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MECHANICS I

LECTURE

IIntroduction

d i and d

review of

fundamentals

Fluid Mechanics

Th behavior

The b h i off fluids

fl id att restt (fl

(fluid

id statics)

t ti ) or iin motion

ti

(fluid dynamics) under the action of forces

and the resultingg deformation/motion

2

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Fluid Mechanics

Fluids essential to life

Human body 65% water

Earth’s surface is 2/3 water

Atmosphere extends 17km above the earth’s surface

Geomorphology

G h l

Human migration and civilization

Modern scientific and mathematical theories and methods

Warfare

3

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Motivation for Studying Fluid Mechanics

Fluid Mechanics is omnipresent

Aerodynamics

Bioengineering and biological systems

Combustion

Energy generation

Geology

Hydraulics and Hydrology

Hydrodynamics

Meteorology

Ocean and Coastal Engineering

Water Resources

…numerous other examples…

Fluid Mechanics is beautiful

4

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Aerodynamics

5

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Bioengineering

6

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Energy generation

7

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Geology

8

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

River Hydraulics

9

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Hydraulic Structures

10

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Hydrodynamics

11

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Meteorology

12

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Environment

Air pollution

po ut o

13

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Sports & Recreation

Water sports

p Cycling

y g Offshore racing

g

14

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Water Resources

15

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Applications of this

course

16

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Fluid Dynamics

Our interest is mainlyy with transfer of some q

quantities by

y fluid flow from one

location to another under the influence of one or more driving forces.

These quantities could be

Matter/mass g gas

e.g. g flow through p

g ppipes

Linear momentum e.g. in fluid power systems CONSERVED QUANTITIES

Angular momentum e.g. in turbomachinery of Classical Physics

Energy e g in a heat exchanger

e.g.

The first step is to determine what is the distribution of these quantities at various locations

in the system. This objective can be achieved either experimentally or theoretically.

Instruments are used to find the distribution of these quantities.. (experiments can be

performed either on a prototype or a model)

Theoretical Fluid Dynamics

A mathematical model based on the conservation equations (called modeling a flow

situation) is written. These equations are partial differential equations which can be solved

either analytically,

analytically this methodology is Analytical Fluid Dynamics (AFD)

or numerically, which is Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

17

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD)

Use of experimental

p methodology

gy and procedures

p for solving

g fluids

engineering systems, including full and model scales

Picture of Karman vortex shedding Tropic Wind Tunnel has the ability to create

temperatures ranging from 0 to 165 degrees

Fahrenheit and simulate rain

18

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Applications of EFD (cont’d)

conditions for scale models--a critical tool in

designing airplanes.

Application in teaching

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Full and model scale

• Selection of the model scale: g

governed byy dimensional analysis

y and similarityy

20

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Measurement systems

• Instrumentation

• Load cell to measure forces and moments

• Pressure transducers

• Pitot tubes

• Hotwire anemometry

• PIV LDV

PIV,

• Data acquisition

• Serial port devices

• Desktop PC’s

• Plug-in data acquisition boards

• Data Acquisition software - Labview

• Data analysis and data reduction

• Data reduction equations

• Spectral analysis

21

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Instrumentation

Pitot tube

Load cell

Hotwire 3D - PIV 22

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Data acquisition system

Hardware

Software - Labview

23

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Dimensional analysis

• Definition : Dimensional analysis is a process of formulating fluid mechanics problems in

in terms of non-dimensional variables and parameters.

• Why is it used :

• Reduction in variables ( If F(A1, A2, … , An) = 0, then f(1, 2, … r < n) = 0,

where, F = functional form, Ai = dimensional variables, j = non-dimensional

parameters, m = number of important dimensions, n = number of dimensional variables, r

= n – m ). Thereby the number of experiments required to determine f vs. F is reduced.

• Helps in understanding physics

• Useful in data analysis and modeling

• Enables scaling of different physical dimensions and fluid properties

Example Drag = f(V, L, r, m, c, t, e, T, etc.)

