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Engr (Gp Capt) Segun Fanu, BSc (Hons), MSc, MNSE, REngr Electronics Engineering Maintenance School 320 Technical Training Group Nigerian Air Force Kaduna
However. whether land based. For example. little attention has been given to radar development in the Nigerian Armed Forces. millimetric wave and laser radar technology will be examined. no matter how sophisticated one s countermeasures are. However. Although. 3. Friend and enemy can use them effectively.RESTRICTED INTRODUCTION 1. Energy sent out by the radar would be reflected by the target and processed. 2 RESTRICTED . ship borne or air borne have acted as a multiplier and sensor par excellence for over 60 years. counter measures are a two-edged sword. identify and destroy radar systems. In addition. in the battle in Britain where it enable a small overstretched force to beat off attacks from a larger opponent and in the gulf war where ground surveillance radar enable monitoring of the opponent deployment. Like radar itself. the effectiveness and survivability of military radar have reduced. this piece of information could be handy for military hardware designer and war planners.the concept of low probability of interaction. which are difficult to see with radar. A military radar can be considered as a searchlight looking for enemy targets. with the proliferation of stealthy targets. ways could be found around them and no matter how ingenious the counter-counter – measure are ways can be found to defeat them. which allow targets to avoid radar systems. sensitive radar homing and warning systems. and so no and so forth. there have been rapid development of sophisticated jamming systems and anti-radiation missiles (ARMS) to suppress. This paper will therefore discuss new trends in the use of radar in the battlefield . 2. the potential application of radar in landmine detection will be highlighted. Furthermore. Military radars.
Consequently. In addition. The implementation of an LIP could be achieved using narrow main-lobe and the transmitter and receiver extremely low side-lobes in the radar radiation patter. 6. 5. Meanwhile. This technique is called Bistatic and would probably minimize the enemy’s ECM capability. Thus.1 By intercept. power management technique will ensure that minimum power is 3 radiated. the radar would be RESTRICTED . consistent with the radar cross section of the target. correctly identify and locate the source of the radar signal. the basic requirement is to see and not be seen.RESTRICTED CONCEPT OF LOW PROBABILITY OF INTERCEPTION 4. it means this the enemy’s electronic counter-measures (ECM) receivers must detect. Low probability of Interception (LPI) implies that the radar can be usefully interrogating an enemy while having a low probability of being intercepted by the enemy. Application of this technique involves the use of cheap transmitters with the Personnel and complex processing equipment at the silent and undetectable receiver site. an under-used concept is the separation of by some considerable distance.
However. microprocessors that could process radar signals in small volume were developed. the cost implementation is prohibitive. Thus. LASER RADAR 8. 2 This concept. the transmitter and receiver employ conventional electro-optical technology such as infrared detectors and telescopes. solid state technologies of millimetric wave components are now available. the requirement for small and high accuracy tends to outweigh the cost disadvantage. when it has locked onto a target. conventional radar waveform and common radar signal processing techniques. 4 RESTRICTED . However.RESTRICTED turned on only when it is operationally essential. Subsequently.10 Giga Hertz (GHz) but there are major developments in the use of higher frequency bands (35 GHz+) to allow the synthesis of narrower bandwidths or the beam-width with a smaller dimension of antenna. power reduction will be applied as the target’s range decreases. which started in the late 70’s allowed weapon designers to consider using shorter wavelength radar to guide air-to-ground missiles. Nevertheless. The advent of the Light Amplification by Simulation of Emitted Radiation (LASER) technology in the 60s added a new dimension to radar systems.2 MILLIMETRIC WAVE TECHNOLOGY 7. The Laser radars are true radars employing traditional radar architecture. The radar frequencies are in the range of 1 . However. especially for developing countries.
RESTRICTED Conventional Radar DISPLAY PROCESSING MIXER T/R SW ANTENNA LOCAL OSCILLATOR POWER OSCILLATOR Laser Radar DISPLAY PROCESSING DETECTOR T/R MIRROR TELESCOPE Local Osc TX LASER LASER 8. Ladars yield impressive resolution comparable to that of human vision. LIDAR. it allows precise pointing and tracking to be achieved. a. Ladar is the classic laser radar using radar technology at Lidar is restricted to the use of infrared laser for environmental There are 2 variations: infrared wavelength. 5 RESTRICTED . LADAR. sensing. it allows the possibility of target detection in highly cluttered environment as well as providing opportunities for performing non-cooperative target identification. the term Laser Radar is being used. it is not scientifically accurate. In addition. Consequently. b. Although.
Alternatively. and dangerous. Cambodia etc. more sophisticated technologies and novel design and deployment concepts will ensure that radar maintains its defensive and offensive roles in the modern military arsenal. The migration to higher frequencies add accuracy to radar systems. costly. 6 RESTRICTED . Success has already been recorded in the detection of mines. the radar can map minefields without anyone setting foot on them. they will continue to kill. Maryland has recently reported that the radar it has developed can detect buried landmines as small as 10 square cm. There are some 100 million landmines that have been abandoned in over 60 countries following conflicts around the world and which are still active. It has the potential of providing fast landmine detection and visual interpretation with the possibility of formulation of mine fingerprints or signatures.4 10. Radars can be made more maneuverable in modern battle by the use low probability of interception techniques coupled with greater use of higher frequency band system. reduces the size of the antenna and yields impressive resolution comparable to that of human vision. injure and disable people. For example the US Army Research Laboratory. Although. CONCLUSION 11. Whilst these mines remain in the ground and uncleared in Afghanistan. At present the methods used to clear them are cumbersome. Angola.RESTRICTED DETECTION OF LANDMINES 9. the battlefield is dangerous for the radar. The technology of ground penetrating radar uses Ultrawideband (UWB) 4 techniques. Myanmar. Fitted to a robot aircraft. the radar could be fitted to the top of a pole mounted on a vehicle driven at about one km/hr.
NDA May 2004. Radar Detection of Landmines – Dr Y Yerima – A Paper Presented at the Faculty of Engineering Seminar. 2. Communication Electronics – Kennedy Mcgaw Hill. Future of military Radar-Crown Copyright lnc-2003. The Continued Relevance of Radar in Today’s Battle-Wg Cdr Lew Paterson (rtd) RAF.2003. 7 RESTRICTED .RESTRICTED REFERENCES 1. 4. 3.