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ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004

Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy

Brian Lynch
Lynch,, Big Ass Fans
Secretary
Committee Member thru June 2012

Michael O’Rourke, Radiant Advantage


O’Rourke,
Voting Member
Committee Member thru June 2011
ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004
Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy

Standing Standard Project Committee (SSPC) 55

ƒ Meets:
ƒ ASHRAE Winter Meeting (January)
ƒ ASHRAE Annual Meeting (June)

ƒ Conference Call 2 -4 times per year


2-4
ASHRAE Research

The ASHRAE Research Strategic Plan centers on the


concept of Sustainability.

One of the goals of this research is to optimize and


make consistent ASHRAE Standards 90, 62, and 55 to
achieve measured and verified high system energy
efficiency with high indoor environmental quality.
ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004
Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy

Thermal comfort is the


main reason we have
buildings.
ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004
Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy

Tents are pretty energy


efficient.
History

1966 – replaced 1938 Code for Minimum


Requirements for Comfort Air Conditioning

Comfort Zone = 73-77 F, 20 to 60 % RH, 45


fpm
ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004
Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy

Section 1
Purpose:
- specify the combinations of
• indoor thermal environmental factors
• personal factors
- acceptable to a majority of the occupants
within the space.
ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004
Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy

Section 2 – Scope
• Addresses environmental factors
• And personal factors
• up to 10,000 ft
• doesn ’t cover air quality, etc.
doesn’t

Section 3 – Definitions

Section 4 - General Requirements


• must specify the space to which it applies
• activity and clothing of the occupants must be considered
ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004
Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy

Section 5 – Conditions that Provide Thermal Comfort


5.1 Introduction

Six Primary Thermal Comfort Variables


ƒ
ƒ
ƒ Air temperature
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ Humidity
ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004
Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy

Section 5
5.1 Introduction

Six Primary Thermal Comfort Variables


ƒ Metabolic rate
ƒ Clothing insulation
ƒ Air temperature
ƒ Radiant temperature
ƒ Air Speed
ƒ Humidity
ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004
Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy

Method for Determining Acceptable


Thermal Conditions in Occupied
Spaces (Section 5.2)

ƒ Graphical Method for Typical Indoor


Environments

ƒ Computer Model Method for General


Indoor Application
Acceptable Range of Operative
Temperatures ASHRAE 55-2004, Figure 5.2.1.1
Acceptable Range of Operative
Temperatures Figure 5.2.1.1

Operative Temperature
PMV – PPD Index
predicted mean vote (PMV): an index that predicts the mean
value of the votes of a large group of persons on the seven-
point thermal sensation scale.

PMV model uses heat balance principles to relate the six key
factors for thermal comfort to the average response of
people on a seven point scale.

predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD): an index that


establishes a quantitative prediction of the percentage of
thermally dissatisfied people determined from PMV.
ASHRAE Thermal Sensation Scale
Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD) <10%
Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) >-0.5 to <+0.5

+3 hot
+2 warm
+1 slightly warm
0 neutral
-1 slightly cool
-2 cool
-3 cold
Acceptable Range of Operative
Temperatures ASHRAE 55-2004, Figure 5.2.1.1
Acceptable Range of Operative
Temperatures ASHRAE 55-2004, Figure 5.2.1.1
Acceptable Range of Operative
Temperatures ASHRAE 55-2004, Figure 5.2.1.1
Local Thermal Discomfort Factors
•Radiant temperature Asymmetry
•Vertical air temperature difference
•Floor surface temperature
•Temperature variation with time
•Cyclic variations in operative temperature
•Drifts or ramps
•Draft (in winter) - ISO Comfort Standard 7730 defines draft as “Unwanted local cooling”
cooling”.

A certain percentage of people are usually dissatisfied by a factor other than


thermal sensation, such as draft or radiant asymmetry.
ASHRAE Thermal Comfort Tool
Designing for Thermal Comfort - Cooling

Typical Office Cooling Values


ƒ Air temperature (75 ˚˚F)
F)
ƒ Humidity (50% RH)
ƒ Metabolic rate (1 met)
ƒ Radiant temperature (75 ˚˚F)F)
ƒ Clothing insulation (0.5 to 1.0 clo)
ƒ Air speed (40 fpm or less)
Savings from Raising Thermostat
Settings in Cooling
Rule of Thumb
ƒ Each degree of thermostat offset saves ~ 2% of cooling energy

Energy Model - 20,000 ft2 Office


Location 75F Cooling 79.7F Cooling %
Reduction
Miami 121,290 kWh 108,735 kWh 10.35 %
Houston 94,420 kWh 87,046 kWh 7.81 %
Los Angeles 45,913 kWh 43,404 kWh 5.46 %
Kansas City 50,575 kWh 46,071 kWh 8.91 %
Chicago 43,035 kWh 39,175 kWh 9.01 %
Denver 38,904 kWh 35, 147 kWh 9.66 %
Madison 38,147 kWh 34,799 kWh 8.78 %
Air Speed Required to Offset
Increased Temperature Figure 5.2.3
Air Speed Required to Offset
Increased Temperature Figure 5.2.3
Acceptable Range of Operative
Temperatures ASHRAE 55-2004, Figure 5.2.1.1

11° F per clo – effect of changing clothing insulation on the


optimum operative temperature
Radiant Temperature

„ Radiant heating or cooling sources do not change


the temperature of the air in a space directly.
„ Due to the wavelength of the energy, an object is
directly heated or cooled without cooling the air
between.
Where is the Standard going?

„ Standard 55 must find ways to better support


High Performance Buildings better.
„ Change in Air speed limits good step.
„ Must work on Adaptive Method.
Acceptable Operative Temperature
Ranges for Naturally Conditioned Spaces
Figure 5.3

toc = 66 + 0.255(tout - 32) °F


Acceptable Operative Temperature
Ranges for Naturally Conditioned Spaces
Figure 5.3

Denver =
73.4°F

76.5

76.6
Where is the Standard going?

„ Mixed Mode ventilation – swing seasonal use,


different zones.
Where is the Standard going?

„ What are people submitting for Standard 55


compliance (LEED and Standard 189.1)
Where is the Standard going?

„ Rearrange standard to start with occupant. Start


with parameters such as metabolic rate, clothing,
and then working outward.
„ Move impact of clo on setpoints from Appendix B
to front of normative body of standard.
Where is the Standard going?

„ HVAC is for people, requirements are for


occupants, not buildings.
„ Goal should be to focus on making people
comfortable not buildings.