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ADVANCED FLUID

MECHANICS I
LECTURE

IIntroduction
d i and d
review of
fundamentals
Fluid Mechanics
Th behavior
The b h i off fluids
fl id att restt (fl
(fluid
id statics)
t ti ) or iin motion
ti
(fluid dynamics) under the action of forces
and the resultingg deformation/motion

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Dr. S. Z. Shuja
Fluid Mechanics
 Fluids essential to life
 Human body 65% water
 Earth’s surface is 2/3 water
 Atmosphere extends 17km above the earth’s surface

 History shaped by fluid mechanics


 Geomorphology
G h l
 Human migration and civilization
 Modern scientific and mathematical theories and methods
 Warfare

 Affects every part of our lives


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Motivation for Studying Fluid Mechanics
 Fluid Mechanics is omnipresent
 Aerodynamics
 Bioengineering and biological systems
 Combustion
 Energy generation
 Geology
 Hydraulics and Hydrology
 Hydrodynamics
 Meteorology
 Ocean and Coastal Engineering
 Water Resources
 …numerous other examples…
 Fluid Mechanics is beautiful

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Aerodynamics

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Bioengineering

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Energy generation

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Geology

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River Hydraulics

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Hydraulic Structures

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Hydrodynamics

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Meteorology

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Environment
Air pollution
po ut o

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Sports & Recreation
Water sports
p Cycling
y g Offshore racing
g

Auto racing Surfing

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Water Resources

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Applications of this
course

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Fluid Dynamics
Our interest is mainlyy with transfer of some q
quantities by
y fluid flow from one
location to another under the influence of one or more driving forces.
These quantities could be
Matter/mass g gas
e.g. g flow through p 
g ppipes
Linear momentum e.g. in fluid power systems  CONSERVED QUANTITIES

Angular momentum e.g. in turbomachinery  of Classical Physics
Energy e g in a heat exchanger 
e.g.
The first step is to determine what is the distribution of these quantities at various locations
in the system. This objective can be achieved either experimentally or theoretically.

Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD)


Instruments are used to find the distribution of these quantities.. (experiments can be
performed either on a prototype or a model)
Theoretical Fluid Dynamics
A mathematical model based on the conservation equations (called modeling a flow
situation) is written. These equations are partial differential equations which can be solved
either analytically,
analytically this methodology is Analytical Fluid Dynamics (AFD)
or numerically, which is Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
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Dr. S. Z. Shuja
Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD)
Use of experimental
p methodology
gy and procedures
p for solving
g fluids
engineering systems, including full and model scales

Application in science & technology Application in research & development

Picture of Karman vortex shedding Tropic Wind Tunnel has the ability to create
temperatures ranging from 0 to 165 degrees
Fahrenheit and simulate rain

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Dr. S. Z. Shuja
Applications of EFD (cont’d)

Example of industrial application

NASA's cryogenic wind tunnel simulates flight


conditions for scale models--a critical tool in
designing airplanes.

Application in teaching

Fluid dynamics laboratory 19


Dr. S. Z. Shuja
Full and model scale

• Scales: model, and full-scale


• Selection of the model scale: g
governed byy dimensional analysis
y and similarityy

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Measurement systems

• Instrumentation
• Load cell to measure forces and moments
• Pressure transducers
• Pitot tubes
• Hotwire anemometry
• PIV LDV
PIV,
• Data acquisition
• Serial port devices
• Desktop PC’s
• Plug-in data acquisition boards
• Data Acquisition software - Labview
• Data analysis and data reduction
• Data reduction equations
• Spectral analysis

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Instrumentation

Pitot tube

Load cell

Hotwire 3D - PIV 22
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Data acquisition system

Hardware

Software - Labview

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Dimensional analysis
• Definition : Dimensional analysis is a process of formulating fluid mechanics problems in
in terms of non-dimensional variables and parameters.
• Why is it used :
• Reduction in variables ( If F(A1, A2, … , An) = 0, then f(1, 2, … r < n) = 0,
where, F = functional form, Ai = dimensional variables, j = non-dimensional
parameters, m = number of important dimensions, n = number of dimensional variables, r
= n – m ). Thereby the number of experiments required to determine f vs. F is reduced.
• Helps in understanding physics
• Useful in data analysis and modeling
• Enables scaling of different physical dimensions and fluid properties
Example Drag = f(V, L, r, m, c, t, e, T, etc.)
From dimensional analysis,

