A COURSE OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

I YEAR BY S. KECHYAN

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A COURSE OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
I YEAR BY S. KECHYAN

§ÈÆܶ첦 Ðð²î²ð²ÎâàôÂÚàôÜ ºðºì²Ü 2004

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ø»ãÛ³Ý êí»ïɳݳ ²Ý·É»ñ»ÝÇ ù»ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¹³ëÁÝóó - A COURSE OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR: ºñ¨³ÝÇ ì.´ñÛáõëáíÇ ³Ýí³Ý å»ï³Ï³Ý É»½í³µ³Ý³Ï³Ý ѳٳÉë³ñ³ÝÇ I ÏáõñëÇ áõë³ÝáÕÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ: ºñ.: ÈÇÝ·í³, 2004. – 337 ¿ç:

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A Course of English Grammar ¹³ë³·ÇñùÁ ݳ˳ï»ëí³Í ¿ ûï³ñ É»½áõÝ»ñÇ ý³ÏáõÉï»ïÝ»ñÇ ³Ý·É»ñ»Ý µ³ÅÝÇ ³é³çÇÝ ÏáõñëÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ: ¸³ë³·ñùáõ٠ѳïáõÏ áõß³¹ñáõõÃÛáõÝ ¿ ¹³ñÓí³Í ³Ý·É»ñ»ÝÇ Ó¨³µ³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ³ÛÝ µ³ÅÇÝÝ»ñÇ íñ³, áñáÝù ³é³ÝÓݳÏÇ µ³ñ¹áõÃÛáõÝ »Ý Ý»ñϳ۳óÝáõÙ áõë³ÝáÕÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ: ¶áñÍÝ³Ï³Ý ³ß˳ï³ÝùÝ»ñÁ ÙÇïí³Í »Ý û·Ý»É áõë³ÝáÕÝ»ñÇÝ Ñ³Õóѳñ»Éáõ ³Û¹ ¹Åí³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ¨ ½³ñ·³óÝ»Éáõ û ·ñ³íáñ ¨ û µ³Ý³íáñ ËáëùÁ: ¸³ë³·ÇñùÁ µ³Õϳó³Í ¿ ùë³Ýí»ó ¹³ë»ñÇó /units/: Úáõñ³ù³ÝãÛáõñ ¹³ë Ý»ñ³éÝáõÙ ¿ ï»ë³Ï³Ý Ù³ëª ÑÇÙÝí³Í ³Ý·É»ñ»ÝÇ ù»ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý áõëáõóÙ³Ý Å³Ù³Ý³Ï³ÏÇó Ù»Ãá¹Ý»ñÇ ¨ Ùáï»óáõÙÝ»ñÇ íñ³ ¨ ·áñÍÝ³Ï³Ý Ù³ë, áñÁ ѳٳӳÛÝ»óí³Í ¿ ï»ë³Ï³Ý µ³ÅÝáõÙ Ý»ñϳ۳óí³Í ÑÇÙݳ¹ñáõÛÃÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï: ¶áñÍÝ³Ï³Ý ³ß˳ï³ÝùÝ»ñÇ µ³ÅÝáõÙ Áݹ·ñÏí³Í í³ñÅáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ µ³½Ù³µÝáõÛà »Ý, ÇëÏ û·ï³·áñÍí³Í É»½áõݪ ³ñ¹Ç³Ï³Ý, ÇÝãÝ ³é³í»É Ù³ïã»ÉÇ ¨ Ñ»ï³ùñùÇñ ¿ ¹³ñÓÝáõÙ ³ß˳ï³ÝùÁ: ¶áñÍÝ³Ï³Ý ³ß˳ï³ÝùÝ»ñÇ Ûáõñ³ù³ÝãÛáõñ µ³ÅÝÇ Ñ³çáñ¹áõÙ »Ý ³Ù÷á÷Çã ¨ ³Ùñ³åݹáÕ í³ñÅáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ: ¸³ë³·ÇñùÝ áõÝÇ Ûáà ѳí»Éí³Í, áñáÝóáõÙ ³ÕÛáõë³ÏÝ»ñÇ Ó¨áí Ý»ñϳ۳óí³Í »Ý ͳí³ÉáõÝ µ³ÅÇÝÝ»ñÇ ë»ÕÙ µáí³Ý¹³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ Éñ³óáõóÇã ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ áñáß ¹³ë»ñÇ í»ñ³µ»ñÛ³É:

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Contents
Introduction Grammatical Structure of the English Language ……...……………… General Classification of the Parts of Speech ….…………………….. The Verb ……………………………………………………………… Unit I The Simple Present and The Present Continuous……………… Unit II Simple Past and The Past Continuous ………………………… Unit III The Present Perfect and The Present perfect Continuous…….. Unit IV The Past Perfect and The Past Perfect Continuous .…………. Unit V The Future Time ...……………………………………………. Unit VI The Passive Voice ………………...…………………………. Modal Verbs ………………………………………………………….. Unit VII Can/Could …………………………………………..………. Unit VIII May/might ………………………………………………….. Unit IX Must (Have to/Had to) ……………………………………….. Unit X Have To/ and To Be To ………………………………………. Unit XI Shall/Should …………………………………………………. Unit XII Will/would ………………………………………………….. Unit XIII Need and Dare ……………………………………………... The Noun ……………………………………………………………... Unit XIV The Number of Nouns …………………………………...… Unit XV The Case of Nouns ………………………………………….. Unit XVI The Article ………………………………………………… Unit XVII The Adjective ……………………………………………... Unit XVIII The Adverb ………………………………………………. The Pronoun …………………………………………………………... Unit XIX Personal Pronouns, Possessive Pronouns ………………….. Unit XX Reflexive, Emphatic, Reciprocal Pronouns ………………… Unit XXI Demonstrative pronouns …………………………………… Unit XXII Quantitative Pronouns …………………………………….. Unit XXIII Distributive Pronouns…………………………………….. Unit XXIV Relative Pronouns ………………………………………... Unit XXV Conjunctive, Interrogative Pronouns ……………………... Unit XXVI The Numeral ……………………………………………... Appendices …………………………………………………………… Bibliography ………………………………………………………….. 5 7 8 14 34 49 72 83 103 121 122 135 144 155 164 176 184 196 198 207 212 228 238 251 252 259 265 272 284 297 305 313 317 335

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INTRODUCTION GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Languages may be synthetic and analytical according to their grammatical structure. In synthetic languages, such as Armenian, the grammatical relations between words are expressed by means of inflections: ·ñùÇ ¿çÁ, ï³Ý
å³ï»ñÁ

In analytical languages, such as English, the grammatical relations between words are expressed by means of form words and word order: e. g. the page of the book, the walls of the house; The doctor examined the patient. In English analytical forms are mostly proper to verbs. An analytical verb-form consists of one or more form words, which have no lexical meaning and only express one or more of the grammatical categories of person, number, tense, aspect, voice, mood and one notional word, generally an infinitive or a participle (participle I or participle II): She will speak to him about it. He is reading a newspaper. The letter has already arrived. 200 trees will have been planted by the end of the month. The analytical forms are: a) Tense and aspect verb-forms (the Continuous form: They are talking. The Perfect form: She has been to London. the Perfect Continuous form: He has been working since he came home. All the other forms of the Future: I’ll be back in no time. I’ll be seeing him tomorrow. We’ll have laid the tables by the time the guests arrive. Also the interrogative and the negative forms of the Present and Past Simple: Do you play the piano? I didn’t know you were ill. b) The Passive voice: I was told about it yesterday.
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the structure of a language is never purely synthetic or purely analytical. the order of words in English is fixed. Owing to the scarcity of synthetic forms in the English language. 3. Unlike Armenian. ºë ·Ý³óÇ ïáõÝ: îáõÝ ·Ý³óÇ »ë: ¶Ý³óÇ »ë ïáõÝ: 6 . write wrote.c) The analytical form of the Subjunctive Mood: If I had had the money I would have bought that house. The synthetic forms of the Subjunctive mood: were. Ëáë»É »Ù. (for all the persons): It is demanded that all the students be present at the meeting. Accordingly we find analytical forms in the Armenian language (e. Endings: a) –s in the third person singular in the Simple Present: he/she it plays. g. went. Ù»Í – ³í»ÉÇ Ù»Í – ³Ù»Ý³Ù»Í) and synthetic forms in the English language (e. b) –s in the plural of nouns: trees. trees. As it has been mentioned above. 2. Ëáë»É ¾. it helps to express the grammatical relations between words. In all these analytical forms the form word is an auxiliary verb. Inner flexions: tooth – teeth. speaks. have. c) –s in the genitive case: my brother’s girlfriend. Ëáë»É ¾Ç. However. be. g. Ëáë»É »ë. Compare: I went home. the word order acquires extreme importance.) The synthetic forms in the English language are: 1. d) –ed in the Past Simple of regular verbs: We revised the rules yesterday.

etc. g. The structural parts of speech are: 1. 7 to express various (prepositions and meanings of words of speech have no . We distinguish between notional and structural parts of speech. the adverb The structural parts of speech serve either relations between words and sentences conjunctions) or to specify or emphasize the (articles and particles). the noun 2.). or adverbial modifier. the conjunction 3. The structural parts independent function in the sentence.GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH According to their meaning. alas. words fall under certain classes called parts of speech. the preposition 2. the numeral 5. the article Modal words. yes. the particle 4. unfortunately. interjections. the adjective 3. words of affirmation and negation are words which are characterized by peculiar meanings of various kinds (e. The notional parts of speech perform certain functions in the sentence: the functions of subject. morphological characteristics and syntactic functions. They do not perform any syntactic function in the sentence and have no grammatical connection with the sentence in which they occur. certainly. predicate. the verb 6. The notional parts of speech are: 1. attribute. oh. the pronoun 4. no. object. They are called independent elements.

disarm. 1. c) compound (consisting of two stems): whitewash. daydream. aspect. irregular verbs and mixed verbs.verbals (infinitive. (predicate) b) Her dream is to become an actress. participle II and gerund) which cannot be used as the predicate of a sentence: a) She speaks perfect English. overdo. Verbs have: a) Finite forms which can be used as the predicate of a sentence. browbeat. or –d if the stem of the verb ends in –e. to do away. d) composite (consisting of a verb and a postposition of adverbial origin): run away. participle I. sit down. It is pronounced: 8 . live. to give up. According to the way of forming the past simple and the participle II. tense.THE VERB The verb is a part of speech which denotes an action. write. b) derived (having affixes): widen. b) Non-finite forms . voice and mood. organize. demonstrate. The pronunciation of the –ed (-d) depends on the sound preceding it. Regular verbs form the past simple and participle II by adding –ed to the stem of the verb. (infinitive used as a predicative) 3. resell. look up: The postposition often changes the meaning of the verb with which it is associated. 2. all verbs may be divided into three groups: regular verbs. to bring up. number. inner flexion and by form words. unload. According to their morphological structure verbs are divided into: a) simple: ask. These categories can be expressed by means of affixes. simplify. The verb has the following grammatical categories: person.

plan . worked. [d] after voiced consonants except d and after vowels: signed. stop – stopped.planned c) Final r is doubled if it is preceded by a stressed vowel. hurry. refer – referred occur .played b) If a verb ends in a consonant preceded by a short stressed vowel. [t] after voiceless consonants except t: booked.[id] after t.appeared fear – feared d) Final l is doubled when preceded by a short vowel. appear . travel – travelled quarrel – quarrelled Irregular verbs form their past simple and participle II in different ways. stressed or unstressed. handed. play .occurred Final r is not doubled if it is preceded by a diphthong. d: parted. sob – sobbed. the final consonant is doubled. The following spelling rules should be observed: a) Final y is changed into i before adding –ed if it is preceded by a consonant: study – studied. swim – swam – swum (change of the root vowel) take – took – taken (change their root vowel and add -en) hold – held – held (change their root vowel and add -d) bring – brought – brought (change their root vowel and add -t) lend – lent – lent (change their final -d into -t) cut –cut – cut (have the same form) go – went – gone (verbs whose forms come from different stems) 9 . stayed. prefer – preferred.hurried y remains unchanged if it is preceded by a vowel. enjoy enjoyed.

I have lost my way. to know. But as most verbs in English are polysemantic they may be terminative in one meaning and non –terminative in another. make – made made (special irregular verbs) Mixed verbs. shall. Terminative verbs imply a limit beyond which the action cannot continue: to refuse. b) Auxiliary verbs are those which have lost their meaning and are used as form words. Here belong such verbs as to do. and link verbs from the semantic and the syntactic point of view. English verbs can be divided into notional. do – did – done. should. to be. Non – terminative (durative) verbs do not imply any such limit and the action can go on indefinitely: to live.be – was/were – been. a) Notional verbs have a lexical meaning of their own and can have an independent syntactic function (a simple predicate) in the sentence. to open. Semantically all verbs can be divided into two groups – terminative and non – terminative (durative) verbs. (non terminative) 5. to exist. Compare: I saw that film a week ago. thus having only a grammatical function. Their Past Simple is of the regular type. to bring. I never see any. to break. The meaning of the verb becomes clear from the context. to have. to speak. and their Participle II is of the irregular type: sow – sowed – sown show – showed – shown 4. auxiliary. He left early this morning. (terminative) I don’t believe in fairies. 10 .

These are modal verbs such as can/could may/might. You should see a doctor. swim. come. Examples are sell. though they have a meaning of their own. (auxiliary verb) She is a doctor. English verbs fall into two groups – transitive and intransitive verbs. go. act. Intransitive verbs do not require any object. see. Here belong such verbs as stand. Her sister is in London now. to smell. send. Examples are invite. Transitive verbs take a direct object (they express an action which passes on to a person or thing directly).c) Link verbs have to a smaller or greater extent lost their meaning and are used in compound nominal predicate. give. 6. shall/should. hear. She took the letter and went out. I couldn’t believe my eyes. In different contexts the same verb can be used as a notional verb and an auxiliary verb or a link verb. When water freezes and becomes solid we call it ice. to sound. to taste. laugh. to become. (link verb) There is a special group of verbs which cannot be used without additional words. make. add. show. to appear. we felt the smell of fallen leaves coming from the garden. think. There are verbs whose primary meaning is transitive and whose secondary meaning is intransitive. to get. to turn. will/would etc. read. ought to. (notional verb) She is reading a telegram. to love. Here belong such verbs as to be. must. As we stood on the steps. 11 .

(intransitive) The maid opened the door and showed the guest in. “And don’t be late. Tense and Aspect The category of tense is very clearly expressed in the forms of the English verb. whether it is in progress or completed.This book reads well. The stream which worked the mill came bubbling down in a dozen rivulets. to drop. Some intransitive verbs can be used as transitive verbs when they obtain a causative meaning (the person or thing denoted by the object is made to perform the action. to turn. to move. This category denotes the relation of the action either to the moment of speaking or to some definite moment in the past or future. She is changing the baby. Here belong such verbs as to open. run (í³½»óÝ»É). The category of aspect shows the way in which the action develops.” They added a second bathroom to the house.) Here belong such verbs as work (³ß˳ï»óÝ»É). I’ve been running people through the front line! Are you running your horse in the next race? (to cause an animal to take part) There are verbs which in different contexts can be transitive or intransitive. 12 . to change. (transitive) 7. For that man. (transitive) Will he ever change or will he always be selfish? (intransitive) The door opened and he walked in. starve (ëáí³Ù³Ñ ³Ý»É).” he added. She is reading a book.

Each of these forms includes four tenses: Present. Simple Past.Some of the English tenses denote time relations (the Indefinite form – Simple Present. Continuous. Perfect. see Unit VI 13 . Thus there are 16 tenses in English. Past. Simple Future) others denote both time and aspect relations (Continuous. Future and Future in the Past. Perfect and Perfect Continuous. Perfect Continuous). For Voice. There are four groups of tenses: Indefinite.

UNIT I SIMPLE PRESENT. In the third person singular it has the suffix -s /-es.does Spelling In the third person singular y changes to ie+s if it is preceded by a consonant: study – studies. do . fix – fixes and [z] after –o preceded by a consonant go – goes. PRESENT CONTINUOUS Simple present Affirmative I play you play he/she/it plays we play they play Interrogative do I play? do you play? does he/she/it play? do we play? do they play? Negative I do not play you do not play he/she/it doesn’t play we do not (don’t) play they do not play Formation and pronunciation The simple present is formed from the infinitive without the particle to.sprays Use: Simple present has different uses. -sh. General time 1 The simple present is often used: 14 .applies y remains unchanged if it is preceded by a vowel: play – plays. but also to refer to future and past events. buzz – buzzes. wash – washes. -ch. -x: dress – dresses. apply . It is not only used to express present time situations. stay – stays [s] after voiceless consonants: pack – packs. watch – watches. spray . -z. put – puts -es is pronounced [Iz] after sibilants –s. -s is pronounced [z] after voiced consonants and vowels: bring – brings. -ss.

This tree gives a pleasant shade. We can give a general characteristic to the person (or thing) using the simple present tense. Her mother goes to that health resort twice a year. c) To express a general statement or a universal truth. never. often. every day/week/month/year. The moon goes round the earth. b) To describe actions or events that happen all the time or repeatedly. Directions/instructions 3. unselfishness. seldom. -How do I get to the Opera House? -You go straight ahead and then turn to the right 15 . he likes to do everything in his own way. Ann studies at the University. A bad workman quarrels with his tools. Characterizing a person/thing 2. (saying) Air consists mainly of nitrogen and oxygen. on Mondays/Sundays etc. occasionally. ever.a) To talk about things in general. always. sacrifice. daily. Bob’s father is a good doctor. I don’t like milk. This use of the simple present is often associated with such adverbial modifiers of frequency as sometimes. once/twice a week/month/year. Like all young men. Mountain Everest is in Nepal. Bob often goes to her parties. We often use the simple present when we ask for and give directions and instructions. A mother’s love means devotion.

We use the simple present with the verb say when we are asking about notices or very recently received letters or quoting from books. The simple present isn’t usually used to talk about temporary situations or actions that are only going on around the present. the simple present is used: a) With verbs that cannot normally be used in continuous forms. Next pour on boiling water.” b) In stage directions to express succession of point actions taking place at the moment of speaking (however. or that continue through the story). . the present continuous is used for the ‘background’ . Then add three teaspoons of tea.” I see you’ve received a letter from your mother. I can neither see nor hear the actors.It says. What does she say? Shakespeare says. 16 .First (you) boil some water.What does that notice say? . stories etc. Then warm the teapot. “No parking. In Act I Hamlet meets the ghost of his father. The ghost tells him… This book is about a man who deserts his family and goes to live on an island. 5. “Neither a borrower nor a lender be. Summaries 4. The simple present is common in summaries of plays. “Do you see anything from here?” “No.the situations that are already happening when the story starts.” Temporary situations 6. However.

30. calendar references.) When the curtain rises. itineraries). The train leaves at 10. Morrison back to Taylor… and Taylor shoots – and it’s a goal! 7. Juliet is sitting at her desk.upon. She and Jack blow kisses to each other behind Lady Bracknell. Tomorrow is Friday. Christmas is on a Tuesday next year. The phone rings. The use of the simple present is structurally dependent in a) time clauses b) conditional clauses c) concessive clauses and d) in 17 . The simple present is preferred to the present continuous when the happening itself is more important for the speaker than the progress of the action. and negative – interrogative sentences. On day three we visit Stratford . Tom retires in three years. fixed events (which are not simply the wishes of the speaker). You two talk nonsense! I won’t listen to such nonsense! Do you know who that singing girl is? Oh my God. Gwendolen! (Gwendolen goes to the door. interrogative.Gwendolen (reproachfully): Mamma! Lady Bracknell: in the carriage. how beautifully she sings! Where are your examples? Why don’t you illustrate what you say? Talking about the future 8. This use of the simple present is also found in exclamatory. Taylor to Morrison. The simple present is used to refer to future events if they are part of a timetable or a program (entertainment programs.Avon. She picks it up and listens quietly… c) In commentaries (radio and TV) Lydiard passes to Taylor. 9.

the Simple Future is used even if these clauses are introduced by the conjunctions if and when. once. a) Clauses of time referring to the future may be introduced by the conjunctions when. as soon as. (object clause) 18 . (object clause) She simply wants to know if you will show that letter to them. after. until. c) Clauses of concession are introduced by the conjunctions even if. Note: In clauses other than those of time and condition. I’ll try not to argue with him. Even if he gets angry. Don’t wait here! I can’t say when he’ll be back. before. Don’t be late. wherever.object clauses after to see (that). unless. d) Object clauses after to see. She won’t go to bed till you come. whenever. no matter how. till. on condition (that). honey. Please phone me as soon as you get there. I’ll make sure that nobody overhears us. I won’t forgive him unless he apologizes. b) Clauses of condition are introduced by the conjunctions if. whatever etc. She will follow him whenever he goes. She will take care that nobody hurts the boy at that school. to take care (that) to make sure (that)) when the action refers to the future. We’ll go on a picnic if it doesn’t rain tomorrow. to take care and make sure are introduced by the conjunction that or joined asyndetically. even though. while. provided (providing) and in case.

10. Present continuous Affirmative I am working you are working he/she/it is working we are working they are working Interrogative am I working? are you working? is he/she/it working? are we working? are they working? Negative I am not working you are not working he/she/it isn’t working we aren’t working they aren’t working Formation and spelling The present continuous is built up by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the simple present and the participle I. The suffix –ing is 19 . vivid and dramatic). Where do we go now? When do they start? ‘Historic’ present 11. The use of the simple present with reference to the future is also structurally dependent in some special questions. We may find the simple present in literary style to describe a succession of actions in the past (especially to make the narration seem more immediate. I gather. 12. gasps a bit and dies. The simple present is used with a perfect or past meaning in introductory expressions like I hear. It is often called historic or dramatic Present. And about a quarter of an hour later she sits down in a chair. She arrives full of life and spirit. I see. I hear they have bought a new house. I gather he doesn’t want to marry her. says she doesn’t feel well. I understand.

It is used for an action happening about this time but not necessarily at the moment of speaking: . 20 . In writing the following spelling rules should be observed: A mute –e at the end of the verb is dropped before the suffix –ing: rise – rising. We also use the present continuous to talk about developing and changing situations.beginning Final –r is doubled if it is preceded by a stressed vowel: occ′ur – occ′urring. 2. We use the present continuous to talk about temporary actions and situations that are going on ‘around now’. Changes 3.added to the stem of the verb. during and after the moment of speaking). ‘Around now’ 1.What are you doing these days? .I am writing an interesting book about wild animals. begin . quarreling) Use: The present continuous is generally used to talk about temporary actions and situations that are going on ‘around now’(before.giving A final consonant is doubled if it is preceded by a short stressed vowel: put – putting.ref′erring Final –l is always doubled: travel – travelling. She can’t answer the telephone. give . even if these are long-lasting. The weather is changing for the worse. She is bathing the baby at the moment. Eng. – traveling. quarrel – quarrelling (Am. ref′er . Let's stay at home today.

21 . personal arrangements in the near future. (It means that Ann’s granny complains more often than Ann thinks it normal or reasonable. We are leaving for Boston in a week.) Their new car is always breaking down. Talking about the future 5. The Present Continuous is used mostly to talk about fixed plans. Often such adverbials as always.” John said. This structure is used: a) To emphasizes the idea of intention. of a decision that has already been made. continually. and it has been expanding since its beginning.The population of the world is rising. especially when the time and place have been decided. 6. We can also use be going + infinitive to talk about future plans. The present continuous is used to say that something happens more often than we think it normal or reasonable. Annoying habits 4. They want to sell it. The universe is expanding. constantly. This use of the present continuous gives an emotional colouring to the statement. (It merely means that her granny does it regularly) Ann says that her granny is always complaining though she has nothing to complain of. are found in these sentences. Compare: Ann says that her granny always complains though she has nothing to complain of. Note: Notice the following sentence patterns: I wonder if all grown-up people play that childish way when nobody is looking? When Adeline is grinning we know she is happy. “I am sailing early next month.

impress. Typical examples are: be. smell. interview. respect. own. mean. smell. think. measure. 22 . owe. hate. Some verbs are never or hardly ever used in progressive forms. believe. taste). see. know. think). expect. consist. Common non. love. expect. measure. like. feel. prefer. suspect. know. g. see meaning meet by appointment. depend. notice. want. matter. see. weigh. have. hear. forbid. forget. care for. b) To predict the future on the basis of present evidence. remember. understand. taste. taste. Some refer to mental states (e. agree. wish. etc.We’re going to buy a new house. have. visit: I am seeing my parents tomorrow. smell. Look at the sky. contain. Many of these non-progressive verbs refer to states rather than actions. It’s going to rain. fit. Bob and Ann are going to get married. suppose. Some verbs have a stative meaning and a different active meaning. be used to imply that the subject is temporarily exhibiting some quality: (be in the meaning of behave + adjective) You are being silly today. find. some others refer to the use of the senses (e. need. seem. Look out! We’re going to crash! Verbs not used in progressive forms 7. doubt. feel. belong. think. hear. refuse. weigh. depend.progressive verbs Believe. Progressive and non – progressive uses 8. g. like.

difficulty. trouble). though on the whole. as in: to have a smoke. smell to use one's sense of smell: She is smelling the fish. 9. to have a walk. They are having some problems with their son. or when it is followed by the words problem. In this case the continuous form gives them emotional colouring. I’ve already forgotten all about it.feel in the medical sense can take either form: How does she feel today? How is she feeling today? expect when it means await: I am expecting an important letter today. to have tea/coffee. to have a good holiday. to have breakfast/lunch/dinner/supper. Sometimes some of the non – progressive verbs may also be occasionally used in the continuous form. it is not typical of them. I’m liking my new life here very much ” 23 . Sue is weighing herself on the scales. “Dear Amy. weigh to measure (by means of scale) how heavy something or somebody is. The weather is fine and we are having a wonderful time here. hear meaning receive news of or from: Are you hearing anything from him? have except when it means possession (have can be used in the continuous form when it is a part of a set phrase. to have a bath/shower.

ACTIVITY Ex. “It’s too late to go anywhere. –“ All right. 13. 11. The pen is mightier than the sword. “ Women always think men have secret sorrows. “What do we do then?” 15. Here belong such verbs as to shine. “And men like you.They are always wanting to do something they should not do. In Mexico people often take a siesta (nap) after they have lunch. “So do you want to get married?” I said. 17. It’s a way of separating them from other women”.1. to hope. how beautifully she sings! 16.30. 7. When the curtain rises. We leave London at 10 a. This newspaper provides more foreign news than domestic news. 2. 3. Please see that the children don’t get nervous. I expect I’ll do whatever you say”. Shakespeare says. m. 10. 18. 12. Hilary. 6. next Tuesday and arrive in Paris at 1 o clock. I hate to trouble you 24 . She picks it up and listens quietly. Oh my God. Meanwhile the window opens and a masked man enters the room. 10. “Neither a borrower nor a lender be”. Barbara held out a hand. always think women are against other women”.” 14. she said. We have had no news from him but we are still hoping. 4. Explain the use of the Simple Present in the following sentences. said Laura. she said angrily. I do want to get married. The phone rings. “And say hello to Sandy for me if you see her”. 1. “I’ll resign before I let her insult me again”. I think perhaps I do want to get married to Arthur”. 5. 8. “I’ll make sure that nobody disturbs you. I own it. to look (= to seem) and some others. When he went into his study Helen said. She was wearing (wore) a coat and heavy shoes when I saw her. May I put my car away in your garage in case anyone comes. Yes. 9. Juliet is sitting at her desk. Some durative (non-terminative) verbs may be used either in the simple present or in the present continuous without any marked change in the meaning. We spend 2 hours in Paris and leave again at 3. This house is mine. to wear.

Opinion is changing in favour of stronger 25 . but I am going to have dinner with my sister and her husband. 23./ / Ex. / / We go to the dentist every six months. They are having dinner party next Saturday evening. 3. I won’t change my mind. You need to learn to be more careful. 3. 24. “Why don’t you listen to me? Am I a boring speaker?” asked Mother. Sally ……………………. 4. She bit with her hand on the back of the sofa and cried to them: “You talk too much. Comment on the use of the Present Continuous and the Simple Present in the following sentences. He …………………… / / We pay $ 50 a week rent. She …. Granny …………… / / I rush around a lot. … Smith passes to Devaney.but you are sitting on my hat. “Normally you are very sensible. …………… / / I often use his car.22. 9. He……………………………… / / I often forget things. /z/ 1. nice ball and Simms shoots! Ex. 10. Do you suppose she is telling the truth? 26. 6. 25. Air consists mainly of nitrogen and oxygen. They work hard. 2. You are spending far too much. Thanks for your invitation. 19. “Why don’t you phone me tomorrow?” he said. /z/ or /Iz/ Example: We often see them. Mother…………………… / / They drink a lot of coffee. She …………………… / / My children cry at sad films. 3. Give the third person forms of the verbs in these sentences. 5. Devaney to Barns. 8. My brother ………………… / / They often lose things. often sees them. She …………………………. I am not going to send you any more money this month. Show whether you would pronounce the third person form as /s/. Son. However much you cry. They are having some problems with their son. so why are you being so silly about this matter?” 2. 6. 4. 20. 2. He ……… / / We usually catch the 6 o’clock train. 5. We got an invitation in the mail from Ron and Maureen.” 21. Barns to Lucas and Harris intercepts…Harris to Simms. You two are always assuming people are unhappy so that you can pity them. 7.

