the most unfavourable anchors take up loads (concrete
edge failure)
In case of concrete edge failure where only the most unfavourable anchors take up load the components of the
load acting perpendicular to the edge are taken up by the most unfavourable anchors (anchors close to the
edge), while the components of the load acting parallel to the edge are – due to reasons of equilibrium – equally
distributed to all anchors of the group.
4.2.2.3 Shear loads without lever arm
Shear loads acting on anchors may be assumed to act without lever arm if both of the following conditions are
fulfilled:
a) Group of two anchors loaded parallel to the edge
Edge
Load to be considered
Load not to be considered
V
Sd
V
Sd
/2
b) Group of four anchors loaded by an inclined shear load
Edge
V
H
/4
V
V
/2
Load to be considered
Load not to be considered
V
Sd
o
V
V
V
= V
Sd
· cos o
V
V
H
= V
Sd
· sin o
V
15
a) The fixture shall be made of metal and in the area of the anchorage be fixed directly to the concrete either
without an intermediate layer or with a levelling layer of mortar (compression strength > 30 N/mm
2
) with a
thickness < d/2.
b) The fixture shall be in contact with the anchor over its entire thickness.
4.2.2.4 Shear loads with lever arm
If the conditions a) and b) of 4.2.2.3 are not fulfilled the lever arm is calculated according to Equation (4.2) (see
Figure 4.8)
= a
3
+ e
1
(4.2)
with
e
1
= distance between shear load and concrete surface
a
3
= 0.5 d
a
3
= 0 if a washer and a nut are directly clamped to the concrete surface (see Figure 4.8b)
d = nominal diameter of the anchor bolt or thread diameter (see Figure 4.8a)
Figure 4.8 Definition of lever arm
The design moment acting on the anchor is calculated according to Equation (4.3)
M
Sd
= V
Sd
.
o
M
(4.3)
The value o
M
depends on the degree of restraint of the anchor at the side of the fixture of the application in
question and shall be judged according to good engineering practice.
No restraint (o
M
= 1.0) shall be assumed if the fixture can rotate freely (see Figure 4.9a). This assumption is
always conservative.
Full restraint (o
M
= 2.0) may be assumed only if the fixture cannot rotate (see Figure 4.9b) and the hole
clearance in the fixture is smaller than the values given in Table 4.1 or the anchor is clamped to the fixture by nut
and washer (see Figure 4.8). If restraint of the anchor is assumed the fixture shall be able to take up the restraint
moment.
16
Figure 4.9 Fixture without (a) and with (b) restraint
5 Ultimate limit state
5.1 General
For the design of anchorages in the ultimate limit state, there are three different design methods available. The
linkage of the design methods and the required tests for admissible service conditions is given in Table 5.1. In
5.2 the general design method A is described; in 5.3 and 5.4 the simplified methods B and C are treated. The
design method to be applied is given in the relevant ETA.
According to Equation (3.1) it shall be shown that the design value of the action is equal to or smaller than the
design value of the resistance. The characteristic values of the anchor to be used for the calculation of the
resistance in the ultimate limit state are given in the relevant ETA.
Spacing, edge distance as well as thickness of concrete member shall not remain under the given minimum
values.
The spacing between the outer anchor of adjoining groups or the distance to single anchors shall be a > s
cr,N
(design method A) or s
cr
respectively (design method B and C).
Table 5.1 Linkage of the design methods and the required tests for admissible service conditions
Design
method
cracked and
noncracked
concrete
noncracked
concrete
only
characteristic resistance for
C20/25 C20/25 to
only C50/60
tests according
Annex B
Option
A
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
2
7
8
B
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
3
4
9
10
C
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
5
6
11
12
17
5.2 Design method A
5.2.1 General
In design method A it shall be shown that Equation (3.1) is observed for all loading directions (tension, shear) as
well as all failure modes (steel failure, pullout failure, concrete cone failure, splitting failure, concrete edge failure
and concrete pryout failure).
In case of a combined tension and shear loading (oblique loading) the condition of interaction according to 5.2.4
shall be observed.
For Options 2 and 8 (see Part 1, Table 5.3), f
ck,cube
= 25 N/mm
2
shall be inserted in Equations (5.2a) and (5.7a).
5.2.2 Resistance to tension loads
5.2.2.1 Required proofs
single anchor
anchor group
steel failure
N
Sd
< N
Rk,s
/ ¸
Ms
N
Sd
h
< N
Rk,s
/ ¸
Ms
pullout failure
N
Sd
< N
Rk,p
/ ¸
Mp
N
Sd
h
< N
Rk,p
/ ¸
Mp
concrete cone failure
N
Sd
< N
Rk,c
/ ¸
Mc
N
Sd
g
< N
Rk,c
/ ¸
Mc
splitting failure
N
Sd
< N
Rk,sp
/ ¸
Msp
N
Sd
g
< N
Rk,sp
/ ¸
Msp
5.2.2.2 Steel failure
The characteristic resistance of an anchor in case of steel failure, N
Rk,s
, is given in the relevant ETA.
The value of N
Rk,s
is obtained from Equation (5.1)
N
Rk,s
= A
s
.
f
uk
[N] (5.1)
5.2.2.3 Pullout failure
The characteristic resistance in case of failure by pullout, N
Rk,p
, is given in the relevant ETA.
5.2.2.4 Concrete cone failure
The characteristic resistance of an anchor or a group of anchors, in case of concrete cone failure is:
N
Rk,c
= N
Rk,c
0
.
0
N c,
N c,
A
A
.v
s,N
. v
re,N
. v
ec,N
[N] (5.2)
The different factors of Equation (5.2) for anchors according to current experience are given below:
a) The initial value of the characteristic resistance of an anchor placed in cracked or noncracked concrete
is obtained by:
0
c Rk,
N = k
1
·
cube ck,
f . h
ef
1.5
[N] (5.2a)
f
ck,cube
[N/mm
2
]; h
ef
[mm]
k
1
= 7.2 for applications in cracked concrete
k
1
= 10.1 for applications in noncracked concrete
18
b) The geometric effect of spacing and edge distance on the characteristic resistance is taken into account
by the value A
c,N
/
0
N c,
A , where
0
N c,
A = area of concrete of an individual anchor with large spacing and edge distance at the
concrete surface, idealizing the concrete cone as a pyramid with a height equal to h
ef
and a base length equal to s
cr,N
(see Figure 5.1).
= s
cr,N
· s
cr,N
(5.2b)
A
c,N
= actual area of concrete cone of the anchorage at the concrete surface. It is limited by
overlapping concrete cones of adjoining anchors (s < s
cr,N
) as well as by edges of the
concrete member (c < c
cr,N
). Examples for the calculation of A
c,N
are given in Figure 5.2.
The values s
cr,N
and c
cr,N
are given in the relevant ETA.
For an anchor according to current experience s
cr,N
= 2 c
cr,N
= 3 h
ef
is taken.
Figure 5.1 Idealized concrete cone and area
0
N c,
A of concrete cone of an individual anchor
19
Figure 5.2 Examples of actual areas A
c,N
of the idealized concrete cones for different arrangements of
anchors in the case of axial tension load
c) The factor v
s,N
takes account of the disturbance of the distribution of stresses in the concrete due to
edges of the concrete member. For anchorages with several edge distances (e.g. anchorage in a corner
of the concrete member or in a narrow member), the smallest edge distance, c, shall be inserted in
Equation (5.2c).
v
s,N
= 0.7 + 0.3
.
c
c
cr,N
< 1 (5.2c)
a) individual anchor at the edge of concrete member
b) group of two anchors at the edge of concrete member
c) group of four anchors at a corner of concrete member
20
d) The shell spalling factor, v
re,N
, takes account of the effect of a reinforcement
v
re,N
= 0.5 +
200
h
ef
< 1 (5.2d)
with h
ef
in [mm]
If in the area of the anchorage there is a reinforcement with a spacing > 150 mm (any diameter) or with
a diameter < 10 mm and a spacing > 100 mm then a shell spalling factor of v
re,N
= 1.0 may be applied
independently of the anchorage depth.
e) The factor of v
ec,N
takes account of a group effect when different tension loads are acting
on the individual anchors of a group.
v
ec,N
=
N cr, N
/s 2e 1
1
+
< 1 (5.2e)
e
N
= eccentricity of the resulting tensile load acting on the tensioned anchors (see 4.2.1).
Where there is an eccentricity in two directions, v
ec,N
shall be determined separately for
each direction and the product of both factors shall be inserted in Equation (5.2).
As a simplification factor v
ec,N
= 1.0 may be assumed, if the most stressed anchor is checked according
to Equation (3.1) (
h
Sd
N <
h
c Rk,
N / ¸
Mc
) and the resistance of this anchor is taken as
h
c Rk,
N = N
Rk,c
/ n (5.2f)
with n = number of tensioned anchors
f) Special cases
For anchorages with three or more edges with an edge distance c
max
< c
cr,N
(c
max
= largest edge
distance) (see Figure 5.3) the calculation according to Equation 5.2 leads to results which are
conservative.
More precise results are obtained if for h
ef
the larger value
'
ef
h =
N cr,
max
c
c
.
h
ef
or
'
ef
h =
N , cr
max
s
s
h
ef
is inserted in Equation (5.2a) and for the determination of
0
N c,
A and A
c,N
according to Figures 5.1 and
5.2 as well as in Equations (5.2b), (5.2c) and (5.2e) the values
s’
cr,N
=
ef
'
ef
h
h
.
s
cr,N
c’
cr,N
= 0.5 s’
cr,N
are inserted for s
cr,N
or c
cr,N
, respectively.
21
Figure 5.3 Examples of anchorages in concrete members where h
ef
, s
cr,N
and c
cr,N
may be used
5.2.2.5 Splitting failure due to anchor installation
Splitting failure is avoided during anchor installation by complying with minimum values for edge distance c
min
,
spacing s
min
, member thickness h
min
and reinforcement as given in the relevant ETA.
5.2.2.6 Splitting failure due to loading
For splitting failure due to loading the values s
cr,sp
and c
cr,sp
are given in the ETA.
a) It may be assumed that splitting failure will not occur, if the edge distance in all directions is
c ≥ 1.2 c
cr,sp
and the member depth is h ≥ 2 h
ef
.
b) With anchors suitable for use in cracked concrete, the calculation of the characteristic splitting
resistance may be omitted if the following two conditions are fulfilled:
÷ a reinforcement is present which limits the crack width to w
k
~ 0.3 mm, taking into account
the splitting forces according to 7.3
÷ The characteristic resistance for concrete cone failure and pullout failure is calculated for
cracked concrete.
If the conditions a) and b) are not fulfilled, then the characteristic resistance of a single anchor or an anchor
group in case of splitting failure shall be calculated according to Equation (5.3).
N
Rk,sp
=
0
c Rk,
N
.
0
N , c
N , c
A
A
.
v
s,N
.
v
re,N
.
v
ec,N
.
v
h,sp
[N] (5.3)
with
0
c Rk,
N , v
s,N
, v
re,N
, v
ec,N
according to Equations (5.2a) to (5.2e) and A
c,N
, A
c N ,
0
as defined in 5.2.2.4 b),
however the values c
cr,N
and s
cr,N
shall be replaced by c
cr,sp
and s
cr,sp
.
v
h,sp
= factor to account for the influence of the actual member depth, h, on the splitting resistance for
anchors according to current experience
=
3 / 2
min
h
h