Examples of dimensionless quantities : Reynolds number, Froude


Vortex shedding behind cylinder
Number, Strouhal number, Euler number, etc. 24
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Similarity and model testing
• Definition
D fi iti : Flow
Fl conditions
diti for
f a model
d l test
t t are completely
l t l similar
i il if all
ll relevant
l t dimensionless
di i l
parameters have the same corresponding values for model and prototype.
• i model = i prototype i = 1
• Enables extrapolation from model to full scale
• However,
H complete
l similarity
i il i usually ll not possible.
ibl Therefore,
Th f often
f it
i is
i necessary to
use Re, or Fr, or Ma scaling, i.e., select most important and accommodate others
as best possible.
• Types of similarity:
• Geometric Similarity : all body dimensions in all three coordinates have the same
linear-scale ratios.
• Kinematic Similarity : homologous (same relative position) particles lie at homologous
points at homologous times.
• Dynamic Similarity : in addition to the requirements for kinematic similarity the model
and prototype forces must be in a constant ratio.

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EFD – “hands on” experience

Lab1: Measurement of density and


kinematic viscosity of a fluid
Chord-wise
Pressure
Taps
Tygon
L Load Cell
Lab2: Measurement of
Tubing D
flow rate, friction factor and
To Load Cell
Scanivalve
velocity profiles in smooth and
rough pipes.

Lab3: Measurement of surface pressure


Distribution, lift and drag coefficient for an airfoil 26
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Theoretical Modeling of Fluid Flow
Mathematical problem formulation of fluid engineering system

 Governing equations:
Navier-Stokes equations (momentum balance) (F = ma),
Continuity equation (mass balance) (min = mout)
Energy equation (1st law of thermodynamics) (Q – W = E)
Ideal gas law (PV = mRT)

 Coordinates: Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates result in


different form of governing equations

 Initial conditions and Boundary Conditions (no-slip wall, free-surface,


zero-gradient, symmetry, velocity/pressure
/ inlet/outlet)
/ )

 Flow conditions: Geometry approximation, domain, Reynolds Number,


anddM
MachhN
Number,
b etc.
t
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Solution of the Navier-Stokes equations (incompressible)
u v w
Continuity   0
x y z
u u u u 1 p    2 u  2 u  2 u 
x  dir u v w       g
t x y z  x   x 2 y 2 z 2  x
v v v v 1 p    2 v  2 v  2 v 
y  dir u v  w     2  2  2   gy
t x y z  y   x y z 
w w w w 1 p    2 w  2 w  2 w 
z  dir u v w    2  2  2   gz
t x y z  z   x y z 

For given  ,  , and g and there are 4 unknowns viz  u , v, w, p 
B d andd Initial
Boundary I iti l conditions
diti d 4 equations
and ti (i.e.
(i a solution
l ti is i possible)
ibl )

Once the flow field is solved we may substitute in the energy equation, with given k , C and q to
solve for the temperature
p distribution
T T T T k   2T  2T  2T  q  
Energy u v w     
t x y z  C  x 2 y 2 z 2  C
In a ggeneral flow situation we have to solve a coupled
p set of equations
q simultaneously, y instead
of a single equation. e.g. we must solve continuity/momentum/turbulence simultaneously.
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Analytical solution of governing equations (AFD)
Laminar flow between rotating cylinders

Applying conservation of ang. momentum of the thin ring of size dr


A B at r  r1 ; v  r11
at any r v  r   r 
2 r at r  r2 ; v  r2 2
r22 2  r12 1 r12 r22 1  2 
applying BCs; A2 B
r22  r12 r22  r12
for the special case when outer cylinder is stationary i.e. 2  0 then
r12 1  r22 
veloctiy distribution v  2   r 
r2  r12  r 
 d  v   2  r22 1
y
shear stress at the inner cylinder is  1     r    2
 dr   r r
r r2  r12
1
Torque  T   A r ;
1 1 1 Power  W  T  1
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Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
 CFD is use of computational methods for solving
fluid engineering systems, including modeling
(mathematical & Physics) and numerical methods
((solvers, finite differences, and grid
g generations,
g
etc.).
 Rapid growth in CFD technology since advent of
computer

 The objective of CFD is to model the continuous fluids with Partial


Differential Equations (PDEs) and discretize PDEs into an algebra
problem,
bl solve
l itit, validate
lid t it and
d achieve
hi simulation
i l ti b based
dddesign
i
instead of “build & test”

 Simulation of physical fluid phenomena that are difficult to be


measured by experiments: scale simulations (full-scale ships,
airplanes), hazards (explosions,radiations,pollution), physics (weather
prediction,
di ti planetary
l t b
boundary
d llayer, stellar
t ll evolution).
l ti )
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Continuum view of gases and liquids
All substances consists of atoms and molecules with nothing between 2
neighboring atoms/molecules.