From dimensional analysis,

Vortex shedding behind cylinder

Number, Strouhal number, Euler number, etc. 24

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Similarity and model testing

• Definition

D fi iti : Flow

Fl conditions

diti for

f a model

d l test

t t are completely

l t l similar

i il if all

ll relevant

l t dimensionless

di i l

parameters have the same corresponding values for model and prototype.

• i model = i prototype i = 1

• Enables extrapolation from model to full scale

• However,

H complete

l similarity

i il i usually ll not possible.

ibl Therefore,

Th f often

f it

i is

i necessary to

use Re, or Fr, or Ma scaling, i.e., select most important and accommodate others

as best possible.

• Types of similarity:

• Geometric Similarity : all body dimensions in all three coordinates have the same

linear-scale ratios.

• Kinematic Similarity : homologous (same relative position) particles lie at homologous

points at homologous times.

• Dynamic Similarity : in addition to the requirements for kinematic similarity the model

and prototype forces must be in a constant ratio.

25

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

EFD – “hands on” experience

kinematic viscosity of a fluid

Chord-wise

Pressure

Taps

Tygon

L Load Cell

Lab2: Measurement of

Tubing D

flow rate, friction factor and

To Load Cell

Scanivalve

velocity profiles in smooth and

rough pipes.

Distribution, lift and drag coefficient for an airfoil 26

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Theoretical Modeling of Fluid Flow

Mathematical problem formulation of fluid engineering system

Governing equations:

Navier-Stokes equations (momentum balance) (F = ma),

Continuity equation (mass balance) (min = mout)

Energy equation (1st law of thermodynamics) (Q – W = E)

Ideal gas law (PV = mRT)

different form of governing equations

zero-gradient, symmetry, velocity/pressure

/ inlet/outlet)

/ )

anddM

MachhN

Number,

b etc.

t

27

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Solution of the Navier-Stokes equations (incompressible)

u v w

Continuity 0

x y z

u u u u 1 p 2 u 2 u 2 u

x dir u v w g

t x y z x x 2 y 2 z 2 x

v v v v 1 p 2 v 2 v 2 v

y dir u v w 2 2 2 gy

t x y z y x y z

w w w w 1 p 2 w 2 w 2 w

z dir u v w 2 2 2 gz

t x y z z x y z

For given , , and g and there are 4 unknowns viz u , v, w, p

B d andd Initial

Boundary I iti l conditions

diti d 4 equations

and ti (i.e.

(i a solution

l ti is i possible)

ibl )

Once the flow field is solved we may substitute in the energy equation, with given k , C and q to

solve for the temperature

p distribution

T T T T k 2T 2T 2T q

Energy u v w

t x y z C x 2 y 2 z 2 C

In a ggeneral flow situation we have to solve a coupled

p set of equations

q simultaneously, y instead

of a single equation. e.g. we must solve continuity/momentum/turbulence simultaneously.

28

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Analytical solution of governing equations (AFD)

Laminar flow between rotating cylinders

A B at r r1 ; v r11

at any r v r r

2 r at r r2 ; v r2 2

r22 2 r12 1 r12 r22 1 2

applying BCs; A2 B

r22 r12 r22 r12

for the special case when outer cylinder is stationary i.e. 2 0 then

r12 1 r22

veloctiy distribution v 2 r

r2 r12 r

d v 2 r22 1

y

shear stress at the inner cylinder is 1 r 2

dr r r

r r2 r12

1

Torque T A r ;

1 1 1 Power W T 1

29

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

CFD is use of computational methods for solving

fluid engineering systems, including modeling

(mathematical & Physics) and numerical methods

((solvers, finite differences, and grid

g generations,

g

etc.).

Rapid growth in CFD technology since advent of

computer

Differential Equations (PDEs) and discretize PDEs into an algebra

problem,

bl solve

l itit, validate

lid t it and

d achieve

hi simulation

i l ti b based

dddesign

i

instead of “build & test”

measured by experiments: scale simulations (full-scale ships,

airplanes), hazards (explosions,radiations,pollution), physics (weather

prediction,

di ti planetary

l t b

boundary

d llayer, stellar

t ll evolution).

l ti )

30

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Continuum view of gases and liquids

All substances consists of atoms and molecules with nothing between 2

neighboring atoms/molecules.