.

\

< 1.5 (5.3a)
where
h = actual thickness of the member
h
min
= member thickness, for which c
cr,sp
has been evaluated
22
5.2.3 Resistance to shear loads
5.2.3.1 Required proofs
single anchor
anchor group
steel failure, shear load
without lever arm
V
Sd
< V
Rk,s
/ ¸
Ms
V
Sd
h
< V
Rk,s
/ ¸
Ms
steel failure, shear load
with lever arm
V
Sd
< V
Rk,s
/ ¸
Ms
V
Sd
h
< V
Rk,s
/ ¸
Ms
concrete pryout failure
V
Sd
< V
Rk,cp
/ ¸
Mc
V
Sd
g
< V
Rk,cp
/ ¸
Mc
concrete edge failure
V
Sd
< V
Rk,c
/ ¸
Mc
V
Sd
g
< V
Rk,c
/ ¸
Mc
5.2.3.2 Steel failure
a) Shear load without lever arm
The characteristic resistance of an anchor in case of steel failure, V
Rk,s
is given in the relevant ETA.
The value V
Rk,s
for anchors according to current experience is obtained from Equation (5.4)
V
Rk,s
= 0.5 ·A
s
· f
uk
[N] (5.4)
Equation (5.4) is not valid for anchors with a significantly reduced section along the length of the
bolt (e.g. in case of bolt type expansion anchors).
In case of anchor groups, the characteristic shear resistance given in the relevant ETA shall be
multiplied by a factor 0.8, if the anchor is made of steel with a rather low ductility (rupture elongation A
5
<
8%)
b) Shear load with lever arm
The characteristic resistance of an anchor, V
Rk,s
, is given by Equation (5.5).
V
Rk,s
=
s Rk, M
M · o
[N] (5.5)
where o
M
= see 4.2.2.4
= lever arm according to Equation (4.2)
M
Rk,s
=
0
s Rk,
M (1  N
Sd
/N
Rd,s
) [Nm] (5.5a)
N
Rd,s
= N
Rk,s
/ ¸
Ms
N
Rk,s
, ¸
Ms
to be taken from the relevant ETA
0
s Rk,
M = characteristic bending resistance of an individual anchor
The characteristic bending resistance
0
s Rk,
M is given in the relevant ETA.
The value of
0
s Rk,
M for anchors according to current experience is obtained from Equation (5.5b).
0
s Rk,
M = 1.2 ·W
el
· f
uk
[Nm] (5.5b)
Equation (5.5b) may be used only if the anchor has not a significantly reduced section along the length
of the bolt.
23
5.2.3.3 Concrete pryout failure
Anchorages can fail by a concrete pryout failure at the side opposite to the load direction (see Figure 5.4). The
corresponding characteristic resistance V
Rk,cp
may be calculated from Equation (5.6).
V
Rk,cp
= k
.
N
Rk,c
(5.6)
where k = factor to be taken from the relevant ETA
N
Rk,c
according to 5.2.2.4 determined for single anchors or all anchors of a group loaded in shear.
For anchors according to current experience failing under tension load by concrete cone failure the
following values are conservative
k = 1 h
ef
< 60mm (5.6c)
k = 2 h
ef
> 60mm (5.6d)
Figure 5.4 Concrete pryout failure on the side opposite to load direction
In cases where the group is loaded by shear loads and/or external torsion moments, the direction of the
individual shear loads may alter. Fig. 5.5 demonstrates this for a group of two anchors loaded by a torsion
moment.
It is selfexplanatory that Equation (5.6) is not suitable for this application. The shear loads acting on the
individual anchors neutralise each other and the shear load acting on the entire group is V
Sd
= 0.
In cases where the horizontal or vertical components of the shear loads on the anchors alter their direction within
a group the verification of pryout failure for the entire group is substituted by the verification of pryout failure for
the most unfavourable anchor of the group.
When calculating the resistance of the most unfavourable anchor, the influences of both edge distances as well
as anchor spacing shall be considered. Examples for the calculation of A
c,N
are given in Fig. 5.6.
Figure 5.5 Group of anchors loaded by a torsion moment; Shear loads acting on the individual anchors of
the group alter their directions
s
V
1
= T / s
V
2
= T / s
T
24
Figure 5.6 Examples for the calculation of the area A
c,N
of the idealised concrete cones
5.2.3.4 Concrete edge failure
Concrete edge failure need not be verified for groups with not more than 4 anchors when the edge distance in all
directions is c > 10 h
ef
and c > 60 d.
The characteristic resistance for an anchor or an anchor group in the case of concrete edge failure corresponds
to:
V
Rk,c
=
0
c Rk,
V
.
0
V , c
V , c
A
A
.
v
s,V
.
v
h,V
.
v
o,V
.
v
ec,V
.
v
re,V
[N] (5.7)
The different factors of Equation (5.7) for anchors according to current experience are given below:
25
a) The initial value of the characteristic resistance of an anchor placed in cracked or noncracked concrete and
loaded perpendicular to the edge corresponds to:
5 . 1
1 cube , ck ef nom 1
0
c , Rk
c f h d k V · · · · =
 o
(5.7a)
d
nom
, l
f
, c
1
[mm]; f
ck,cube
[N/mm
2
]
where
k
1
= 1.7 for applications in cracked concrete
k
1
= 2.4 for applications in noncracked concrete
5 . 0
1
f
c
1 . 0


.

\

· = o
(5.7b)
2 . 0
1
nom
c
d
1 . 0


.

\

· =  (5.7c)
b) The geometrical effect of spacing as well as of further edge distances and the effect of thickness of the
concrete member on the characteristic load is taken into account by the ratio A
c,V
/
0
V c,
A .
where
0
V c,
A = area of concrete cone of an individual anchor at the lateral concrete surface not affected by
edges parallel to the assumed loading direction, member thickness or adjacent anchors,
assuming the shape of the fracture area as a half pyramid with a height equal to c
1
and a
baselength of 1.5 c
1
and 3 c
1
(Figure 5.7).
= 4.5 c
1
2
(5.7d)
A
c,V
= actual area of concrete cone of anchorage at the lateral concrete surface. It is limited by the
overlapping concrete cones of adjoining anchors (s < 3 c
1
) as well as by edges parallel to the
assumed loading direction (c
2
< 1.5 c
1
) and by member thickness (h < 1.5 c
1
). Examples for
calculation of A
c,V
are given in Figure 5.8.
For the calculation of
0
V c,
A and A
c,V
it is assumed that the shear loads are applied perpendicular to the edge of
the concrete member.
Figure 5.7 Idealized concrete cone and area
0
V c,
A of concrete cone for a single anchor
26
Figure 5.8 Examples of actual areas of the idealized concrete cones for different anchor arrangements
under shear loading
27
c) The factor v
s,V
takes account of the disturbance of the distribution of stresses in the concrete
due to further edges of the concrete member on the shear resistance. For anchorages with two edges
parallel to the assumed direction of loading (e.g. in a narrow concrete member) the smaller edge
distance shall be inserted in Equation (5.7e).
v
s,V
= 0.7 + 0.3
.
1
2
c 1.5
c
< 1 (5.7e)
d) The factor v
h,V
takes account of the fact that the shear resistance does not decrease proportionally to
the member thickness as assumed by the ratio A
c,V
/
0
V c,
A .
v
h,V
=
2 / 1
1
h
c 5 . 1

.

\

> 1 (5.7f)
e) The factor v
oV
takes account of the angle o
V
between the load applied, V
Sd
, and the direction
perpendicular to the free edge of the concrete member (see Figure 4.7b).
0 . 1
5 . 2
sin
) (cos
1
2
2
,
>

.