…… of thirst. Make up situations to justify the use of the Simple Present and Present Continuous in the following pairs of sentences. his work tomorrow. (copy) 1. She is always complaining.penalties for armed robbery. 4. I am tasting the cake. I recommend it. All I expect of them is a little kindness. 10 I want to lose weight. They are beginning to put up the decorations in Regent Street. 8. (begin) It isn’t ………… to you. Ex. 26 . 8. 13. 11. (travel) She …………… on her coat. The shops are getting ready for Christmas already. 3. 5. (play) He is ……………. 4. the beds. my bag. (refer) 10. They haven’t got anywhere to live at the moment. 1. I apologize for what I said about you. 7. Example: I am …… copying the text. My grandmother is never satisfied. 2. (make) He is ……………. Add –ing to the verbs in these sentences. (put) Mother is ………. 6. 14. They are living with friends until they find somewhere. I think he ………very fast. (age) Verbs which in different contexts have different meanings Ex. I’m ………. 2. 7. The world is changing. so this week I am not eating lunch. (write) Sue is ……………the piano. (carry) Ann is ………… a letter. 3. 9. 5. 9. The head teacher is expecting you. Things never stay the same. That car is useless! It’s always breaking down. 12. (die) He is …………… abroad. The new restaurant in Hill Street is very good..

It tastes good. She wants to buy some. Right now she (to look) at the figs. 13. She (to be) always careful when she does a chemistry experiment. 9. I (to smell) something burning. 5. 6. I am depending on you. Edwards (to have) a cat and a dog. Why are you smelling the fish? The fish smells bad. 8. Complete the sentences with the Simple Present or Present Continuous of the verbs in parentheses. The chemistry experiment she is doing now is very dangerous. 7. 16. 4. She is weighing the baby. What do you think of it. Is there anything cooking on the stove? 27 5. Bob! He (to have) an important conversation with his boss. I think I am over weight Martha is at the market. “Will you listen to him?” “That (to depend). 17. She doesn’t want to spill any of the acid.” Mrs. Tom is thinking of emigrating. 8. That man is twice my weight. They are always fighting. 18. The doctor is measuring out a dose of medicine. 1. 2. Ex. . 3. so don’t make any mistakes. 11. Are you hearing anything from Andy these days? Don’t shout I hear you quite well. so she (to be) very careful. 10. I (to weigh) myself on the scales. It (to taste) good. The parcel weighs 10 kilos. 12. 7. They are having some problems with their sons. “Susie! Get your fingers out of the dessert! What are you doing?” “I am (to taste) the cake. He (to depend) on you. 6.4. 10. They (to look) fresh. This room measures 10 meters across. 9. 15. It depends what you mean. Sue is in the science building. He has a country house with a large garden. He (to weigh) 98 kilos. 6. 14.” Don’t let him down. Don’t disturb your father.

He (to expect) you” said the secretary.” 15. 8. The usual pattern of such sentences is: There + be + subject + verb + prepositional phrase Examples: a) There is a concert taking place at school tonight. Jackson”. 3. He is imitating the grown-ups. 13. 6. 7. Where did you buy these sheets? They (to feel) soft. There (to be) a political discussion (to take place) tonight. I (to expect) her to phone me this evening. “I have an appointment with Mr. I (to feel) that I am going to get ill. “I still (to think) about John. 14. c) Is there anyone working in that office now? 1. There (not to be) anyone (to speak) about me behind my back. Ex. 2. I (to feel) cold. Look! The child (to smell) the flower. Example: There is a man standing at the door. 4. A) Supply an appropriate form of the verb to be and the present participle of the verbs in parentheses. There (to be) nobody (to live) on the moon. (to be) there anyone (to live) in that house? There (not to be) any roses (to grow) in my garden this summer.. Explain the difference between the two sentences. I haven’t seen Carol today. I know. (¸é³Ý Ùáï Ï³Ý·Ý³Í Ù³ñ¹ ϳ:) 28 .” “I (not to think) you should worry about him. There (to be) something very important (to take place) in my life right now. Close the door. “Yes. (to be) there any people (to swim) in the pool? There (to be) someone outside in the hall (to wait) for me. 7. 16. please. b) There isn’t much water running in the rivers now. 12. 5. B) Make up your own sentences using the pattern and the Present Continuous Tense.11.

7. What I (to tell) them?” The next plane (to leave) Salt Lake at six o’clock. and it means that I spend a lot of time in the library. 8. 9.) Ex. 4.The man is standing at the door. I am sorry. 1. Now where I (to go) in? “Do you know what time we (to arrive) at the frontier?” asked the soldier. beginning as shown. 11. I wonder if the agent (to manage) to make contact with him in Amsterdam. 3. Her voice was sharp and commanding: “I (not to go) home alone. ¹é³Ý Ùáï. so that the meaning stays the same. 15. Ex. Salt. Joseph. 6. 9. I can’t say when she (to be) home. I shall get that job. 12. (or this means spending a lot of time in the library) 29 . What time the train (to leave) for Nottingham? Mary and Adam’s wedding (to be) next week. “I am nervous.” “What we (to do) now?” she asked as they reached the street. see that there (to be) plenty of lamps for the guests. Example: I study hard. so I spend a lot of time in the library. Rewrite each sentence. She looked at her husband. And I have an appointment with your chief. My law term (to begin) soon”. Norah said: “I (to go) home tomorrow. 14. 13. 10. Use the proper tense-aspect form to express future actions in the following sentences. 8. I only know that he (to leave) the country tomorrow. If interview (to go) well. Come on. 5. (سñ¹Á Ï³Ý·Ý³Í ¿ The student is working in the next room. I study hard. There is a student working in the next room. Don’t ask me any more questions. 2. I am sure we will have peace together when he (to be) gone. I am Dr.

³Û¹ å³ï׳éáí ÈÇݹ³Ý ¿ í³ñáõÙ Ýñ³ ·áñÍ»ñÁ: ²Ûá. á±í ¿ ³Û¹ Ù³ñ¹Á. 10. ßï³åÇ′ñ: ºë ã·Çï»Ù` ÇÝ㠳ݻÉ: ¸áõ ÙÇßï µáÕáùáõÙ »ë ÇÙ Ëáѳñ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÇó /»÷»Éáõó/: â»Ù ѳëϳÝáõÙ` ÇÝãáõ± ¿ ݳ ³Û¹ù³Ý »ë³ëÇñ³µ³ñ å³ÑáõÙ Çñ»Ý ³Ûëûñ: êáíáñ³µ³ñ ݳ ³Û¹åÇëÇÝ ã¿: ƱÝã »ë ϳñÍáõÙ. 8. 7. Sunrise is at 4. ÇÝãå»¯ë ¿ ųٳݳÏÁ ÃéãáõÙ. 11. 5. .å³ï³ë˳ݻó ȳáõñ³Ý: ÐÇÙ³ DZÝã »Ýù ³Ý»Éáõ. 2. What’s your opinion of Wendy’s new painting? How long is that wall? Never mind about the price. ¨ ÇÝãáõ± ¿ ݳ Ù»½ ³Û¹å»ë ݳÛáõÙ: ¸áõ å»ïù ¿ ÃáõÛÉ ï³ë. 7. ºë ϳñÍáõÙ »Ù. He has flue. .Ýϳï»ó ÈÇÉÇÝ: ºñÏïáÕ ·ñÇñ Ýñ³Ý ¨ Ñ»ï¨Çñ.1. just buy it! Nigel keeps interrupting me. áñ ³Ûë ·ÇñùÁ Ù»Í Ñ³çáÕáõÃÛáõÝ Ïáõݻݳ: æ»ÛÝÁ ³ñÓ³Ïáõñ¹áõÙ ¿. 4. 3. áñ »°ë í׳ñ»Ù ׳ßÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ. . 6. Translate the following sentences into English. Do you enjoy modern music? Ex.30 tomorrow morning. 5. 4. What is the weight of that piece of meat? Paul is ill. »ë åݹáõÙ »Ù: 30 . 6. 9. Charles and his father are exactly alike. 13.ѳñóñ»ó Í»ñ ïÇÏÇÝÁ »ñµ ѳë³Ý ÷áÕáó: ²ÙáõëÝáõ Ó³ÛÝÁ ëáõñ ¨ ÇßËáÕ ¿ñ. µ³Ûó »ë ù»½ ã»Ù ëÇñáõÙ. 10. 8. 10. 2.ºë Ùï³¹Çñ ã»Ù Ù»Ý³Ï ïáõÝ ·Ý³É: ¶Ý³′Ýù. áñå»ë½Ç ãÝãÇÝ µ³Ý»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ³Ýѳݷëï³Ý³ù: ¸áõ ÇÝÓ ß³ï »ë ¹áõñ ·³ÉÇë. . The cost of the excursions is part of the price of the holiday. 9. 1. áñ ³ÛÝ Å³Ù³Ý³ÏÇÝ áõÕ³ñÏíÇ: ØÇ ûñ ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ Çëϳå»ë ÏѳñóÝÇ Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýó û ÇÝã »Ý Ýñ³Ýù áõ½áõÙ: ÎÛ³ÝùÁ ã³÷³½³Ýó ϳñ× ¿. 12. 3.

He won’t let anyone see the painting until it will be finished. It bleeds. Find and correct the errors in the following sentences. She bites her fingernails. Use either the Simple Present or the Present Continuous of the verbs in the list to complete the sentences. ¸áõù ѳݻÉáõÏÝ»ñáí »ù ËáëáõÙ ³Ûëûñ. 10. 11. 6. 31 . 19. I am thinking all of my answers are correct. ºë ã·Çï»Ù. The bank lent us money for a downpayment. . û »ñµ ¿ å³ïíÇñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÁ ųٳݻÉáõ. . â»±ë ï»ëÝáõÙ. ²Û¹ù³Ý ÇÝùݳѳí³Ý ÙÇ »ÕÇñ.³ë³ó ݳ ³Ù³ã»Éáí: 16. Ù»Ýù Ýñ³Ýó å³ïíÇÝ ×³ßÏ»ñáõÛà Ïϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»Ýù. I think about the verbs in this grammar practice right now. 5. She must be nervous. All of the mistakes are in verb tense form and usage. Ýñ³ÝÇó ÏáÝÛ³ÏÇ Ñáï ¿ ÷ãáõÙ: 17. »ë Ó»½ ã»Ù ѳëϳÝáõÙ: Ex. I am feeling that you don’t want to join us. just to make sure. ÆÝãá±õ »ë ³åáõñÇó Ñáï ù³ßáõÙ. 2. Ex.14. ë³Ï³ÛÝ »ñµ Ýñ³Ýù ³Ûëï»Õ ÉÇÝ»Ý. 7. 3. 4. 12. ¹³ ù»½ ãÇ ë³½áõÙ: 20. is Ireland.ÆÝãá±õ »ë ³Û¹å»ë Ñdzó³Í ݳÛáõÙ ÇÝÓ: -¸áõ ÑdzݳÉÇ ï»ëù áõÝ»ë ³Ûëûñ: 21. Juan! What’s the matter with your hand. but I’ll use the answer key to check them when I’ll finish. so now we are owning the house we used to rent. ÐÇÙ³ ³Û¹ Éë³ñ³ÝáõÙ ùÝÝáõÃÛáõÝ Ñ³ÝÓÝáÕ áñ¨¿ áõë³ÝáÕ Ï³±: 15. Look at Joan. ê»Ù: ÆÝãá±õ ã»ë áõïáõÙ: ²ÛÝ ß³ï Ñ³Ù»Õ ¿: 22. 9. He is owing an apology and an explanation to us. 1. ¸»ÛíÁ Ñ³×³Ë ¿ ³Ý³ËáñÅáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ áõÝ»ÝáõÙ áõëáõóÇãÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï: 18. ¸³ ÇÙ Ù»ÕùÝ ¿: ºë Ý»ñáÕáõÃÛáõÝ »Ù ËݹñáõÙ. which is lying to the west of Great Britain. 8. These shoes are feeling tight. It is too heavy for me to lift. This box is weighing a lot. The other big island. Use each verb only one time. áñ ݳ ѳñµ³Í ¿.

If you always … people will no longer believe you. “If you feel so strongly”. I… that she will phone tonight..to retire to exaggerate to suppose to fight to overhear to depend 1. I…. “Why … you it?” “Will you come?” – “That …. 20. 18. 3. I shall finish it in a fortnight. “Write and tell her you won’t come on Thursday. 10. People traditionally… coloured eggs at Easter. That’s the best we can hope for. The plumber is here. 21. to go fishing to expect to walk to feel not to do to burn to be need to get over to shrink to contain to realize to name to prefer to see to (to repair) to stand to prepare to go Pete was ill. He … that leak in our tank. “Tell her to come and see me if she … a medical attention or a friend. 22. she said. In nine cases out of ten children … chocolate ice-cream. I … with curiosity to know what happened to you yesterday. 24. Norah see that there.” My two children don’t get along.” … you … that we have been here for six months already? 32 . I … this ship HMS Victory. 19. It … forty maps. I think I’ll buy this atlas. 7. 9. 12. 17. 13. At the further end of the village… the medieval church. It seems they always…. 4. will Sue be there?” Come on! Tell me everything. 11. Wool … in hot water. 5. 14. Tell her you … it isn't right. 6. 16. 23.. enough champagne for the guests. but he… his illness now. If all … well. so I … to work these days. My car has broken down.” Stay by the door and make sure that nobody … us. 8. That sweater won’t fit you if you wash it in hot water. I hear our boss … tomorrow. 2. “And how about you? … you still … on Saturday mornings?” “Ladies and gentlemen. 15.

well. I’m going to tell you who I (suspect). one of the sales representatives. Ex. for example. 4.” And plenty of other interesting things (to go on). At the moment she (to go out) with Bob Balantine. 1. When you (to realize) that someone in your office is a thief. 2. 13. so we have all become friends. Put each verb in brackets into the most suitable present tense. He (to see) Betty Wills from the overseas department. most of my colleagues are so interesting that I (to think) of writing a book about them! (To take) Helen Watson. Comment on the following questions. We (to spend) most of the day together. 3. “And besides. What do people do that irritates you? Why are you irritated by these things? Do you think you have any annoying habits? What do you do to overcome these habits? 33 . But everyone except Helen apparently (to know) that Bob always (to make) eyes at Susan Porter. Helen (to run) the accounts department. “I can't’ stand people who (to apologies) all the time!” She told me. For instance. But I (also try) to catch whoever it is before the police (to be called in). But I (to happen) to know that Susan (to dislike) Bob.Ex.14. I know he (to deceive) poor Helen. it (to upset) you at first. not yet anyway. In fact. most of whom I (to know) quite well. and they (to seem) very happy together. every week money (to disappear from the petty cash box. I work in a large office with about thirty other people.

He first became a member of parliament in 1991. We use the simple past to express a single accomplished action in the past. two /three/ a few/some days/weeks/years/ centuries ago. the day before yesterday. It is often used with references to finished periods and moments of time. last week/month /year etc. see The Verb.UNIT II SIMPLE PAST. The time of the action is usually indicated by adverbs and adverbial phrases such as yesterday. I heard of it through a friend of mine a few days ago. longer situations. the previous day/week/month/year. A burglar broke into our house last week. Note1: The time of the action may be implied in the situation through the mention of the place or other attending circumstances. pronunciation and spelling of the simple past. Past events 1. and repeated events. -Did you buy anything in Paris? (the speaker knows when she was in Paris) 34 . PAST CONTINUOUS Simple past Affirmative I broke you broke he/she broke we broke they broke Interrogative did I break? did you break? did he/ she/it break? did we break? did they break? Negative I did not break you did not break he/she/it did not break we did not break they did not (didn’t) break Formation (For the formation.) Use: The simple past tense is generally used to talk about past events: short finished actions and happenings.

He opened the drawer.Yes. took out a revolver and rushed out of the room. Frank learnt Japanese when he studied at the University. I bought clothing and a lot of toys for my little daughter. Time relation 3. Note 2: Sometimes the mention of the time or the place of the action appears unnecessary because the action is definite in the mind of the speaker and the hearer. Brenda took a bath. She looked so serious. He spoke French when he was in Paris. She looked at him for a long time and then shrugged. “Did you speak to her?” “No. We use the simple past to say that one thing happened after another.. 4. While he lived in Germany he got to know a family of musicians. These actions may be either short finished actions or actions of some duration occupying a whole period of time. We may find the simple past in complex sentences introduced by when.” 2. She stayed with them for about three months and then decided to move to Belgium. dressed and then phoned John’s parents. He didn’t say a word as we drove home. It was a hot summer evening. 35 . He spent all his youth in Russia. We can also use the simple past in narration to express a succession of actions in the past. I didn’t dare. as or while conjunctions when the two actions are fully simultaneous.

during or all day. I was ill for a week and during that week I ate nothing.When Father entered the room. Some years ago there used to be a nice oak tree here. he opened an exhibition of his pictures. now and again. The simple past is used to express permanent states or recurrent actions in the past. never. She stopped playing the piano when Soames came in. 36 . He lived by the sea – in an old and deserted hut. “How long did you stay in Paris?” “For about a month. They are ‘used to’ and ‘would + infinitive. all night and the like. Note 3: In English there are special means of expressing a recurrent or permanent action in the past.” He worked in the bank for two years and then decided to quit it.’ ‘used to’ expresses a past habit or situation that no longer exists. he didn’t use to believe in God. The simple past is used to express an action which occupied a whole period of time now over. Regularly every summer. The period of time is usually indicated by means of ‘for phrases’. Repeated events 5. (a permanent state in the past) He would get up early in the morning and go for a walk in the woods. His father was a famous doctor. sometimes. The couple often went to discos when they were on holiday. A period of time now over 6. etc. When he was much younger. The latter is generally supported by frequency adverbs: often. my sister put the receiver down.

d) He promised he would take care (that) no harm came to her. The simple past is used to express a future action viewed from the past in a) time clauses. c) Even if he didn’t want to listen to me.Future actions viewed from the past 7. c) concessive clauses d) object clauses after to see (that). to take care (that). (see Unit I) a) We visited all the museums before we left the city.the Past is usually used in the principal clause. I would try to speak to him. b) I asked him not to worry if I was late. b) conditional clauses. Past Continuous Affirmative I was playing you were playing he/she/it was playing we were playing they were playing Interrogative was I playing? were you playing? was he/she/it playing? were we playing? were they playing? Negative I was not (wasn’t) playing you were not playing he/she/it was not playing we were not playing they were not (weren’t) playing Formation The past continuous tense is formed by the past tense of the verb to be + participle I (For the spelling. Used without a time expression it can indicate gradual development: 37 . see Unit I) Use: The past continuous is chiefly used for past actions which continued for some time but whose exact limits are not known and are not important. Future. to make sure (that). He was reading a book when I came home.in.

continually. We entered our own flat. I picked up two letters which were lying on the floor. 2. What were you doing before you came here. ‘Around a particular past time’ 1. constantly expresses a frequently repeated past action which often annoys the speaker. They were cleaning the basement from 7.00 yesterday. When they arrived. This time last year they were traveling round Europe. A complex sentence with a time clause introduced by the conjunction as: 38 . we were still laying the table. Time relation 4.00 till 9. I didn’t like him – he was continually borrowing money. The Past Continuous with always. It is used to express an action going on at a given period of time in the past.It was getting dark and we decided to turn back. The past continuous is used to say that something was in progress (going on) around a particular past time. We may find the simple past and the past continuous used in different combinations with each other. He was always ringing me up at a very late hour. Annoying habits 3. Note 1: Sometimes the past continuous is found in apparently parallel actions: Between one and two I was doing the shopping and walking the dog.

We find the simple past in both clauses. As the tree grew. 39 . As I was walking in the street. b) The actions of the principal and subordinate clauses may be partially simultaneous. The simple past is commonly found in both clauses. which refers to a continuous action or state: As I sat reading the paper. especially with a verb like sit. grow etc. As the sun rose. the birds began to sing. The simple past is found in both clauses. The action of the subordinate clause serves as a ‘background’ for the action of the principal clause which is usually a shorter accomplished action. As we were leaving home.a) The actions of the two clauses may be fully simultaneous. were playing. As I turned back into the room a gust of wind crashed the door shut behind me. 5.): It was raining as I was walking up the hill towards the station at six o’clock on a Saturday. As he got older he got more optimistic. the door burst open. Note 2: A continuous form is usually used for longer ‘background’ action or situation (was walking. c) The actions of the two clauses may form a succession. the telephone rang. Time clauses introduced by when: a) The two actions may be fully simultaneous. The simple past is found in the principal clause and the past continuous in the subordinate clause. its leaves turned brown. are having. stand. But as and while can be used with a simple tense. lie. I saw Bob.

In this case either the simple past is found in both sentences or the past continues is found in the subordinate clause and the simple past is found in the principal clause. Note 3: (just) as. Time clauses introduced by while: a) The two actions may be fully simultaneous. 40 . It was raining when we arrived When I saw him in the street. His parents died when he was twelve. 6. he was arguing with an elderly man. I thought of it just when you opened your mouth. b) The actions can be partially simultaneous (the action/situation of the principal clause serves as a background for the action of a when clause which is a short accomplished action). The past continuous is found in the principal clause and the past simple in the subordinate clause. He hurt his back when he was working in the garden. The telephone always rings/rang when you are/ were having a bath. c) A when clause may serves to introduce a longer ‘background’ action or situation. My boss doesn’t/ didn’t like to be interrupted when he is/was having an important talk.When he lived in that small town his friends often visited him. We may as well find the past continuous in both sentences. which is/was going on when something else happens/happened. Mary always arrives/arrived just as I start/started work. (just) when are used to say that two short actions or events happen/happened at the same time.

The child was drawing while her mother was ironing her clothes. I thought you were never coming. She sat still as a statue while he was playing the sonata. all day long. Grandfather was working in the garden all day long. 41 . The past continuous or the simple past is often used after such phrases as the whole day.the action of the subordinate clause serves as a background for the action of the principal clause which is a shorter accomplished action. 9. expressing irritation. These sentences describe events intended to take place. Future events 8. He said that Jane was leaving the country in two days. We use the past continuous to express an action which was supposed to take place in the near future due to a previous arrangement. Note 5: Notice the following sentence which is a stereotype. b) Partially simultaneous actions . It is emotionally coloured. but which didn’t happen. The simple past is found in the principal clause and the past continuous in the subordinate clause. He fell asleep while he was reading a book. Dave broke his leg while he was playing football (or …while playing football) While they were playing cards. somebody broke into the house.Martha said nothing but looked from one face to the other while they discussed the plans. Grandfather worked in the garden all day long. 7.

When our daughter was a little girl. Curtis. He knew that the plane flew at 2. I worked on my book for several years. Ex. When he was much younger he didn’t use to believe in God. Albert Einstein was one of them. 19. m. I was thinking of going to Italy this year. whoever followed the old man would be revealed. Many scientists were responsible for the development of the atomic bomb. We left the country before the war began. 16. /t/ or /id/ Example: The plane …landed in the field. 2. The Egyptians were the first people to use paper. (obey) 42 . Sometimes Catherine and I went for rides out in the country in a carriage. 13. he took her out on long slow strolls: he saw that she went to bed early. 3. /id/ (land) 1. ACTIVITY Ex. Everybody at the office knew that he retired the next week. Give the past forms of these regular verbs. “But why did he think you would come here to begin with. Explain the use of the Simple Past in the following sentences. Scofield wanted to get to the airport before the agent found him. “Who gave you your name?” “My father. 4. but I forgot. 12. he was to return to the library and wait. 5. The soldiers …… The sergeant’s orders.” 18. but I started doing something else. 6. Whom did you dance with at the party? 9. Show whether you would pronounce these past forms as /d/. watching her son play and learn to sign now. 20. but I haven’t decided. I saw Barbara and her husband at the football game. In this circumstances.10.” 7.30 a. but now he does.2.I was going to phone you. He did his best to look after her. 17. 1. I went into the bedroom and put my tie on and looked at myself in the mirror. Alexander Graham Bell was the inventor of the telephone. If no contact was made. 11. But time after time she would go to the school and sit on a bench outside with Mrs. I was about to do it. 14. she used to play house. 8. 15. 1.

9. Johnson was very busy at the hospital yesterday. 8. 6. 10. 4. fortunately. We ……. …………………… before I went to bed. she was delivering babies all day long. 43 . (try) I …… his letter a week ago. 8. 5. 9. first class. 4. (hurry) He …… when he saw me. Ex. (stop) Bob finally …… her. 7.3. If he/she phoned me………………………… It was raining all day yesterday so I……………. (marry) Ex. ……………………after I finished school. What was happening in the world when you were born? Dr.. Life was changing very quickly during the second half of the ninetieth century. 2. 3. I was listening to the radio when the sensational news suddenly came on. (wait) They …… to talk me into coming. (laugh) You …… to me! (lie) She …… into the house. 6. 7. Complete the following sentences using the simple past. 4. As soon as I …………………………………. Comment on the use of the Past Continuous or Simple Past tenses in the following sentences. 5. 10. She followed him wherever he ……. 1. 4. 2.. When I was a little girl/boy …………………… Everybody kept silent When…………………. (travel) He …… an hour yesterday. 7. 3. 5. How many people were sitting in the theatre when the fire started? It was bright sunlight in the room when I woke. 3. 6.2. (post) Nobody …… at him. They weren’t sleeping at the time of the earthquake. ……… When I studied at school…………………… …………………while I made breakfast. 1.

She said that she didn’t want to stay there any longer and that she was leaving the country in a week. During the study period in class yesterday. Then he noticed Jack.5. it was hard for me to concentrate because the student next to me was humming. 12. Ex. I studied English.8. She was cleaning her apartment. 1. Soon she saw that someone was moving among the tomato plants. 6. She left the house and went along a sandy path leading to the vegetable garden. When Joan was a child she used to be very nervous. and Mrs. Warren looked for an apartment. 17. I was studying English. He was leaving in the morning. 7. She was typing letters. 4. He was filling out his income tax form. Mr. His steps slowed down as he mounted the stairs. He saw that one of the students was having difficulty with the homework. 2. David and Jeff washed windows. She typed letters. it read five minutes to eleven. Warren were looking for an apartment. and Mrs. 10. 5. He was standing in front of the fire and was talking Italian to a man in glasses. 16. Philip made no haste to move from where he sat. 14. 44 . Mr. 15. I was doing my laundry. she was always biting her fingernails. 13. She stopped beside Tommy who was in a particularly scornful mood. 9. David and Jeff were washing windows. 3. I did my laundry. Make up situations to justify the use of the Past continuous and the Simple Past in the following pairs of sentences. 18. He filled out his income tax form. Sally cleaned her apartment. He turned to him and said that the office smelt like a stagedressing-room. I looked at my watch. 11.

He wasn’t usually like that. 45 . Rewrite each sentence. 4. Maria promised to help us. Emily accidentally (to stick) her finger with a needle while she (to sew). 7. He (to smell) the soup. 13. 6. I hope she (to mean) what she said. so that the meaning stays the same.7.Ex. She (to see) that the boy (not to want) to eat the soup. 15. It was already late. 5. then I (to stop) writing. 8. Complete the sentences with the Simple Past or the Past Continuous of the verbs in parentheses. 9. Example: Harry kept interrupting me. She told me last night that she (to go) for a swim if she (to wake) early. She was very nervous. everyone (to be startled). They both (to rise) when I (to enter). As I (to stop) at the bar to have a drink I (to see) them talking it over. Mother looked at her son. We entered our own flat. beginning as shown. 14. The team (to celebrate) it’s victory at the Olympics all night long. She (to tear) her dress while she (to change). I (to pick up) two letters which (to lie) on the floor. I couldn’t understand why he (to be) selfish. 2. While the artist (to paint) her portrait. Yesterday I (to clean) my apartment from the time I (to get up) to the time I (to go) to bed. He asked me what work I (to do) and whether I (to intend) to go to the University. When the balloon (to burst). 16. There (not to be) anything (to cook) on the stove when I got home. 6. 10. 3. 11. I left myself in with my key and made my way upstairs. Crystal and Arthur (to sit) at the table. 12. I (to write) to him for a while. she (to admire) his handsome profile. 1. Ex.

John (to take) a photograph of me while I (not to look). It (to be) idle chitchat as they (to drive) along. 5. 6. A. 1. 8. There was a smell of onions in the kitchen. 5. 8. “while” – clauses and “when ”. Though she was a woman she was organizing and controlling her business perfectly. 11. The new stadium could admit 120. Use the Simple Past or the Past Continuous in the following sentences containing “as” clauses. So I (to stop) and (to have) a chat. the manager (to sit) in his office interviewing Raymond Hewson. George had the irritating habit of making trouble. but I forgot. What was there in that box? What was his opinion of the government’s decision? He said that he was sure ghosts didn’t exist.000 people supporters. We used to spend Sunday afternoons working in the garden. A young woman (to hurry) into the station and (to phone) for an ambulance while I (to take) care of the driver.) at high speed and (to rush) him away to hospital. 3. 8. Ex. 3. 2. 9. The doorbell (to ring) while I (to take) a bath. 1. While the uniformed attendant (to usher) the last strugglers through the great glass-paneled double doors. When she (to come) back an hour later. The poor man (to groan) quietly when the ambulance (to arrive.clauses. 10. he (to speak) to him angrily. 10. 12. She (to pick up) her handbag and (to walk) out the door as Barbara (to watch her). 6. I was not sure if he was telling the truth. 4. She never remembered to eat when she (to write). 7. John (to manage) to use his crib 46 . 4. It (to rain) as I (to walk) up the hill towards the station at six o clock on a Saturday. Diana wasn’t always as rude as that. When he (to find) the man in black. 9. I intended to call you yesterday. I (to walk) along the road when I (to see) Dave. 11. 7. The Caliph decided to go to the market and investigate. 2. Daphne still (to work). The driver was injured.Harry was always / continually interrupting me. He was doing well in his examinations.