If it is assumed that the whole space is filled with an average mass of the same
substance, then we have a continuous substance. This is called a continuum.

If density is low, the continuum assumption may not be valid.


Mean free path : The average distance a molecule travels before it collides with another molecule
m  mass of a molecule
m 
  0.225 2 where    density
d d  diameter
 di t off a molecule
l l
To determine if the continuum model is acceptable
compare a length with the mean free path.
e.g . for air m  4.8 1026 kg; d  3.7 106 m
sea level   6  106 cm
100 km   10 cm
160 km   5000 cm
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Forces acting in fluids
1)) Due to random motion of molecules
2) Due to gravity (weight of the fluid)
3) Due to presence of solid boundaries, which resist the flow.
4) Any other externally applied forces.

At any point in the fluid, net force per unit area gives stress at that point.
2 components of net force
Fn is normal to the area
Ft is tangential to the area
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Forces acting in fluids

Fn
Normal stress  
dA
F
Tangential stress   t
dA

 Stress is defined as the force per unit area.


 Normal component:
p normal stress
 In a fluid at rest, the normal stress is pressure

 Tangential component: shear stress

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What is a fluid?

solid liquid gas

 A fluid is a substance in the gaseous or liquid form


 Distinction between solid and fluid?
 Solid: can resist an applied shear by deforming. Usually
stress is proportional to strain
 Fluid: deforms continuously under applied shear. Usually
stress is proportional to strain rate
rate.
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What is a fluid?

 A liquid takes the shape of the container it is in and forms a free surface in the
presence of g
p gravity
y
 A gas expands until it encounters the walls of the container and fills the entire
available space. Gases cannot form a free surface
 Gas and vapor are often used as synonymous words

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What is a fluid?
 A fluid is a substance in the gaseous or liquid form
 Distinction between solid and fluid?
 Solid: can resist an applied shear by deforming. Stress is
proportional to strain
 Fluid: deforms continuously under applied shear. Stress is
proportional to strain rate
Solid
F
  
A

Fluid
F V
  
A h
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1.5 Fluid Properties
Properties define the characteristics/condition of a fluid/flow
fluid/flow.

viscosity, thermal conductivity, mass diffusivity


Transport
(related to transport of momentum, heat and mass)
define the condition of the system
Thermodynamic
P, T,  , entropy, enthalpy
related with flow of a fluid
Kinematic
velocity, acceleration, shear stresses
Others bulks modulus, surface tension, vapor pressure etc.

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1.5.2 Viscosity
A Property that identifies resistance to shear stress in a fluid

Solids resist an applied shear by deforming Stress  Strain


deforms continuously but resists the rate at which
Most
ost Fluids
u ds St ess  St
Stress Strain
a rate
ate
it may be deformed under applied shear.

S lid
Solid
F a
    tan  
A h

Fluid
F V
  
A h

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Behavior under the action of shear
A fluid
fl id d
deforms
f continuously
i l when
h subjected
bj d to a shearing
h i ((tangential)
i l) stress,
no matter how small the shearing stress.

solid, the shear stress  = F/A where A is the area of the


Within the elastic limit of the solid
surface in contact with the solid plate.

pp
However, for the fluid, the top plate does not stop.
p It continues to move as time t g
goes
on and the fluid continues to deform.
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Relation between shear stress and rate of shear strain
Fluids are broadly classified in terms of the relation between the shear stress
and the rate of deformation of the fluid.

Fluids for which the shear stress is directlyy proportional to the rate of deformation
(i.e., linear) are know as Newtonian fluids.
fluids.

Engineering fluids are mostly Newtonian.

Examples are water, refrigerants and


hydrocarbon fluids (e.g., propane).

Examples of non-Newtonian fluids


include toothpaste, ketchup, and
some paints.

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Deformation of a fluid element

Consider a block or plane sliding at constant velocity u over a well-oiled surface under
the influence of a constant force Fx.

The oil next to the block sticks to the block and moves at velocity u. The surface
beneath the oil is stationary and the oil there sticks to that surface and has zero velocity.