\

+
=
V
V
V
o
o
v
o
(5.7g)
The maximum value o
v
to be inserted in equation (5.7g) is limited to 90°.
In case of α
V
> 90°it is assumed that only the component of the shear load parallel to the edge is acting
on the anchor. The component acting away from the edge may be neglected for the proof of concrete
edge failure. Examples of anchor groups loaded by M
Td
, V
Sd
or both are given in Fig. 5.9 and Fig.5.10.
28
no proof for concrete edge failure needed,
components directed away from the edge
a) group of anchors at an edge loaded by V
Sd
with an angle α
V
= 180°
b) group of anchors at an edge loaded by V
Sd
with an angle 90 < α
V
< 180°
action
load on each
anchor
load on anchor
group for
calculation
components neglected, because
directed away from the edge
c) group of anchors at the edge loaded by a torsion moment M
Td
action
load on each
anchor
load on anchor
group for
calculation
e
V
component neglected, because
directed away from the edge
Figure 5.9 Examples of anchor groups at the edge loaded by a shear force or a torsion
moment
C
o
n
si
d
er
e
d
b
e
c
a
u
s
e
s
u
m
of
c
o
m
p
o
n
e
nt
s
is
di
re
ct
e
d
to
w
ar
d
s
th
e
e
d
29
action
load on each
anchor
neglected because sum of
components is directed
away from the edge
load on anchor
group for
calculation
V
Sd
e
V
load on anchor
group for
calculation
a) Shear component due to torsion moment larger than component of shear force
V
Sd
e
V
b) Shear component due to torsion moment smaller than component of shear force
action
load on each
anchor
load on anchor
group
load on anchor
group for
calculation
considered because sum of
components is directed
towards the edge
Figure 5.10 Examples of anchors groups at the edge loaded by a shear force and a torsion
moment
30
f) The factor v
ec,V
takes account of a group effect when different shear loads are acting on the individual
anchors of a group.
v
ec,V
=
) c 3 /( e 2 1
1
1 V
+
< 1 (5.7h)
e
V
= eccentricity of the resulting shear load acting on the anchors (see 4.2.2).
g) The factor v
re,V
takes account of the effect of the type of reinforcement used in cracked concrete.
v
re,V
= 1.0 anchorage in noncracked concrete and anchorage in cracked concrete without edge
reinforcement or stirrups
v
re,V
= 1.2 anchorage in cracked concrete with straight edge reinforcement (> Ø12 mm)
v
re,V
= 1.4 anchorage in cracked concrete with edge reinforcement and closely spaced stirrups (a <
100 mm)
h) For anchorages placed in a corner, the resistances for both edges shall be calculated and the smallest
value is decisive.
i) Special cases
For anchorages in a narrow, thin member with c
2,max
< 1.5 c
1
(c
2,max
= greatest of the two edge distances
parallel to the direction of loading) and h < 1.5 c
1
see Figure 5.11 the calculation according to Equation
(5.7) leads to results which are conservative.
More precise results are achieved if in Equations (5.7a) to (5.7f) as well as in the determination of the
areas
0
V c,
A and A
c,V
according to Figures 5.7 and 5.8 the edge distance c
1
is replaced by the value of c’
1
.
c’
1
being the greatest of the two values c
2,max
/1.5 and h/1.5 or s
2,max
/3 in case of anchor groups.
Figure 5.11 Example of an anchorage in a thin, narrow member where the value c’
1
may be used
5.2.4 Resistance to combined tension and shear loads
For combined tension and shear loads the following Equations (see Figure 5.12) shall be satisfied:

N
< 1 (5.8a)

V
< 1 (5.8b)

N
+ 
V
< 1.2 (5.8c)
where

N
(
V
): ratio between design action and design resistance for tension (shear) loading.
31
In Equation (5.8) the largest value of 
N
and 
V
for the different failure modes shall be taken (see 5.2.2.1
and 5.2.3.1).
Figure 5.12 Interaction diagram for combined tension and shear loads
In general, Equations (5.8a) to (5.8c) yield conservative results. More accurate results are obtained by
Equation (5.9)
(
N
)
o
+ (
V
)
o
< 1 (5.9)
with:

N
, 
V
see Equations (5.8)
o = 2.0 if N
Rd
and V
Rd
are governed by steel failure
o = 1.5 for all other failure modes
5.3 Design method B
Design method B, is based on a simplified approach in which the design value of the characteristic resistance is
considered to be independent of the loading direction and the mode of failure.
In case of anchor groups it shall be shown that Equation (3.1) is observed for the most stressed anchor.
The design resistance
0
Rd
F may be used without modification if the spacing s
cr
and the edge distance c
cr
are
observed.
0
Rd
F , s
cr
and c
cr
are given in the ETA.
The design resistance shall be calculated according to Equation (5.10) if the actual values for spacing and edge
distance are smaller than the values s
cr
and c
cr
and larger than or equal to s
min
and c
min
given in the ETA.
F
Rd
=
n
1
·
0
c
c
A
A
· v
s
· v
re
.
0
Rd
F [N] (5.10)
where
n = number of loaded anchors
0
Rd
F = design resistance given in the relevant ETA for cracked or noncracked concrete
The effect of spacing and edge distance is taken into account by the factor A
c
/
0
c
A and v
s
. The factor A
c
/
0
c
A shall
be calculated according to 5.2.2.4b and the factor v
s
shall be calculated according to 5.2.2.4c replacing s
cr,N
and
c
cr,N
by s
cr
and c
cr
. The effect of a narrowly spaced reinforcement and of noncracked concrete is taken into
account by the factors v
re
. The factor v
re
is calculated according to 5.2.2.4 d).
In case of shear load with lever arm the characteristic anchor resistance shall be calculated according to
Equation (5.5), replacing N
Rd,s
by
0
Rd
F in Equation (5.5a).
The smallest of the values F
Rd
according to Equation (5.10) or V
Rk,s
/¸
Ms
according to Equation (5.5) governs.
32
5.4 Design method C
Design method C is based on a simplified approach in which only one value for the design resistance F
Rd
is
given, independent of loading direction and mode of failure. The actual spacing and edge distance shall be equal
to or larger than the values of s
cr
and c
cr
. F
Rd
, s
cr
and c
cr
are given in the relevant ETA.
In case of shear load with lever arm the characteristic anchor resistance shall be calculated according to
Equation (5.5) replacing N
Rd,s
by F
Rd
in Equation (5.5a).
The smallest value of F
Rd
or V
Rk,s
/¸
Ms
according to Equation (5.5) governs.
6 Serviceability limit state
6.1 Displacements
The characteristic displacement of the anchor under defined tension and shear loads shall be taken from the
ETA. It may be assumed that the displacements are a linear function of the applied load. In case of a combined
tension and shear load, the displacements for the tension and shear component of the resultant load shall be
geometrically added.
In case of shear loads the influence of the hole clearance in the fixture on the expected displacement of the
whole anchorage shall be taken into account.
6.2 Shear load with changing sign
If the shear loads acting on the anchor change their sign several times, appropriate measures shall be taken to
avoid a fatigue failure of the anchor steel (e.g. the shear load should be transferred by friction between the
fixture and the concrete (e.g. due to a sufficiently high permanent prestressing force)).
Shear loads with changing sign can occur due to temperature variations in the fastened member (e.g. facade
elements). Therefore, either these members are anchored such that no significant shear loads due to the
restraint of deformations imposed to the fastened element will occur in the anchor or in shear loading with lever
arm (standoff installation) the bending stresses in the most stressed anchor Ao = maxo  mino in the
serviceability limit state caused by temperature variations should be limited to 100 N/mm
2
.
7 Additional proofs for ensuring the characteristic resistance of concrete member
7.1 General
The proof of the local transmission of the anchor loads into the concrete member is delivered by using the
design methods described in this document.
The transmission of the anchor loads to the supports of the concrete member shall be shown for the ultimate
limit state and the serviceability limit state; for this purpose, the normal verifications shall be carried out under
due consideration of the actions introduced by the anchors. For these verifications the additional provisions given
in 7.2 and 7.3 shall be taken into account.
If the edge distance of an anchor is smaller than the characteristic edge distance c
cr,N
(design method A) or c
cr
(design methods B and C), then a longitudinal reinforcement of at least C 6 shall be provided at the edge of the
member in the area of the anchorage depth.
In case of slabs and beams made out of prefabricated units and added castinplace concrete, anchor loads may
be transmitted into the prefabricated concrete only if the precast concrete is connected to the castinplace
concrete by a shear reinforcement. If this shear reinforcement between precast and castinplace concrete is not
present, the anchors shall either be embedded with hef in the added concrete, or only the loads of suspended
ceilings or similar constructions with a load up to 1.0 kN/m2 may be anchored in the precast concrete.
33
7.2 Shear resistance of concrete member
In general, the shear forces V
Sd,a
caused by anchor loads shall not exceed the value
V
Sd,a
= 0.4 V
Rd1
(7.1)
where V
Rd1
= shear resistance according Eurocode No. 2 [1]
When calculating V
Sd,a
the anchor loads shall be assumed as point loads with a width of load application
t
1
= s
t1
+ 2 h
ef
and t
2
= s
t2
+ 2 h
ef
, with s
t1
(s
t2
) spacing between the outer anchors of a group in direction 1 (2).
The active width over which the shear force is transmitted should be calculated according to the theory of
elasticity.
Equation (7.1) may be neglected, if one of the following conditions is met
a) The shear force V
Sd
at the support caused by the design actions including the anchor loads is
V
Sd
< 0.8 V
Rd1
(7.2)
b) Under the characteristic actions, the resultant tension force, N
Sk
, of the tensioned fasteners is N
Sk
k
< 30 kN
and the spacing, a, between the outermost anchors of adjacent groups or between the outer anchors of a
group and individual anchors satisfies Equation (7.3)
a > 200
.
N
Sk
a [mm]; N
Sk
[kN] (7.3)
The anchor loads are taken up by a hanger reinforcement, which encloses the tension reinforcement and is
anchored at the opposite side of the concrete member. Its distance from an individual anchor or the outermost
anchors of a group shall be smaller than h
ef
If under the characteristic actions, the resultant tension force, N
Sk
, of the tensioned fasteners is N
Sk
> 60 kN,
then either the embedment depth of the anchors shall be h
ef
> 0.8 h or a hanger reinforcement according to
paragraph c) above shall be provided.
The necessary checks for ensuring the required shear resistance of the concrete member are summarized in
Table 7.1.
Table 7.1 Necessary checks for ensuring the required shear resistance of concrete member
Calculated value of shear
force of the concrete member
under due consideration of the
anchor loads
Spacing between single
anchors and groups of
anchors
N
Sk
[kN]
Proof of calculated shear
force resulting from anchor
loads
V
Sd
< 0.8
.
V
Rd1
a > s
cr,N
1)
(s
cr
)
2)
< 60
not required
V
Sd
> 0.8
.
V
Rd1
a > s
cr,N
1)
(s
cr
)
2)
and
a > 200 ·
Sk
N
a > s
cr,N
1)
(s
cr
)
2)
< 30
< 60
> 60
not required
required:
V
Sd,a
< 0.4
.
V
Rd1
or hanger reinforcement
or h
ef
> 0.8 h
not required, but hanger
reinforcement or h
ef
> 0.8 h
1)
Design method A
2)
Design methods B and C
34
7.3 Resistance to splitting forces
In general, the splitting forces caused by anchors shall be taken into account in the design of the concrete
member. This may be neglected if one of the following conditions is met:
The load transfer area is in the compression zone of the concrete member.
The tension component N
Sk
of the characteristic loads acting on the anchorage (single anchor or group of
anchors) is smaller than 10 kN.
The tension component N
Sk
is not greater than 30 kN. In addition, for fastenings in slabs and walls a
concentrated reinforcement in both directions is present in the region of the anchorage. The area of the
transverse reinforcement shall be at least 60 % of the longitudinal reinforcement required for the actions due to
anchor loads.
If the characteristic tension load acting on the anchorage is N
Sk
> 30 kN and the anchors are located in the
tension zone of the concrete member, the splitting forces shall be taken up by reinforcement. As a first indication
for anchors according to current experience the ratio between splitting force F
Sp,k
and the characteristic tension
load N
Sk
or N
Rd
(displacement controlled anchors) may be taken as
F
Sp,k
= 1.5 N
Sk
torquecontrolled expansion anchors (Part 2)
= 1.0 N
Sk
undercut anchors (Part 3)
= 2.0 N
Rd
deformationcontrolled expansion anchors (Part 4)
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS ANNEX C Design methods for anchorages
Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................3 1 Scope ...........................................................................................................................................3 1.1 Type of anchors, anchor groups and number of anchors..........................................3 1.2 Concrete member .....................................................................................................4 1.3 Type and direction of load ........................................................................................4 1.4 Classification of the consequence of failure ..............................................................4 2 Terminology and Symbols ............................................................................................................5 2.1 Indices ......................................................................................................................5 2.2 Actions and resistances ............................................................................................5 2.3 Concrete and steel ...................................................................................................5 2.4 Characteristic values of anchors (see Figure 2.1) .....................................................6 3 Design and safety concept............................................................................................................7 3.1 General ....................................................................................................................7 3.2 Ultimate limit state ....................................................................................................7 3.2.1 Design resistance .....................................................................................................7 3.2.2 Partial safety factors for resistances .........................................................................7 3.2.2.1 Concrete cone failure, splitting failure, pullout failure, pryout failure and concrete edge failure...............................................................................................................7 3.2.2.2 Steel failure ...............................................................................................................8 3.3 Serviceability limit state ............................................................................................8 4 Static analysis ...............................................................................................................................8 4.1 Noncracked and cracked concrete ..........................................................................8 4.2 Loads acting on anchors ..........................................................................................8 4.2.1 Tension loads ...........................................................................................................9 4.2.2 Shear loads ............................................................................................................ 10 4.2.2.1 Distribution of loads ................................................................................................ 10 4.2.2.2 Determination of shear loads .................................................................................. 12 4.2.2.3 Shear loads without lever arm ................................................................................. 14 4.2.2.4 Shear loads with lever arm ...................................................................................... 15 5 Ultimate limit state ...................................................................................................................... 