»ñµ å³ñáÝ êÙÇÃÁ ë»ÝÛ³Ï Ùï³í: 12. Explain the time relation between the two sentences. áñ ϳí³ñïÇ ³Û¹ ³ß˳ï³ÝùÁ. ºñÇï³ë³ñ¹ Ù³ëݳ·»ïÁ Ëáëï³ó³í. ºñµ æáÝÁ »ñÇï³ë³ñ¹ ¿ñ. ê³é³ÛÇ ³ÙáõëÇÝÁ »ñµ»ù ã¿ñ ëÇñáõÙ Ñ»é³Ëáëáí Ëáë»É: ºñµ ¿É áñ ³ÛÝ ½Ý·áõÙ ¿ñ.clauses. Translate the following sentences into English using the Simple Past or Past Continuous Tenses. ¨ áñ ׳ñï³ñ³·»ïÝ»ñÁ ÇÝã-áñ ËݹÇñÝ»ñ áõÝ»Ý` ϳåí³Í ³Û¹ ѳٳϳñ·ãÇ Ñ»ï: 4. áõÙ »ë ï»ë³. Ex. æ»ÛÝÁ óáõÛó ïí»ó Çñ íÇñ³Ï³åí³Í Ù³ïÁ: Ø»Ýù ã½³ñÙ³ó³Ýù: ܳ ÙÇßï ¿É Ù³ïÁ ÏïñáõÙ ¿ñ. When I first (to see) Alan. Write sentences (or short situations) with “as” clauses. γé³í³ñÇãÝ ³ë³ó. 1. û »ë Ùï³¹Çñ »Ù óáõÛó ï³É Çñ»Ýó` ÇÝãå»ë í³ñ»É ³Û¹ ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛ³Ý ·áñÍ»ñÁ: 6. “while” – clauses and “when ”. »ñµ áñ¨¿ µ³Ý ¿ñ å³ïñ³ëïáõÙ: 10.12. ºë Ùï³ ·ñ³ë»ÝÛ³Ï ¨ ßáõñçµáÉáñë ݳۻóÇ: ´áÉáñÁ ½µ³Õí³Í ¿ÇÝ Çñ»Ýó ·áñÍ»ñáí: 47 . he (to try) to find a job in London. ²é³çÇÝ Ù³ñ¹Á. ÇÙ ùáõÛñÝ ¿ñ: гÛñë ëå³ëáõÙ ¿ñ ÇÝÓ Çñ Ù»ù»Ý³ÛáõÙ` û¹³Ý³í³Ï³Û³ÝÇó ¹áõñë: 3. áñ Ýáñ ѳٳϳñ·ÇãÁ ãÇ ³ß˳ïáõÙ. B. ܳ å³ñ½³å»ë áõ½áõÙ ¿ñ ѳí³ëïdzݳÉ. µ³Ûó Éé»óÇÝ.while the teacher (not to look). û ÇÝãÇ Ù³ëÇÝ ¿ ݳ ËáëáõÙ: 2. »ñµ Çç³ ÇÝùݳÃÇéÇó. î³ñÇÝ»ñ ³é³ç Ý»ñϳÛÇë §ØáëÏí³¦ ÏÇÝáóïñáÝÇ ï»ÕáõÙ ÙÇ »Ï»Õ»óÇ Ï³ñ` ÝíÇñí³Í êáõñµ äáÕáë ¨ ä»ïñáë ³é³ùÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇÝ: 11. ݳ ÙÇßï ·áéáõÙ ¿ñ. “ºë ³Ûëï»Õ ã»Ù:” 9. ݳ ëáíáñáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»ñ ³Ù»Ý ûñ ë³éÁ óÝóáõÕ ÁݹáõÝ»É Ý³Ëù³Ý ³ß˳ï³ÝùÇ ·Ý³ÉÁ: 7. Üñ³Ýù ϳñÍáõÙ ¿ÇÝ. ÇÝãù³Ý ¿É áñ ³ÛÝ Çñ»ÝÇó Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ËÉÇ: 5. 9. ´áÉáñÁ ½ñáõóáõÙ ¿ÇÝ. ø³ÝÇ áñ ß³ï ¿Ç ß÷áÃí³Í ³Û¹ å³ÑÇÝ. áñ áã ÙÇ íݳë ã»Ý å³ï׳éÇ Çñ »ñ»Ë³ÛÇÝ ³Û¹ ¹åñáóáõÙ: 8. »ë ã¿Ç ѳëϳÝáõÙ.

9. Soldiers (to wander) around carrying equipment from one place to another. 7. but there (not to seem) to be any purpose to what they (to do). It got dark now and the general drove more slowly than ever. Harry went back to the camp the following morning. 10. 6. Ex. 5. Who he was he didn’t have any right to speak to me like that. the first dead man person he (ever to see). A wooden building a few hundred yards away suddenly (to disappear) in an explosion of flame. 1. although not many people danced. 11. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable past tense. but it (not to take) a genius to realize that most of the officers (to take) the first opportunity to abandon the men and head for safety. but it was in some confusion. When you lived in London were you travelling by doubledecker? 2. 48 . 8. 12. The planes (to vanish) as suddenly as they (to appear). Smoke (to rise) from burning buildings.) quiet. when the first plane (to fly) low over the camp. When he was a student he was often making that mistake. At the end of the week she wrote that she returned. He (to try) to find out exactly (to go on). Everyone was talking but stopped at the time. but something (to happen) to the telephone lines. It was more than a month until I realized what had happened.Ex. I managed to talk to Carol once she was leaving. And suddenly it (to begin) to rain. and then everything (to go. Harry (never to be) in an army camp before. 4. A dead man (to lie) next to Harry. 10. Ann wasn’t seeming very happy at the moment. Only use the past perfect where this is absolutely necessary. 11. 3. Identify any possible errors in these sentences. He (to try) to phone the newspaper. We bought our tickets and five minutes after the train arrived. Everyone was having a good time. Before long bombs (to explode) all around him. I am yet waiting for an answer from him.

see The Verb) Use: This tense may be said to be a mixture of present and past. He can’t come to your party because he’s broken his leg. radio reports. 49 . It always implies a strong connection with the present and is chiefly used in conversations. lectures and letters. They say he is a very decent person.UNIT III PRESENT PERFECT. The present perfect is used just to name a past occurrence without mentioning any definite circumstances under which it occurred. newspapers. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Present Perfect Affirmative I have worked you have worked he/she/it has worked we have worked they have worked Interrogative have I worked? have you worked? has he/she/it worked? have we worked? have they worked? Negative I have not worked you have not worked he/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked we have not (haven’t worked) they have not (haven’t) worked Formation The present perfect is built up by means of the auxiliary verb have/has+ participle II of the notional verb. Finished events connected with the present 1. I have heard about him. (It may have an obvious result in the present). (For the formation of the participle II. They have brought their children with them.

Note 1: Although the present perfect is mainly used for fairly recent occurrences. The time of the action is very often given in the second sentence. As it has been mentioned above. There was an explosion at the station last night.” . Compare: There has been an explosion at the station. Have you seen the current production of “Romeo and Juliet?” Notice that the present perfect is not used to talk about a finished event. 3.000? I have bought a new dress to wear at their wedding.I’ve only seen her once.) “You have so often been helpful in the past.).” said Joseph. this tense is often used in newspapers and radio reports lectures and letters to introduce an action or an event which will then be described in the simple past tense (when we go into details. if we say when it happened. you know. 50 . climbed a twenty foot wall and got away in a stolen car. 2. They used a ladder. Witnesses say that there was an explosion as the aircraft was taking off. The present perfect is the most normal tense for giving (or asking) news of recent events. (It may also express recurrent actions or states of some duration.I am afraid they’ll find her rather dull. It was a long time ago and then she didn’t speak much. the present perfect changes to the simple past or past continuous. There has been a plane crash near Bristol. “You’ve all been young once. We’ve all felt it.” “I have tried. Two prisoners have escaped from Dartmoor. we may sometimes find the present perfect used for actions which took place long ago. . I hear the pound has fallen against the dollar. Do you know that the number of unemployed has reached 30. Roy.

just….?) I never heard such nonsense. I haven’t seen Alice this morning. simple past tenses are sometimes possible with always. (the period is over) Repetition and continuation to now 6. never. recently. Note 2: In an informal style.) Note 3: Notice the use of the simple past with just now. Eng. I am sure we have never met before.(Am. I always knew I could trust you. I bought it last week. Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you. ever and never when they refer to ‘time up to now. already. Have you ever been to Europe? They have just missed their train. lately. 5. I have bought a new car. yet. (the period isn’t over yet) I didn’t see Alice this morning. before. Eng. so far.) I didn’t call Bob yet. The present perfect is used with today/this morning/this week when these periods aren’t finished. We can use the present perfect to say that something has happened several times up to the present. (Am.Dear George. It cost me a lot of money… ‘Time up to now’ 4. (or I’ve always known…) Did you ever see anything like that before? (or have you ever seen…. We often use the present perfect for past events when we are thinking of a period of time continuing up to the present – for example when we use indefinite time adverbs that mean “at some time / at any time up to now”: like ever. That rule was just now explained to us. How often have you been in love in your life? 51 .

the present perfect should be used. in years. The children haven’t had any fun in a long while. He has been like that since his childhood. for a long time. where and why both the present perfect and simple past may be used. Care should be taken when we use the present perfect to express the duration of an action. 8. or includes it. (the person is in Paris) How long did you stay in Paris? (the person is no longer in Paris) The use of the present perfect with special questions 9. That house has been empty for six months. what…for. 52 . In this case either the whole period of duration of the action is marked or its starting point: for an hour. since last spring. in a long while ….He has written five letters to her since lunchtime. the simple past is used and if the period of duration comes close to the moment of speaking. (parallel actions which began in the past and continue into the present). Compare: How long have you been in Paris. We often use the present perfect to talk about how long present situation has lasted. The simple past is used with the special questions when and how because the attention in such sentences is drawn to the circumstances of the action rather than to the occurrence itself. She has been singing since she has been taking a bath. But as for what. I have loved him since I have known him. If the period of duration belongs to the past time sphere. since she was ten years old etc. depending on the meaning to be conveyed. we sometimes find in both parts of the complex sentence two parallel actions which began in the past and continue into the present. They haven’t seen each other since they left school. for the past/in the last few days. 7. In this case the present perfect (or the present perfect continuous) is found in both clauses. However.

Notice that we usually prefer a simple past tense when we identify the person. With terminative verbs the use of the both forms is possible. The present perfect is found in time clauses after when. thing or circumstances responsible for a present situation (because we are focusing on the past cause. “Who has met?” asked John St. I’ll invite her to the party. after. until to express a future action (to show that one thing will be accomplished before the other thing starts.” That’s a nice picture. Time clauses 11. Where have you been all this time? Note 4. The choice of the form (simple present or present perfect) depends on the lexical meaning of the verb. as soon as. Who has dropped this tten pound note? -Some fool has let the cat in. Did you paint it yourself? How did you get that bruise? The Chinese invented paper. Can I borrow that magazine when you have finished it? but When I phone Kate this evening. -Look what John has given me! (Who let that cat in?) (Who gave you that watch?) “Why are you crying?” “Granny hit me. (in this example the two things happen together) We may find the simple present in this type of clauses.) Compare: “They have met. sir” said the assistant manager. 53 . Jacques.). With durative verbs the present perfect is more common.When did you pass your exam? (present perfect is never used in when questions) What books did you read when you were on holiday? What books have you read about it? Where were you yesterday? I came to your office but you weren’t there. not the present result.

It’s the third time she has broken a cup. It is not used in narration where reference is made to past events. Like the present perfect. lectures and letters. I’ll tell you when I’ve finished /finish it. Present Perfect Continuous Affirmative I have been playing you have been playing he/she/it has been playing we have been playing they have been playing Interrogative have I been playing? have you been playing? has he/she/it been playing? have we been playing? have they been playing? Negative I have not (haven’t) been playing you have not been playing he/she/it has not (hasn’t) been playing we have not been playing they have not been playing Formation The present perfect continuous is built up by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the present perfect and participle I of the notional verb. The present perfect continuous is used to express an action. Note that we say “It’s the first/second third…time something has happened” It’s the second time I have lost my wallet. ‘Up to now’ focus 1.I can tell you whether the machine is good or bad when I have tried it. the present perfect continuous is found in present time contexts. It is used in conversations. In this meaning it is parallel to the present perfect and may be 54 . have/has been + participle I Use: We usually use the present perfect continuous to talk about actions which started in the past and are still going on or which have just stopped and have present results. newspaper and radio reports. 12. which began before the moment of speaking and continues into it or up to it.

but I think I’ll make it every week from now on. How long have you been learning English? Continuous activity recently finished or coming to an end 2.” “You are out of breath. He has been jogging every morning for the last month. I have been waiting for you for three hours. 55 .stop until five o’clock.used with the same indications of time as have already been described in the present perfect tense (for a long time. for the last three days.” but “You look tired. I have been having violin lessons every two weeks. In this meaning the present perfect is not parallel to the present perfect continuous. since last spring.” “I have been running all the way to the office.” I’ve just been having such a delightful chat with Margaret. The present perfect continuous is used to express an action which was in progress quite recently and has a connection with now. He began abruptly: “I’ve been thinking about what you told me.) It has been raining / has rained steadily since last Saturday. (sometimes just is found with the present perfect continuous form) 3. The precise time limits of the action aren’t specified (it is only occasionally found with indications of time). “She looks tired.” “What have you been doing?”“I have been shutting the windows.” “She has been writing letters all morning”. The wind is rising. since my childhood etc. This tense is common when we are talking about situations which are just coming to an end or may change.” “I was cycling non.

(focus on continuous activity) I have read your book. The simple perfect on the other hand looks more at the ideas of completion and present result. I have been planting new rose bushes. Continuous change or development 5. extended activity (not necessarily finished). 56 . looking at it as a continuous. (focus on result) 2. Compare: I have been reading your book. but I have played tennis three times this week. I have been playing a lot of tennis recently. I’ve planted a lot of new rose bushes. (focus on continuous activity) My garden looks nice. Scientists believe that the universe has been expanding steadily since the beginning of time. We can use the present perfect continuous to talk about repeated actions and events. even if this is permanent. (focus on completion) I must have a bath. We generally use present perfect continuous to talk about continuous change or development. Simple Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous Basic contrasts: 1. We also avoid using the present perfect continuous with how many and how many times questions. (but not if we say how many/ how many times they have happened because this stresses the idea of completion) I have been taking French lessons this year.4. Compare: I have been playing a lot of tennis recently. The present perfect continuous focuses on the action / situation itself. but not if we say how often they have happened because this stresses the idea of completion. We can use the present perfect continuous to talk about repeated actions and events.

I have played tennis three times this week. Remember that a number of verbs are not used in the continuous form. I haven’t been sleeping well recently (which means I have been sleeping but my sleep hasn’t been sound enough) 57 . when we talk about longerlasting or permanent situations we often prefer the simple present perfect. both tenses are possible in cases like this. I have ironed five shirts so far. For 900 years the castle has stood on the hill above the village. (how many times) I have been ironing since morning. That man has been standing on the corner all day. with a slight difference of emphasis: He has worked / has been working in the same job for thirty years. We often prefer the present perfect continuous to talk about more temporary actions and situations. (how many) How many pages of that book have you read? 3. However. We can therefore say: Have you been hearing from him recently? I have been wanting to throw at him something for a long time. 4. Note 1: The present perfect continuous is also found in negative sentences but in this case the negation doesn’t refer to the action but to the length of its duration or to the circumstances attending the action. but that some of these can be used in this form in certain cases (see Unit I).

” she said. That’s what people always want to know. “Now you can’t get away. “Well. Daff. I haven’t done that kind of thing since I was in high school. 1.” “And what do you say? That I have had a tragic life? That’s exactly what I don’t want to tell them.ACTIVITY Ex. They always ask me. “Well … look … I have to be honest. the jewelers. 9.” “You have taken years of my life. “I have been robbed.” “You mention it often enough. “Are you awake?” “Where have you been?” “I just went out to get a breath of air.” 5. Thirty thousand pound’s worth jewellery has been stolen from Jonathan Wild and Company. The thieves broke into the flat above some time during Sunday night and entered the shop by cutting a hole in the floor. Matt …” 7. you are entitled to a nervous breakdown. hello.” “Only three. “Now I have got you!” she said. 1. “Tell them about you.” 58 .” 11. “I … I have lost so much in the past. “Robbed!” said Silas gaspingly. Family turkey dinners just aren’t my style. Why don’t think of yourself for a change?” 4.” “You owe it to me. “Andrew was born deaf. Comment on the use of the present tense aspect-forms in the following situations. “I don’t know … ” She sounded so fragile and so sad. From what I have seen in the last two days.” “Why. “Don’t you ever relax?” “No more than you do.” 2.” 10.” 3. dear.” said her host. You never told me that. But you’ve made enough for Andrew by now. “Hello.” “Jesus Christ. “I have heard that story before. “I am thirty-four. I want the constable.” 6. How are you?” 8. He is in a school for the deaf in New Hampshire.

Have you spoken to him? Did you speak to him? I taught little children. “and he is the smartest human being I have ever known. I didn’t read the paper this morning. I passed all my exams.” said Iris. “I have been here all day. I won’t speak to him until he has apologized. 7.” He felt a lump rise in his throat. I left the car outside the garage. 8. I have seen him today. Tom broke that chair. But I will.” 16. “Not yet.” 15. Make up situations to justify the use of the Present Perfect and the Simple Past in the following pairs of sentences.12. “I have been in love with her since I have known her.” “No. I saw him today. I haven’t read the paper this morning. 1. I will. 5.” “If you don’t. 4. 6. I’ve left the car outside the garage. We have settled everything. I’ve taught little children. I meant what I said this morning. “I am not going to lose her. I’ve passed all my exams. 3. “You’re right. “Forgive him for being rude. “Has anybody come here today?” “An absolutely stunning girl was here looking for you.” Said Barbara. 2. Tom has broken that chair. Barb. We settled everything. 2.” 13. “Did you call Murdock?” His eyes were hard as he looked at Iris.” “Did she say what she wanted?” Ex. he is terrific. 59 .” 14.

he … 380. Complete the sentences with the Simple Past or Present Perfect of the verb in parentheses. The sun …. In the last six months. they … on everything. “Mr. 2. 3.000 miles (to fly). 12:15 and 1:45 (to call). Mark … the violin with the London symphony since 1985. Have you got enough money? I (to spend) my last dollar on the taxi. Karl … a trip to Asia last October. Last year he … a Beethoven violin concert at one of the concerts (to play). Since this morning. Use the Present Perfect (I) or the Simple Past in the following situations. Example: 1. he … here four times trying to reach you. “Can we get dinner here?” asked John. Our University … 120 students to study in other countries last year. He … many beautiful pictures in his lifetime.Ex. 7. we … 864 students abroad over the last ten years (to send). 6. Jack really needs to get in touch with you. 8. he … a beautiful mountain scene (to draw). Ex 4. Masaru is a pilot for JAL. she … only three letters to her parents (to write). Last year. 1. 10:25. Since then. Dillon (to arrive) Kate?” 60 . 3. He … at 9:10. 9. It … at 6:08 (to rise). Julia … home at least once each week. Alex is an artist. 4. and the rest of the negotiations have gone smoothly (to agree). Last week. When she was in collage. He … nearly 8 million miles during the last 22 years. I have worn my new evening dress only once since I bought it. In total. The night has ended and it’s daylight now.” 2. He … many trips to Asia since he started his own import-export business (to take). The company and the union finally … on salary raises two days ago. 5. “Of course we can. I wore it to my sister’s wedding (to wear). Now she has a job and is living in Chicago.

dear.” “Oh. so I (to knock) instead. 5. “She (to say) what she (to want)?” “I understand you (to have) an unpleasant experience there. of course not.” “I (to see) him already.” “If you don’t. “Yes.” said Milly.” answered the child. “Yes.” said Christopher. You (to see) my little girl yet.” “You (to read) “Winnie the Pooh” by A. Dillon? I (not to hear) you ring the bell.” “I (cannot) find the bell. I (to mean) what I (to say) this morning. Even now I can’t believe I (to do) it. What (to happen) exactly?” “Let’s forget it. I will. Ogden. Ogden?” “I don’t think we (to meet) before.” Christopher opened the door for me.” “I (to see) him in the hall this afternoon.3. 7. 4. “Come and say ‘How do you do’ to Mr. 61 .” “Did you call Murdock?” Her eyes were hard as she looked at Iris.” “I am sure you didn’t. I entered my flat. “It’s impossible. an absolutely stunning girl (to be) here looking for you. You (to find) your way all right then. 8. Milne?” the guest tried to talk to the little boy. good.” answered the boy. 6. “And how you (to like) it?” “Very much indeed.” “What’s Tony going to say? You (to tell) Tony?” “Why should he care? He is young.” “What you (to be) up to? What you (to do)?” “I (to sell) the house.” said the little girl to her mother and looked at her companion. Mr. He only just (to arrive) here. Ogden. Mr.” “I (to save) some money – enough for Tony to go off for a couple of years. “Not yet. “I say.” said Mr. But I will.” “Why you (not to tell) him?” “Hello. “You (to raise) all that money by doing your own housework?” “No.

After that. And Mrs.Ex. 62 . is very successful. For the past six years he (to be) the manager of the Big Value Supermarket on Grant Street. Everybody at the Big Value Supermarket is very proud of Louis. They are very proud of their family. Louis (to work) very hard to get where he is today. Patterson doesn’t work now. Patterson (to be) happily married for thirty-five years.6. he (to become) the manager of the store. He says he enjoys staying at home. First he (to be) a clerk for two years. he (to be) an assistant manager for five years. a) She hasn’t got over her cold … b) I got a very good mark … c) Many countries have become independent nations … d) I have warned you about this … e) I have decided to believe you … f) I haven’t been feeling very well … g) The last time I saw him … h) Mary started learning German … i) It’s a long time … j) … we haven’t noticed anything unusual. so that the meaning stays the same. I haven’t been to the seaside for a long time. Rewrite each sentence beginning as shown. Mr. Louis. Ex.7. He (to start) at the bottom and he (to work) his way up to the top. Then he (to be) a cashier for three years. He (to work) in a bank for 25 years. Their son. 1) so far … 2) … yet 3) …three years ago 4) … on the final examination 5) … was in 1990 6) … time and time again 7) since the end of World WarII 8) … since I last went to a football match 9) … for the past hour or two 10) … for the time being Ex. Example: It’s a long time since I last went to the seaside. Mr. 5. Read the text and put each verb in the brackets into the Simple Past or the Present Perfect. six years ago. Then he (to give) it up. Don’t use an ending more than once. Complete each sentence from a) to j) with an appropriate ending from 1) to 10). Finally.

9. “What time is it?” “Almost nine o’clock” “Damn. “He is in St Joseph’s Hospital. “I am going to see Mr. Jane is always on holiday.” “Oh. “I know that you didn’t like that city. 3.” 4. Supply the Present Perfect or the Simple Past in the following questions. They have been married for five years. “Why didn’t someone wake me?” 3. It’s two hours since they started to play ball. “Oh. her mother called to her: “Where have you been?” 5. 9. “I have seen that couple lately. actually. It’s still a socialist country.” “When did you see them?” “Why hasn’t he let us know where he has gone?” 2. What has happened to you? 10. Latin is a dead language now. 12. Warren. I started to feel better. 4. but how long did you stay there?” 9.1. 5.” he swore. As Rosemary entered her room. 8. 8. The children are at the park. 11. After I arrived here. My boss hasn’t been to Paris before. Explain the use of the Present Perfect and the Simple Past in the following questions. “How did you learn to drive?” “My father taught me. 10. This is my second visit to your country. How long have you lived here. “What happened to him?” Ex. Her boyfriend is different from what he used to be There is a definite improvement in your English I don’t know where my keys are.” she said. After the decline of Rome. Ex. is she? Where has she gone?” 6. “Nick has just come back from his holiday. 7. 8. people gradually stopped speaking Latin. 2. where did he go?” 7. You look upset.” Her father turned from TV. I paid this bill earlier. 1. You seem to know a lot about your neighbours. Cuba became a socialist country in 1959. 6. 63 . Eating Chinese food is new to me.

How many times you (to win) money in the lottery? 8. -When you (to join) the army? -In 1932. then in the Far East.1. -They (to be) serious wounds? -Rather. -You (to see) much fighting in the Ukraine? -A good deal. -What sort of wound it (to be)? -A bullet through the shoulder. -Are you a soldier by profession? -Yes -How long you (to be) in the army? -Twenty-five years. When Renny came in his grandmother asked him: “Where on earth you (to be) all day?” 3. -Where you (to serve) during the war? -First on the territory of the Ukraine. “Not many. 9. -Why you (to be) sent to the Far East? -I (to be) wounded.” “How long you (to stay) with her?” 4. What a heavenly dress! Where you (to buy) it? 2. How many cameras you (to assemble) yet? 5. she got surprised. “My son doesn’t want to work. How on earth you (to get) here Ex. You ever (to hear) him speak about his past? 7. All roads are blocked by the heavy snowfall. just one girl. -How long you (to remain) there? -For over a year. Put in the Present Perfect or the Simple Past in questions in the following text. 64 . -Three times. “How many children you (teach) in that other family?” the girl asked her new governess. -When you (to be) wounded the last time? -In 1945. -How many times you (to be) wounded during the war. When my mother came home and saw me. He turned to me and asked: “You (to hear) that noise?” 6. 10.” “Why you (to give) your son that kind of education then?” 10. “Why you (not to go) yet?” she asked. He is very secretive.

9. “You have been doing nothing all day except trailing round the shops buying nothing. It’s raining cats and dogs. we’ve stayed in to be bored by you.” 2. “Don’t forget to ring me as soon as you (to arrive). 6. I’ll invite her to the party. we shall go there. The climate there suits my health.” “You have been coming here for years. 12. Don’t say anything while Ian is here. It’s a deserted place. Wait until she (to go). I think he’ll become a great scholar when he (to graduate) from the University. We’ve entertained you. it will be nice to have a light meal. 5.” 2. and it has never occurred to you in all this time to offer us as much as a drink.” said Hilary. I promise. After we (to do) all the packing. 1. 4.” said Freddie. I’ll come home after he (to leave). John? Don’t start watching TV till we (to have) supper. When I (to be) off duty. 11. 1. Ex. -Why you (not to leave) the army? -I can’t imagine my life outside the army. 3. he refuses to go till he (to see) you. “Has the visitor gone?” “No. When I (to phone) Kate this evening. I shall probably bore you to death by the time I (to finish) talking about myself. I don’t want to see him. 12. 7. We have refused hundreds of invitations because of you.-How you (to feel) since then? -Not very strong. “you’ve been a bloody nuisance with your Thursdays. Ex. 11.” 8. 10. “Freddie. we shall wait here till it (to stop). “I am too tired too.” 65 . we’ve fed you. Use the Simple Present or the Present Perfect in the following clauses of time referring to the future. You’ll find it lonely here after the sun (to set). Compare the use of the Simple Perfect and the Present Perfect Continuous in the following situations. That boy has brains. Don’t you hear me. -Where you (to serve) lately? -In the Caucasus mostly. you really have got hold of the wrong end of the stick.

” “I think I have. You are literary and I am not. I am working on my new book. Don’t you see Dad is working?” “It’s OK.” 8.” 9. “Turn down the music. 13.” 3.” said Andrew.” “But all this time I have been doing everything in my power to interest you in art and literature. Forrester. You are artistic and I am not. What have you been doing?” “I am growing a vegetable garden. “We have been married for thirty-five years. I have been listening to that music since I have been working here. isn’t it? You are a good woman in your way.“I have been writing my lecture for Monday. You don’t know how much of myself I’ve been pouring into this film. Past Continuous and the Present Perfect Continuous in your situations. It’s a very long time. I have been talking to Justin Wakefield. “Well.” 7. “I missed you too. Make up situations using the following sentences. Jane. but not suitable for me. I was working on my new book. aren’t you ever going to tell me?” “Tell you what?” “About where you go every night while I work.” 4. Lincoln spoke first: “We have been talking it over ever since we got your letter last month. dear.” “And I have been making glove puppets. my dear. And don’t tell me that you have been going to the movies. 6. said Mrs.” 5. 66 .” said Justin. Daff … how desperately I’ve wanted to please you. “This has been a rough shoot. Ex. “You look like as if you have just seen a vision. 1. Justify the use of the Present Continuous.

I am washing the dishes. 1. 2. 4. I was washing the dishes. I have been speaking with my neighbour. (win/ the national championship for times). Read the situations and write two sentences using words in brackets. She is still translating it and now she is on page 7. Mark and Bob started making films together. When they left college. 2. (make/ documentary films since they left college). (to swim/ since he was ten). Dave is an excellent swimmer. 5. Example: Ann started translating a manual two hours ago. He is telling funny stories. What is going on here? What was going on here? What has been going on here? 3.I have been working on my new book. I was speaking with my neighbour. This year he is a national champion again – for the forth time. (translate/ for two hours) Ann has been translating for two hours. His father taught him to swim when he was four years old. 14. (You should use Simple Perfect to show completed action). (translate/for two hours so far) She has translated 7 pages so far. They still make documentary films. I am speaking with my neighbour. (make/ five films since they left college). He has been telling funny stories. He was telling funny stories. Ex. I have been washing the dishes. 67 .

He started smoking four hours ago and the packet is empty now. 6. 5. 7. The couple is away on a honeymoon. Everyone in the world is worried about the situation in the Middle East. (to visit/ four countries so far). I’m surprised that George apologized for what he said. My brother’s daughter … nearly six inches (15cm) since I last saw her two years ago. They are traveling round Europe at the moment. 12. All of the flowers in our garden are dying because there … much rain lately. Mr. I don’t think he … in thirty years I … him. 3.). Ex. Dick and Janet … with each other ever since the day they were married. It’s 11 o’clock and he is still fishing. The couple started their tour three weeks ago. and she misses her. 8. 13. 10. (to fish/ since 7 a. (to catch/ 12 fish so far). He started fishing early in the morning. 14. m. As far as I can remember. Sam is a heavy smoker. but I … much of her lately. A lot of things … there recently. 4. feel hear see grow make wear do happen fight have work wait ride change be show up to like know write own 1. 68 . He … nothing but trouble for years. Well. 15. He is a nuisance. I never … him say. This is the happiest evening I … in a long while. You are making mistakes because you … hard enough. (to smoke/ 20 cigarettes already). Elliot … for his wife for more than an hour and she … yet. I am fond of Alice. “I’m sorry” before. Their daughter … lipstick since she was sixteen. 9. hello! How are you? What you … lately? Chris … her horse for several days now. 11. Frank likes fishing. (to travel/ for three weeks). 5. 4. 2. Complete the sentences by using the Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous of the verbs in the list. (to smoke/ for four hours).3. Each verb is used only one time.