If it is assumed that the whole space is filled with an average mass of the same

substance, then we have a continuous substance. This is called a continuum.

Mean free path : The average distance a molecule travels before it collides with another molecule

m mass of a molecule

m

0.225 2 where density

d d diameter

di t off a molecule

l l

To determine if the continuum model is acceptable

compare a length with the mean free path.

e.g . for air m 4.8 1026 kg; d 3.7 106 m

sea level 6 106 cm

100 km 10 cm

160 km 5000 cm

31

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Forces acting in fluids

1)) Due to random motion of molecules

2) Due to gravity (weight of the fluid)

3) Due to presence of solid boundaries, which resist the flow.

4) Any other externally applied forces.

At any point in the fluid, net force per unit area gives stress at that point.

2 components of net force

Fn is normal to the area

Ft is tangential to the area

32

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Forces acting in fluids

Fn

Normal stress

dA

F

Tangential stress t

dA

Normal component:

p normal stress

In a fluid at rest, the normal stress is pressure

33

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

What is a fluid?

Distinction between solid and fluid?

Solid: can resist an applied shear by deforming. Usually

stress is proportional to strain

Fluid: deforms continuously under applied shear. Usually

stress is proportional to strain rate

rate.

34

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

What is a fluid?

A liquid takes the shape of the container it is in and forms a free surface in the

presence of g

p gravity

y

A gas expands until it encounters the walls of the container and fills the entire

available space. Gases cannot form a free surface

Gas and vapor are often used as synonymous words

35

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

What is a fluid?

A fluid is a substance in the gaseous or liquid form

Distinction between solid and fluid?

Solid: can resist an applied shear by deforming. Stress is

proportional to strain

Fluid: deforms continuously under applied shear. Stress is

proportional to strain rate

Solid

F

A

Fluid

F V

A h

36

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

1.5 Fluid Properties

Properties define the characteristics/condition of a fluid/flow

fluid/flow.

Transport

(related to transport of momentum, heat and mass)

define the condition of the system

Thermodynamic

P, T, , entropy, enthalpy

related with flow of a fluid

Kinematic

velocity, acceleration, shear stresses

Others bulks modulus, surface tension, vapor pressure etc.

37

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

1.5.2 Viscosity

A Property that identifies resistance to shear stress in a fluid

deforms continuously but resists the rate at which

Most

ost Fluids

u ds St ess St

Stress Strain

a rate

ate

it may be deformed under applied shear.

S lid

Solid

F a

tan

A h

Fluid

F V

A h

38

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Behavior under the action of shear

A fluid

fl id d

deforms

f continuously

i l when

h subjected

bj d to a shearing

h i ((tangential)

i l) stress,

no matter how small the shearing stress.

Within the elastic limit of the solid

surface in contact with the solid plate.

pp

However, for the fluid, the top plate does not stop.

p It continues to move as time t g

goes

on and the fluid continues to deform.

39

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Relation between shear stress and rate of shear strain

Fluids are broadly classified in terms of the relation between the shear stress

and the rate of deformation of the fluid.

Fluids for which the shear stress is directlyy proportional to the rate of deformation

(i.e., linear) are know as Newtonian fluids.

fluids.

hydrocarbon fluids (e.g., propane).

include toothpaste, ketchup, and

some paints.

40

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Deformation of a fluid element

Consider a block or plane sliding at constant velocity u over a well-oiled surface under

the influence of a constant force Fx.

The oil next to the block sticks to the block and moves at velocity u. The surface

beneath the oil is stationary and the oil there sticks to that surface and has zero velocity.

No-slip

N li boundary

b d condition

diti -- The

Th condition

diti off zero velocity

l it att a b

boundary

d iis kknown iin

fluid mechanics as the “no-slip” boundary condition.