16 5.1 General .................................................................................................................. 16 5.2 Design method A .................................................................................................... 17 5.2.1 General .................................................................................................................. 17 5.2.2 Resistance to tension loads .................................................................................... 17 5.2.2.1 Required proofs ...................................................................................................... 17 5.2.2.2 Steel failure ............................................................................................................. 17 5.2.2.3 Pullout failure ......................................................................................................... 17 5.2.2.4 Concrete cone failure .............................................................................................. 17 5.2.2.5 Splitting failure due to anchor installation ................................................................ 21 5.2.2.6 Splitting failure due to loading ................................................................................. 21 5.2.3 Resistance to shear loads ...................................................................................... 22 5.2.3.1 Required proofs ...................................................................................................... 22 5.2.3.2 Steel failure ............................................................................................................. 22 5.2.3.3 Concrete pryout failure .......................................................................................... 23 5.2.3.4 Concrete edge failure.............................................................................................. 24 5.2.4 Resistance to combined tension and shear loads ................................................... 30 5.3 Design method B .................................................................................................... 31 5.4 Design method C .................................................................................................... 32 6 Serviceability limit state ............................................................................................................... 32 6.1 Displacements ........................................................................................................ 32 6.2 Shear load with changing sign ................................................................................ 32 7 Additional proofs for ensuring the characteristic resistance of concrete member ........................ 32 7.1 General .................................................................................................................. 32 7.2 Shear resistance of concrete member .................................................................... 33 7.3 Resistance to splitting forces .................................................................................. 34
3
Introduction
The design methods for anchorages are intended to be used for the design of anchorages under due consideration of the safety and design concept within the scope of the European Technical Approvals (ETA) of anchors. The design methods given in Annex C are based on the assumption that the required tests for assessing the admissible service conditions given in Part 1 and the subsequent Parts have been carried out. Therefore Annex C is a precondition for assessing and judging of anchors. The use of other design methods will require reconsideration of the necessary tests. The ETA’s for anchors give the characteristic values only of the different approved anchors. The design of the anchorages (e.g. arrangement of anchors in a group of anchors, effect of edges or corners of the concrete member on the characteristic resistance) shall be carried out according to the design methods described in Chapter 3 to 5 taking account of the corresponding characteristic values of the anchors. Chapter 7 gives additional proofs for ensuring the characteristic resistance of the concrete member which are valid for all anchor systems. The design methods are valid for all anchor types. However, the equations given in the following are valid for anchors according to current experience only (see Annex B). If values for the characteristic resistance, spacings, edge distances differ between the design methods and the ETA, the value given in the ETA governs. In the absence of national regulations the partial safety factors given in the following may be used.
1
Scope
1.1
Type of anchors, anchor groups and number of anchors
The design methods apply to the design of anchorages in concrete using approved anchors which fulfil the requirements of this Guideline. The characteristic values of these anchors are given in the relevant ETA. The design methods are valid for single anchors and anchor groups. In case of an anchor group the loads are applied to the individual anchors of the group by means of a rigid fixture. In an anchor group only anchors of the same type, size and length shall be used. The design methods cover single anchors and anchor groups according to Figure 1.1 and 1.2. Other anchor arrangements e.g. in a triangular or circular pattern are also allowed; however, the provisions of this design method should be applied with engineering judgement. In general this design method is valid only if the diameter df of the clearance hole in the fixture is not larger than the value according to Table 4.1. Exceptions: For fastenings loaded in tension only a larger diameter of the clearance hole is acceptable if a corresponding washer is used. For fastenings loaded in shear or combined tension and shear if the gap between the hole and the fixture is filled with mortar of sufficient compression strength or eliminated by other suitable means.
if anchors are situated far from edges (c max (10 hef . if anchors are situated close to edges (c < max (10 hef . the failure of which would comprise the stability of works. 60 d)) 1. 60 d)) .2 Concrete member The concrete member shall be of normal weight concrete of at least strength class C20/25 and at most strength class C50/60 to EN 206 [8] and shall be subjected only to predominantly static loads.4 Classification of the consequence of failure Anchorages carried out in accordance with these design methods are considered to belong to anchorages.all loading directions. In general for simplification it is assumed that the concrete is cracked. 1.1 Anchorages covered by the design methods . if anchors are situated close to an edge (c < max (10 hef .4 Figure 1.tension loading only.1). .2 Anchorages covered by the design methods Shear loading. The concrete may be cracked or noncracked. 60 d)) Figure 1. cause risk to human life and/or lead to considerable economic consequences.3 Type and direction of load The design methods apply to anchors subjected to static or quasistatic loadings and not to anchors subjected to impact or seismic loadings or loaded in compression. otherwise it shall be shown that the concrete is noncracked (see 4. 1.
MSd .1 S R M k d s c cp p sp u y 2. shear load.2 F N V M Indices = = = = = = = = = = = = action resistance material characteristic value design value steel concrete concrete pryout pullout splitting ultimate yield Actions and resistances = = = = force in general (resulting force) normal force (positive: tension force.2 design value of the sum (resultant) of the tensile (shear) loads acting on the tensioned (sheared) anchors of a group calculated according to 4. bending moment. torsion moment) design value of actions design value of tensile load (shear load) acting on the most stressed anchor of an anchor group calculated according to 4. negative: compression force) shear force moment = characteristic value of actions acting on a single anchor or the fixture of an anchor group (normal load.Sd) h Nh ( VSd ) Sd = = g g NSd ( VSd ) = FRk (NRk . MT. MT.Sk) FSd (NSd .2 FSk (NSk .5 2 Terminology and Symbols The notations and symbols frequently used in the design methods are given below. Further notations are given in the text. VSd . VSk .cube fyk fuk As W el Concrete and steel = = = = = = characteristic value of resistance of a single anchor or an anchor group respectively (normal force. shear force) design value of resistance = characteristic concrete compression strength measured on cubes with a side length of 150 mm (value of concrete strength class according to EN 206 [8]) characteristic steel yield strength (nominal value) characteristic steel ultimate tensile strength (nominal value) stressed cross section of steel d3 elastic section modulus calculated from the stressed cross section of steel ( for a round 32 section with diameter d) . MSk .3 fck. 2. VRd) 2. VRk) FRd (NRd .
spacing of anchors in a group spacing of anchors in a group in direction 1 spacing of anchors in a group in direction 2 spacing for ensuring the transmission of the characteristic resistance (design methods B and C) spacing for ensuring the transmission of the characteristic tensile resistance of a single anchor without spacing and edge effects in case of concrete cone failure (design method A) spacing for ensuring the transmission of the characteristic tensile resistance of a single anchor without spacing and edge effects in case of splitting failure (design method A) minimum allowable spacing s s1 s2 scr scr. For bolts of uniform crosssection over their lengths the value of hef has to be used as effective anchorage depth. for example.4 a a1 a2 b c c1 c2 ccr ccr.sp smin = = = = = = = C2 Figure 2. anchor spacing and edge distance .1b and Figure 5.N ccr. in case of anchorages close to an edge loaded in shear c 1 is the edge distance in direction of the shear load (see Figure 2.N scr. and for anchors with several sleeves and throats of crosssection. only the length from the concrete surface up to the relevant sleeve would govern.6 2.7) edge distance in direction 2.1 Concrete member.1) = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = spacing between outer anchors of adjoining groups or between single anchors spacing between outer anchors of adjoining groups or between single anchors in direction 1 spacing between outer anchors of adjoining groups or between single anchors in direction 2 width of concrete member edge distance edge distance in direction 1. direction 2 is perpendicular to direction 1 edge distance for ensuring the transmission of the characteristic resistance (design methods B and C) edge distance for ensuring the transmission of the characteristic tensile resistance of a single anchor without spacing and edge effects in case of concrete cone failure (design method A) edge distance for ensuring the transmission of the characteristic tensile resistance of a single anchor without spacing and edge effects in case of splitting failure (design method A) minimum allowable edge distance diameter of anchor bolt or thread diameter outside diameter of anchor drill hole diameter thickness of concrete member effective anchorage depth minimum thickness of concrete member effective length of anchor under shear loading.sp cmin d dnom do h hef hmin lf Characteristic values of anchors (see Figure 2.
to national regulations or.1) Actions to be used in design may be obtained either from a published National Annex to EN 1991 or.2 Partial safety factors for resistances In the absence of national regulations the following partial safety factors may be used. to EN 1991 itself.2). For anchors to according current experience the partial safety factor Mc is determined from: Mc = c .2 for systems with normal installation safety = 1.1 Ultimate limit state Design resistance The design resistance is calculated according to Equation (3.7 3 Design and safety concept 3. in their absence.2) 3.2. However. splitting failure. pryout failure and concrete edge failure (Mc).2. It shall be shown that the value of the design actions Sd does not exceed the value of the design resistance Rd. 3. concrete edge failure) 2 = 1. to EN 1991 itself. to national regulations or. in their absence.2 3. The partial safety factors for actions may be taken either from a published National Annex to EN 1991 or.4 for systems with low but still acceptable installation safety Shear loading (concrete pryout failure.0 For the partial safety factors Msp and Mp the value for Mc may be taken. in its absence. 3. the value of 2 may not be changed because it describes a characteristic of the anchors. in its absence. pryout failure and concrete edge failure The partial safety factors for concrete cone failure.1. Tension loading 2 = 1. In design method A the characteristic resistance is calculated for all load directions and failure modes.5 2 partial safety factor taking account of the installation safety of an anchor system The partial safety factor 2 is evaluated from the results of the installation safety tests. splitting failure (Msp) and pullout failure (Mp) are given in the relevant ETA.2.2.2. pullout failure. In design methods B und C only one characteristic resistance is given for all load directions and failure modes.1 General The design of anchorages shall be in accordance with the general rules given in EN 1990. The design resistance is calculated as follows: Rd = Rk/M Rk M = = characteristic resistance of a single anchor or an anchor group partial safety factor for material (3. = .0 for systems with high installation safety = 1. 2 c = partial safety factor for concrete = 1. 6.2.2. Sd < Rd Sd Rd = = value of design action value of design resistance (3. see Part 1.1 Concrete cone failure.