No-slip
N li boundary
b d condition
diti -- The
Th condition
diti off zero velocity
l it att a b
boundary
d iis kknown iin
fluid mechanics as the “no-slip” boundary condition.
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Definition of Viscosity

 l V  t   V
  tan      shear strain rate:   
y y t  y
dV
for newtonian fluids     
dy
  dynamic
y viscosity
y of the fluid
dV
d
  units: N  s/m 2 = 10 poise
dy
e.g . for water   103 N  s/m 2

the combination   is called kinematic viscosity (units: m 2 /s  104 stokes )

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Dynamic Viscosity Change with Temperature
 Liquids:
 Closely spaced molecules with
strong cohesive forces
 As temp increases,
increases cohesive
forces decrease, with reduction in
viscosity

 Gases:
 Widely spaced molecules with
negligible intermolecular forces
 Viscosity (resistance to motion) is
a result of molecules vibration
 As temp increases, random
molecular motion (vibration)
increases which increases
viscosity

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Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids
 dV 
Newton'ss Law of Viscosity   
Fluids that satisfy Newton  are called as Newtonian fluids.
fluids
 dy 
Some other fluids have a non-linear relation between the magnitude of applied shear stress
aandd the
t e rate
ate of
o def
de oormation, 
at o , i.e. 
.e.    aandd are
a e called
ca ed Non-newtonian
No ewto a fluids.
u ds.

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1.5.3 Compressibility
dp dp
bulk modulus of elasticity  E    (units same as p )
d /  d  / 

Measure of how pressure compresses the volume / density


Large values of the bulk modulus indicate incompressibility
Incompressibility indicates large pressures are needed to compress the volume slightly
It takes 22 MPa to compress water by 1% at atmospheric pressure and 20°C.
Most liquids are incompressible for most practical engineering problems.

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Viscosity, compressibility and ideal fluid

 For analysis purposes, a fluid is often assumed to be non-viscous.


Fluids with a zero viscosity offer no resistance to motion,
i e the shear stress is always zero
i.e. zero. If the fluid is also incompressible
incompressible,
the fluid is referred to as an ideal fluid.

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2.1 Fluid Statics
Study
St d off flfluids
id with
ith no shear
h stress.
t O
Only
l normall stress
t
(pressure) is present.

Examples
E l iinvolving
l i flfluid
id statics:
t ti
(a) liquids at rest; (b) linear acceleration; (c) angular rotation.

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2.2 Pressure at a point
Pascal’ s law: Pressure in a fluid acts equally
q y in all directions at a g
given p
point.
Proof: Consider the wedge-shaped element of unit depth as shown.
applying conservation of momentum (Newtons 2nd law of motion)
 Fx  max xy 1
 volume 
 P y  P s sin    xy a
2
 x   x xy
2 mass  
 y
2
dir 
x-dir
x
 Px  P   ax
 2
  Px  P  0
if 
x 0

 Fy  ma y

 P x  P s cos    xy g   xy a
 y   2 2
y in general
 x
y-dir  y Px  Py  P
 Py  P    ay  g  pressure at any point
 2
  Py  P  0 is same in all directions
if 
y 0
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2.3 Pressure variation in a fluid - Euler’s Equation
Consider a fluid element of size xyz
 
Apply consevation of momentum  F  ma considering the pressure and gravity forces
F x  max
p
x-dir  px  px x  zy  xyzax or    ax
x
 p  Pz z
  x  z y  xyzax Py
 x 
 Fy  ma y
p
y-dir  p y  p y y  zx  xyza y or 
y
  ay dz
 p 
  y  z x  xyzaa y Px Px x
 y 
 Fz  maz
 pz  pz z  yx Py y dy
z-dir
di
 xyzg  xyzaz Pz
p
 p     g   az
  z  yx  xyzaz z
 z 

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2.3 Pressure variation in a fluid
P P P
   ax   ay     az  g 
x y z
Total pressure variation in the x, y, z directions is given by the chain rule
P P P
dP  dx  dy  dz Pz z
x y z Py
or
dP    ax dx   a y dy    az  g  dz
dz

Px Px x

dy
Py y
Pz

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2.4 Fluids at rest

dp
  g
d
dz
241P
2.4.1 Pressure variation
i ti iin li
liquids
id (incompressible
(i ibl fluid)
fl id) att restt

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2.4 Fluids at rest

dp
  g  
d
dz

242P
2.4.2 Pressure variation
i ti iin gas (compressible
( ibl fluid,
fl id e.g. air)
i ) att restt