ÂáÙÁ ¨ Ø»ñÇÉÇÝÁ í»ñç³å»ë ³Ùáõëݳó³Ý: 3. 1. Ø»ñÇÝ µ³ñϳó³Í ¿. 2. ÆÝãåÇëǘ ³Ý³ÏÝϳÉ. áñáíÑ»ï¨ Ýñ³ ÁÝÏ»ñÁ ¹»é ãÇ Ñ³ÛïÝí»É. 5. How you … since your operation? 16. Üñ³Ýù Ùáï »ñÏáõ ų٠Ëáë»óÇÝ. γñÍáõÙ° »Ù. áñ å»ïù ¿ ϳ۳ñ³Ý ·Ý³ ` ÙáñÁ ¹ÇÙ³íáñ»Éáõ: 12. how long … you your house? 17. By the way. They have to write only one more parking ticket. 17. you seem irritated. 16. ÇëÏ ³é³íáïí³ÝÇó Áݹ³Ù»ÝÁ ÙÇ å³ïáõÑ³Ý ¿ Ý»ñÏ»É: 11. ºñϳñ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï Ýñ³Ýù Ýëï³Í ¿ÇÝ ÏáÕù ÏáÕùÇ: æ»ÏÁ ³é³çÇÝÝ ¿ñ. ÇÝã ëå³ëáõÙ ¿ Ýñ³Ý: 4. Ü»ÝëÇÝ Ùáï Ù»Ï ï³ñÇ ëáíáñ»ó ³Û¹ ¹åñáóáõÙ ¨ Ñ»ïá áñáß»ó Ù»ÏÝ»É ÐéáÙ` Ù³ëݳ·Çï³Ý³Éáõ ųٳݳϳÏÇó ³ñí»ëïáõÙ£ 14. ²Û¹ ³ÝͳÝáà ٳñ¹Á Ñ»Ýó Ýáñ ËáëáõÙ ¿ñ ùá ѳñ¨³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï: ºÃ» ßï³å»ë. »ñµ í»ñçÇÝ ³Ý·³Ù ï»ë³ лɻÝÇÝ: 8. ÇÝã ݳ ãÇ ³ß˳ïáõÙ ¨ ³ëáõÙ ¿.15. and then they can go home. ÐÇÝ· ï³ñÇ ¿. ¸áõ í»ñç»ñë áñ¨¿ Ñ»ï³ùñùÇñ ݳ˳·ÍÇ íñ³ ³ßË³ï»±É »ë: 9. I … country music since I moved to Nashville seven years ago. and they are exhausted. Officers Jackson and Parker … parking tickets since 8 a. ¨ Ñ»ïá ÜÇùÝ ³ë³ó.. you look upset. ܳ ·ÉáõË ¿ ·áíáõÙ. ÆÝ㘠·»Õ»óÇÏ ï»ë³ñ³Ý ¿£ ê³ ³Ù»Ý³·»Õ»óÇÏ ï»ë³ñ³ÝÝ ¿. Translate the following sentences into English. ´áÉáñ Çñ»ñÁ ϳåÏå»Éáõó Ñ»ïá ɳí ÏÉÇÝ»ñ ÙÇ Ã»Ã¨ ÁÝÃñ»ÇÝù: 5. áñ ³Û¹åÇëÇ íÇ׳ÏÁ Ë »É³·³ñ»óÝáõÙ ¿ Çñ»Ý£ 15. 1. áñ Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ ³ñ¹»Ý Ñá·Ý»É »Ý Ñ»éáõëï³ï»ë³ÛÇÝ Íñ³·ñ»ñÇ ó³Íñ áñ³ÏÇó: 2. áñ ˳Ëï»ó ÉéáõÃÛáõÝÁ: 7. 4. ÇëÏ Ý³ ³í»ÉÇ ù³Ý »ñÏáõ ų٠¿. 3. Üñ³ Ù³ÛñÁ ٳѳó»É ¿: ܳ »ñϳñ ï³ñÇÝ»ñ áõëáõóÇã ¿ñ ³ßË ³ï»É: 13. I like your house John. 18. Make up situations for these statements using the Present Perfect Continuous tense. ¸³ 1995 Ãí³Ï³ÝÝ ¿ñ. ¹áõ ¹»é ϵéÝ»ë Ýñ³Ý: 10. ºë ÙÇßï ó³Ýϳó»É »Ù ßñç³·³Û»É ³ß˳ñÑáí Ù»Ï: î³ëÁ ï³ñ»Ï³ÝÇó »ë »ñ³½»É »Ù ³Û¹ Ù³ëÇÝ: 6. Ex. áñ »ë »ñµ¨¿ ï»ë»É 69 . your hands are rough (hard) your shoes are muddy. your room is in a mess. Ex. m.

Ever since the day I (to decide) to move to London. 18. I (to grow up) in a fairly small town and I (to spend) all my life there. Comment on the following questions. As I already (to sell) my house and (to arrange) a new job. I (to tell) my parents that I'm moving and they (to accept) my decision. Put each verb in brackets into the Simple Past. – àñï»±Õ ¿ æáÝÁ£ – ܳ áëïÇϳÝÇ Ñ»ï ¿ Ë áëáõÙ: – ÆëÏ Çݱ㠿 å³ï³Ñ»É: – ܳ ³é³Ýó í³ñáñ¹³Ï³Ý Çñ³íáõÝùÇ ¿ í³ñ»É Ù»ù»Ý³Ý: Ex. Ex. more and more people (to stop) working in London recently. 19. Of course. áñ ³ÝÓݳ·Çñ¹ ÏáñóÝáõÙ »ë£ 17. 1. I (worry) whether the decision I (to take) was the right one. ë³Ï³ÛÝ Ýñ³ Í»ñ ÍÝáÕÝ»ñÁ Ýñ³ÝÇó ¹»é áã ÙÇ Éáõñ ã»Ý ëï³ó»É£ 18. Have you had a good night’s sleep since you entered the University? (Have you been sitting up?) 6. but when I (to tell) my friends they (to seem) rather shocked. But according to a programme I just (to hear) on the radio. What did you do when you learnt that you were admitted to the University? (Speak about your emotions. What was your first impression on the University and the teachers? (Is it right to go by first impressions?) 3. Have you made any friends? (What do you do together?) 4.) 2. What have you been doing since you entered the University? 5. since then I (to hear) a lot of negative things about living in the capital. However. Üñ³Ýó áñ¹ÇÝ Ù»Ï ï³ñÇ ¿. and lately some of them (to begin) to bother me. it is too late to change my mind. I always (to want) to live in a big city and so when my company (to offer) me a job in their London office. Since then I (to hope) secretly that the company would tell me that the move was off. What subjects do you take at the University? 70 .»Ù£ 16. Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous. I (to grab) at the chance. and a lot of large companies (to choose) to move away from the center. ÆÝãá±õ »ë ³Û¹å»ë óñí³Í£ ²ñ¹»Ý »ñÏñáñ¹ ³Ý·³ÙÝ ¿. ÇÝã Ù»ÏÝ»É ¿ ³ñï³ë³ÑÙ³Ý.

7. Have you had a heavy or light work load? (Have you had any problems yet?) 8. What were you doing at this time last year? 71 . Have you had much fun lately? 9. Do you look back on your school-days with pleasure now? 10.

had + participle II Use: The basic meanings of the past perfect are ‘earlier past’ and ‘completed in the past’. By the time I got to the station the train had left.) When he got home he realized he had left his case on the 4. (or The train left five minutes before I got to the station. The past perfect tense generally refers to an event in the past which happens before another event in the past.40 train. (Sometimes there is no time expression to make it clear.UNIT IV PAST PERFECT. A common use is to ‘go back’ when we are already talking about the past. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Past perfect Affirmative I had worked you had worked he/she/it had worked we had worked they had worked Interrogative had I worked? had you worked? had they worked? had we worked? had they worked? Negative I had not (hadn’t) worked you hadn’t worked he/she/it hadn’t worked we hadn’t worked they hadn’t worked Formation The past perfect is built up by means of the auxiliary verb to have in the simple past and the participle II of the notional verb.) 72 . so as to make it clear that something had already happened at the time we are talking about. ‘Earlier past’ 1.

By ten o’clock the manager had already looked through the documents and was waiting to see the representative of the firm. I was fifteen and had just come back from school for the summer holidays. But if we merely give the events in the order in which they occurred no past perfect is used. The past perfect is found in narrations when it becomes necessary to refer back – to ‘step back’ to a previously accomplished action or actions. Situations continued up to or into that past moment 3. He had been in the army for twenty years. He took a shower. The past perfect can be used with since and ‘for phrases’ for an action which began before the time of speaking in the past and continued to that time or stopped just before it. changed and was about to leave home when somebody knocked on the door. (see Unit II. Sarah intended to follow her advice.) 2.) He came home early that day. I had told her that I didn’t want to be present at her parties (sometimes the speaker doesn’t specify the time.) The use of the past perfect in time clauses 73 . a) Sarah was twenty then. (or… since he was nineteen. Her mother had advised her not to get married till she was twenty-five. When I met him he was 39. The morning after I got home I took a towel and bathing draws and went down to the beach. The simple past is used instead. Her parents had died three years before and since then she had lived with her aunt. b) It was at Blackstable that I first met Edward. In this case the past perfect may be used either (a) for all actions or (b) for the first action alone.

(Ø»Ï ß³µ³ñ ¿É ãϳñ. and no sooner… than. The past perfect is used in complex sentences with a subordinate clauses of time introduced by the correlatives scarcely … when. namely. Inversion 6. When she sang her song se sat down. as soon as when it is necessary to emphasize that the first action was completely finished before the second one started. He refused to go till he had seen all the documents. 5. the time relation between the two actions is of a specific character – the action of the subordinate clause takes place when the action of the principal clause is hardly accomplished. till/until.4. In complex sentences with before. (might give the impression that she sang seated) After the will had been read there were angry exclamations.clauses there may be a specific time relation between the two actions. after. Before I had known him a week he tried to borrow money from me. 74 . before. »ñµ ݳ Ùáï»ó³í ¨ ÷áñÓ»ó ÇÝÓÝÇó å³ñïùáí ÷áÕ Ëݹñ»É:) We hadn’t gone four miles before we understood that we were going in the wrong direction. Such sentences are emphatic in meaning and a negative adverb or an adverbial expression may be put at the beginning of a sentence for emphasis. Compare: When she had sang her song she sat down. He went out before I had finished my sentence. The past perfect is used in time clauses after the conjunctions when. ÇÝã ׳ݳãáõÙ ¿Ç Ýñ³Ý. nearly … when. the action in one of the clauses is not fully accomplished before the action of the other clause takes place. distance) in such sentences. Sometimes there are indications of measures (time. In this case negative adverbs are followed by the inversion of subject and verb (the word order is changed). hardly …when.clauses and when. I hadn’t gone a hundred yards from the corner when I noticed there was a car behind me.

The past perfect continuous is used when the action began before the time of speaking in the past. We use the past perfect continuous to say that something had been happening for a period of time before something else happened. We can often use either form here. Rarely can a minister have been faced with such a problem. 75 . but also later denied that he had been driving the car. When I found Mary. It was now six and he was tired because he had been working / he had worked since dawn. Our game of tennis was interrupted. and continued up to that time.negative adverb + auxiliary verb +subject. I had no sooner reached the door than I realized it was locked. No sooner had I reached the door than I realized it was locked. Not only did he fail to report the accident. He had been smoking for 20 years. I could see that she had been crying. Dave gave up smoking a year ago. 2. Little does the government appreciate what the results will be. We had been playing for about half an hour when it started to rain very heavily. Past Perfect Continuous The past perfect continuous is formed with had been + participle I. It is therefore the same for all persons: I/he/she/it we/you/they had been working Use: 1. or stopped just before it.

. Some wellpadded individuals were exercising their dogs. sniffed and ran off. 76 . watching with absurd pleasure the dogs’ amazement at the snow. and the doggy footprints. The past perfect continuous bears the same relation to the past perfect that the present perfect continuous bears to the present perfect. our corner almost obscure. and smiling wool-clad owner plodded by. straight ahead. Now the sun was shining. heaped over with snow. was enclosed and private. We had carried a couple of chairs into the little stone pavilion at the end and were sitting there in a corner. We had met at Peter Pan and walked up to my “Leningrad garden. wild with snowjoy. but He had tried five times to get her on the phone. Explain the use of the past tense-aspect forms in the following extract. goldened with willows. Every now and then the dog ran up to the doorway. the lake curved away. Example: Judy and Errol spent the morning shopping. They are tired. were slithering about on the ice. and the cloudless glittering blue sky arched over the snowy park. The fountains were bearded with opaque white icicles. The stone basins were frozen and some ducks. with comical caution. Join the sentences using because and the Past Perfect. their play. arched us in. No one else came.3. There was not a breath of wind. between two stone nymphs. muffled the world about us.) It had snowed all night. The Present Perfect and The Present Perfect Continuous: Basic difference) ACTIVITY Ex. (Translate the extract into Armenian. The pavilion. He had been trying to get her on the phone. 1.2.” Here there were few people about. The snow had dulled the traffic noise. A repeated action in the past perfect can sometimes be expressed as a continuous action by the past perfect continuous. Ex. (see Unit III. I was with Kitty in Kensington Gardens.

5. When I went to pay. 3. 5. but we (to pack) all our waterproof clothes so it (to be) no problem. He was cross.. But they never (to be) there with a child so they saw a different side of London with me. The telephone company cut them off. Ex.Judy and Errol were tired because they had spent the morning shopping. I (to go) to London for the first time in 1970 when I (to be) just a child.. My parents (to be) already there many times so they (to know) the city well. Supply the required past tense-aspect forms in the following sentences containing time clauses. 2. She couldn’t read the sign. Complete the text using the Past Perfect or Simple Past tenses. 5... 2. 3. Mike left his wallet at home. 77 . I realized that ……………… When he arrived at the station. 4.. Complete the following sentences using the Past Perfect 1... He failed his exam. When the time (to come) to leave. 3. She lost her glasses. she knew that ……………………… When I asked about the mess on the floor. 1. They didn’t pay their telephone bill. Ex. Ex. they found that ……………………… Soon after the wedding. I (to feel) quite sad because I (to have) such a good time. she said that. he saw that ………………… When they got home. It (to rain) while we (to be) there. We (to go) out every day and (to have) a fantastic time. 4. They left their passport at home.. 4. He didn’t work hard enough during the year. They couldn’t cross the frontier. My parents (to study) English for many years so they (to have) no difficulty with the language.

4. Lloyd said. hardly. 7. David (to disappear) as soon as we (to have) breakfast. The bus (to move) before we (to reach) it. 2. 9. Laura (to watch) in silence until I (to finish). Example: He had hardly reached the door of his office when he encountered two young men. 8.Thursday evening I (not to go) home and change as usual. Willy (to lock) the door and (to go) into the bedroom. 10. 11. “How long the patient (to be) sick before she (to be) cured?” 6. “I (to come) as soon as I (to get) your message”. scarcely. 2. I never (to be) to any European country before I (to go) to Paris. As soon as I got into the bath someone knocked at the door. I hated eating my own food with a witness. Hardly had he reached the door of his office when he encountered two young men. rarely. “I (cannot) stay in Wales after what (to happen). When I (to let) myself into my own flat I (to realize) at once that there was a woman there. not only./not. 12. 78 . 3. little and so such are followed by the inversion of subject and verb). but (to sit) in the Sloane Square bar until it (to be) time to go along to Queen’s Gate Terrace. and phrases containing no. 6. 1. The judge was taken ill just after the trial proceeding began. they eagerly (to demand) news. After she (to go). (You should remember that negative adverbs never. 1. Ex. No sooner……. Rewrite each sentence beginning as shown so that the meaning stays the same.. When they (to show) him round and (to feed) him on their best. 5. but lingered in the parlour till his younger brothers (to finish) their meal and (to go) out. seldom. Godfrey (to rise) and (to take) his own breakfast earlier than usual.” he added angrily. It (to take) about a minute. no sooner. barely.

. Such……… The snowfall was so heavy that all the trains had to be cancelled. 5. 4. The bus driver cannot be blamed for the accident in any way. He had only just arrived home when the police called. 10. 13. Hardly……….3. 7. I didn’t know where I was until I asked a passer-by. Not only………. The money is not to be paid under any circumstances. No sooner………. to win to discuss to get to swim to write to be to wait to hear to eat to know to rain to sleep We … for Nancy for the last two hours. Complete the sentences with the Past Perfect or the Past Perfect Continuous of the verbs in the list. 79 . Never before……… The demand for tickets was so great that people queued night and day. Not until………. Hardly……… It had just stopped raining when the sun came out. Each verb is used only once.. but she hasn’t arrived yet. 11. 9. Scarcely……… We have never spent so much money on clothes. The train had only just left the station when there was an explosion. So heavy……… Harry broke his leg and also injured his shoulder.. 14. Just after the play started there was a power failure. Barely……… She knows little what has been going on in her presence. 12. 6. Ex. In no way……. 7. to lose to play to see to live 1. Under no circumstances………. Little……….. 8.

6. 2. 10. 16. 15. She …nothing since the picnic. Ex. 9. û ³Û¹ ù³Õ³ù ï»Õ³÷áËí»Éáõó Ç í»ñ. Anne’s lack of accent was explained by the fact that she … for twenty years in London. Flora. 12. 5. ݳ ·ÉáõËÁ µ³Óñ³óñ»ó ·ñùÇó. The last member of the party was Neville. Prior to that time we never … such a big amusement park. 8. Ãéóñ»É ¿ñ Ýñ³ ·É˳ñÏÁ. 14. whom David … for some time. µ³Ûó ÓÛáõÝ ¹»é ã¿ñ »Ï»É: ø³ÙÇÝ ùß»É. 11. His favourite team finally … a game. who … the piano in the sitting-room. ÂíáõÙ ¿ñ. 7. ÇÝã ݳ Ïáñóñ»É ¿ñ áñ¹áõÝ: ¸ñëáõÙ ß³ï óáõñï ¿ñ: ì»ñçÇÝ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ ûñ»ñÇÝ ë³éݳٳÝÇù ¿ñ »Õ»É. We went to Disneyland when we visited Los Angeles.2. 4. ¨ ½³ñÙ³ó³Í ݳۻó ÇÝÓ: 80 . came to see what I was doing. The students asked the famous writer how long he … books. áã ÙÇ Ï³ñ¨áñ µ³Ý ã»Ù ³ñ»É: ºñµ Í»ñ ïÇÏÇÝÁ ï»ë³í ³Û¹ Éáõë³ÝϳñÁ. the film star. 8. 3. 4. ¨ ³ÛÝ ³ÛÅÙ ·ÉáñíáõÙ ¿ñ ÷áÕáóÝ Ç í³ñ: ºñµ »ë Ýñ³ ³ß˳ï³ë»ÝÛ³ÏÁ Ùï³. ³ñóáõÝùÝ»ñÁ Ñáë»óÇÝ Ýñ³ ³ãù»ñÇó: ²ñ¹»Ý »ñÏáõ ï³ñÇ ¿ñ. She realized that she was faint for food. When he came back we tried to pretend that we … him. Bob was very excited. It was cold and dark in the small room because it … for five days. How many years … Jesus before he was crucified? I sat in the kitchen smoking. 1. áñÁ ÙÇÝã ³Û¹ ϳñ¹áõÙ ¿ñ. Everything in our garden was dying because we … rain for more than five months. The noise woke Joe who… in his pram by the garage door. 13. 5. 3. How much money the company … before they finally went out of business? He told me he … from her since the day she walked out of their office. She could see from the wet look of their costumes that they just…. Translate the following sentences into English.

»ñµ ÉáõëÇÝÁ »ñ¨³ó µÉñÇ »ï¨Çó: ÜÇùÁ óáõÛó ïí»ó Ýñ³Ýó ݳٳÏÁ ¨ ³ë³ó. The house (to seem) empty and sad without boys.6. I told him because he (to be going) to marry Crystal and because he (to be) a gentle harmless being. áñ ù³ÛÉáõÙ ¿ÇÝù. áñÇÝ Ý³ »ñµ»ù ã¿ñ ëÇñ»É: ºñµ µáÉáñ ÑÛáõñ»ñÝ ³ñ¹»Ý Ñ»é³ó»É ¿ÇÝ. áñ Ù³ÛñÝ Çٳݳ. 81 . Then I heard someone say in the hall that the Joplings (to leave) for Italy as soon as the vocation (to begin). 11. 6. 1. wearing his gown. 13. The unusualness of insomnia was a physical torture. û ÇÝùÝ ÇÝã ¿ñ ³ñ»É ³Û¹ ³ÙµáÕç ųٳݳÏ: øáõÛñ»ñÇ Å³Ù³Ý»Éáõó »ñÏáõ ûñ ³Ýó Ù»Ýù áñáß»óÇÝù å³ïÙ»É Ýñ³Ýó ³Û¹ ÙÇç³¹»åÇ Ù³ëÇÝ: ØÇ Å³Ù ¿É ãϳñ. 7. I (to stand) still for a while. 3. ÂáÙÁ »ñµ»ù ã¿ñ áõ½áõÙ. 8. 2. then began to walk along in the direction of the King’s Arms. áñ Çñ ùáõÛñÁ ¨ Ýñ³ ³ÙáõëÇÝÝ ³ñ¹»Ý Ù»ÏÝ»É »Ý γݳ¹³: ºñ»Ë³ÛÇ íÇ׳ÏÁ ·Ý³Éáí í³ï³ÝáõÙ ¿ñ: г½Çí ¿ñ æáñçÁ ïáõÝ Ùï»É. This was not the first time I (to see) Gunnar. 5. “ÐÇÙ³ Ù»Ýù ϳñáÕ »Ýù Ëáë»É:” î³ñûñÇÝ³Ï ¿ñ. 4. 10. µ³ñÓñ ïñ³Ù³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ¿ÇÝù: îáÙë»ñÝ ³ñ¹»Ý ·Ý»É ¿ÇÝù ¨ ³ÛÅÙ áõÕ¨áñáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïñ³ëïáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ÇÝù ï»ëÝáõÙ: Ex. Tuesday dawned at last. 9. He (to stride) along. 14. »ñµ Ýñ³Ý áõÕ³ñÏ»óÇÝ µÅßÏÇ »ï¨Çó: ܳ áõÝ»ñ Ïñïë»ñ »Õµ³Ûñ° гñáɹÁ. The very first time I (to see) him was across the High Street. 12. I hardly (to sleep). Complete the sentences with the verbs in parentheses. The fog was a little less dense. 9. And I went into the room where I (to lie) in the afternoon and put on my nightdress and then I (to go) to see what Joan (to do) and she just (to lie) down on her bed and I (to tell) her to get undressed and get into bed. áñ ¸áñÇëÁ í»ñçÇÝ »ñ»ù ï³ñÇÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ áã ÙÇ ýÇÉÙ ã¿ñ Ýϳñ³Ñ³Ý»É: ¸³ Ýñ³Ý µÝáñáß ã¿ñ: Ø»Ýù` µáÉáñë. arm in arm with Anne. гñÇëÁ Ùáï»ó³í ¾ÙÇÉÇÇÝ ¨ ³ë³ó. Use any appropriate past tense-aspect forms.

and after a visit to the local hospital I (to catch) the next train to Calais for the ferry home. A light fine rain (to fall) now. I (to go) into the telephone box outside the Royal Theatre and (to ring) her number. I (to spend) longer than usual at the Liverpool Street bar and (to feel) rather drunk now. You didn’t go to his/her party. One of the students in your group failed the exam. Talk about the reasons why these things happened. 11. Standing behind her and holding a brush. Put each verb in brackets into suitable past tense. 9. the rain which (to tap-tap) discreetly Gunar’s window through those immensely long seconds during which I (to be) in his room. with which she evidently (to brush) Kitty’s hair. Kitty. 10. the weather. 8.7. reading “Teach Yourself French”. Then the next morning as we (to ride) down a steep hill my bike (to skid) on the wet road and I (to fall off). It was Wednesday evening. but we (to forget) one important thing. 4. 82 . Now we (to wonder) if we (to make) the right decision. Neither of us (to be) to France before. You didn’t approve your girlfriend’s/boyfriend’s decision to marry him/her. Unfortunately my parents (not to expect) me home for a fortnight. was her maid. Your teacher praised you the other day. This time last year I (to cycle) in the rain along a country road in France with a friend of mine. I (to realize) immediately that I (to break) my arm. We (to decide) to go on a cycling holiday in Normandy. 1. Ex. It (to rain) solidly since our arrival and that night we (to end up) sleeping in the waiting room at a railway station. Tommy (to wait) for me for well over an hour. So I (to spend) a miserable couple of weeks alone. 3. We (to plan) our route carefully in advance. 10. I (to look) at my watch. 2. and (to go) away on holiday. Suddenly I remembered Tommy. wearing a long peacock-blue woolen evening dress (to gaze) at me. but we (to know) some French from our time of school and we (to manage) to brush up on the basics. Ex.

I’ll buy it. but it is also common in offers. please.” I like it. and I’m going to buy it. We use the simple future when we decide to do something at the time of speaking:. That explains why English is rich in means of referring an action to the future (see Unit I) Simple Future Affirmative I shall/will play you will play he/she/it will play we’ll play they’ll play Interrogative shall/will I play? will you play? will he/she/it play? shall/will we play? will they play? Negative I shan’t/won’t play you won’t play he/she/it won’t play we shan’t/won’t play they won’t play Formation The formation: shall/will+ infinitive without to. I forgot. promises. The meaning of futurity is often associated with various other modal meanings. 83 . orders and similar kinds of ‘interpersonal’ language use. assurance. I’ll go and shut it. Future actions or states 1. readiness. expectation and the like. willingness. Oh.” “Did you phone Ruth?” “Oh no. I’ve left the door open. Use: The simple future is not only used for giving information about the future. “What would you like to drink?” “ I’ll have an orange juice. such as intention. we’ve agreed on a price. obligation.UNIT V FUTURE TIME There are different ways of expressing future actions. I’ll phone her now. but Well.

He is a terrible driverhe’ll crash it. We often use the simple future in predictions of future events. guess or calculate will happen.” “ I’ll get it. The simple future is used to give (or to ask) information about the future. You’ll never get that job. 3. 2. All the family will be at the wedding. Who do you think will win on Saturday? Tomorrow will be warm.” b) agreeing to do something 84 . Predictions 4. 5. We shall need the money on the 15th. It’ll be spring soon. I think the weather is going to be nice later. (there is outside evidence) Sometimes there is no much difference between the simple future and going to: I think the weather will be nice later. in case where there is no reason to use a present continuous or ‘be going to’. (the speaker’s knowledge) Look out – we are going to crash. We often use shall/will in these situations: a) offering to do something You can’t do that work alone. with some clouds in the afternoon. “The telephone is ringing.to say what we think (don’t think).We’ll be there in five days. It may show a succession of actions in the future: I’ll finish it and then we’ll go for a walk. I’ll help you with it. Compare: Don’t lend him your car.

- Will you dine with me tomorrow? - I will if you don’t change your mind till tomorrow. c) asking somebody to do something Will you open the window, please? It’s hot in here. 6. will not or won’t is used to refuse, or to talk about refusals. I don’t care what you say, I won’t do it. The car won’t start. 7. will / won’t can be used emphatically to tell someone of the speaker’s intention or to forbid an action in response to a will expression. - I’ll take the money, anyway! - You won’t! - I will! Shall …? I/shall we …? will you …? 8. shall …? I/shall we…? are used to ask somebody’s opinion (especially in offers and suggestions) What time shall we come and see you? Shall we go out for a meal? Where shall we go this evening? Let’s go to the cinema, shall we? will you …? is used to give instructions and orders: Will you be quiet, please? Make me a cup of coffee, will you? Will you get me a newspaper when you go out? Compare: Shall I shut the window? (do you want me to shut it?) Will you shut the window? (I want you to shut it)

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The Future Continuous
Affirmative I shall/will be working you’ll be working he/she/it will be working we’ll be working they’ll be working Interrogative shall/will I be working? will you be working? will he/she/it be working? will we be working? will they be working Negative I shan’t/ won’t be working you won’t be working he/she/it won’t be working we won’t be working they won’t be working

Formation: The future continuous is built up by means of shall/will be + participle I Use: Event which will be happening at a future point 1. The future continuous describes an event which will be happening at a future point. This time next week I’ll be lying on a beach or swimming in the sea. Events which are expected to happen 2. It is used to refer to future events which are decided, or which are expected to happen in the normal course of events. It doesn’t suggest the idea of personal intention. I’ll be seeing her this evening, so I’ll tell her then. Professor Baxter will be giving another lecture on Roman glass-making at the same time next week. 3. This tense can be used to “predict’ the present – to say what we think or guess is happening now. Don’t phone them now – they’ll be having lunch. (׳߻ÉÇë
ÏÉÇÝ»Ý)

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Polite enquiries 4. The future continuous is used to make polite enquiries about people’s plans. Compare: Will you stay in this evening? (it shows request or order) Will you be staying in this evening? (the speaker simply wants to know your plans) Are you going to stay in this evening? (pressing for a decision) 5. Continuous form with be going to is also possible: I’m going to be working all day tomorrow, so I won’t have time to shop.