41

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Definition of Viscosity

l V t V

tan shear strain rate:

y y t y

dV

for newtonian fluids

dy

dynamic

y viscosity

y of the fluid

dV

d

units: N s/m 2 = 10 poise

dy

e.g . for water 103 N s/m 2

the combination is called kinematic viscosity (units: m 2 /s 104 stokes )

42

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Dynamic Viscosity Change with Temperature

Liquids:

Closely spaced molecules with

strong cohesive forces

As temp increases,

increases cohesive

forces decrease, with reduction in

viscosity

Gases:

Widely spaced molecules with

negligible intermolecular forces

Viscosity (resistance to motion) is

a result of molecules vibration

As temp increases, random

molecular motion (vibration)

increases which increases

viscosity

43

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids

dV

Newton'ss Law of Viscosity

Fluids that satisfy Newton are called as Newtonian fluids.

fluids

dy

Some other fluids have a non-linear relation between the magnitude of applied shear stress

aandd the

t e rate

ate of

o def

de oormation,

at o , i.e.

.e. aandd are

a e called

ca ed Non-newtonian

No ewto a fluids.

u ds.

44

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

1.5.3 Compressibility

dp dp

bulk modulus of elasticity E (units same as p )

d / d /

Large values of the bulk modulus indicate incompressibility

Incompressibility indicates large pressures are needed to compress the volume slightly

It takes 22 MPa to compress water by 1% at atmospheric pressure and 20°C.

Most liquids are incompressible for most practical engineering problems.

45

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Viscosity, compressibility and ideal fluid

Fluids with a zero viscosity offer no resistance to motion,

i e the shear stress is always zero

i.e. zero. If the fluid is also incompressible

incompressible,

the fluid is referred to as an ideal fluid.

46

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

2.1 Fluid Statics

Study

St d off flfluids

id with

ith no shear

h stress.

t O

Only

l normall stress

t

(pressure) is present.

Examples

E l iinvolving

l i flfluid

id statics:

t ti

(a) liquids at rest; (b) linear acceleration; (c) angular rotation.

47

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

2.2 Pressure at a point

Pascal’ s law: Pressure in a fluid acts equally

q y in all directions at a g

given p

point.

Proof: Consider the wedge-shaped element of unit depth as shown.

applying conservation of momentum (Newtons 2nd law of motion)

Fx max xy 1

volume

P y P s sin xy a

2

x x xy

2 mass

y

2

dir

x-dir

x

Px P ax

2

Px P 0

if

x 0

Fy ma y

P x P s cos xy g xy a

y 2 2

y in general

x

y-dir y Px Py P

Py P ay g pressure at any point

2

Py P 0 is same in all directions

if

y 0

48

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

2.3 Pressure variation in a fluid - Euler’s Equation

Consider a fluid element of size xyz

Apply consevation of momentum F ma considering the pressure and gravity forces

F x max

p

x-dir px px x zy xyzax or ax

x

p Pz z

x z y xyzax Py

x

Fy ma y

p

y-dir p y p y y zx xyza y or

y

ay dz

p

y z x xyzaa y Px Px x

y

Fz maz

pz pz z yx Py y dy

z-dir

di

xyzg xyzaz Pz

p

p g az

z yx xyzaz z

z

49

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

2.3 Pressure variation in a fluid

P P P

ax ay az g

x y z

Total pressure variation in the x, y, z directions is given by the chain rule

P P P

dP dx dy dz Pz z

x y z Py

or

dP ax dx a y dy az g dz

dz

Px Px x

dy

Py y

Pz

50

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

2.4 Fluids at rest

dp

g

d

dz

241P

2.4.1 Pressure variation

i ti iin li

liquids

id (incompressible

(i ibl fluid)

fl id) att restt

51

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

2.4 Fluids at rest

dp

g

d

dz

242P

2.4.2 Pressure variation

i ti iin gas (compressible

( ibl fluid,

fl id e.g. air)