1) is observed: L + R < 0 L R = = (4.3b) Ms = 1.1) shall be fulfilled for both directions.2 Steel failure The partial safety factors Ms for steel failure are given in the relevant ETA.8 3.1 in the ultimate limit state and according to 3.1) is not fulfilled or not checked. 4.25 and fuk < 800 N/mm fyk/fuk < 0. then cracked concrete shall be assumed. For anchors according to current experience the partial safety factors Ms are determined as a function of the type of loading as follows: Tension loading: Ms = 1.2 Loads acting on anchors In the static analysis the loads and moments are given which are acting on the fixture.5 or fuk > 800 N/mm fyk/fuk > 0.8 2 (3. shrinkage of concrete) or extrinsic imposed deformations (e. In this check the partial safety factors on actions and on resistances may be assumed to be equal to 1. For anchorages subjected to a resultant load FSk < 60 kN noncracked concrete may be assumed if Equation (4. according to EC 2 [1].3 Serviceability limit state In the serviceability limit state it shall be shown that the displacements occurring under the characteristic actions are not larger than the admissible displacement.3 in the serviceability limit state. walls) Equation (4. slabs. To design the anchorage the loads acting on each anchor shall be calculated. The stresses L and R are calculated assuming that the concrete is noncracked (state I).0 f yk /fuk > 1. due to displacement of support or 2 temperature variations).g.g.3a) Shear loading of the anchor with and without lever arm: Ms = 1. With anchor groups the loads. For the characteristic displacements see 6. taking into account partial safety factors for actions according to 3.2. In the absence of other guidance the following provisions may be taken.g.2.8 2 (3. If no detailed analysis is conducted. The admissible displacement depends on the application in question and should be evaluated by the designer. including anchors loads stresses in the concrete due to restraint of intrinsic imposed deformations (e. .2 f yk /fuk > 1. For plane concrete members which transmit loads in two directions (e. With single anchors normally the loads acting on the anchor are equal to the loads acting on the fixture. then R = 3 N/mm should be assumed.1) stresses in the concrete induced by external loads.3c) 3. Noncracked concrete may be assumed in special cases if in each case it is proved that under service conditions the anchor with its entire anchorage depth is located in noncracked concrete.4 (3.1 Static analysis Noncracked and cracked concrete If the condition in Equation (4. This distribution shall be calculated according to the theory of elasticity.0. bending and torsion moments acting on the fixture are distributed to tension and shear forces acting on the individual anchors of the group. 4 4.
the tension loads acting on each anchor due to loads and bending moments acting on the fixture shall be calculated according to the theory of elasticity using the following assumptions: a) b) c) The anchor plate does not deform under the design actions.1b).1 Tension loads In general. As a simplification it may be taken as Ec = 30 000 N/mm . to enable a more accurate assessment of the anchor group resistance. To ensure the validity of this assumption the anchor plate shall be sufficiently stiff. then the flexibility of the anchor plate shall be taken into account when calculating loads acting on the anchors. In the case of anchor groups with different levels of tension forces N si acting on the individual anchors of a group the eccentricity eN of the tension force N S of the group may be calculated (see Figure 4. The modulus 2 of elasticity of concrete is given in [1].9 4.2. The stiffness of all anchors is equal and corresponds to the modulus of elasticity of the steel. If in special cases the anchor plate is not sufficiently stiff. In the zone of compression under the fixture the anchors do not contribute to the transmission of normal forces (see Figure 4. g .1).
2.1 (see Figures 4.2.2.4) If the diameter df of the clearance hole is larger than given in Table 4.2 and 4.6) b) Concrete edge failure Only the most unfavourable anchors take up shear loads if the shear acts perpendicular towards the edge (see Figures 4. .3 and 4. 4.1 Distribution of loads The distribution of shear loads depends on the mode of failure: a) Steel failure and concrete pryout failure It is assumed that all anchors of a group take up shear loads if the diameter d f of the clearance hole in the fixture is not larger than the value given in Table 4. Slotted holes in the direction of shear load prevent anchors to take up shear loads.10 g Figure 4. for reasons of simplicity the group of tensioned anchors may be resolved into a group rectangular in shape (that means the centre of gravity of the tensioned anchors may be assumed in the centre of the axis in Figure 4. This can be favourable in case of fastenings close to an edge (see Figure 4. All anchors take up shear loads acting parallel to the edge.1 Example of anchorages subjected to an eccentric tensile load N S If the tensioned anchors do not form a rectangular pattern.1c).7).2 Shear loads 4.1 the design method is only valid if the gap between the bolt and the fixture is filled with mortar of sufficient compression strength or eliminated by other suitable means.
11 Figure 4.2 Examples of load distribution.4 Examples of load distribution for an anchorage with slotted holes .3 Examples of load distribution when only the most unfavorable anchors take up shear loads Figure 4. when all anchors take up shear loads Figure 4.
g Figure 4.5 Example of an anchorage subjected to an eccentric shear load 4.2 Determination of shear loads The determination of shear loads to the fasteners in a group resulting from shear forces and torsion moments acting on the fixture is calculated according to the theory of elasticity assuming equal stiffness for all fasteners of a group. Examples are given in Figures 4.6 and 4. .7.12 Table 4.2.5).1 Diameter of clearance hole in the fixture external diameter 1) 2) d or dnom 6 (mm) 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 27 30 diameter df of clearance hole in the fixture (mm) 1) 2) 7 9 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 30 33 if bolt bears against the fixture if sleeve bears against the fixture In the case of anchor groups with different levels of shear forces V si acting on the individual anchors of the group the eccentricity ev of the shear force VS of the group may be calculated (see Figure 4. Equilibrium has to be satisfied. to enable a more accurate assessment of the anchor group resistance.2.
13 VSd VSd / 3 a) Group of three anchors under a shear load VSd / 4 VSd VSd / 4 b) Group of four anchors under a shear load VSd VSd.v VSd.v /4 VSd.h /4 VSd.5 with: Ip = radial moment of inertia (here: Ip = s1 + s2 ) 2 2 d) Group of four anchors under a torsion moment Figure 4.v /4 VSd.h /4 c) Group of four anchors under an inclined shear load Vanchor TSd s1 Vanchor Vanchor s2 Vanchor T Sd (s1 / 2)2 (s2 / 2)2 Ip Vanchor r 0.v /4 VSd.6 Determination of shear loads when all anchors take up loads (steel and pryout failure) .h /4 VSd.h /4 VSd.v /4 VSd.h VSd.
3 Shear loads without lever arm Shear loads acting on anchors may be assumed to act without lever arm if both of the following conditions are fulfilled: . 4.7 Determination of shear loads when only the most unfavourable anchors take up loads (concrete edge failure) In case of concrete edge failure where only the most unfavourable anchors take up load the components of the load acting perpendicular to the edge are taken up by the most unfavourable anchors (anchors close to the edge).14 Load not to be considered VSd VSd/2 a) Group of two anchors loaded parallel to the edge Load to be considered Edge VV = VSd cos V VSd V VV/2 VH = VSd sin V Load not to be considered Load to be considered VH/4 Edge b) Group of four anchors loaded by an inclined shear load Figure 4.2.2. while the components of the load acting parallel to the edge are – due to reasons of equilibrium – equally distributed to all anchors of the group.
This assumption is always conservative. b) The fixture shall be in contact with the anchor over its entire thickness.15 a) The fixture shall be made of metal and in the area of the anchorage be fixed directly to the concrete either 2 without an intermediate layer or with a levelling layer of mortar (compression strength 30 N/mm ) with a thickness < d/2. Full restraint (M = 2.8 Definition of lever arm The design moment acting on the anchor is calculated according to Equation (4.8) = a3 + e1 with e1 = a3 = a3 = d = distance between shear load and concrete surface 0.1 or the anchor is clamped to the fixture by nut and washer (see Figure 4.8). No restraint (M = 1.3) The value M depends on the degree of restraint of the anchor at the side of the fixture of the application in question and shall be judged according to good engineering practice. . 4.3 are not fulfilled the lever arm is calculated according to Equation (4.3) MSd = VSd .2.2.8b) nominal diameter of the anchor bolt or thread diameter (see Figure 4.2.2) (see Figure 4.2) Figure 4. M (4.4 Shear loads with lever arm If the conditions a) and b) of 4.2.9a).0) may be assumed only if the fixture cannot rotate (see Figure 4.5 d 0 if a washer and a nut are directly clamped to the concrete surface (see Figure 4. If restraint of the anchor is assumed the fixture shall be able to take up the restraint moment.8a) (4.0) shall be assumed if the fixture can rotate freely (see Figure 4.9b) and the hole clearance in the fixture is smaller than the values given in Table 4.
The design method to be applied is given in the relevant ETA. edge distance as well as thickness of concrete member shall not remain under the given minimum values. The spacing between the outer anchor of adjoining groups or the distance to single anchors shall be a > scr.1 Design method Linkage of the design methods and the required tests for admissible service conditions cracked and noncracked concrete x x x x B x x x x C x x x x noncracked concrete only characteristic resistance for C20/25 C20/25 to only C50/60 x x x x x x x x x x x x tests according Annex B Option 1 2 7 8 3 4 9 10 5 6 11 12 A . Table 5. Spacing. According to Equation (3. in 5. there are three different design methods available.16 Figure 4.1) it shall be shown that the design value of the action is equal to or smaller than the design value of the resistance. The linkage of the design methods and the required tests for admissible service conditions is given in Table 5.N (design method A) or scr respectively (design method B and C). The characteristic values of the anchor to be used for the calculation of the resistance in the ultimate limit state are given in the relevant ETA.4 the simplified methods B and C are treated.9 5 5.1.2 the general design method A is described.1 Fixture without (a) and with (b) restraint Ultimate limit state General For the design of anchorages in the ultimate limit state.3 and 5. In 5.