The Future Perfect
Affirmative I shall/will have finished you will have finished he/she/it will have finished we’ll have finished they’ll have finished Interrogative will I have finished will you have finished will he/she/it have finished will we have finished will they have finished Negative I won’t have finished you won’t have finished he/she/it won’t have finished we won’t have finished they won’t have finished

Formation: The future perfect is formed by means of shall/will have + participle II Use: Event completed/achieved by a certain time in the future. 1. The future perfect is used to say that something will have been completed or achieved by a certain time in the future.
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By next Christmas we’ll have been here for eight years. The builders say they’ll have finished the roof by Tuesday. Predicting the present 2. We can also use the future perfect tense to “predict the present”- to say what we think or guess has probably happened. It’s no use phoning – he’ll have left by now. (·Ý³ó³Í ÏÉÇÝ»Ý) The Future Perfect Continuous Formation: The future perfect continuous is built by means of shall/will have been + participle I Use: The future perfect continuous form can be used if we want to emphasize the continuity of a future achievement. We often use the future perfect continuous with verbs like learn, lie, live, rain, sit, wait, work etc. which naturally suggest continuity By the end of the month, I’ll have been working for this firm for a year. They will have been traveling for a month on Friday. Future in the past In English there are special forms to express future actions if they are viewed from some moment in the past. (The Simple Future, the Future Continuous in the Past, the Future perfect in the Past, the Future Perfect Continuous in the Past). In addition to the Future in the Past there are other means of expressing actions which are future from the point of view of the past (see Unit II). She said she would be ready in a few minutes. We knew he would be playing billiards in the club that evening.
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He told them not to worry because they would have hidden everything before the police came. John said that by the end of the year he would have been working for fifteen years for that company. He didn’t knew that her plane flew at 9 p. m. Alan and Jane were glad because they were leaving for Paris the next week. Everybody was excited to hear the news. They were going to tell Dave about it when he returned home. He was about to close the door when the phone rang.

ACTIVITY Ex. 1. Explain the use of the Future tenses in the following sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. “I am going in to bathe”, she said. “I’ll be right out. I’ll eat with you and then we’ll put the cot in.” “There are people who want to talk with you.” “I’ll listen. But only after the girl is free.” “What name did you use?” asked Scofield. “R. M. Nixon. The receptionist was real nice. She thanked me. ” “You’ll go for Amos.” “I intend to.” “The old fool’s wife is in her room and he’s in his chapel of course.” “Where?” “Oh, all right. Come on, I’ll show you … You are better looking, more polite too.” “Stay the night at the Yevropeyskaya Hotel on Brodsky Street. I’ll contact you there.” “They’ll demand identification.” “By all means, give it to them. A colonel of the KGB will no doubt get a better room. “I’ve told you about this before, Maggie,” said Mrs. Hurstwood. “I’m not going to tell you again.” “Have you made up your mind, George, when you will take your vacation?”

6. 7.

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8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

“We’ll go without you.” “You will eh?” he sneered. “Yes, we will.” “Well, we’ll see about that. It seems to me you’re trying to run things with a pretty high hand of late.” “I’ll not live with you,” said Carrie. “I don’t want to live with you. You’ve done nothing but brag around ever since you have been here.” “Why don’t you come and see me?” “I will,” said Carrie. “Really, I’ve been wanting to come.” “Will you let me come back if I want to?” “Of course,” he answered, “you know I will.” “There is somebody at the door.” “That will be the postman.” “As you will have noticed, there is a new secretary in the front office.” The regiment will start at dawn. I am going to be working all day tomorrow, so I won’t have time to shop. I’ve been going to write to you for ages, but I’ve only just found time. “By next Christmas we’ll have been here for eight years,” said Alice. Professor Baxter will be giving another lecture on Roman glass-making at this time next week. She is taking that medicine whether she likes it or not. OK. We’ll buy the tickets if you buy supper after the show. “I’ll have been teaching for twenty years this summer,” said Mrs. Hendersson.

Ex. 2. Complete the sentences with will or be going to. 1. - Oh dear, I’ve broken the vase. - What your mother … say? 2. - What’s all this paint for? - We … paint my mother’s house. 3. - Excuse me, waiter! This isn’t what I ordered. I wanted a chicken sandwich. - Sorry, sir. I … take this back and get your sandwich.
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I haven’t. .Did you apply for that job.Just a moment.Did you travel by train? .There is an interesting film on television tonight. 5.. George? .No.I … probably be home late this evening. 9. please? . -Ann is in hospital. .What would you like to drink? .You look pale. It … hurt you.4. . but then we decided to go by car instead. . . . I forgot. 14. 6. 15. I … have an early night. 10.Oh really? I didn’t know. – Why did you buy all this sugar and chocolate? 91 . I … get him. . I … go and visit her. please.Hello.I … apply. -Did you phone Bob? . 8.It’s raining.I feel terrible.Have you seen Carol today? . 16. – I am afraid of your dog. I … be sick. 7. but then I changed my mind.Oh no. . 11. 12. Can I speak to Jim. Mom.No. . You … get wet. Don’t go out. I … phone her now. .I … have an orange juice. -What time will you be home today.I’m tired. 13. . . . We … travel by train. Bob? .There is no need to be afraid of the dog.I am going downtown. but I expect she … phone this evening.

I (be) going to be … my typewriter for a couple of more years (to use). 7......” “OK..... 6..... The weather doesn’t look very good. According to the radio....... Both Alan and Jack play well. The days (be) going to be … longer (to get). He wants to bye a nice present for Ann... How much …... The students (be) going to be … an exam for an hour (to take)..... What ………………………………………………. Ex.......... the weather (not to be) going to be … better until the end of the week (to get).... Ex 3...... The director (not to be) going to be … about anything special at the next meeting (to speak)..................... Supply an appropriate form of the verb be in the first blank and present participle in the second.. My car needs to be repaired..... 4.. 3.................... “I’m going out now. 5.. Sally and David are in love. 7......... When …...... 8... Who …..... 2................... How long (to be) your baby going to be … diapers (to wear)..... What time ….. 92 ... What …....I … make a delicious dessert for dinner tonight......... Do you …. b) We aren’t going to be using our dictionaries during the test.. 5... Do ….. Nick (not to be) going to be … at this desk until the end of the class (to sit).........................” The future situation is uncertain.. be going to + present participle are used to emphasize the continuing nature (duration) of an event in the future time.... 1.......... 4.... 4. Example: a) The patient is going to be walking with a cane for a while. 2.... 6...... 3....... The meeting is still going on. c) How long is the surgeon going to be operating on the patient? 1. Write questions using do you think … will + one verb..... Dave’s gone shopping.......

How long (to be) the children going to be … in the pool (to swim). (wait) 5.. (leave) 3. 9... on this book for a year. They…………..8. by the year 2029. Do you realize that on August 15. 2. (finish) 4.. I ……………. 93 1. 1... I …………. 5. but when the tide (to come) in. (to study) English for 3 years. this translation by the end of the day... five weeks for my phone to be repaired. For twelve hours. How much longer (to be) your son going to be … braces on his teeth (to wear).. She …. (fly) 6. (finish) Ex 6.. (rain) 10. for work before the children get home from school. This course by the end of the year. Complete the sentences with the verbs in parentheses.. Use any appropriate tense to express a future action.. We ………………... but he still need more training and experience before he (to master) the language. .. we …………… in this house for fifty years? (live) They ………………the new bridge by the end of the year. Ex. it ……………….. Chem. Right now the tide is low... (complete) 2.. the ship (to leave) the harbor. To be able to qualify as an interpreter. many years of intensive language study are required for non-native speakers. By the end of this week. By the end of the day. will have been traveling for a month on Friday. (travel) 8. I hope I …………….. We …………… non-stop for fourteen hours before we get to Canada. By this time next week. Supply the Future Perfect Simple or Future Perfect Continuous. By the end of this year. (complete) 9. (retire) 7. I …………….

As soon as your sprained ankle (to heal) you can play soccer again. it (to arrive) already. It’s cold in here. This is the longest flight I have ever taken. By the time we (to get) to the airport. Who (to light) fire for me? The strike has been going on for two months now. “George. “How about going across the street for a cup of coffee.3. we (to fly) for 13 hours. 8. At this time next week you (to play) soccer again. I (to stand) right by the door. I (to meet) Jennifer at the library at 5. Just relax. I (to stay) home from work tomorrow. look for me just outside the gate. By the time we get to New Zealand. 9. 4.” “Why did you buy so many vegetables?” “I (to make) a large salad for the potluck dinner tonight. Ron?” “I can't. -Èë»É »Ù` Ýáñ ïáõÝ »ë ·Ý»É. “Let’s go! What’s taking you so long?” “I (to be) there as soon as I (to find) my keys. I don’t feel good.” I’ll meet you at the airport tomorrow. 7. I need somebody to take me to the airport tomorrow morning. I am frozen. Please come and visit me today when you (to have) a chance. ²ñÃá°õñ . After you (to clear) customs. 7. 6.²Ûá°. I (to take) you. We are going to be late meeting my brother’s plane. 1. 14.00.30. Antoine.00 to 2. 10. ÙÛáõë ³ÙÇë ï»Õ³÷áËí»Éáõ »Ù: 94 . I am going to be exhausted. 5. Translate the following sentences into English using any appropriate future tense form. 11.” aunt said. 15. 17. Ex. I (to shop) from 1. She (not to know) what to do. What time your plane (to fly)?” Don’t ask Margaret what to do. The strikers (not to return) to work until they (to get) a rise and the benefits they are demanding. What’s happened? “At last I’ll see that they (not to do) anything outrageous to her. but I (to be) home after that. 13.” “That’s no problem. 12. I’ve got some incredible news! You never (to believe). 16.

áñ ÙÇÝã ³Û¹ ѳÝÓÝ³Í ÏÉÇݻ٠ÇÙ í³ñáñ¹³Ï³Ý ùÝÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ: ºÃ» ѳÝÓÝ³Í ÉÇÝ»Ù.¸»é áã: ºë Ùï³¹Çñ »Ù Ý³Ë ïáõÝÁ í»ñ³Ýáñá·»É. áñ ݳ ß³ï ßáõïáí ÏÙáé³Ý³ ³Û¹ ÙÇç³¹»åÇ Ñ»ï ϳåí³Í ³Ù»Ý ÇÝã: 9. Denton said to the waitress that he (to take) the soup and a hamburger and a cup of coffee. »ñµ Ãáß³ÏÇ ³ÝóÝ»Ù. . ºë ëïÇåí³Í ÏÉÇݻ٠ÙÇ ùÇã ³í»ÉÇ áõß³¹Çñ ÉÇÝ»É ÷áÕÇ Ýϳïٳٵ. . . Âá°Ù.´Ý³Ï³ñ³Ý³ÙáõïÇ ËÝçáõÛù ³Ý»Éá±õ »ë: . Ñ»ïá ï»Õ³÷áË í»É: 2. ÙÇ° ã³ñã³ñÇñ ϳïíÇÝ: ºÃ» ¹áõ Ýñ³ åáãÇó ÝáñÇó ù³ß»ë.Îñ³ÏÁ ѳݷãáõÙ ¿: . ݳ Ï׳ÝÏéÇ ù»½: 10.Ðáõëáí »Ù. 8. 3.. áñ »ñ»Ë³Ý ï»ë³í ³Û¹ ¹Åµ³Ëï å³ï³Ñ³ñÁ: -Ø°Ç° ³Ýѳݷëï³Ý³: гÙá½í³Í »Ù.´³ñÇ° ûñ: ºë ½³Ý·áõÙ »Ù Ó»½ µÝ³Ï³ñ³ÝÇ í»ñ³µ»ñÛ³É ïñí³Í Ó»ñ ѳÛï³ñ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³å³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ùµ: . 2. 1. they (to come) looking for you. µ³Ûó ÙÇ ³ÕçÇÏ ¿ ·³Éáõ ųÙÁ 7-ÇÝ` ï»ëÝ»Éáõ ³ÛÝ: Ex. -ÆÝãá±õ »ë ³Û¹ù³Ý ß³ï Ù³ÛáÝ»½ ·ÝáõÙ: . (to shave) and (to dress) to go down into the dining-room for breakfast. ÇѳñÏ». -ºë Ïí»ñ³¹³éݳ٠ѳçáñ¹ ³Ùëí³ í»ñçÇÝ: .²ÛÝ ³ñ¹»Ý ѳݷ»É ¿: ºë Ϸݳ٠áõ ×ÛáõÕ»ñ ϵ»ñ»Ù: 11. áñ ÙÇÝ㨠ѳçáñ¹ ï³ñí³ í»ñçÁ 200 ͳé ïÝÏ³Í ÏÉÇÝÇ: 4. âÙáé³Ý³ë ³ñÃݳóÝ»É ÇÝÓ ³é³íáïÛ³Ý Å³ÙÁ 7-ÇÝ: ä³ïáõÑ³Ý Éí³óáÕÁ ·³Éáõ ¿ í³ÕÁ` ųÙÁ 8-ÇÝ: 7.ºë ³ÛÝ ¹»é í³ñÓáí ã»Ù ïí»É.²Ûëûñ »ñ»ÏáÛ³Ý ÑÛáõñ»ñ »Ù áõݻݳÉáõ. Choose the best suited tense-form to express future actions viewed from the past. ä³åÇÏë Çñ ³ÙµáÕç ³½³ï ųٳݳÏÝ ³ÝóϳóÝáõÙ ¿ ͳé»ñ ïÝÏ»Éáí: ܳ ³ëáõÙ ¿. ³Ûëù³Ý ß³ï ѳñÏ ã»Ù í׳ñ»Éáõ: 3. Ñ³Ù»Õ ³Õó³ÝÝ»ñ »Ù å³ïñ³ëï»Éáõ: 8. You said if you (not to go) back. 95 . -¸áõ å»ïù ¿ ϳ°Ù ïáõ·³ÝùÁ í׳ñ»ë ϳ°Ù Ù»Ï ³Ùëáí µ³Ýï ·Ý³ë: -ºë ã»Ù í׳ñÇ ïáõ·³ÝùÁ: -²Û¹ ¹»åùáõÙ ëïÇåí³Í ÏÉÇÝ»ë µ³Ýï ·Ý³É: 5. »ë ù»½ ϹÇÙ³íáñ»Ù ϳ۳ñ³ÝáõÙ: 6. His mother went out of the room and he could hear her frying something downstairs while he (to wash).ò³íáõÙ »Ù. áñáíѻﻨ Ý»ñϳÛÇë ³ß˳ï³í³ñÓÇ ÙdzÛÝ Ï»ëÝ »Ù ëï³Ý³Éáõ: ´³Ûó.

000 students from 42 countries. probably a green dress because that’s her favourite colour. My family (to meet) me at the airport with kisses and tears. 10. He saw to it that she (to get) everything she needed. Jane asked me why I had bought so many tomatoes and I answered that I (to make) a lot of spaghetti sauce. When I (to get) a chance. he got angry. Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable tense. Ex. 7. I (to be) away from home for two years by that time. I (to be) very happy to see them again. My little brother (to be no longer) so little. We wondered if she (forgive) Ron if he (to apologize). 5. 12. I will return home. or so it will seem. They (to miss) me as much as I have missed them. She (to change) quite a bit. 6. 9. probably some weight. I didn’t believe her. by the end of that semester she (to teach) more than 50. But in the morning he called up and asked if he might be excused because his father (to come) down and they (to have) a family party. but she (to be) still mischievous and inquisitive. My father (to gain). He (to be) almost as tall as my father. My neighbour was sure that I (not hear) that news yet.Everybody knew that the grand wedding ball (to begin) at eight o’clock that evening. too. Your mother thought that you (to want) a place of your own when you (to come) out of the army. . Bob asked me not to come to his place in the evening as he (to watch) and interesting football match on TV then. 13. 14. Peter (to dine) with the Duncans on Sunday. 9. I (to take) a long look at them. On June 20th. but otherwise he will be 96 4. The washing machine (not to work) so I had to wash the clothes myself by hand. When I told my father that I (not to go) into his goddamn business. She (to ask) me a thousand questions a minute. 11. According to her. 8. My little sister (to wear). Sue said that she (to do) nothing more until she (to have) a good rest. 15. and his hair (to turn) a little grayer. He (to grow) at least a foot.

What do you think you will be doing in four or five year’s time? 2. -Yes. A Little Gossip -Good morning. The wrinkles on her face (to be) smile wrinkles. Ex. Read the stories and complete the sentences with verbs in parentheses. I’ll call you in twenty minutes. What would you do to make the world better? REVISION OF TENSE FORMS Ex. Comment on the following questions. Study the model and make a dialogue on a telephone conversation.just as I remember him. lovely. Jones! What a splendid summer we (to have) so far this year. Use any appropriate tense – form. I can’t talk right now. 97 . but not much. -Good-bye. Do you think the world will have changed for the better/worse by then? (Why?) 3. Smith. My mother (to look) a little older. Can you call back a little later? -Sure. Ex. This is Fred. How much longer will you be typing it? -I’ll probably be typing it for another ten minutes. Mrs. (Act it in class) -Hi. but some people (to complain) about the heat and (to grumble) because we (not to have) much rain for the gardens. Jim. 11. 1. I’m typing an important letter now. -Speak to you soon. 10. -Fine. What beautiful weather again! -Yes. Can you talk for a minute? -I’m sorry. Mrs. 1.

there was a rich Caliph in Baghdad. At this rate she (to lose) count of her husbands before she (to be) forty. The man (to stare) at him. As for me I (to work) in my rose garden since morning.I suppose he (to drive) flat out again. One morning he (to send) his servant. Mrs. Abdul to the market to buy some fruit. He (to know) that somebody was behind him.Some people are never satisfied.Fancy that! She only (to get) her second divorce in the spring. 98 . dressed in black. .Her first marriage only (to last) six months – and that was only in 1972.Well. only his eyes. Tailor how madly he (to drive). they (to take) him to hospital but I (not to think) it (to be) serious because he (to come) home again today. He was very famous because he was wise and kind. . wasn’t it? -Yes. As Abdul (to walk) through the market. What wild things young men are these days! .Mm… I’ve got some news for you.. He couldn’t see the man’s face. and Abdul (to begin) to shiver. too. And I think they are a bit lazy.She may lose count. Jones but we certainly won’t. The Appointment Once upon a time. He (to turn) round and (to see) a tall man.By the way.How awful! Is he badly hurt? . . he suddenly (to feel) very cold. that’s right.I know. Only yesterday I (to tell) Mrs. You (to hear) that Eva Browning (to get) married for the third time on September the tenth? . . you (to hear) that young Patrick Ellis (to have) another accident in his car? . What a dreadful woman she is! . And all his friends are just the same.

The Caliph was puzzled. “Are you certain?” said the Caliph. she (not to reveal) much about her personal life. “Excuse me. “But why? What (to happen)?” the Caliph asked. “What’s your name?” Abdul asked nervously.” “Why you (to be surprised)?” the Caliph asked.” answered the Caliph. I (to be going) to my father’s house in Samara.. He (to be dressed) in black. He (to decide) to go to the market and investigate. 99 . Abdul (to drop) his basket and (to run) all the way back to the Caliph’s house.” Abdul replied. “ I just (to meet) Death in the market. “I (to be surprised) because I’ve got an appointment with him…tonight…in Samara. he (to speak) to him angrily. and her brilliantly constructed plots (to catch) the imagination of generations of readers. “Yes. Her famous detectives. master. “Why you (to frighten) my servant?” “Who is your servant?” the stranger replied. I just (to be surprised) to see him in Baghdad.“Who are you? What you (to want)? Abdul asked.” The Caliph could see that Abdul was terrified and (to give) him permission to go to Samara. “His name is Abdul. I’m certain. I (to be) there before sunset.” Abdul said. “I…am…Death. The man in black (not to reply). Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple. When he (to find) the man in black. Although she (to live) to an old age and (to write) many books. He was fond of Abdul and he was angry because Abdul (to be) badly frightened by the stranger in the market.” the stranger (to reply) coldly and turned away. Agatha Christie Agatha Christie (1891-1976) is one of the world’s best-known and best-loved authors. and he (to stare) at me. I have to leave Baghdad immediately. “I (not to want) to frighten him. He (to rush) into the Caliph’s room. If I (to go) at once.

Carlo (Miss Charlotte Fisher). But to this day. ERROR ANALYSIS Ex. The police (to be) suspicious. that she (to run away) with a secret lover. – The servants (to know) something more? – Agatha’s husband (to hide) something? Newspapers (to print) wild stories about her disappearance –that she (to commit) suicide. nobody really (to know) what (to happen) during those missing ten days. On Friday 3 rd December. (to get) into her car and (to drive off) quickly without saying anything to anybody. a health spa in Yorkshire. Mrs. Christie (to come) downstairs at about eleven in the evening. When Carlo (to return) in the evening. she apparently (to vanish) into thin air for ten days. 100 . that she (to be kidnapped). I am away from home more than three years. Agatha (to tell) her secretary and companion. Find and correct errors in the following sentences. but he has heard his mother speak of it once. According to them. she (to find) that the garage doors (to be left) open and the maids (to look) frightened. Jack chose the hotel. How many times have you been winning in the lottery. 2. that she (to want) a day alone. The mystery ended ten days later when Agatha (to be found) alive and well in Harrogate.In December 1926 an incident (to occur) which would have made an enthralling detective story in itself. A nation-wide hunt for the missing novelist was started. 1. 3. some even suggested that she (to plan) the whole thing as a publicity stunt. Her husband explained to the waiting reporters that she (to lose) her memory. By the time I return to my country. 2. At the time she (to be) extremely distressed because she (to find out) that her husband (to have) an affair with another woman and (to want) a divorce. At the height of her success with her first novel. She (to sleep) badly. He has never been there before. she (not to be able) to write and she (to eat) little.

3. 20. So far he doesn’t make friends with anyone. but it is going to be ready in a minute. 15. 16. he will be leaving. dinner isn’t ready yet. 13.4. Ex. I have been seeing that movie three times. 9. Hardly I got into bed when the telephone rang. I am sure Flora will be here after a while Tomorrow will be my birthday. He is my close friend. As soon as I will graduate. áñ ÷áÕÇ Ï³ñÇù áõÝÇ. but turned off so that all of them could study together.” “Okay. 10. I am going to find it for you. 12. I have been knowing him for my childhood. 18. I am going to return to my hometown. Don’t phone me after 11. 17. áñ Ýñ³ ·áñÍÁ ͳÕÏáõÙ ¿: 101 . I am thinking he won’t stay here long. 14. Anna had listened to loud rock music when her friends arrived. I haven’t seen my elder brother since about five years. 1. 19. 7. Use any appropriate tense-aspect forms. 6. 8. 2. and now I am wanting to see it again. 3. I leave now but I’ll see you two weeks later. 5. He wants to get married. àëïÇϳÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ í»ñç³å»ë µéÝ»ó ³ÛÝ »ñ»ù ïÕ³Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýó. but he doesn’t meet the right person yet. I’m sorry. 4.µ³Ûó µáÉáñÁ ·Çï»Ý. It is no use to phone Bob at the office. He said that he was smelling something burning but there wasn’t something cooking on the stove.” I understood everything before I didn’t stay there a week. I’ll have been asleep. “I can’t find the mustard. Translate the following sentences into English.00. 11. áñáÝù ³é¨³Ý·»É ¿ÇÝ ÙÇÉÇáݳïÇñáç áñ¹áõÝ: ì»ñçÇÝ ÁÝïñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ³Û¹ ûÏݳÍáõÇ ¹»Ù ùí»³ñÏáÕ ù³ÝDZ Ù³ñ¹ ϳñ: ºÃ» ¹áõ ÇÙ ËáñÑñ¹ÇÝ ãÑ»ï¨»ë ¨ ÝáñÇó ÝáõÛÝÝ ³Ý»ë. ¹áõ ÷áñÓ³ÝùÇ Ù»ç ÏÁÝÏÝ»ë: ܳ ÙÇßï µáÕáùáõÙ ¿.

7. »ñµ »Õµ³Ûñë »Ï³í Ù»½ ³Ûó»ÉáõÃÛ³Ý: æáÝÝ ³ñ¹»Ý ëïáõ·»É ¿ñ Çñ ³ß³Ï»ñïÝ»ñÇ ß³ñ³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ¨ ³ÛÅÙ ÙÇ Ñ»ï³ùñùÇñ ·Çñù ¿ñ ϳñ¹áõÙ. 8. 17. 9. 14. »Ï»É ¿: ܳ µáÉáñáíÇÝ ¿É ³Ù³ãÏáï ã¿ñ: î³ëÁ ñáå» ¿É ãϳñ. »ñµ ·Ý³óùÁ ß³ñÅí»ó: ºñÏáõ ³ÙÇë ¿ñ. 13. ³ñ¹»Ý ¹³¹³ñ»É ¿ñ. 10. 19. ÇÝã Ù»Ýù ͳÝáà ¿ÇÝù ÙÇÙÛ³Ýó. áíù»ñ ϵ³ó³Ï³Û»Ý ³é³Ýó ÑÇÙݳíáñ å³ï׳éÇ. áñÁ ·Ý»É ¿ñ ³é³íáïÛ³Ý ` ¹åñáó ·Ý³Éáõ ׳ݳå³ñÑÇÝ: ²Ýݳ°. 16. µ³Ûó ¹»é ³ÝÓñ¨ ¿ñ Ù³ÕáõÙ: îÝûñ»ÝÝ ³ë³ó. áñ Çñ»Ý ê»ÉÇ ³Ýí³Ý»Ù: ºÕ³Ý³ÏÝ ³Û¹ ûñÁ Ùé³ÛÉ ¿ñ: ê³éÁ ù³ÙÇÝ. ÙÇÝ㨠Ýñ³Ýù µáÉáñÁ ãÑ»é³Ý³Ý: èáÛÝ ³Û¹ ³ÙµáÕç Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ³ß˳ï»É ¿ñ ¨ í³ï ¿ñ ùÝ»É: ܳ ß³ï Ñá·Ý³Í ï»ëù áõÝ»ñ: Ø»Ýù »ñÏáõ ûñ ÙݳóÇÝù êÙÇÃÝ»ñÇ Ùáï ¨ Ñ»ïá ·Ý³óùáí í»ñ³¹³ñÓ³Ýù ÈáݹáÝ: г½Çí ¿Ç »ë Ýñ³Ýó Ññ³Å»ßï ïí»É. áñ å³ÑÁ. Ïå³ïÅí»Ý: Üñ³ Ùáñ ëÇñïÝ áõÅ·ÇÝ µ³µ³ËáõÙ ¿ñ` ³Û¹ Ñáõ½Çã ÝáñáõÃÛáõÝÁ Éë»ÉÇë: âÝ³Û³Í Ýñ³ Ãí³óÛ³É ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ` ݳ ÇÝÓ áã ÙÇ û·ÝáõÃÛáõÝ ¿É óáõÛó ãïí»ó: ºë Ýñ³Ý É³í »Ù ×³Ý³ãáõÙ: Üñ³Ý »ñ»ë ïáõñ. 6. 18. áñ ÷ãáõÙ ¿ñ ³é³íáïí³ÝÇó.5. »ñµ ݳ Ëݹñ»ó. áñ áã áù Ýñ³Ý ã³Ýѳݷëï³óÝÇ: 102 . ܳ ÷³Ïí»É ¿ ë»ÝÛ³ÏáõÙ ¨ Ññ³Å³ñíáõÙ ¿ ¹áõñë ·³É. 15. áñÇÝ »ñϳñ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ëå³ë»É »Ù. áñ ݳ ù»½ Ùáï ÏÙݳ: ºë ѳëϳó³. ÇÝã ³åñáõÙ ¿ÇÝù ·ÛáõÕáõÙ. 12. áñ Ýñ³Ýù. 11. »Õµ³Ûñ¹ í»ñ³¹³éÝáõÙ ¿: γñÍáõÙ »Ù. ³ëï³éÝ ¿É Ñ»ïÁ Ïáõ½Ç: ÂáÙÁ ϳñ¨áñ ùÝÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¿ñ å³ïñ³ëïíáõÙ Çñ ë»ÝÛ³ÏáõÙ: Üñ³ Ù³ÛñÁ Ñ»ï¨áõÙ ¿ñ.

103 . It shows whether the subject is the doer of the action or whether it is acted upon. Active: The surgeon will operate on the patient tomorrow. Active and passive forms: Simple Present active: write/writes passive: am/is/are written/painted Present continuous active: am/is/are writing/painting passive: was/were being written/painted Present Perfect active: have/has written/painted passive: have/has been written/painted Simple Future active: shall/will write/paint passive shall/will be written/painted Future Perfect active: shall/will have written/painted passive: will have been written/painted Simple Past active: wrote passive: was/were written/painted Past Continuous active: was/were writing/painting passive: was/were being written/painted Past Perfect active: had written/painted passive: had been written/painted Simple Future in the Past active: should/ would write/paint passive: should/would be written/painted Future Perfect in the Past active: should/would have written/painted passive: would have been written/painted Modal Verbs active: can/could/ may/might /must/ought to/ should/ would/ etc. there are two voices in English. be written/painted The passive is not the reverse of the active. The two constructions are not parallel in their use and serve different purposes.UNIT VI THE PASSIVE VOICE The voice is one of the categories of the verb. Accordingly. write/paint passive: can/could /may/might/ must.active and passive./ought to/should/would etc. Passive: The patient will be operated on tomorrow.

Change of focus (it can change the emphasis of a sentence): Charles won the prize. there is emphasis on the actions performed rather than on the people who perform them. Unknown agent (there is no point in adding an agent: by somebody): My wallet has been taken. Unimportant agent: I was advised to obtain a visa in advance. (focus on the prize) 2.The passive construction is generally used in the following cases: 1. (focus on Charles) The prize was won by Charles. 3. 5. Obvious agent: Joan has been arrested. 7. Test papers are not to be taken outside the examination room. In descriptions of processes.: Then the toys are packed into boxes and sent to shops. 6. 104 . Generalized agent (if the subject is “people in general ”or “you” the agent is not mentioned): Bicycles are widely used in the city instead of public transport. Impersonality (the passive is a way of avoiding the naming of a specific person): It has been decided to reduce all salaries by 10%. (we assume by the police) 4.