i ) att restt

52

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

2.4 Fluids at rest

Pressure at all points in a horizontal plane must be equal

The density at all points in a horizontal plane is the same

The change in pressure with elevation is given by:

dp

g

dz

242P

2.4.2 Pressure variation

i ti iin gas (compressible

( ibl fluid,

fl id e.g. air)

i ) att restt

dp assume T is constant g z1 z 2

g p g z z

d

dz ln 2 1 2 p 2 p1e RT

p1 RT

P

consider a linear variation of T with z

g

RT T z 2 R

T T0 z (i.e.(i T decreases

d as z increases)

i ) p 2 p1 0

T0 z1

dp p

ln p 2 g 2 dz g ln T0 z 2

g

z

dz RT

g z 2 dz p1 R z1 T0 z R T0 z1

p 2 2 dp

p1 p R z1 T

53

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

2.5 Linearly Accelerating Containers

Fluids in rigid body motion have no shear stress and move like a solid.

dp a x dx a y dy a z g dz

For the case: a x constant, a y a z 0

d a x ddx 0 gdz

dp d

Along a constant pressure line

dz ax

0 a x dx

d gdz

d

dx g

This is slope of a constant pressure line

P

Pressure will

ill vary lilinearly

l with

ith d

depth,

th bbutt

variation is the combination of gravity and

externally developed acceleration.

Integrating dp a x dx gdz if a z 0

gives p ( a x x gz ) C a similar analysis yield

C can be found byy the information that the free dz ax

surface is a line of constant pressure p p atm dx g az

54

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Linearly Accelerating Containers (example)

The cart is 0.1 m long and 0.06 m high with rectangular cross sections. It is

half-filled with water and accelerates down a 20o incline plane at ax =1m/s2.

Find the height h.

dp (ax g x )dx (a y g y )dy 4.352 dx 9.21 dy

p 4.352 x 9.21 y C

using the BCs

at x -0.1 and y hleft 0.03 h p patm

eliminates C and gives h 0.0236 & h 0.0536

55

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

2.6 Rigid Body Rotation

Similar to linear case, but with radial

coordinate

di t system t

p p p

dp rd dr dz

r r z

dp a rd ar dr (az g )dz Recall from Dynamics

that with constant

velocity rotation, there

considering the case when is constant radial

Vr Vz 0 and V r acceleration

V2

az a 0 and ar r 2

r

dp r dr gdz

2

dz r 2

0 r dr 0 gdz

2

d

dr g

This is slope of a constant pressure line

e.g. the free surface where p patm

2 Thus the surfaces of constant pressure are parabolic

integration gives z r 2 constant

g 56

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

2.6 Rigid Body Rotation (Determination of pressure at any p and z)

Integrating dp r 2 dr gdz

r 2 2

gives p gz C

2

Pressure varies hydrostatically in the vertical and

increases radialy.

C can be found by the information that the free

surface is a line of constant pressure p = patm

When the U-tube is not rotated, the water stands in the tube

as shown. If the tube is rotated about the eccentric axis at 8

rad/s, what are the new levels of water in the tube.

rl 0.18, rr 0.36

r 2 2 pl 1.0368 9.81 zl C

p gz C

2 pr 4.1472 9.81 zr C

using the the total length zl zr 0.18 0.18

conditions that at the free surface pl pr patm

eliminates C and gives zl 0.021 & zr 0.339

57

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

Conservation of momentum in vector notation

we obtained from Newton's 2nd law

p

x-dir. ax recall the del / gradient operator

x in cartesian coordinates

p ˆ ˆ ˆ

y-dir. ay i j k

y x y z

then

p p ˆ p ˆ p ˆ

z-dir. g az p i j k

z x y z

Co

Conservation

se vat o of o Momentum

o e tu

a

p

- g

assuming no shear forces

rate of change of momentum normal force gravitational force with g 0i 0 j ggk

per unit volume per unit vvolume

olume per unit volume

58

Dr. S. Z. Shuja

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