shear) as well as all failure modes (steel failure. c = k1 .4 shall be observed.2) fck.1) is observed for all loading directions (tension.c / Mc N Sd < NRk. re. The value of NRk. In case of a combined tension and shear loading (oblique loading) the condition of interaction according to 5.N NRk.2.p.N . (5. in case of concrete cone failure is: 0 . NRk. Table 5.s = As fuk [N] 5. is given in the relevant ETA.c = N Rk. 5. hef [mm] k1 = 7. splitting failure.2.2a) fck. fck.2. concrete edge failure and concrete pryout failure).1) NRk.2 Resistance to tension loads 2 5.2) for anchors according to current experience are given below: a) The initial value of the characteristic resistance of an anchor placed in cracked or noncracked concrete is obtained by: 0 NRk.N [N] A0 N c.3).4 Concrete cone failure The characteristic resistance of an anchor or a group of anchors. For Options 2 and 8 (see Part 1. is given in the relevant ETA.p / Mp N Sd < NRk.2.s is obtained from Equation (5.sp / Msp g g h h pullout failure concrete cone failure splitting failure 5.N .cube .2.5 2 [N] (5.s / Ms NSd < NRk.2 Design method A 5. The different factors of Equation (5.cube [N/mm ].2a) and (5.1) (5. concrete cone failure.2.3 Pullout failure The characteristic resistance in case of failure by pullout.2.c .2. hef1. NRk.c / Mc NSd < NRk.2 Steel failure The characteristic resistance of an anchor in case of steel failure.2.2.1 Required proofs single anchor NSd < NRk. 5.2 for applications in cracked concrete k1 = 10.17 5.7a).1 for applications in noncracked concrete .s. ec. pullout failure.sp / Msp anchor group steel failure N Sd < NRk.p / Mp NSd < NRk. A c.s / Ms N Sd < NRk.s.cube = 25 N/mm shall be inserted in Equations (5.1 General In design method A it shall be shown that Equation (3.2.
N) as well as by edges of the concrete member (c < ccr.N = scr. .N).N (see Figure 5. The values scr.N (5.2.N = 2 ccr.N/ A 0 N . A0 N c. For an anchor according to current experience scr.N = 3 hef is taken.1 Idealized concrete cone and area A 0 N of concrete cone of an individual anchor c.1).N are given in the relevant ETA. = Ac.2b) actual area of concrete cone of the anchorage at the concrete surface.N and ccr. idealizing the concrete cone as a pyramid with a height equal to hef and a base length equal to scr. It is limited by overlapping concrete cones of adjoining anchors (s < scr. where c. Figure 5. Examples for the calculation of Ac.N scr.18 b) The geometric effect of spacing and edge distance on the characteristic resistance is taken into account by the value Ac.N are given in Figure 5. = area of concrete of an individual anchor with large spacing and edge distance at the concrete surface.
For anchorages with several edge distances (e. c. the smallest edge distance.2 Examples of actual areas Ac.N of the idealized concrete cones for different arrangements of anchors in the case of axial tension load c) The factor s.g. anchorage in a corner of the concrete member or in a narrow member).7 + 0.2c) .2c).N = 0. c ccr.3 .N < 1 (5. shall be inserted in Equation (5.19 a) individual anchor at the edge of concrete member b) group of two anchors at the edge of concrete member c) group of four anchors at a corner of concrete member Figure 5.N takes account of the disturbance of the distribution of stresses in the concrete due to edges of the concrete member. s.
respectively.N.N (5.2e) eN = eccentricity of the resulting tensile load acting on the tensioned anchors (see 4.3) the calculation according to Equation 5. (5. hef or h'ef = smax hef scr.N c’cr.2 as well as in Equations (5. scr.N = 0.2c) and (5.0 may be applied independently of the anchorage depth.N. c / Mc) and the resistance of this anchor is taken as Sd h NRk.20 The shell spalling factor.N or ccr.2a) and for the determination of A 0 N and Ac. 5. ec.0 may be assumed. c = NRk.N is inserted in Equation (5.N = 1. takes account of the effect of a reinforcement re. e) The factor of ec.1) ( Nh < NRk.2b).2.2d) hef in [mm] If in the area of the anchorage there is a reinforcement with a spacing > 150 mm (any diameter) or with a diameter < 10 mm and a spacing > 100 mm then a shell spalling factor of re.2 leads to results which are conservative. . More precise results are obtained if for hef the larger value h'ef = c max c cr. re. if the most stressed anchor is checked according h to Equation (3.N = h'ef h ef .5 s’cr.N = 1 < 1 1 2eN/scr.1 and c.N takes account of a group effect when different tension loads are acting on the individual anchors of a group.2f) with n = number of tensioned anchors f) Special cases For anchorages with three or more edges with an edge distance c max < ccr.N according to Figures 5.N = 1.1). As a simplification factor ec.2).2e) the values s’cr.N (cmax = largest edge distance) (see Figure 5.N shall be determined separately for each direction and the product of both factors shall be inserted in Equation (5.5 + with d) h ef < 1 200 (5.c / n (5. Where there is an eccentricity in two directions.N = 0. ec.N .N are inserted for scr.
a) It may be assumed that splitting failure will not occur.sp are given in the ETA.3). if the edge distance in all directions is c ≥ 1.2. for which ccr. 0 however the values ccr. re. scr.2e) and Ac. Ac .6 Splitting failure due to loading For splitting failure due to loading the values scr.N ec. then the characteristic resistance of a single anchor or an anchor group in case of splitting failure shall be calculated according to Equation (5.N may be used 5. h. h. If the conditions a) and b) are not fulfilled.sp and ccr.N shall be replaced by ccr. .sp = NRk. .2.N.N re.3a) .5 Splitting failure due to anchor installation Splitting failure is avoided during anchor installation by complying with minimum values for edge distance c min. c .N according to Equations (5.2.sp and the member depth is h ≥ 2 hef.sp = factor to account for the influence of the actual member depth.3) with 0 NRk. taking into account the splitting forces according to 7. spacing smin. c . ec.2.N and scr.N .5 h min where h = actual thickness of the member hmin = member thickness.sp.2 ccr.N and ccr.N A 0.N c .sp and scr.21 Figure 5. h. member thickness hmin and reinforcement as given in the relevant ETA.3 mm. 5. the calculation of the characteristic splitting resistance may be omitted if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a reinforcement is present which limits the crack width to wk 0.2.2a) to (5.2. s.3 The characteristic resistance for concrete cone failure and pullout failure is calculated for cracked concrete.sp [N] (5. 0 NRk. N as defined in 5.N. With anchors suitable for use in cracked concrete. on the splitting resistance for anchors according to current experience 2/3 h = < 1.N.3 Examples of anchorages in concrete members where hef . s. b) A c.4 b).sp has been evaluated (5.
2 Steel failure a) Shear load without lever arm The characteristic resistance of an anchor in case of steel failure.4) VRk.2.s for anchors according to current experience is obtained from Equation (5. 0 The value of MRk.s = NRk. VRk.5 ·As · fuk [N] (5.2.s / Ms anchor group steel failure.3.5a) NRd.s . s = 1.NSd/NRd.22 5.s / Ms to be taken from the relevant ETA characteristic bending resistance of an individual anchor (5.2) 0 MRk.s / Ms h concrete pryout failure VSd < VRk. shear load with lever arm VSd < VRk.c / Mc g g concrete edge failure 5. shear load without lever arm V Sd < VRk.g.5).2 ·Wel · fuk [Nm] (5. s is given in the relevant ETA.3 Resistance to shear loads 5. if the anchor is made of steel with a rather low ductility (rupture elongation A5 < 8%) b) Shear load with lever arm The characteristic resistance of an anchor. .cp / Mc VSd < VRk.5b) Equation (5.c / Mc V Sd < VRk.cp / Mc V Sd < VRk. VRk.4) Equation (5.s = 0.5) where M MRk.2.s is given in the relevant ETA. is given by Equation (5.4) is not valid for anchors with a significantly reduced section along the length of the bolt (e. In case of anchor groups. s for anchors according to current experience is obtained from Equation (5. VRk. 0 MRk. Ms 0 MRk.5b).s / Ms V Sd < VRk.s / Ms h steel failure.s lever arm according to Equation (4.4 [N] (5.s. s = = = see 4. in case of bolt type expansion anchors).s) [Nm] NRk.1 Required proofs single anchor VSd < VRk. The value VRk. s (1 .2.8.2.5b) may be used only if the anchor has not a significantly reduced section along the length of the bolt.3. the characteristic shear resistance given in the relevant ETA shall be multiplied by a factor 0.s = M MRk. s = 0 The characteristic bending resistance MRk.
The shear loads acting on the individual anchors neutralise each other and the shear load acting on the entire group is VSd = 0. the direction of the individual shear loads may alter.6. In cases where the horizontal or vertical components of the shear loads on the anchors alter their direction within a group the verification of pryout failure for the entire group is substituted by the verification of pryout failure for the most unfavourable anchor of the group. 5.23 5. Fig. Examples for the calculation of Ac.6d) Figure 5. the influences of both edge distances as well as anchor spacing shall be considered.5 demonstrates this for a group of two anchors loaded by a torsion moment.N are given in Fig.5 Group of anchors loaded by a torsion moment.4 Concrete pryout failure on the side opposite to load direction In cases where the group is loaded by shear loads and/or external torsion moments. 5.3 Concrete pryout failure Anchorages can fail by a concrete pryout failure at the side opposite to the load direction (see Figure 5.6c) (5.2.c according to 5. VRk.6). When calculating the resistance of the most unfavourable anchor.2.3. For anchors according to current experience failing under tension load by concrete cone failure the following values are conservative k = 1 k = 2 hef < 60mm hef > 60mm (5.6) is not suitable for this application. Shear loads acting on the individual anchors of the group alter their directions .cp may be calculated from Equation (5. The corresponding characteristic resistance VRk.4).2. NRk. V1 = T / s V2 = T / s T s Figure 5.cp = k .c (5.6) where k = factor to be taken from the relevant ETA NRk.4 determined for single anchors or all anchors of a group loaded in shear. It is selfexplanatory that Equation (5.
4 Concrete edge failure Concrete edge failure need not be verified for groups with not more than 4 anchors when the edge distance in all directions is c > 10 hef and c > 60 d.V h.V ec.V .2. s. V A 0. A c. The characteristic resistance for an anchor or an anchor group in the case of concrete edge failure corresponds to: 0 VRk.V re.V .3.24 Figure 5. . . c .c = VRk.N of the idealised concrete cones 5. [N] (5. .6 Examples for the calculation of the area Ac. V c .7) for anchors according to current experience are given below: .7) The different factors of Equation (5.
It is limited by the overlapping concrete cones of adjoining anchors (s < 3 c1) as well as by edges parallel to the assumed loading direction (c2 < 1.2 d 0.7a) dnom.c k1 dnom h fck. the concrete member.25 a) The initial value of the characteristic resistance of an anchor placed in cracked or noncracked concrete and loaded perpendicular to the edge corresponds to: 0 VRk. where A0 V c. = Ac.V it is assumed that the shear loads are applied perpendicular to the edge of c.5 c1). Examples for calculation of Ac.7).7c) b) The geometrical effect of spacing as well as of further edge distances and the effect of thickness of the concrete member on the characteristic load is taken into account by the ratio Ac. .7d) actual area of concrete cone of anchorage at the lateral concrete surface.5 c1) and by member thickness (h < 1. member thickness or adjacent anchors.7 for applications in cracked concrete k1 = 2.4 for applications in noncracked concrete 0. For the calculation of A 0 V and Ac.cube c1.1 f c 1 0.V/ A 0 V . fck. c.V are given in Figure 5.1 nom c 1 (5.5 c1 and 3 c1 (Figure 5. assuming the shape of the fracture area as a half pyramid with a height equal to c1 and a baselength of 1.7 Idealized concrete cone and area A 0 V of concrete cone for a single anchor c. lf.8.7b) 0. = area of concrete cone of an individual anchor at the lateral concrete surface not affected by edges parallel to the assumed loading direction.5 c1 2 (5.5 (5.cube [N/mm2] where k1 = 1. c1 [mm].5 1 ef (5.V = 4. Figure 5.
8 Examples of actual areas of the idealized concrete cones for different anchor arrangements under shear loading .26 Figure 5.
7b). For anchorages with two edges parallel to the assumed direction of loading (e.V takes account of the fact that the shear resistance does not decrease proportionally to the member thickness as assumed by the ratio Ac. .V takes account of the disturbance of the distribution of stresses in the concrete due to further edges of the concrete member on the shear resistance. Examples of anchor groups loaded by MTd . in a narrow concrete member) the smaller edge distance shall be inserted in Equation (5.7f) The factor V takes account of the angle V between the load applied.7g) is limited to 90°.7g) The maximum value v to be inserted in equation (5.V/ A 0 V .7e) The factor h. 1. VSd or both are given in Fig.V = h e) 1/ 2 > 1 (5.0 (5. 5.3 d) . In case of αV > 90° it is assumed that only the component of the shear load parallel to the edge is acting on the anchor.g.10. The component acting away from the edge may be neglected for the proof of concrete edge failure.5c 1 h.5 2 2 1.7 + 0. c.V 1 sin V (cos V ) 2. VSd.5. and the direction perpendicular to the free edge of the concrete member (see Figure 4.5 c1 (5.7e).27 c) The factor s. s.9 and Fig. c2 < 1 1.V = 0. .