Direct passive construction is such a construction where the subject of the passive sentence corresponds to the direct object of the active sentence. the components of which cannot be separated. Tom resembles his father.Note that the passive construction is impossible when the direct object of the verb is expressed by: a) an infinitive I have arranged to meet him at 10. to suit. 105 . d) by a set-phrase. prepositional. to keep one's word etc. to become. Ann hurt her leg yesterday. c) a clause I felt that they didn't want to join us. such as: to take flight. b) a reflexive pronoun or a noun with a possessive pronoun. Most verbs with an object (transitive verbs) can be made passive. The number of passive constructions in English is much greater than in other languages. adverbial and phraseological. We have a lot of relatives. to lose /to take courage. to have and to possess. e) with the verbs to resemble. Alice wrote that letter. Direct passive construction 1. indirect. The following types of passive constructions exist in English: direct. to lose heart. to take alarm. o'clock. referring to the same person as the subject of the sentence Ann hurt herself. That letter was written by Alice.

106 . to give a post /job. to give a party. to hand. to consider. to tell. to grant audience. to request. to grant leave. such as: to ask. The direct passive construction is used with the verbs: to think. to pass. 3. to lend. to offer. A strange note was handed to me. The students asked the professor lot of questions. Verbs which have two objects can be made passive in two ways. to pay. Compare the two structures: It is expected that the strike will end soon. to believe. to envy. The strike is expected to end soon. Indirect passive construction is found with the verbs: to tell. to expect. to consider. 5. The direct object denoting a person becomes the subject of the passive construction. With these verbs practically only one passive construction is used. to suggest. to promise. There are a number of verbs in English which require two direct objects. to teach etc. to give an opportunity. to suppose. Indirect passive construction 4. to show. to report. to give. Indirect passive construction is such a construction where the subject of the passive sentence corresponds to the indirect object of the active sentence. I was handed a strange note. Common verbs of this type are: to bring. to allege.2. The secretary said he was busy. to know. It is said that he is working on a new book now. to give (and set phrases with give and grant) to give a chance. The professor was asked a lot of questions. He is said to be working on a new book now. to send. We weren’t granted audience. They were given a party on the day of their arrival.

to laugh at. He dedicated his book to his parents. to telegraph. into. to dictate. The teacher explained the rule to the pupils. They take two objects. to bring. to point out. to write about.the direct passive. to repeat. to announce. to deliver. It may be found with the following verbs: to speak of / about. The prepositional passive construction is the type of passive construction in which the subject corresponds to the prepositional object of the active construction. for. The prepositional passive construction 7. to spit at. to say. His jokes are always laughed at. to. to play. to swear at…. to dedicate. This artist’s pictures are always looked at with admiration.) The director dictated a telegram to the secretary. Notice that the prepositional passive construction is not used with such verbs as: to explain. to shout at. There are verbs in English which require a direct and an indirect object in the active construction. to comment on. to present to recommend. A telegram was dictated to the secretary by the director. His last film is much talked about. direct object prepositional object The book was dedicated to his parents. to explain. to describe. direct and prepositional in active constructions. but they can only have a direct passive construction. to sell. to buy. to mention. among them we find to write. to talk of /about. to sneer at. The rule was explained to the pupils (by the teacher. to read. to mock at. to devote. The phraseological passive construction 107 . to propose. to point out. but they admit only of one passive construction.6. to frown at. to prove. to introduce. to whistle at. to sing. to look at / after upon. to suggest.

to get in touch (with). to find fault (with). With is used after participles such as filled. to make use (of)… The car was lost sight of. crowded. It occurs with the verbs: to live. besides the predicate is expressed by a phraseological unit. to put an end (to). The house has never been lived in. The use of this construction is very rare. Generally the person (the agent) who performs an action in a passive sentence is introduced by by. Entering the room she saw that the bed had not been slept in. to sleep and to sit. Adverbial passive construction 9. such as: to take care (of). packed. to take responsibility (for). to take no notice (of). The teacher’s remarks were taken no notice of. crammed.8. The phraseological passive construction is the type in which the subject corresponds to the prepositional object of the active construction. The room was crammed with furniture. 108 . to lose sight (of). His purse was found by one of the cleaners. to make fun (of). Adverbial passive construction is a construction where the subject of the passive construction corresponds to an adverbial modifier of place in the active construction. By and with 10. to make fool (of). An object (an instrument) which causes something to happen is introduced by with. The tree had been decorated with coloured balls. to pay attention (to).

I don’t have to defrost the refrigerator until next week.The difference between by and with may involve the presence of a person. 15. Dave was hit by a branch. decorate can use with or by. Have they sent for a plumber? They never took any major decision without his knowledge or advice. 109 . Omit the performing agents if necessary. I expect you to return the money to me by Friday. 9. 5. 3. 12.. They usually deliver the mail twice a day during Christmas. ACTIVITY Ex. (a person hit him with one) Make is followed by to when used in the passive. such as surround. I’ll be fired if I don’t finish this work in time. Someone found the children in the morning. Nobody has ever treated me with such kindness. Transform the active verb phrases in the following sentences to passive verb phrases. Cover can also be followed by in. They didn’t build Rome in a day. They are discussing the possibility of new negotiations. 13. (an accident) Dave was hit with a branch. 14. 10. The old castle was surrounded by/with a high wall. 2. 4. 11. 8. Ann was made to wash the windows. Thousands of people use this underground. 6.1. 7. She made Ann wash the windows.. 1. People use coal for making artificial materials. I have fixed my colour TV twice since I bought it. What do you call it? Everybody thought that Jack was clever but lazy. Cover and verbs which involve similar ideas.

After graduation they offered him a good job. Did you send him a telegram? He can't tell her the truth. the students asked the professor a lot of questions. The judge gave him a life sentence. A) Example: She sent a letter to Martin. They were asked to hand in their reports at once. Rewrite these sentences in the passive. The doctor ordered me to stay in bed. 5. B) Example: 1. They paid him £ 300 for the work. They instructed him to start early. 7. 2. They granted us donations.16. People don’t speak English in that part of the world. 6. You must develop this film before the end of the year. 3. 110 . 2. He taught them how to play the game. 5. Tom’s parents promised him a bicycle. 3. 19. 9. 6. They are showing an interesting film to the children this week. He asked them to hand in their reports at once. 20. The surgeon will operate on the patient tomorrow. 4. 4. The lecture was interesting. 7. A letter was sent to Martin. The boys envied him his talent. The authorities gave us no explanation. 1. 8. One can seldom find inexpensive food in the stores now. Passive voice with verbs which have two objects: Direct and Indirect Ex 2. They taught him several languages when he was a child. 17. 18. When I got to the party. Martin was sent a letter. they were already serving dinner. The lady doesn’t allow dogs to come in here.

The secretary will dictate the telegram to you over the telephone. 3. They sold us the house very cheap. 8. 2. 11. We are dealing with your complaint. I’ll write to her a reply as soon as I can. 10. The inhabitants described to us the life in this out-of-the-way place. 2. Did they explain the difficulty to you? 5. 5. 3. We can't speak of such important matters lightly. 8. The boy complained that people were picking on him.C) Example: They bought a new house for their daughter last month. 7. Supply the suitable passive form. I must insist that the rules are kept to. 1. They will frown upon any attempts to cheat in the exam. People always look at this picture with admiration. 3. 9. She laughed at the warning about bad weather. They argued about the incident for a long time. They repeated the announcement over the radio every 15 minutes. We have not accounted for all the missing passengers. 4. 9. . You must think the matter over. He introduced his girlfriend to us. he mentioned to me the most interesting fact. He read an extract to her from his book. A new house was bought for their daughter last month. Among other things. He always throws away all his old note-books at the end of the school year. 7. Passive voice with verbs which have a prepositional object Ex. They repeated the same thing to him several times. 10. Example: I must insist that you keep to the rules. 6. 111 1. 6. 4. Someone had tampered with the lock of the front door.

They alleged that he had kicked the policeman. 7. They report that many people are homeless after the floods. He didn’t pay any attention to my warning. 1. He understood that the man had made fool of him. 1. block. They suppose that he robbed a bank a long time ago. They said that they should put an end to poverty. 5. 3. In each example what happens is different from what is supposed to happen. phone. be. He is believed to be a very honest man. She promised that she would take good care of the children. beginning as shown: Example: They believe that he is a very honest man. 5. do. 6. 4. 7. start. They reported that the building had been badly damaged. Change the following active sentences to passive.4. we lost sight of it. Use be supposed to with its other meaning. 6. 2. At the party they made fun of Jack. Write these sentences in another way. It is believed that he is a very honest man. park. 8. He took no notice of their remarks. Example: I think that we must put an end to this bloodshed. clean 112 . When the car turned round the corner. They said that the boy was wearing a white pullover. come. Ex 6. 2. They think that the prisoner escaped by climbing over the wall. Ex 5. 4.Phraseological Passive Construction: Ex. They expected that the strike would end soon. They believed that the thieves got in through the kitchen window. 3. I think this bloodshed must be put an end to. Use be supposed to + one of these verbs: arrive.

The train … at 11. a small town in Greece. Oh dear! I … Ann but I completely forgot.15. only Greeks (allow) to compete in them.00 4. C. 2. Why didn’t you do it? Ex. She (sit) at the computer for five hours. p. 6.Example: You’re not supposed to park here. My refrigerator doesn’t have to (defrost). 7. By the time he got to work. Complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the verbs in parentheses. m. the author of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Mark Twain. 5. but he still … any heavy work. They (to have) a dinner party next Saturday evening. 11. 8. 2. The Olympic Games (begin) in 77 B. 6. They … until 3. but it was an hour late. At that time. This door is a fire exit. What (discuss) when you left the meeting? 10. in Olympia. (grow up) in a small town on the Mississippi River. What are the children doing at home? They … at school. 1. 1. Finally she (take) a break. They arrived very early at 2 o’clock. Robert and Julia (vaccinate) against cholera before they went to Mozambique.7. but we rarely do anything before 8. 3.00. 3. You’ll have to go there after six to get the tickets. He ought (to tell) the news immediately. Jack has a right to know. It’s private parking only. The ticket booth (to close) until 6. He is much better after his illness. 9. 12.30.30. We got an invitation in the mail from Rom and Maureen. You … it. 7.30. Almost every part of the world (to experience) an earthquake in recent years. 113 . You … the windows. Why you (not make) a reservation? Make it for 7. 8. 4. Some of the sentences are active and some are passive. We … work at 8. 5. he (drink) three cups of coffee. Jane’s eyes burned and her shoulders ached.

The dance company is having successful tour of the United States.00 p. The batteries in the radio need (change). 8. do cut retype marry wash eat tune spray install take care lengthen shorten deliver send paint put go x-ray examine water 114 . Unfortunately. Use each verb only once. 16. ”Where you (buy) that beautiful necklace?” I (not buy) it. Their dances (perform) over 500 times before they return to Senegal. Yesterday I told my teenage daughter to clean her room before she (go) to school. done Ex. A person named Carl Gauss (recognized) as mathematical genius at the age of 10. 18. Complete the sentences with the verbs in the list. The play is going to (present) this coming Friday at 7. 15. to get (to persuade) smth. 20. the children (rehearse) then musical play. This problem had better (to take) care of at once. done to get (to persuade) smb. Causative forms and Giving Instructions to have (to cause) smb. to have (to cause) smth.13. to do smth. 14. I (look) in her room. c) His doctor got him to stop smoking d) I have got to get my teeth cheeked as soon as possible. It (give) to me for my birthday. my grandfather’s teeth have got to (pull) out. m. Examples: a) I have my apartment painted every three years b) I must have my teacher explain this procedure to me. After she (leave) the house. When I went to the school auditorium. 17. do smth. 19.

it’s beginning to look sloppy. Could I please have the dictionary when you are finished … it? I’m not ready yet. 3. I have my gardener … the garden every afternoon. 15. 17. I’m still dressed … my pajamas. 115 . How did you get the child … to bed so early? I had to have the gas station attendant … some water. You’d better have your gardener … the lawn with insecticide. 4. Do you know him? Mark Twain is known … his stories about life on the Mississippi. 12. 14. 9. 2. I’d like to use it. 7. As soon as you are done … the dictionary. 1. 11. 8. 8. Her dress was too long. 13.1. 5. 7. 6. The doctor says I have to have my lungs …. I always have the store … my groceries. 9. I’m not acquainted … that man. 10. Complete the sentences with appropriate prepositions. My car is equipped … air conditioning and a sun roof. and she had her seamstress … it. 3. 4. My pants were too short. I must have my secretary … this letter. 16. How much does it cost to get a piano …. You should have your eyes …. I got my apartment … before I moved in. 19. What is a good way to get a stubborn child … all of his dinner? You’d better get your hair …. 2. A person who is addicted … drugs needs professional medical help. 20. 5. How did the teacher get such a lazy student … his homework? How much do you have to pay to get your windows …? How did she finally get that stubborn man … her? Stative passive + prepositions Ex. This apartment comes furnished … only a stove and a refrigerator. The General had the best troops … to the front. and I had my tailor … them. 18. 9. Jack is married … Joan. Why don’t you have your lawyer … of this problem? I had the phone man … the extension phone in the kitchen. 6.

Carol is engaged … Larry. Are they still associated … the International Red Cross? – Yes. 23. 12. Why are you upset … the children? I think you’re involved … too many activities. 19. The department store was filled … toys for the holiday sale. 17. 10. His blind eye (to take) out. Ex. 14. I was bored … it before the plot took shape. 16. Their marriage is planned for May 3. Victor is blessed … a good sense of humor. I am in favour of nuclear disarmament. 22. 116 . He’s wearing a straw hat.10. He (to deprive) of one eye as the result of infection. 25. John’s bald head is protected … the hot sun. We are finally prepared … our camping trip. Are the choices in this restaurant limited … pizza and sandwiches? – If you are interested … other dishes. 20. The whole first hour was devoted … historical background. Now he’s scared … every dog he sees. and a glass one (to insert) in its socket in its stead. I am very disappointed … that movie. 11. 18. 24. 13. George Washington is remembered … his story leadership during the Revolutionary War. take a look at the back page of the menu. they are dedicated … helping people. which has helped him to get out of some very difficult situations. I am terrified … the possibility of an accidental nuclear war. 15. Last month Billy was bitten by a dog. I once (to know) a village teacher who (to be) partially blind. Use the required active and passive tense-aspect forms in the following text. And are you opposed … it? I am annoyed … my boss. Zoology is more closely related … biology than it is to Botany. The store was crowded … last-minute shopper on the eve of the holiday. 21.

and the teacher (to go) off.” he thought. children.00 Robert and Julia (vaccinate) against cholera before they went. m. 117 . Complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the verbs in parentheses. “I (to outwit)”. p. If anything (to do) which (not to approve) by me. The desks (to overturn). The ticket booth (to close) until 6. 4. a good time (to have) by all. Suddenly he (to strike) by an idea. I (to go) out for a few minutes but you (to observe) all the time by my eye.00. 1. The children (to impress) very much. 2. The teacher (to astound). “Now. You’ll have to go there after six to get the tickets. it (to seem) that a hurricane (to pass) through the classroom. The teacher (to wonder) why the presence of his glass eye (not to respect). In a moment his glass eye (to take) out of his socket. He (to know) that if they (to leave) alone for any length of time they (to become) violent and complains (to make) by their parents. and (to place) on the table. He (to look) round for it and (to see) that it (to cover) by a hat. But he (to hold) back by one consideration. “Evidently. it (to see) by my eye. But when he (to return) an hour later. 3. Why you (not make) a reservation? Make it for 7. In fact. He ought (to tell) the news immediately.. The children of the class (to be) really unruly. 1. Jack has a right to know.” he said. and the child (to punish) when I (to return). REVISION OF THE PASSIVE VOICE Ex.One day the teacher (to need) to leave his class of small children alone for half an hour or so. the walls (spatter) with ink from ink-bombs which (to throw) during a battle which still (to fight) out as a manifestation of high spirits. Some of the sentences are active and some are passive.

2. When I went to the school auditorium. (grown up) in a small town on the Mississippi River. 7. A person named Carl Gauss (recognized) as mathematical genius at the age of 10. Their dances (perform) over 500 times before they return to Senegal. At that time. Translate the sentences into English using the Passive voice. 13. ²Û¹ »ñÇï³ë³ñ¹ Ù³ëݳ·»ïÝ ³ñ¹»Ý »ñÏáõ ³Ý·³Ù å³ßïáÝÇ µ³ñÓñ³óáõÙ ¿ ëï³ó»É. This problem had better (take) care of at once. 15. my grandfather’s teeth have got to (pull) out. After she (leave) the house. ÇÝã ëÏë»É ¿ ³ß˳ï»É ³Ûë ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ: 118 . The batteries in the radio need (change). in Olympia.00 p. My refrigerator doesn’t have to (defrost). 17. 11.5. 9. 6. C. Mark Twain. 14. 1. What (discuss) when you left the meeting. m. 12. Finally she (take) a break. the author of The adventures of Tom Sawyer. the children (rehearse) then musical play. They (to have) a dinner party next Saturday evening. 10. only Greeks (allow) to complete in them. Yesterday I told my teenage daughter to clean her room before she (go) to school. 8. We got an invitation in the mail from Rom and Maureen. Unfortunatly. 19. It (give) to me for my birthday Ex. She (sit) at the computer for five hours. ”Where you (buy) that beautiful necklace?” I (not buy) it. The Olympic Games (begin) in 77 B. The play is going to (present) this coming Friday at 7. Jane’s eyes burned and her shoulders ached. he (drink) three cups of coffee. 18. The dance company is having successful tour of the United States. 16. Almost every part of the world (experienced) an earthquake in recent years. By the time he got to work. I (look) in her room. 20. a small town in Greece.

áñ ¹»é¨ë áã Ù»ÏÇÝ áã ÙÇ Ùñó³Ý³Ï ãÇ ïñí»É: ØÇ° ³Ýѳݷëï³Ý³. áñ ³Û¹ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ·áñÍãÇÝ ³Ñ³µ»ÏÇãÝ»ñÝ »Ý ëå³Ý»É: ÂáÙÇÝ µáÉáñáíÇÝ ¹áõñ ã¿ñ ·³ÉÇë. 18. ¨ ݳ ÁݹáõÝ»ó Çñ ë˳ÉÁ: ä³Ûٳݳíáñí»óÇÝ. áñ Çñ»Ý Ñ³×³Ë Çñ »Õµáñ ï»ÕÝ »Ý ÁݹáõÝáõÙ: üñ»ÝÏÇÝ µ³ó³ïñ»óÇÝ. áñ Ýñ³Ý ɳí ËÝ³Ù»Ý ³ÛÝï»Õ: ä³Ñ³Ýçí»ó. 19. 14. 16. û áñ¨¿ µ³Ý Ñݳñ³íáñ ¿ ÷áË»É ³ÛÝï»Õ: îáõÝÝ ³ÛÝåÇëÇ ï»ëù áõÝ»ñ` ϳñÍ»ë ï³ñÇÝ»ñ ß³ñáõÝ³Ï ³ÛÝï»Õ áã áù ã»ñ ³åñ»É: æáÝÇ Ñáñ Ù³ëÇÝ Ù»Í Ï³ñÍÇù áõÝ»ÇÝ ·ÛáõÕáõÙ: ²ëáõÙ »Ý. »ñµ Çñ»Ý Ù³ïݳÝßáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Çñ ûñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ: -¶Çï»±ë° Ù»Í ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ »Ý ëå³ëíáõÙ ³Û¹ ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ: -â»Ù ϳñÍáõÙ. áñ Ïáñ³Í ÷³ëóÃÕûñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ ³ÝÙÇç³å»ë ãÇ Ñ³Õáñ¹í»É ջϳí³ñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ: êÛáõÇÝ »ñµ»ù ¹áõñ ã¿ñ ·³ÉÇë. áñ Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ Ý³Ë ¨ ³é³ç ½»Ýù»ñÁ ѳÝÓÝ»Ý: ÄáÕáíÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï Ýßí»ó. 11. áñ ÇÝã.áñ µ³Ý å»ïù ¿ ³ñíÇ ù³ÝÇ ¹»é ã³÷Çó ³í»ÉÇ áõß ã¿: гÛï³ñ³ñí»É ¿. áñ ѳ½³ñ³íáñ Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ ³Ý³å³ëï³Ý »Ý ¹³ñÓ»É çñѻջÕÇó Ñ»ïá: æáÝÇ Ù³ÛñÁ ½·³ó. ù»½ ϳë»Ý. 15. µ³Ûó Ýñ³ ëÇñáõÝÇÏ ïÇÏÝáç ßáõñçÁ Çñ³ñ³ÝóáõÙ ¿ñ ³é³ç³ó»É: Èáõñ»ñ »Ý ï³ñ³ÍíáõÙ.2. áñ ³Ûë Ýáñ ß»ÝùÁ ݳ˳ï»ëí³Í ¿ ÑÇÙݳñÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ: Èááõñ»ÝëÁ ½·áõÙ ¿ñ. áñ ÇÝã. 7. û ÇÝãáõ ¿ñ ݳ ë˳É. áñ íϳÛÇÝ Ñ³í³Ý³µ³ñ ÏëïÇå»ÇÝ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝ ãï³É: Üñ³Ý ³ß˳ï³ÝùÇó ³½³ï»óÇÝ ÍáõÛÉ ¨ ³Ý³½ÝÇí ÉÇÝ»Éáõ å³ï׳éáí: 119 . 9. 13. гÕáñ¹í»É ¿. áñ æá°ñçÁ ÏáõÕ»ÏóÇ »ñ»Ë³ÛÇÝ ¨ ÏÑ»ï¨Ç. 6. û »ñµ ¿ í»ñçÇÝ ·Ý³óùÁ Ù»ÏÝáõÙ: ÀݹáõÝ»ÉáõÃÛ³Ý Å³Ù³Ý³Ï åñáý»ëáñÇ íñ³ áõß³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝ ã¹³ñÓñ»óÇÝ. 4.áñ µ³Ý »Ý óùóÝáõÙ Çñ»ÝÇó: Æñ³íÇ׳ÏÁ ß³ï Éáõñç ¿: γñÍáõÙ »Ù. 3. 5. 12. 10. 20. 17. 8.

We still can’t believe! Our neighbour’s car has been stolen again last night. Three people were hurted in the accident were took to hospital with an ambulance. 7. and was very tasty. 120 . 9. The committee hasn’t made its decision yet. The exhibition had been closed a week ago. Find and correct errors in the following sentences. 12. 18. 14. The turkey was stuffed in chestnuts. 16. “How did that window break?” “I don’t know. 11. Two of the climbers were injured with falling rocks. 17. and by whom has the automobile invented? The answers have been included for the book. The house was built by money that David borrowed from the bank. 3. Paper is a common material that is using throughout the world. where. The exhibition had been closed a week ago. 3. The proposal is still considering. 4. When.” The window had been smashed by a hammer. 8. 10. The students helped by the clear explanation that the teacher gave. His father was decorated with bravery during the war. 13. 5.ERROR ANALYSIS Ex. There furniture was damaged from fire. Something funny was happened to her yesterday. 1. 15. The emergency exit was concealed with red curtain. 2. 6.

would. inability. obligation. could. may. ought to etc. 121 . necessity. may. Their child has always been allowed to do what he likes. so when necessary we use other words. might. be allowed. could. habitual behaviour etc.contexts modal verbs are found in reported speech or thought. would. must. I told them that we shouldn’t take it for granted. will. must should. prohibition. He wants to be allowed to open a bank account. Johnson won’t be able to see her grandchildren so often when they leave for Boston. need and dare are called ‘modal auxiliary verbs’. I’d like to be able to stay with you. shall. should. He might be able to help us tomorrow. She has always been able to persuade people to do what she wanted. ought to. I thought he might be wrong. for example forms of be able. have no infinitives or participles. certainty. A modal auxiliary verb is used with another verb to express ability. Most of the modal auxiliaries can.MODAL VERBS The verbs can. In past time. possibility. Mrs.

remember. When can and could are used with see. understand. We do not normally use could to say that somebody managed to do something on one occasion. managed. Could your son read before he went to school? They couldn’t answer the child’s questions. can + simple infinitive (could is used in past time contexts) (affirmative. Can and could used with these verbs are not always translated into Armenian It was so dark that we couldn’t see anything. Can you translate this article without a dictionary? I’m afraid I can’t come to your party. tell. (succeeded in…doing) After six hours’ climbing. 3. She could hardly believe her eyes. interrogative and negative forms) She can speak five languages. Instead. guess. we use was/were able. smell. feel. Inability 1. we succeeded in getting to the top of the mountain. 122 . I managed to find a really nice dress in the sale. taste. they give a kind of progressive meaning to these verbs. We use can to say that somebody has the ability to do something. áñ áãÇÝã ã¿ÇÝù ï»ëÝáõÙ:) When we entered the house we could smell something burning. (²ÛÝù³Ý Ùáõà ¿ñ. I could swim when I was six.UNIT VII CAN / COULD Use: Ability. hear. 2.

(or You may order a taxi by telephone. and with negative or limiting adverbs only and hardly we may use could to refer to one occasion. 123 . It was a place where anything could happen. Anybody who wants to can join the club. but I couldn’t find her house. In negative clauses. interrogative. Can we use the indefinite article with this noun? You can order a taxi by telephone now. I managed to find the street. but didn’t happen. Possibility 4. Can may be used to show a possibility due to circumstances (circumstances permit): can/could + simple infinitive (affirmative. He could only get two tickets.He didn’t managed/ failed to settle the difficulty. 5. 6.) Some years ago you could obtain a dog from the Dog’s Home at Battersea. negative forms) You can ski on the hills (there is enough snow). Scotland can be very warm in September. You can’t bathe here on account of the sharks (it isn’t safe to bathe). It could be quite frightening if you were alone in our big old house. Could +perfect infinitive is used to say that something was possible. I don’t think the car can be repaired. We use can/could to say that situations and events are possible in general or theoretically. Note 1: We often use can/could to say what is common or typical.

8. (Why did you do it alone?) That was a bad place to go skiing – you could have broken your leg. The situation couldn’t be worse. Choices. Could is used with comparative adjectives to express possibility or impossibility: could/couldn’t be + comparative adjective (with reference to the present) could/couldn’t + have been + comparative adjective (with reference to the past) It could be better. When the bridge is built they’ll be able to get to the village easily. Can may be used to talk about the choices that somebody has now or in the future or to suggest opportunities) can + simple infinitive (affirmative form) 124 . I was so angry I could have killed him! 7. We couldn’t have been happier in those days. Opportunities 9. Why did you throw the bottle out of the window? Somebody could have been hurt. We do not use can to talk about future possibilities or probability. We have to use will be able or it will be possible. (but she didn’t want to) You could have asked me to help you.She could have married anybody she wanted to. One day it will be possible to travel to the stars.

” Could is also used to talk about present and future choices and opportunities (especially when we want to make suggestions sound less definite). Can’t is used to refuse permission.” “What shall we do tonight?” “We could go to the restaurant opposite the cinema. and about things that are or are not allowed by rules and laws (may is not normally used to talk about rules and laws). She said I could come as often as I liked. You can go now if you want. Alex is a kind and patient person.” “Could I borrow your umbrella?” “Of course you can. (could is more polite) You can watch TV for another half-hour. you could visit our friends there. interrogative and negative sentences) “Can I borrow you car?” “Yes. I’m afraid you can’t.” “Can I have some more cake?” “No. “What shall we do?” “We can try asking Lucy for help. of course you can. can + simple infinitive (in affirmative. 125 . we can talk to a lawyer. Can/ could are used to ask or tell people to do something.There are three possibilities: we can go to the police. we could go fishing. Can and could are also used to talk about permission that has already been given or refused. 11.” (Not could) Could I ask you something if you are not too busy.” Asking for and giving permission 10. He could make a good teacher. When you are in London. (conditional use) “What shall we do tomorrow?” “Well. or we can forget all about it.

Then you could iron the clothes. Criticisms 13. thanks very much. We can use could to criticize people for not doing things. If you haven’t got anything to do you could sort out your photos. Can and could are found in offers. if you like. You could have told me you were getting married. (are allowed to vote at eighteen) Note 2: Could has a conditional use (= would be allowed) He could borrow my car if he asked. “I could have kissed her if I had wanted”. said Bob.) Men and women can vote at eighteen. See Unit VIII) You might have told me you were getting married 126 . Note 3: Might is also possible in this sense. When you have finished the washing up. orders and suggestions: Can you put the children to bed? Could you lend me five pounds until tomorrow? Do you think you could help me for a few minutes? “Can I carry your bag?” “Oh. if that would help. (you are not allowed to drive …. Orders and Suggestions: 12. requests. Offers. could + simple infinitive (in the present time contexts) could have + perfect infinitive (in the past time contexts) You could ask before you borrow my car. Requests.Can you park on a double yellow line on Sundays? (not may you park…?) You can’t drive until you are seventeen.” I could mend your bicycle for you. you can clean the kitchen.

Surprise 14. Can and could are also found in special questions for emotional colouring: puzzlement irritation.Uncertainty. impatience. can/could + simple infinitive (with reference to the present) can/could + continuous infinitive can/could + perfect infinitive (with reference to the past can/could + perfect continuous infinitive What can (could) he be doing there? Where can (could) he have gone to? Whom can (could) she have been talking to all this time? Improbability. 127 . can/could + perfect continuous infinitive shows an action which began in the past and continuous into the moment of speaking: Can (could) he have been at home all this time? (stative verb) Can (could) he have been waiting for us all this time? 15. Can and could used in negative sentences show improbability or negative deductions. Can and could are used to show uncertainty/doubt or surprise: can /could + simple infinitive (refers to the present with stative verbs) can/could + continuous infinitive (refers to the present with durative verbs) can/could + perfect infinitive (refers to the past) (this use is found in interrogative sentences) Can (could) she still be there? (ØDZû ݳ ¹»é ³ÛÝï»Õ ¾:) Can (could) he still be talking on the phone? (could expresses more uncertainty) Can (could) he be telling a lie? Can/could they have already arrived. Deduction 16. Doubt.