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2.4 Fluids at rest
 Pressure at all points in a horizontal plane must be equal
 The density at all points in a horizontal plane is the same
 The change in pressure with elevation is given by:

dp
  g  
dz
242P
2.4.2 Pressure variation
i ti iin gas (compressible
( ibl fluid,
fl id e.g. air)
i ) att restt

dp assume T is constant g  z1  z 2 
  g   p  g z  z 
d
dz ln 2   1 2 p 2  p1e RT

for an ideal gas 


  p1   RT
P 
 consider a linear variation of T with z
g

RT  T  z 2  R
T  T0  z (i.e.(i T decreases
d as z increases)
i ) p 2  p1  0 

  T0  z1
dp p
 
ln p 2    g 2 dz  g ln T0  z 2 
g

z
dz RT
 g z 2 dz   p1  R z1 T0  z R  T0  z1 
 
p 2 2 dp
 
p1 p R z1 T
53
Dr. S. Z. Shuja
2.5 Linearly Accelerating Containers
Fluids in rigid body motion have no shear stress and move like a solid.
dp    a x dx   a y dy   a z  g  dz
For the case: a x  constant, a y  a z  0
d    a x ddx  0   gdz
dp d
Along a constant pressure line
dz ax
0    a x dx
d   gdz
d  
dx g
This is slope of a constant pressure line
P
Pressure will
ill vary lilinearly
l with
ith d
depth,
th bbutt
variation is the combination of gravity and
externally developed acceleration.
Integrating dp    a x dx   gdz if a z  0
gives p    ( a x x  gz )  C a similar analysis yield
C can be found byy the information that the free dz ax

surface is a line of constant pressure p  p atm dx g  az
54
Dr. S. Z. Shuja
Linearly Accelerating Containers (example)
The cart is 0.1 m long and 0.06 m high with rectangular cross sections. It is
half-filled with water and accelerates down a 20o incline plane at ax =1m/s2.
Find the height h.

ax  1, g x  g sin 20o  3.352, g y   g cos 20o  9.21


dp    (ax  g x )dx   (a y  g y )dy  4.352  dx  9.21 dy
p  4.352  x  9.21 y  C

 at x  0 and y  h  0.03  h p  patm


using the BCs 
at x  -0.1 and y  hleft  0.03  h p  patm
eliminates C and gives h  0.0236 & h  0.0536
55
Dr. S. Z. Shuja
2.6 Rigid Body Rotation
Similar to linear case, but with radial
coordinate
di t system t
p p p
dp  rd  dr  dz
r  r z
dp    a rd   ar dr   (az  g )dz Recall from Dynamics
that with constant
velocity rotation, there
considering the case when is constant radial
Vr  Vz  0 and V  r acceleration

V2
az  a  0 and ar    r 2
r
dp   r dr   gdz
2

Along a constant pressure line


dz r 2
0   r dr  0   gdz 
2

d
dr g
This is slope of a constant pressure line
e.g. the free surface where p  patm
2 Thus the surfaces of constant pressure are parabolic
integration gives z  r 2  constant
g 56
Dr. S. Z. Shuja
2.6 Rigid Body Rotation (Determination of pressure at any p and z)
Integrating dp   r  2 dr   gdz
 r 2 2 
gives p    gz   C
 2 
Pressure varies hydrostatically in the vertical and
increases radialy.
C can be found by the information that the free
surface is a line of constant pressure p = patm

Rigid Body Rotation (example)


When the U-tube is not rotated, the water stands in the tube
as shown. If the tube is rotated about the eccentric axis at 8
rad/s, what are the new levels of water in the tube.
rl  0.18, rr  0.36
 r 2 2   pl  1.0368   9.81 zl  C
p  gz   C 
 2   pr  4.1472   9.81 zr  C
using the  the total length zl  zr  0.18  0.18

conditions that  at the free surface pl  pr  patm
eliminates C and gives zl  0.021 & zr  0.339
57
Dr. S. Z. Shuja
Conservation of momentum in vector notation
we obtained from Newton's 2nd law
p
x-dir.    ax recall the del / gradient operator
x in cartesian coordinates
p   ˆ  ˆ  ˆ
y-dir.    ay     i j k
y x y z
then
p p ˆ p ˆ p ˆ
z-dir.    g   az p  i j k
z x y z

the 3 equations can be written in vector form as


Co
Conservation
se vat o of o Momentum
o e tu
   
a
  p
-  g
 assuming no shear forces
rate of change of momentum normal force gravitational force  with g  0i  0 j  ggk
per unit volume per unit vvolume
olume per unit volume 
58
Dr. S. Z. Shuja