because directed away from the edge C o n si d er e b) group of anchors at an edge loaded by VSd with an angle 90 < αV < 180° d b e c action a u s e s load on each u component neglected.28 no proof for concrete edge failure needed.9 Examples of anchor groups at the edge loaded by a shear force or a torsion ct moment e d to w ar d s th e e load on anchor group for calculation . components directed away from the edge a) group of anchors at an edge loaded by VSd with an angle αV = 180° action load on each anchor components neglected. because anchor m directed away from the edge of c o eV m p load on anchor o group for n calculation e nt s c) group of anchors at the edge loaded by a torsion moment MTd is di re Figure 5.
10 Examples of anchors groups at the edge loaded by a shear force and a torsion moment .29 action load on each anchor neglected because sum of components is directed away from the edge load on anchor group for calculation VSd load on anchor group for calculation a) Shear component due to torsion moment larger than component of shear force eV action load on each anchor considered because sum of components is directed towards the edge load on anchor group VSd load on anchor group for calculation eV b) Shear component due to torsion moment smaller than component of shear force Figure 5.
2.7) leads to results which are conservative.11 the calculation according to Equation (5.5 and h/1.7 and 5.max < 1.4 Resistance to combined tension and shear loads For combined tension and shear loads the following Equations (see Figure 5. 1 (5.max/1.8b) (5.V = 1.11 Example of an anchorage in a thin. thin member with c 2. c’1 being the greatest of the two values c2.8c) .5 or s2. i) Figure 5.7f) as well as in the determination of the areas A 0 V and Ac.2.4 anchorage in noncracked concrete and anchorage in cracked concrete without edge reinforcement or stirrups anchorage in cracked concrete with straight edge reinforcement (> Ø12 mm) anchorage in cracked concrete with edge reinforcement and closely spaced stirrups (a < 100 mm) h) For anchorages placed in a corner.2 = 1. ec. Special cases For anchorages in a narrow.7h) The factor re.5 c1 see Figure 5. More precise results are achieved if in Equations (5. re.7a) to (5. c. (5.max = greatest of the two edge distances parallel to the direction of loading) and h < 1.V according to Figures 5.V eV g) = < 1 1 2e V /(3c1) = eccentricity of the resulting shear load acting on the anchors (see 4.12) shall be satisfied: N < 1 V < 1 N + V < 1.V re.5 c1 (c2. the resistances for both edges shall be calculated and the smallest value is decisive.30 f) The factor ec.2).V takes account of the effect of the type of reinforcement used in cracked concrete.8a) (5.V re.0 = 1.2 where N (V): ratio between design action and design resistance for tension (shear) loading.8 the edge distance c1 is replaced by the value of c’1.V takes account of a group effect when different shear loads are acting on the individual anchors of a group.max/3 in case of anchor groups. narrow member where the value c’1 may be used 5.
The factor Ac/ A 0 shall c c be calculated according to 5.2.12 Interaction diagram for combined tension and shear loads In general.31 In Equation (5. 0 The design resistance FRd may be used without modification if the spacing scr and the edge distance ccr are 0 observed.4b and the factor s shall be calculated according to 5.8a) to (5.2.3.2. FRd = 1 Ac .2.8) the largest value of N and V for the different failure modes shall be taken (see 5.5 see Equations (5. The design resistance shall be calculated according to Equation (5. 0 s re FRd [N] n A0 c where n = number of loaded anchors 0 FRd = design resistance given in the relevant ETA for cracked or noncracked concrete (5. The factor re is calculated according to 5. The smallest of the values FRd according to Equation (5.s/Ms according to Equation (5.s by FRd in Equation (5.5). More accurate results are obtained by Equation (5. Equations (5.4c replacing scr.8c) yield conservative results.1) is observed for the most stressed anchor. Figure 5.1). replacing NRd. The effect of a narrowly spaced reinforcement and of noncracked concrete is taken into account by the factors re.10) or VRk. V = 2.2. scr and ccr are given in the ETA.0 = 1. In case of anchor groups it shall be shown that Equation (3.5a).2.1 and 5.10) if the actual values for spacing and edge distance are smaller than the values scr and ccr and larger than or equal to smin and cmin given in the ETA.2. In case of shear load with lever arm the characteristic anchor resistance shall be calculated according to 0 Equation (5. . FRd .4 d).N and ccr.10) The effect of spacing and edge distance is taken into account by the factor A c/ A 0 and s.3 Design method B Design method B.5) governs. is based on a simplified approach in which the design value of the characteristic resistance is considered to be independent of the loading direction and the mode of failure.9) ( N) + (V) < 1 with: N.N by scr and ccr.2.9) 5.8) if NRd and VRd are governed by steel failure for all other failure modes (5.2.
facade elements).5a). The smallest value of FRd or VRk. . In case of slabs and beams made out of prefabricated units and added castinplace concrete.g.3 shall be taken into account. the normal verifications shall be carried out under due consideration of the actions introduced by the anchors.1 Serviceability limit state Displacements The characteristic displacement of the anchor under defined tension and shear loads shall be taken from the ETA.N (design method A) or ccr (design methods B and C).2 and 7.4 Design method C Design method C is based on a simplified approach in which only one value for the design resistance F Rd is given.g. It may be assumed that the displacements are a linear function of the applied load.32 5. FRd. 6. for this purpose.s/Ms according to Equation (5. Therefore. If the edge distance of an anchor is smaller than the characteristic edge distance c cr. The actual spacing and edge distance shall be equal to or larger than the values of scr and ccr. 7 7. the anchors shall either be embedded with hef in the added concrete.5) governs.g. the shear load should be transferred by friction between the fixture and the concrete (e. The transmission of the anchor loads to the supports of the concrete member shall be shown for the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state. appropriate measures shall be taken to avoid a fatigue failure of the anchor steel (e. scr and ccr are given in the relevant ETA.1 Additional proofs for ensuring the characteristic resistance of concrete member General The proof of the local transmission of the anchor loads into the concrete member is delivered by using the design methods described in this document. either these members are anchored such that no significant shear loads due to the restraint of deformations imposed to the fastened element will occur in the anchor or in shear loading with lever arm (standoff installation) the bending stresses in the most stressed anchor = max . 6 6. Shear loads with changing sign can occur due to temperature variations in the fastened member (e. independent of loading direction and mode of failure. due to a sufficiently high permanent prestressing force)). In case of a combined tension and shear load. then a longitudinal reinforcement of at least 6 shall be provided at the edge of the member in the area of the anchorage depth.2 Shear load with changing sign If the shear loads acting on the anchor change their sign several times. anchor loads may be transmitted into the prefabricated concrete only if the precast concrete is connected to the castinplace concrete by a shear reinforcement.min in the 2 serviceability limit state caused by temperature variations should be limited to 100 N/mm .0 kN/m2 may be anchored in the precast concrete. If this shear reinforcement between precast and castinplace concrete is not present. the displacements for the tension and shear component of the resultant load shall be geometrically added. For these verifications the additional provisions given in 7.5) replacing NRd. or only the loads of suspended ceilings or similar constructions with a load up to 1.s by FRd in Equation (5. In case of shear loads the influence of the hole clearance in the fixture on the expected displacement of the whole anchorage shall be taken into account. In case of shear load with lever arm the characteristic anchor resistance shall be calculated according to Equation (5.
3) The anchor loads are taken up by a hanger reinforcement. The necessary checks for ensuring the required shear resistance of the concrete member are summarized in Table 7.2 Shear resistance of concrete member In general. Its distance from an individual anchor or the outermost anchors of a group shall be smaller than hef If under the characteristic actions. if one of the following conditions is met a) The shear force VSd at the support caused by the design actions including the anchor loads is VSd < 0.N (scr) a > scr. but hanger reinforcement or hef > 0. a > scr.a caused by anchor loads shall not exceed the value VSd.N (scr) and a > 200 1) 1) 2) < 60 not required 2) < 30 not required NSk < 60 required: .N (scr) 1) 2) > 60 1) 2) not required. NSk [kN] (7.8 VRd1 (7.3) a > 200 . NSk.a < 0.1) may be neglected.8 VRd1 . VSd. a.1 Necessary checks for ensuring the required shear resistance of concrete member NSk [kN] Proof of calculated shear force resulting from anchor loads Calculated value of shear Spacing between single force of the concrete member anchors and groups of under due consideration of the anchors anchor loads VSd < 0. of the tensioned fasteners is NSkk < 30 kN and the spacing.1.8 VRd1 . The active width over which the shear force is transmitted should be calculated according to the theory of elasticity. the shear forces VSd.a the anchor loads shall be assumed as point loads with a width of load application t1 = st1 + 2 hef and t2 = st2 + 2 hef.1) When calculating VSd. a > scr. N Sk a [mm].4 VRd1 where VRd1 = shear resistance according Eurocode No.8 h Design method A Design methods B and C .8 h VSd > 0. of the tensioned fasteners is NSk > 60 kN. Equation (7. with st1 (st2) spacing between the outer anchors of a group in direction 1 (2).2) b) Under the characteristic actions. which encloses the tension reinforcement and is anchored at the opposite side of the concrete member. then either the embedment depth of the anchors shall be hef > 0.4 VRd1 or hanger reinforcement or hef > 0.a = 0.8 h or a hanger reinforcement according to paragraph c) above shall be provided.33 7. the resultant tension force. NSk. Table 7. 2 [1] (7. between the outermost anchors of adjacent groups or between the outer anchors of a group and individual anchors satisfies Equation (7. the resultant tension force.
k = = = 1. the splitting forces caused by anchors shall be taken into account in the design of the concrete member. This may be neglected if one of the following conditions is met: The load transfer area is in the compression zone of the concrete member. for fastenings in slabs and walls a concentrated reinforcement in both directions is present in the region of the anchorage.k and the characteristic tension load NSk or NRd (displacement controlled anchors) may be taken as FSp. The tension component NSk of the characteristic loads acting on the anchorage (single anchor or group of anchors) is smaller than 10 kN.5 NSk 1. The tension component NSk is not greater than 30 kN. the splitting forces shall be taken up by reinforcement.0 NRd torquecontrolled expansion anchors (Part 2) undercut anchors (Part 3) deformationcontrolled expansion anchors (Part 4) . As a first indication for anchors according to current experience the ratio between splitting force F Sp.34 7. In addition.0 NSk 2.3 Resistance to splitting forces In general. If the characteristic tension load acting on the anchorage is NSk > 30 kN and the anchors are located in the tension zone of the concrete member. The area of the transverse reinforcement shall be at least 60 % of the longitudinal reinforcement required for the actions due to anchor loads.
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