He can’t (couldn’t) be at home now. Notice the following set phrases with can/could can’t help doing something (cant’stop doing something) couldn’t help doing something She is a selfish woman. 128 . Her mother can hardly have gone to church. The meat I had for dinner last night can’t have been good. She can’t (couldn’t) have been waiting for him all this time.can't/couldn’t + different forms of infinitive (could is less categorical) (only negative forms) It’s already10 a. can’t possibly do something couldn’t possibly do something can’t possibly have done something He can’t possibly do it. but somehow you can’t help liking her. Ñݳñ³íáñ ã¾/³ÝÑݳñÇÝ ¾. (âÇ Ï³ñáÕ å³ï³Ñ»É. m. He is a very honest person. áñ ݳ ÑÇÙ³ ï³ÝÁ ÉÇÝÇ:) They can’t (couldn’t) be doing their lessons now. can’t but do something couldn’t but do something (the meaning is the same as can’t help…) I can’t help but wonder what I should do next. He couldn’t possibly afford a car on his present salary. Don’t you hear their laughter? He can’t (couldn’t) have lied to us. He can’t possibly have done it. I feel terribly ill this morning.

time as terror. “Can there have been any misunderstanding in our first encounter?” He wondered. 12. but now I always go to bed early. “I could have chased you. 16. You could have told me you were getting married. She keeps the window open so that the bird can fly in and out. “Who says you can't see them every day? Who says you can't live in the same house? Who says you can't live your life exactly as you want to live?” The Don asked Jonny. 11. I need some help with this table. I have never been able to understand him. “I can't sing again for hours or days. He could be a first class student if he tried. 13. She could see that he was angry with her for insisting and expecting him to refuse. “Can I call you for dinner some night?” asked Alex. “Sollozo can't be put off any more. I wished I could. Looking at Central Park from a window. 8.” Jonny’s voice was sad. but I didn’t want to do that.We may find can in different kinds of subordinate clauses where its use is structurally dependent. please? 20. 17. You can talk it over with your father. I can't help but wonder what I should do next. Could you lift the other end. When I was younger. shrouding all in white. You’ll have to see him this week. ACTIVITY Ex 1. 10. I could stay up late without getting sleepy. 3.” said Sonny. 1. My voice is weak. “I 129 . 19. I could feel that a sense of time had returned to us both. (purpose clauses) She kept the window open so that the bird could fly in and out. 18. “Could I make suggestion. I wish I could. time as death. I want to believe.” He said with contempt. you can see the snow fall steadily. 15. though I realize I’m only an observer?” 7. Explain the use of can in the following sentences. 4. “We are going to keep seeing each other. (object clause) I wanted to believe. When you are in Spain. 2. I can’t understand Martin.” said Michael. 6. 5. 9. I could have conned you. He couldn’t believe that Clemenza was guilty of treachery. 14. you could go and see him there.

Ex 3. can’t/couldn’t. This carpet was priced at £500. 6. but ……………………………… Our teacher says …………………………. Roger told me that she … run his small establishment better than any paid housekeeper. thanks. We know that since his accident he … leave the house. 1. 130 .can baby-sit for you this evening if you like. 4.. it’s all right. I……………………………………………. 8. You and I are in charge of a great business.” 21. 9. 6.” 22. to be able to. we ……………………………… I’m practicing hard so that ………………………………. If I had money. Who can it be?” “Well it can't be your mother. Add not if necessary for a sentence to make sense. “There’s the doorbell. but in the end ………………………… When I was a small girl/boy ………………………………… I’ve been trying for hours. Ex. she … have been enjoying her meal much either. 5. Complete the sentences using can/could. If he had asked me earlier. It took a long time. Why did you walk all the way from the station? You … have phoned for a lift. 2.” “No. Example: A policeman arrived and told him he couldn’t park there. I ate the next course grimly to an end. She’s in Edinburgh. 10. 4.. 2. Our baby is only nine months and he ………………………. 7.. She has managed to live in England for years without …. He could have been Prime Minister now if he hadn’t decided to leave politics. but I … get a discount because of the little mark in the corner.. 1.. we … leave our responsibility to others. Supply the appropriate forms of can and to be able to. 3.. 5.. 2. I think he …………………………………………………. 3..

5. It’s ten o’clock now and he is never late. Why didn’t you ask me? “You look exhausted. “A man answered the phone. I suppose it was her husband. There is plenty of snow in the mountains. but by the time we had reached the mountain the sun had appeared and we … climb it quite quickly. I have seen nothing of Roberta lately and I don’t know what she can (to do). You were lucky – that ball could (to break) the window.30. They let me read all the books in the house and told me I … go to bed as late as I wanted. Tom walked straight into a wall. 14.” There could (to be) those who felt that a quiet retirement was not for a man who held the secrets of the KGB in his head. You’ve just had dinner.” “No. … you come round and mend a leak in my hot water tank? I was so angry. The first shop I went to didn’t have any but I … get some in the next shop. I gave it to him two months ago and it’s quite a short book. 12. You … be hungry.” Brian said he would be here before 9. 11. I … have lent you the money. I loved staying with my grandparents. “He says he is still reading The Old Man and the Sea. 2. 17. He … have been looking where he was going.7. 15. Why did I listen to you I could (to be) at home by now instead of sitting here in the cold. No one … ever tell when he is being serious and when he is joking. 6. 7. 1. I … have killed him! Ex 4. The day started off misty.” “I … sleep very well recently. 9. 10. 13. it couldn’t (to be) her husband.” You … ski on the hills. I wanted to buy some tomatoes. 4.” “He can't (to read) it. Use the required form of the infinitive after can/could. 131 . 3. He can't (to come). 16. 8. He has been dead for ages.

10. Can he (to wait) for me all this time? Mary thought to herself. It isn’t my umbrella. I wonder whose umbrella I have taken. I wonder if something can (to do) about it. 2. She can't (to see) me. I wonder how it was possible for him to find us in that crowd. Nick could (to win) the game if he hadn’t fallen. Can he still (to speak) to the police? It’s two o’clock we are late. Who is she talking to on the telephone? 9. A minute ago they were here. Make the following sentences more emotional by using can/could. Where can I have left my spectacles? 1. 6. 13. 10. Example: I wonder where I left my spectacles.” Suddenly she realized she could (to smell) something burning. 15. It astonishes me that you find pleasure in reading such stuff. The entrance was watched all the time. 9. 11. I wonder what is he doing in there. “I could (to kiss) her if I had wanted.8. Why did you stay at a hotel when you went to New York? You could (to stay) with Barbara. 4. 14. 7. When did he get out? I wonder which of the children is writing these things on the blackboard.” Bill was boasting. I wonder where he is now. Lunch is growing cold. I can't understand what he means by saying it. 19. Jack is in trouble. 12. Jane walked past me without speaking.” “Ken repaired his mother’s washing machine” “Ken couldn’t (to repair) his mother’s washing machine because he doesn’t know anything about machines. He couldn’t (to hear) the news at dinner because his sister hadn’t arrived yet. but it could (to be) Jim. 132 . 17. I have no idea who wrote that letter. She could (to visit) her aunt and uncle right now. 5. She usually visits them every Friday evening. Ex 5. 16. 3. I don’t know who rang. 18. “Where is Ann?” “I don’t know. 8.

6. There are sharks here. Is it possible that something has happened to him? 10. 7. 9. ݳ ϳñáÕ³ó³í µ³ó³ïñ»É. We burst out laughing when he mimicked his uncle. This can't be the way to Garni. 2. It is just impossible for you to get this thing done so soon. 1. 1. ²É»ùëÁ »ñϳñ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ãÇ ³åñ»É ³Ûë ù³Õ³ùáõÙ: ²ÝÑݳñÇÝ ¾. He wasn’t in the office then. Re-word the following sentences. John doesn’t attend his lessons. áñ ݳ ÑÇÙ³ ¹³ë»ñÁ å³ïñ³ëï»ÉÇë ÉÇÝÇ: ØÇû ã»ë ÉëáõÙ »ñ³ÅßïáõÃÛ³Ý Ó³ÛÝÁ: гÙá½í³Í »Ù. µ³Ûó »ë ãϳñáÕ³ó³ ·ïÝ»É Ýñ³ ïáõÝÁ: гÛñ¹ ß³ï µ³ñϳó³Í ¿: ²Û¹ DZÝã »ë ÝáñÇó ³ñ»É: . using can/could. Is it possible that Ann has taken the key with her? 4. The climb is possibly dangerous. How about going to the theatre? The door is locked. It isn’t safe to bathe here. áñ ݳ ß³ï Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýó ׳ݳãÇ ³Ûëï»Õ: ¸áõ ÑÇÙ³ ϳñáÕ ¿Çñ ³í»ÉÇ É³í ³ß˳ï³Ýù ·ïÝ»É. 5. 7. Translate the following sentences into English. 3. 8. Example: I am sure this isn’t the way to Garni. Ex 7. áñ ݳ ÑÇÙ³ å³ñáõÙ ¿ ³Û¹ ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ »ñ³ÅßïáõÃÛ³Ý Ý»ñùá: ºë ³ÛÝù³Ý »ñ³Ëï³å³ñï »Ù Ó»½: â¿Ç ϳñáÕ ×Çßï áñáßáõ٠ϳ۳óÝ»É ³é³Ýó Ó»ñ û·ÝáõÃÛ³Ý: »¨ û¹³ãáõÝ áñï»Õ íݳëí³Íù ¿ñ ëï³ó»É. Why didn’t Liz apply for the job.γñÍáõÙ »Ù` Ù»ñ ¹áõëïñÁ ÑÇÙ³ ¹³ë»ñÝ ¿ å³ïñ³ëïáõÙ Çñ ë»ÝÛ³ÏáõÙ: -Ðݳñ³íáñ ã¿. I don’t believe Tom stole the money. »Ã» áñ¨¿ ûï³ñ É»½áõ ÇٳݳÛÇñ: ÆÝÓ Ñ³çáÕí»ó ·ïÝ»É ÷áÕáóÁ. It was unlikely that Father would let you stay there any longer.Ex 6. . 3. 4. û ÇÝã ¿ñ å³ï³Ñ»É: 133 6. 5. There was possibility of her getting the job. 2.

7. Ù»Ýù ϳñáÕ ¿ÇÝù ºíñáå³ ·Ý³É. You say: ……………………………………………… Your friend didn’t tell you that he was going to have a party. áñå»ë½Ç ѳÛñÁ ϳñáճݳñ ϳñ¹³É ¹ñ³Ýù: Ex. The film was so sad that you couldn’t stop crying. You say: ………………………………………. 12. áñ Ýñ³Ý ¹»é¨ë ãÇ Ñ³çáÕí»É ϳå ѳëï³ï»É ·áñͳϳÉÇ Ñ»ï: êáíáñ³µ³ñ ²ÉÇëÁ Éñ³·ñ»ñÝ áõ ݳٳÏÝ»ñÁ ÃáÕÝáõÙ ¿ñ ë»Õ³ÝÇ íñ³. You say: …………………………………………. 3. You say: ……………………………………………… You wonder who she is talking to on the phone. You are sure he didn’t do it on purpose. 14. What will you say in the following situations? (Use can/could. 15. The scene was so terrible that it was difficult to believe one’s own eyes. 2. can’t/couldn’t) 1. 9. 11. You say: ……………………………… You suggest going to the restaurant this evening. You say ……………………………………………………… 134 . áñÝ ³ÛÝù³Ý íë»Ù ëϽµáõÝùÝ»ñ áõÝÇ: ²ÝóÛ³É ï³ñÇ` ³ñÓ³Ïáõñ¹Ý»ñÇÝ.. Everybody considers him to be a liar. 4. 13. µ³Ûó ãó³Ýϳó³Ýù: öá˳ñ»ÝÁ ׳åáÝdz ·Ý³óÇÝù: Ðݳñ³íáñ ã¿ñ‚ áñ àõÇÉÛ³ÙëÝ»ñÁ Ý»ñϳ »Õ³Í ÉÇÝ»ÇÝ ³Û¹ ÁݹáõÝ»ÉáõÃÛ³ÝÁ: Ø»½³ÝÇó áã áù Ýñ³Ýó ãÇ ï»ë»É ³ÛÝï»Õ: -Æñ³íÇ׳ÏÁ ëñ³ÝÇó ³í»ÉÇ í³ï ã¿ñ ϳñáÕ ÉÇÝ»É: ´³Ûó Ù»Ýù áãÇÝã ã»Ýù ϳñáÕ ³Ý»É ÝÙ³Ý Ñ³Ý·³Ù³ÝùÝ»ñáõÙ: àã áù ã¿ñ ϳñáÕ ³í»ÉÇ ß³ï µ³Ý ³Ý»É ù³Ý ¹áõù: â¿Ç±ù ϳñáÕ ÙÇ ÷áùñ áõß ·³É: Ø»Ï Å³ÙÇó »ë Ïϳñáճݳ٠ùÝݳñÏ»É ³Û¹ ѳñóÁ Ó»½ Ñ»ï: ´ÇÉÝ ³ëáõÙ ¿. You say: ……………………………………………………. 6. ÆÝãáõ± Ù»ñ ÑÛáõñ»ñÁ ¹»é ã»Ý »Ï»É: ƱÝã ϳñáÕ ¿ å³ï³Ñ³Í ÉÇÝ»É Ýñ³Ýó: ºë ã»Ù ϳñáÕ ãÑÇ³Ý³É ÙÇ Ù³ñ¹áí. 16. 10. 5. 8. 8. You say: ……………………………………………………… Your brother was naughty when he was a boy. but you believe him.8.

“May I smoke here?”” No. Anne said that she might go to Scotland at the weekend. May and might can both be used for asking permission may/might + simple infinitive (affirmative. (might replaces may in past indirect speech) He asked me if he might /could look at the picture again Giving and refusing permission 2.” (= you are not allowed) or No.” “Yes. I’m afraid you may not. you may not. May is used to give permission: may not is used to refuse permission. you may not/ can’t. you mustn’t. (= I forbid you to smoke here) Note that we don’t usually use may and might to talk about permission which has already been given or refused or about rules and laws (see Unit VII) These days children can/are allowed to do what they like. ” You may go home when you have finished. interrogative. “May I come in now?” “No. In an informal style can and cannot/can’t are more common.. 135 . negative forms) May/can I look at the picture again? I wonder if I might have a little more cheese.UNIT VIII MAY / MIGHT Use: Asking permission 1. (might is very polite and formal). The teacher said that we might take another chance.” “May I put on the TV?” “No. of course you may.

Bob said that I might order a taxi by telephone.” “I wonder why she was in such a bad mood yesterday.” “She may have missed the train.” “She might not have known about it. (perhaps a 50 % chance) Dave might come with us.” “You may well be right.” “I think it’s going to rain. We also use may/might + perfect infinitive to refer the possibility to the present or future (like present perfect or future perfect tenses) 136 .” (perhaps it was a cat) “Carol wasn’t at the meeting. We use may/might + perfect infinitive to say that it is possible that something happened or was true in the past. (perhaps a 30% chance) “Where ‘s Bob?” “I’m not sure.the sky’s really black. may/might + different forms of infinitive (affirmative and negative forms) He may be fixing his car now.I could read what I liked when I was a child.” She knew that she might be forced to agree. (possibility due to circumstances) 4. He might be having lunch. We can’t cross the street here.” (= perhaps he wasn’t feeling well) 5.) I may go to London next year. Possibility 3.” (perhaps she didn’t know about it) “She is late. (гí³Ý³µ³ñ / ·áõó» / ÙÇ·áõó» ݳ ÑÇÙ³ Çñ Ù»ù»Ý³Ý ¾ í»ñ³Ýáñá·áõÙ. “What was the noise?” “It might have been a cat. May and might are used to say that something is a possibility.” “He may not have been feeling well.

(Perhaps he has already gone out).I’ll try phoning him. Note 1: Notice that might (not may) can have a conditional meaning (= would perhaps) might have + past participle refers to past possibility which didn’t happen Don’t play with knives. he might have married her. If she hadn’t been so bad-tempered. You might get hurt. He might have fallen ill if he hadn’t taken the medicine. You might carry the parcel for me. might + simple infinitive 137 . You might have told me she was going to stay out all night. Luckily he wasn’t driving the car. He might have been hurt. By the end of this year I might have saved some money. Suggestions 7. (Perhaps he would have married her if she hadn’t been so badtempered). Criticism 6. (=Perhaps you would get hurt if you did) If I knew them better I might invite them to dinner. Might is used to express annoyance about something done or not done (at someone’s failure to do something): might + simple infinitive (for the present situations) might have + past participle (for the past situations) (affirmative form) You might ask before taking my car. (Perhaps I will have saved some money by then). but he may have gone out by now. Disapproval / Reproach. (the situation is not real) If I had known them better I might have invited them to dinner. Might is often used in affirmative clauses to make requests and suggestions. You might (could) have told me you were getting married.

can be used to say that the fact makes no difference to the main argument. We may as well go home. might have been /might have been taken for (= looked like a …) From afar the house might have been taken for a small inn. May. Set phrases with may and might may as well (might as well. 138 .” he said. I said that he might be clever. “It might have been worse. He might have been taken for a Scandinavian..) You might have plenty of money. It is used to express although clauses. (Although it is a comfortable car. it uses. He was tall and blond. but that doesn’t mean you’re better than me. I suppose.You might try asking your boss for a raise. You might turn to your father for help. We’ll have to wait an hour for the next bus. It might have been worse means: (=things are not so bad after all) Charles came out of the examination room. sometimes might. but that he hadn’t got much common sense. “How did you get on?” I asked. It may be a comfortable car. but it uses a lot of petrol. We might as well walk. might just as well) + a verb = (used to suggest that there is a good reason to do something) There is nobody interesting to talk to.. May … but 8.

She might have died. 13. 2. I am afraid you may not. It’s a good think you didn’t lend him the money. “You might have warned us that the bull was dangerous.” If I may say so… a stereotyped phrase in which the meaning of permission is weakened. If you had asked earlier we might have been able to help. 4.” Uncle Harry said. I think you have treated him very badly. Now it’s too late to do anything. “Why tell Mary? She might tell everyone else!” 8. 3. “I don’t want to move to London. Father?” “No. “May I borrow the car. 6. “I wonder why Colin was in such a bad mood 139 . It’s use is structurally dependent here. You might never have got it back. I fear that he may fall ill. 11.might have known (might have known that somebody would…) is an idiom by which the speaker expresses ironically that an action was typical of someone else. “Might I look round?” he asked the landlady. I might have known that he would be late. May occurs in object clauses after expressions of fear as well as in adverbial clauses of purpose and concession. 10. ACTIVITY Ex 1. 12. 7. She had been through a hard time. If I may say so. I’ll try phoning him. Harry might often be seen sitting on the porch with a pipe in his mouth. We might just as well stay where we are. we’ll go skiing.” “I might have known.” Laura was insistent. However cold it may be. I felt fatalistic and almost interested in what she might or might not do. 1.” 5. The manager says that we may leave our coats in the downstairs toilet. 9. but he may have gone out by now. “It was Jack who broke the vase. I need it today. Explain the meaning of “may” in the following sentences. He is coming here so that they may discuss it without delay.

. Will you leave tomorrow? ………………………. The sign reads “Students may not use the staff car park. 5... he is always late. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in parentheses. In those days. 4. You were stupid to try climbing up there. 3...” 140 .” “He may (to have) some problems with his eyes. 6. but that doesn’t mean you are cleverer. That man may (to lurk) outside the house. 1.. You may be older than me. We carved their names on the stone so that future generations might (to know) what they had done... 2. I’ve just rung the garage to check whether they’ve fixed my car. 3..” “He may not have been feeling well.. 4. Mary was upset... 15. 1. Where will you go when summer comes? ………. 7.yesterday. 2. “I might have known that he would be late. 8... Ex.” 18. 3.. 17..” “Yes. These men risk their lives so that we may live more safely.” she said to Sue... We may not (to invite) the right kind of people. Our party was not a big success. “You might have told me my trousers were split... Give uncertain answers to these questions. but I can’t get an answer.. Example: When did he come home yesterday? …… He may/might have come home late at night..2. What’s Sue doing now? ………………………… Where does Ronald live? ………………………… When did he finish his work? …………………… Has she already finished her composition? ……… Are they still living abroad? ……………………... Ex.. 5. a man might (to hang) for stealing a sheep. 7.. 6.. “Why is John wearing sunglasses? It’s not sunny..” 16.” 14. Don’t turn on the light. What was Bob doing yesterday?. I suppose they may (to have) tea-break out in the yard. You might (to kill) yourself.

I can’t think why I didn’t realize it before. the rain will stop later in the day. Example: a) “I wonder why she didn’t say hello. 13. 2. 9. 10. 8. It was strange but he might (to read) my thoughts. 1.” “Perhaps she was asleep. “but he is a gentleman.” b) She might not have seen you. Say it again. She was tall and blonde. “I’ll go on Monday by the slow train. You are a real cad. 9. I don’t like it. Ex.” the doctor said to me. Maybe. 10. 3. 4. You never listen when I speak to you.” “You might just as well (to wait) till Tuesday and go on the fast one. It is possible that granny didn’t hear what you said. It is possible that he doesn’t know we are here. We must use caution. 11. I might (to expect) this. It is possible that Ann has already bought it.” By the end of this year I might (to save) some money. You’d better not buy that book. “I wonder why Kay didn’t answer the phone. 4. It is possible that the news is being broadcast on all the channels. “It is no easy matter to find the right man. but she might (to take) for one.8.” said Laura. he was too angry to measure his words.” 6. Perhaps.” She wasn’t a Swede. Re-word the following sentences using “may” and “might”. 7. 12. ” answered his secretary.” “Perhaps she didn’t see you. “Where is Bob?” “Perhaps he is having lunch. “One never knows who may (to listen). “Then why on earth all this secrecy?” asked Mark irritably.” 5. 141 . 14. “Hillary may not (to be) to a public school. Perhaps your father asked her to say he wasn’t there.

Castel looks familiar to me. 8. â·ïÝ»Éáí á°ã ÑáñÁ. Morley. … I ask then. He has been dead for ten years. They say it’s a good one. Ex.³ë³ó üñ»¹Á` íÇñ³íáñí³Í Ýñ³ ¹ÇïáÕáõÃÛáõÝÇó: 2. 18. The news about the scandal isn’t in the newspaper. -ܳ ÇÝÓ »ñµ»ù ãÇ ÉëáõÙ: ÜáõÛÝ Ñ³çáÕáõÃÛ³Ùµ »ë ϳñáÕ »Ù Ëáë»É å³ïÇ Ñ»ï. á°ã áñ¹áõÝ ï³ÝÁ` Ø»·ÇÝ Ùï³Í»ó. We … go to that new restaurant opposite the cinema. µ³Ûó ¹³ ãÇ Ý߳ݳÏáõÙ. what you were doing there? 9. Perhaps she didn’t want to say he was there. 5. She was smartly. “You have acted very irresponsibly and you … find yourself in serious trouble. 4. ²Ûë ³åáõñÁ ÙÇ ùÇ㠳ݳÉÇ ¿: ¶áõó» µ³í³Ï³Ý³ã³÷ ³Õ ã»Ù ·ó»É Ù»çÁ: 142 . êÛáõÝ áõ½áõÙ ¿. and … have been taken for a clever business woman. “One … not get anything done nowadays. . 15. Jack was an excellent tennis player. She … have been lying. 6. She … be the boss. ØÇÝ㨠³Ûë ³Ùëí³ í»ñçÁ Ù»Ýù ѳí³Ý³µ³ñ í»ñç³óñ³Í ÏÉÇÝ»Ýù ·ñùÇ Ã³ñ·Ù³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ: 6. Fill in the blanks with can/could or may/might. He … beat anybody. The experiment was a flop (failure). áñ Çñ»Ý ÃáõÛɳïñ»Ý µ³ÝÏáõ٠ѳßÇí µ³ó»É: 3. 13.” grumbled my grandmother. “I have a little bit of hangover. 3. 12. 1. This letter … not be from John Smith. “It was Jack who broke the vase. I … have had the wrong formula.” 16.Ex.” said Father. . áñ ¹áõ ³í»ÉÇ É³íÝ »ë. but that is no excuse for shouting like that. Don’t worry that Card is late. quietly dressed. Aunt Mary said she hadn’t seen him.” “I … have known!” 19. He boasted and told the most extraordinary stories which I’m sure … not possibly have been true. Where … I have met her? 10. 2. Translate the following sentences into English. 5. The publishers … have been afraid to publish it. áñ ÙÇ·áõó» Ýñ³Ýù ÓÏÝáñëáõÃÛ³Ý »Ý ·Ý³ó»É: 5.” “You … have drunk too much last night. ù³Ý »ë. 1. When they told me I was cured and … go.µáÕáù»ó Ø»ñÇÝ: 4. How … Sarah have made such a foolish error? 6. “Why is Shelley looking under the desk?” “She … have dropped something. 17. she … have missed the train. 11. 7. I … tell you I was more afraid than glad. Mr. Mrs. ¶áõó»¨ ¹áõ ß³ï ÷áÕ áõÝ»ë.” 14.

ºÃ» Ù»Ýù ÙÛáõë ׳ݳå³ñÑáí ·Ý³ó³Í ÉÇÝ»ÇÝù. Turn these ‘certain’ statements into ‘possible/less than certain’ statements. ⿱ áñ å³ïíÇñ»É ¿Ç ù»½` ·»ïáõÙ ãÉáÕ³É: øÇã ¿ñ ÙÝáõ٠˻չí»Çñ: 9. Ýñ³ µ³ËïÁ µ»ñ»É ¿: γñáÕ ¿ñ ³í»ÉÇ í³ï µ³Ý å³ï³Ñ»É: Ex. û áã: 13. û »ë ³ñ¹Ûáù áñ¨¿ ³é³ñÏáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»Ù. They have been staying at a big hotel. 9. áñ ݳ Ïáõ߳ݳ: 12. He may/might be at home tomorrow. ѳÛï³ñ³ñ»ó ·Çß»ñûÃÇÏ ¹åñáóÇ ïÝûñ»ÝÁ: 14.²Û°á. 7. Her mother has to go to hospital. 5. ݳ ¹ñ³Ýù ·áñÍÇó Ñ»ïá ¿ ïåáõÙ: 11. -ÆÝãå»±ë ¿ æ»ÛÝÁ ѳëóÝáõÙ ³Û¹ µáÉáñ ݳٳÏÝ»ñÁ Ù»ù»Ý³·ñ»É: -¶áõó». 8. He forgot to phone me yesterday 10. áñ Ñݳñ³íáñ ¾ áõñµ³Ã ÅáÕáí ãÉÇÝÇ. ʳճÕáõÃÛ³Ý ÏáÝý»ñ³ÝëÁ ѳí³Ý³µ³ñ ³Û¹ ËݹñÇ ÉáõÍáõÙÁ Ï·ïÝÇ: 10.7. ´ÇÉÁ ÝáñÇó áõß³ó»É ¿: Ø»Ýù å»ïù ¾ ÇٳݳÛÇÝù. She will have left by 9. 143 . 6. 1. He was working yesterday. 3. He wasn’t here last week.7. 2. She will be back next week. She has already left. -î³ëÝ»ñÏáõ ï³ñ»Ï³ÝÇó ó³Íñ »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÇÝ ãÇ ÃáõɳïñíáõÙ ³é³Ýó ÃáõÛÉïíáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»é³Ý³É¹åñáóÇ ï³ñ³óùÇó. -îÇÏÇÝ æ»ÏëáÝÁ »ñ»Ï ³íïáíóñÇ ¿ »ÝóñÏí»É ¨ Áݹ³Ù»ÝÁ Ó»éùÝ ¿ Ïáïñ»É: . Example: He will be at home tomorrow. ´áµÝ ³ë³ó. She is having an important conversation at the moment. 4. ù³ÝÇ áñ ïÝûñ»ÝÁ ÑÇí³Ý¹ ¿: 8. лéíÇó ïáõÝÁ ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ñ ÙÇ ÷áùñÇÏ å³Ý¹áÏÇ ï»Õ ¹Ý»É: 15. ѳí³Ý³µ³ñ ³í»ÉÇ ßáõï ïáõÝ Ñ³ë³Í ÏÉÇÝ»ÇÝù: 16. They have been fishing all day. ØÇ·áõó» ÇÝÓ Ñ³ñóÝ»Çñ.

one imposed by external authority or circumstances.UNIT IX MUST (HAVE TO/HAD TO) Use: Obligation (necessity. (this is my order) You will have to clean your own boots when you join the army. or The doctor said that I had to/would have to stop smoking. Must you go now or can you wait a little longer? or Have you got to go… When must I do it? or When have I got to do it? Did you have to pay customs duty on that? The doctor said that I must stop smoking. duty. Must and have to /have got to are used to express an obligation. Must expresses an obligation imposed by the speaker and have to expresses an external obligation. necessity or an order. However. order) 1. especially in speech). interrogative sentences) Plants must / have to get enough light and water if they are to grow properly. there is a difference between must and have to and sometimes this is important. must + simple infinitive (affirmative. 2. (‘outside’ obligation in the past) 144 . (In American English have (got) to is more common. (the army will oblige you to do) I had to cycle three miles to school when I was a child. You must clean your own boots.

You mustn’t /can’t open this parcel until Christmas Day. (it sounds like a direct order from the speaker) You can borrow my car but you will have to bring it back before ten.Note 1: In the first person have to should be used for habits and must for an important or urgent obligation. Must can be used to give orders and instructions for the future. mustn’t + simple infinitive You mustn’t move (= I forbid you to move) Zoo notice: Visitors must not feed these giraffes. You can borrow my car but you must bring it back before ten. (Can’t is also possible. (will have to sounds less like direct orders from the speaker) Prohibition 4. When you leave school. Note 2: Mustn’t and don’t have to are completely different in this sense. (habit) We have to water this cactus twice a month. Note that will have to is used to talk about future obligation. I have to be at my office at nine every day. (habit) I must be at the station at ten. 145 . urgent obligation) Future obligation 3. you will have to find a job. The government mustn’t /can’t expect people to work hard for no money. We use mustn’t to express an order not to do something. (important. but have to /have got to is preferred when arrangements for the future have already been made. and is normal in American English). I’ve got to go for a job interview tomorrow. It’s most important.

Mother to child: If it is very foggy tomorrow you need not go to school. don’t/won’t need is used when external authorities or external circumstances do not require the action to be performed. 6. Let’s have something to eat. You don’t have to do something = you don’t need to do it (but you can if you want) I’m not working tomorrow. “You needn’t write more than 200 words on this subject. Must is used in affirmative sentences to express the conclusion that something is certain (have to/have got to is more usual in American English and it is becoming common in British English) must + different forms of infinitive (only in affirmative sentences) This must be the worst job in the world. Conclusion/Deduction. There is the doorbell. (or It has to/has got to be the worst job…) He must know all about it as he has read a lot on the subject. You needn’t do something = it is not necessary that you do it. so I don’t have to get up early. you don’t need to do it. It must be Roger. conclusions about a past action. Must + perfect infinitive is used to express certainty.” The teacher said to class. Note 3: We use needn’t do something when the speaker gives authority for non-performance of some action. You must be starving. When I last crossed the frontier I didn’t need to show my passport.You mustn’t do something = it is necessary that you do not do it (so don’t do it) You mustn’t tell our secret to anyone. Certainty 5. 146 . It must have been terrible to live during the war.

Your father must be unaware of that fact. mustn’t is occasionally used in this sense. deduction. He will evidently ask you about it. When must expresses strong probability. I haven’t heard Molly moving about. It can’t be Roger. There are big puddles in the garden. In negative sentences we generally use cannot/can’t. It must have been raining all the night. Note 4: As it has been mentioned above must is not used to express certainty in negative sentences. They will probably arrive tomorrow. He must have failed to get in touch with you. b) It isn’t used in the interrogative or negative form. Her alarm clock mustn’t have gone off. the following meanings are employed: He must have misunderstood you. She mustn’t be awake yet. Emphatic advice: 8. for here are his footsteps. It’s only seven o’clock. 147 . especially in American English. in addition to modal words. In this case we find modal words in the sentence. its use is restricted in two ways: a) Must isn’t used with reference to the future. He must never have loved you.The prisoner must have escaped this way. No one must have told him about it. (the action begun in the past and continued into the moment of speaking) 7. Must is used to express strong advice. With negative meaning. However.

5. Explain the meanings of “must” in the following sentences. It must have been terrible to live during the war. “It’s lovely to have you home. Bill. There is the doorbell. 7. ACTIVITY Ex 1. 6. The Adams’ house is dark and quiet. I must be going/I must be off (it’s time for me to go) I must be off. It must be Roger. You must not park on double yellow lines in England. You must be here before eight o’clock tomorrow. 2. 9. 12.Must + simple infinitive (affirmative and negative form) You mustn’t miss the film. 4. 10. then A must be bigger than C. It’s much too long. 11.) When I saw him. and B is bigger than C.” 3. 13. You must be Ann’s sister – you look just like her. If A is bigger than B. I can’t keep them waiting. It’s very good. You must be joking. She said that she must tell me about a dream she had had the previous night. I must tell you that… /I must say… (stereotyped phrases in which the meaning of obligation is weakened in must. Set phrases with must Must needs (denotes obligation) She must needs go there. She can't be his sister. 1. You must come and see us when you are in London again. You really must get your hair cut.” said Mother. “We must have a party to celebrate. Plants must get enough light and water if they are to grow properly. You must have your hair cut. 8. “Can you help me with these letters?” “Must 148 . Their car isn’t in the driveway. I must say I was more afraid than glad. They must not be at home.

Use the required form of the infinitive after “must”. At half-past two I heard Hudson grunt. Ex 2. or drunk. Their little boy is very spoiled. “I mustn’t (to eat) too much. “I’m talking too much. He must (to work) very hard. 3. . Carter in the mornings any longer. This is a lovely party. We are lost! We must (to take) a wrong turn at the last intersection. You … be a good player to enjoy a game of tennis. 3. 2.we do them now? Can't they wait until the morning? ” 14. I am supposed to be on a diet. A lot of thoughts must (to run) through Marie Antoinette’s mind as she was waiting for her execution at the guillotine. But at last he rose realizing dully that he had work which he must (to do). He mustn’t have slept well last night. 9. The car park is free – you pay to park your car there. It’s very dangerous. In Britain many children … uniform when they go to school.” “She must (to do) her shopping 149 1. 8. 8. 1. It’s essential that nobody hears us. “I must (to get) old.” “Somebody must (to try) to frighten you away. put down his book and switch out the light. Dave is an excellent student. “I don’t see Mrs. 6. We … make any noise. Complete these sentences with ‘must’ or ‘have (got) to’ in the correct form. “I got a strange message this morning.” my mother said. but we … go home because of the baby – sitter. I … phone her tonight. 11. Ex 3. 12. 10.” 7. She had already decided that she must (to show) the letter to Alan. 4. There is a lift in the building. He must (to give) too much when he was younger. 7. He must (to be) crazy. Our boss looks very tired today. 10. Building a pyramide must (to be) a long and hard job. The sign says: Cars … be parked near the corner. 9. 6. He must (to read) since midnight. I like Mary. 5. This is a terrible party. 5. but I haven’t phoned her for ages. he said he was Napoleon. Whatever you do you … touch that switch. 13.” said Ann. We really … go home. When I first met my new neighbour. 2.” 4. so we … climb the stairs.

4. “We … as well go home. When I walked into the room. 15.” “She … have been washing her hair.” “She … be fond of her. When they returned from their vacation. Of course she has changed her mind. He looks wet and muddy. Father hasn’t gone to bed yet.” said Fred. It’s evident. so he … have broken your vase. 10. 7. They are sure to have taken the wrong turning. Re-word the following sentences using ‘must’. The letter must (to contain) some good news. I … have bought that car. We … have been lost 150 . 2. Ex 5. … he be still working on the new project? 11. They must (to have) a good time while they were away. They are certain to be looking for you. but I decided to look at a few others. “Why didn’t Diane come to the phone? I know she was home when I called. Peter wasn’t here then. 7. the TV was on but the room was empty. It … be summer.”12. “Our little girl is very attached to her baby-sitter.” 6. 1. Fill in the blanks with can/could. Don’t take a risk like that again. 6. may/might and must.” 14. 8. 4. 9. He is sure to be out at this time. 13. “There is nobody interesting to talk to. 3. My sister is reading a letter and smiling. but the temperature is more like winter. 5. “Where is that cold air coming from?” “Someone … have left the door open. Add not if necessary for a sentence to make sense. 16. Although I tried hard I … pass my driving test. No doubt you have used up all the money I gave you. Don’t play with knives. Evidently his car is undergoing repairs. Bob was stopped by a police officer last night. Dad … have forgotten to turn the TV off before he left the room.in the afternoon.” 3. Ex 4. 9. He must (to drive) too fast when she clocked him on her radar. they looked very refreshed. 2. 1. No doubt she read about it in the papers. Impossible! That student … have cheated on the final examination because he’s too honest.” 8. I’m sure he has been fishing. 10. John. You … get hurt. 5. I’m certain they didn’t manage to take notes of the meeting. He has never been to Greece.

6. 17. 15. He is standing at the bus stop.because of you. 5. 10.” Dad was angry. 6. 151 . She might have/might have had a row with her boyfriend. Both the clocks say 4:30. He … be waiting for the 2 o’clock bus. They’re not accurate. 3. I guess it must be/can't be easy to get tickets to see it. but they didn’t even phone. have told us that he was going to stay out all night. Shall I make some tea? 4. “Why did Tom ignore me at the party last night?” “He might not have seen/might not be seeing you. 8. you may have to stand/can have to stand up for the whole journey. You’ll have to check these figures again.” 19.” 9. The film has been such a big success. Jane didn’t come to the party last night. It’s a pity you didn’t ask because I … have helped you. We thought our cousins would visit us when they were in town last week. … the cake be burning? 20. “What were you talking about?” “He told me that I … tell anyone. 1.” Ex. but the forecast … be wrong. He wasn’t wearing his glasses. I smell something burning. “He. Why did you walk all the way from the station? You could phone/could have phoned for a lift. You might have been concentrating/can't have been concentrating when you added them up. Choose the correct form of the verbs. Weather forecast are far from 100% accurate. so that … be the time. “It’s supposed to rain tomorrow. 2. You must be/ must have been thirsty after carrying those heavy boxes. If you don’t. I suppose they must be/must have been too busy. You might have enjoyed/can't have enjoyed talking to all those boring people. 16. You must be/ can't be very proud of your son winning so many prizes. I don’t know why you wanted to stay at the party. There’s Tom.” “I know. 14. You should reserve a seat on the train when you travel on bank holidays. 7. 18..

7. Üñ³Ýù ³Û¹ ݳٳÏÁ »ñµ»ù ãëï³ó³Ý: Þ³ï ѳí³Ý³Ï³Ý ¿. He said ironically that after what had happened they must be laughing at him. 12. Oliver ate his share and the Jew there mixed him a glass of hot Gin and water and told him that he must drink it off directly. ÇÝã ÷ÝñáõÙ »Ý ³Û¹ Ïï³ÏÁ. 4. Throw it out of the window! 13. Amerigo Bonasera used to contradict the other Italians saying that they must obey their countries laws. Translate the following sentences into English using can/could.11. 2.гí³Ý³µ³ñ ݳ ï³ÝÝ ¿ ³ß˳ïáõÙ ³Ûëûñ: 4.ÆÝãá±õ êáýÇÝ ûýÇëáõÙ ã¿: . I can't remember where I put my briefcase. 14. лï³ùñùÇñ ¿` áñï»±Õ ¿ å³Ñ»É ݳ Çñ Ïï³ÏÁ: Üñ³ áñ¹ÇÝ»ñÁ 10 ûñ ¿. Ex. It might be/might have been in the office. Ex. He says he’s very busy. µ³Ûó Ýñ³Ýó ¹»é ãÇ Ñ³çáÕí»É ·ïÝ»É ³ÛÝ: 3. 5. ºÃ» ݳ Ù»½ û·ÝÇ. and must. I haven’t been able to/can't see him much lately. may/might. 3. . I often leave it there. Sonny said that they must find Luca by all means. áñ »ë ³ÛÝ ëË³É Ñ³ëó»áí ¿Ç áõÕ³ñÏ»É: 2. Explain why “must” remains unchanged in the following sentences. 8. 1. 1. 8. Use their equivalents if necessary. Mrs. Cromwell told us that she must have been sitting there for a quarter of an hour waiting and thinking about it before she saw the letter. The parcel is making a ticking noise. The lady explained that they need voices and that they must have young voices 6. Sheila told the psychologist that she must tell him something important about her father. ÙÇ·áõó» ϳñáճݳÝù í»ñç³óÝ»É ³Ûë óñ·Ù³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ųٳݳÏÇÝ: 152 . because another gentleman wanted the tumbler.7. It must be/must have been a bomb. We shall probably go/must probably go to Scotland for our holiday. Mother called the children and told them not to disturb their father as he had just returned from work and he must be very tired.

λñ³ÏáõñÝ ³Ñ³íáñ ¿ñ: ¸ñ³ÝÇó ³í»ÉÇ í³ïÁ Ñݳñ³íáñ ã¿ñ ÉÇÝ»É: 7. áñ ¹áõñë ¿ñ »Ï»É.ì»å: . ²Ù»Ý ³ÙÇë ¸áõ·É³ëÁ áñáß ·áõÙ³ñ ¿ ÙÇ ÏáÕÙ ¹ÝáõÙ: ØÇÝ㨠³Ûë ï³ñí³ í»ñçÁ ѳí³Ý³µ³ñ ݳ µ³í³Ï³ÝÇÝ ·áõÙ³ñ ËÝ³Û³Í ÏÉÇÝÇ: 12. . »ñµ µ»ñ³ÝÁ¹ ÉÇùÝ ¿: 17. áñ ѳí³Ý³µ³ñ ÇÝã-áñ µ³Ý ¿ å³ï³Ñ»É Ýñ³Ý. Use must/mustn’t. -γñá±Õ »Ù ËÙáñ»Õ»Ý í»ñóÝ»É. . áñ Ýñ³Ýù ÑÇÙ³ ß³ï íÇñ³íáñí³Í ½·³Ý Çñ»Ýó: 13. -ºÏ»ù ´áµÇÝ Ëݹñ»Ýù.Üñ³ ѳÛñÁ ãÇ Ï³ñáÕ ³·³ñ³Ï³ï»ñ ÉÇÝ»É. ºë Ùáï Ù»Ï Å³Ù ëå³ë»óÇ ø»ÛÃÇÝ ¨ ³ñ¹»Ý Ùï³ÍáõÙ ¿Ç. áñ ¹áõ í»å ·ñ»ÉÇë ÉÇÝ»ë: гí³Ý³µ³ñ ëÇñ³ÛÇÝ Ý³Ù³Ï »ë ·ñáõÙ êÛáõÇÝ: 11. ´ÇÉ: .³ë³ó ²ÉÇëÁ: 10. ѳí³Ý³µ³ñ. -سñÇ³Ý ³ëáõÙ ¿. -Ø»Ýù ëïÇåí³Í »Ýù ³Ûë ѳñóÁ ùÝݳñÏ»É ÙÛáõë ß³µ³Ã: ´³Ûó ÙÛáõë ß³µ³Ã »ë. å»ïù ¾ áñ Ùáé³ó³Í ÉÇÝ»ñ ¿ñ ¹áõéÁ ÏáÕå»É: 8.5. . Example: Tom says he has solved these mathematical problems alone. áñ ã»Ù ϳñáÕ ÁݹáõÝ»É Ýñ³Ýó Ññ³í»ñÁ: -ä»ïù ¿. 9. but we know he is bad at mathematics. ã»ë ϳñáÕ.²Ýßáõßï ϳï³ÏáõÙ »ë: ²ÝÑݳñÇÝ ¿. -ÊÝÓáñÝ»ñÁ ß³ï ɳíÝ »Ý: ¸áõ å»ïù ¿ ¹ñ³Ýù µáÉáñÝ áõï»ë. ¨ ãÇ Ï³ñ»ÉÇ Ëáë»É. -ºë ³ë³óÇ æ»ÏëáÝÝ»ñÇÝ. 153 . áñ Ýñ³Ýù ³é³Ýó Ù»½ ·Ý³ó³Í ÉÇÝ»Ý: 9.¹áõ å»ïù ¿ Ý³Ë ùá ßÇÉ³Ý áõï»ë. ¸áõéÁ µ³ó ¿ñ: ì»ñçÇÝ Ù³ñ¹Á. -ÆÝ±ã »ë ·ñáõÙ. гí³Ý³µ³ñ ݳ ß³ï ¾³ß˳ïáõÙ: ²ÝÑݳñ ¾ Ýñ³Ý »ñ»ÏáÛ³Ý ï³ÝÁ ·ïÝ»É: Ex.ѳñóñ»ó ÂáÙÁ: -à°ã. . ù³ÝÇ áñ ݳ áã ÙÇ ³·³ñ³Ï ¿É ãáõÝÇ: 15.å³ï³ë˳ݻó Ù³ÛñÁ. can’t/couldn’t. Çñ ѳÛñÁ ³·³ñ³Ï³ï»ñ ¿: . »ñµ ø»ÛÃÁ ųٳݻó ï³ùëÇáí: 14. Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ã»Ù áõݻݳ: 6. سñïÇÝÇÝ Ñ³í³Ý³µ³ñ ãѳçáÕí»ó ѳÙá½»É Ýñ³Ýó` ·³É Ù»½ Ñ»ï: 16. Make logical conclusions about the following situations. áñ ݳ Ù»½ Çñ Ù»ù»Ý³Ûáí ï³ÝÇ: ¾ÝÝÇÝ ¨ ²É³ÝÁ å»ïù ¾ áñ ¹»é Ù»½ ëå³ë»ÉÇë ÉÇÝ»Ý: -¸áõ ×Çßï »ë: Ðݳñ³íáñ ã¿.

. 6. Alice who is a lazy girl and usually fails the tests got a 95% this time. (or Somebody must have helped him to solve them) 1.He can’t /couldn’t have solved these problems alone. but Ann says she didn’t see him. My neighbours’ dog usually barks when a stranger passes by their house. Jennifer’s car radio is always set on the classical music station. We had a test in class yesterday. Everyone who had the fish for dinner last night got sick. Their car isn’t in the driveway. 154 . I hear a dog barking. Jimmy says he was at Ann’s party yesterday. 7. The Browns house is dark and quiet. She knows what’s going to happen before it happens. 2. 5. The woman sitting behind us has been talking throughout the movie. 3. 4.

She has had to wear glasses since she was ten. interrogative sentences) I have to get up early in the morning as I live far from the office. Does Paul have to leave soon? Last night Sue became ill suddenly. 155 . not for our personal feelings. We use have to for facts. Did you have to clean the house alone? I may have to ask them about it. You can borrow my car. We had to call a doctor. see Unit IX) have to + infinitive (in affirmative. Do I have to apply for a visa? My impression was that he was having to force himself to talk. Did you have to take the car to a garage? Don’t /doesn’t /didn’t have to + infinitive is used to express absence of obligation. Use: Obligation 1. but you’ll have to bring it back before ten.UNIT X TO HAVE TO. (For the difference between must and have to. The modal verb have to is used to express obligation (necessity) imposed by circumstances. necessity. TO BE TO To Have To To have to as a modal verb is not a defective verb and can have all the necessary tense-aspect forms as well as the verbals.

I am not working tomorrow so I don’t have to get up early.) doesn’t have to be is used to say that something is not necessarily true. If you don’t.It doesn’t have to be a dog – it could be a fox. Eng. (or I’ll be very angry) You’d better turn that music down before your Dad gets angry. Hadn’t you better take an umbrella? It’s going to rain. there will be a problem: We had better hurry or we’ll miss the train. We are to meet at six. Had better 3. (Am. 156 . Certainty (strong possibility) 2. He didn’t have to go to hospital because he was slightly injured. . there’ll be trouble.A dog has been killing our chicken. This must be the worst job in the world. b) When you warn somebody that they must do something (it may suggest a threat) You’d better not be late. . If we don’t. The phrase had better is used to express: a) It is advisable to do it. He doesn’t have to wear a tie at work. Have to may be used to say that something is certain. You’d better help me. To Be To To be to as a modal verb is used in the present and past tenses. or This has /has got to be the worst job in the world.

Use: Obligation 1. We use was/were to talk about something that was destined to happen. Fate 4. To be to is used to express previously arranged plans or obligation (especially when they are official): to be + simple infinitive (affirmative. Who was to speak at the meeting? 2.We were to meet at six. I felt nervous because I was soon to leave home for the first time. These doors are to be kept locked. 157 . I just mention it because you said I was to give you all the details I could. The Lord Mayor was to have laid the foundation stone but he was taken ill last night so the Lady Mayoress is doing it instead. Was/were have + past participle denotes an unfulfilled plan. interrogative form) The president is to visit Nigeria next week. She can go to the party but she is not to be back late. negative sentences) He is to stay here till we return. She is to be married next month. To be to may be found in orders and instructions: to be to + simple infinitive (in affirmative. Order 3. The cover is not to be removed.

158 .. We can use am/is/are/was/were to express possibility (usually due to circumstances). Pre–conditions 6. negative sentences) His father was often to be seen in the bar of the hotel. He knew he would have to work hard if he was to pass his exam.) He didn’t know at the time that he was never to see his native place again. (´³Ûó Ù»½ íÇ׳Ïí³Í ¾ñ ѳݹÇå»É. negative sentences) I thought we were saying goodbye for ever. Notice the following set phrases with the modal verb to be What am I to do? What is to become of me? Where am I to go? 7. But we were to meet again later..was/were + simple infinitive (in affirmative.something that must happen first if something else is to happen. Were + infinitive for all persons is found in conditional clauses where it is structurally dependent. or His father can/may often be seen in the bar… Where is he to be found? Nothing was to be done under the circumstances. interrogative. to be + simple infinitive passive (in affirmative. under very strange circumstances. when the main clause expresses a pre-condition . The structure is common in if-clauses.) to be + simple infinitive If we are to get there by lunchtime we had better hurry. Possibility 5.

“This is a lovely party. You … meet her. 11. I told him because he was gentle harmless being. 2. Sometimes it is possible to use either. “A dog has been killing our chickens. 5. “But I have been having to give a lot of thought recently to my feelings toward you. or try to raise an alarm I shall have to shoot. she understood no other. 4.” said Bray.1. 12. Last night Dave became ill suddenly. 3. sometimes only have to is possible. If your father were a poor man you would have to work.” George said to them. 5. 6. 3. Complete these sentences with “must” or “have to” in the correct form. I didn’t have to turn around to know they were coming down the street. 1.” 6. 9. You had to have provoked her. “If you cry out. 10. ACTIVITY Ex. I…cycle three miles to school when I was a child. “I … listen to a lot of lying lately. We … call a doctor. and because I had to tell somebody. The doctor said that I had to stop smoking. Explain the meanings and forms of “to have to” in the following sentences.If I were you I shouldn’t go there alone.” said Ann.” said Mother.” “It doesn’t have to be a dog – it could be a fox. You have been travelling all day. She is a really nice person. Mary went up to the hostess and said. “You’d better turn that music down before your Dad gets angry. Catholics have to go to church every Sundays. If he were to come again I should not receive him. 2. “Do you have to wear a tie at work?” asked Bob. “What were those words? In what language? It had to be French or Italian. Ex. but we’ve got to go home because of the baby-sitter.” 15. 2. 8. 13. 4. I had to let the monstrous thing out of the sealed sphere. She … wear glasses since she was very young. 1. Julia wears glasses. 159 .” she thought. You … be tired. it was not planned. You don’t have to carry identity papers in England. 7.

Complete the sentences with the appropriate forms of “to have to” or “to be to”. so I … get up early. She might … go to hospital. little knowing that they … never to meet again. many years later.” “Edna isn’t in her office.7. Explain the meanings and forms of “to be” in the following sentences. When you come to London. I felt nervous because I was soon to leave home for the first time. 9. But we were to meet again. 14. They made such a noise that I … to send one of the boys to put an end to it. You … keep it a secret. you … come and see us. You really … work harder if you want to pass the examination. Her son is coming today. 5. 10. “A dog has been killing our chickens. 13. 2. 4.” “It … be a dog – it could be a fox. I’m not working tomorrow. 11.4. 12. I thought we were saying goodbye for ever. 3. his employer is very angry if he is late.” Thought Barbara looking at herself in the mirror. Ex. 3. The wound didn’t worry him at the time but it was to be very troublesome later. 4. It was late and he was nowhere to be found. Mike’s mother is seriously ill. 7. which … to take place on the other day of his mother’s arrival. Ex. She has left her gloves here.” said her father. you would be amazed. but she is not to be late. 8. 8. 10. 1. 1. 5. He … to be at his office in time. 16. At 160 . 9. “I wish I were ten kilos lighter. 2. No one is to leave this building without the permission of the police.” “She … go home.3. They said good-bye. If we are to get there by lunchtime we had better hurry. The Lord Mayor was to have laid the foundation stone but he was taken ill last night so the Lady Mayoress is doing it instead. If I were to tell you everything. 15. 6. under very strange circumstances. “She can go to the party. She …come again. … you wear a tie at work? The doctor said that I … stop smoking. He made all arrangements for the marriage. He was wounded. You … tell anyone.

so I … to wait. 15.5. I had a pupil waiting for an English lesson and I … to cut my visitor short. Make up situations using the following statements. I am to give her a lift today. The instructor says that we … not to leave the camp after six. but my teacher called up to cancel it. Aunt Mary’s things … to be moved out of her room so that it can be re-let.” Bob said angrily. but I didn’t. He doesn’t want to leave his country. 12. It was arranged that I should phone him. You … better wear a coat when you go out. You aren’t supposed to park your car here. It’s cold today. I’m afraid you … to come another time. I … a music lesson in the morning. 17. 1. 6. 14. 7. 3. Re-word the sentences using “to have to” or “to be to. The circumstances impose him. 9. I have to give her a lift today. . Edna isn’t in her office. 10. It was planned that we should wait for them in the camp. 7. 8. 6. We expect you to show the place to her. 2. 11. That day. 8.this boarding school the children … to go to bed at eight o’clock. I must give her a lift today. I went to the bank this morning.” said the secretary. Ex. They were destined never to meet again. My sister offered me a lift so it wasn’t necessary for me to call a taxi. You don’t need to tell me about that incident.” The lecture is supposed to begin at eight sharp. however.” said the manager. Ex. 5. It was necessary for her to go home. 9. 13. 4. 161 1. “What you … to do to earn so much money?” Barbara asked me. The computer programmer who … to work for this company hasn’t arrived yet. There was no queue. “I … to work for this cad since I was seventeen. “He is out. We didn’t know then that a day … to come when we would be glad to have any roof over our heads. “We may … to discuss this question without him. 10.6. 16.

ø³ñï»ñÁ ÑÇí³Ý¹³ó³í. I mustn’t do the translation. -¸áõ ï³ÝÇó ãå»ïù ¿ ¹áõñë ·³ë.ѳñóñ»ó Í»ñ ÏÇÝÁ` ɳó»Éáí: 9. áñáíÑ»ï¨ Ý³ ·Ý³Éáõ ï»Õ ãáõÝÇ.íÇñ³íáñí³Í ³ë³ó ûå»ñ³ÛÇÝ »ñ·ÇãÁ: 11. ¸Åµ³Ëï å³ï³Ñ³ñÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï »ñÏáõ ïÕ³Ù³ñ¹ ¿ñ ûè³ÏÇ íÇñ³íáñí»É. ù³ÝÇ áñ æáñçÝ ³ß˳ï³ÝùÇó Ñ»ïá å»ïù ¿ Ù»ñ ïáõÝ ·³ñ: 3. Ù»Ýù Ýñ³Ýó ã»Ýù ëå³ëÇ: 8. -ºë ³Ý»É³Ý»ÉÇ ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç »Ù: ƱÝã »Ù ³Ý»Éáõ: à±õñ »Ù ·Ý³Éáõ. ÙÇÝ㨠»ë ãí»ñ³¹³éݳÙ. ²Û¹ »ñ»Ïá »ë ï³ÝÇó ¹áõñë ã»Ï³.7.³ë³ó æáõÝÁ: 7.áñ í³ï µ³Ý ¿ å³ï³Ñ»É ¨ ѳí³Ý³µ³ñ ãÇ Ï³ñáճݳ ï»ëÝ»É ÇÝÓ ÙÇÝ㨠áõñµ³Ã: 6. µ³Ûó Ýñ³Ýó ÑÇí³Ý¹³Ýáó ï³Ý»Éáõ ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßïáõÃÛáõÝ ãϳñ: 4. ¨ Ýñ³Ýù ëïÇåí³Í ¿ÇÝ Ñ»ï³Ó·»É ÅáÕáíÁ: 12. áñå»ë½Ç »ñ³ÅßïáõÃÛáõÝÇó ѳ×áõÛù ëï³Ý³ù. áñ ¹áõ ÝáñÇó Í»ÍÏéïáõù ³Ý»ë ³Û¹ ïճݻñÇ Ñ»ï: 162 . 1.ºë ã»Ù áõ½áõÙ. µ³Ûó æ»ÛÝÁ ·ñ³ë»ÝÛ³ÏáõÙ ã¿: . -²é³íáïÛ³Ý Å³ÙÁ ï³ëÝ ¿. îÝûñ»ÝÝ»ñÇ ËáñÑáõñ¹Á ÅáÕáíÁ å»ïù ¿ ³ÝóϳóÝ»ñ ³ÝóÛ³É ß³µ³Ã.²Ûë ųÙÇÝ Ýñ³Ý »ñµ»ù Ñݳñ³íáñ ã¿ ·ñ³ë»ÝÛ³ÏáõÙ ï»ëÝ»É: 5. áñ ¾ÝÇÇ Ñ»é³Ý³Éáõó Ñ»ïá Çñ»Ý íÇ׳Ïí³Í ¿ñ ³ÙµáÕç ÏÛ³ÝùáõÙ Ù»Ý³Ï ³åñ»É: 10.2. áñ ¹áõù »ñ³ÅÇßï ÉÇÝ»ù. Ø»Ýù å³Ûٳݳíáñí»É »Ýù ѳݹÇå»É ÙáõïùÇ Ùáï. I don’t have to do the translation. áñ ÇÝã. -¸áõ ã»ë ѳëϳÝáõÙ. I am not to do the translation. Ex. µ³Ûó åñÝ. »ñÃáõÙ ·ñí³Í ¿. ³ë³ó ´ÇÉÇ Ñ³ÛñÁ: . »Ã» Ýñ³Ýù áõ߳ݳÝ. áñ ²ÛñÇÝÝ ³Ûëù³Ý Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ëïÇåí³Í ¿ »Õ»É ѳݹáõñÅ»É ùá í³ñù³·ÇÍÁ. áñ í³ñã³å»ïÁ å³ßïáÝ³Ï³Ý Ñ³Ûï³ñ³ñáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ ³Ý»Éáõ í³ÕÁ: 2. Translate the following sentences into English using “to have to” or “to be to”. . ܳ ã·Çï»ñ ³Û¹ ųٳݳÏ. -ä³ñï³¹Çñ ã¿. µ³Ûó ݳ ½³Ý·³Ñ³ñ»ó áõ ³ë³ó. ºë Ýñ³Ý å»ïù ¿ ï»ëÝ»Ç »ñ»ùß³µÃÇ. . .

” I said.” “You … mistaken. “… I come in?” “How do you know my name?” I asked.Ex. 8. must be or must have. I’ve been so busy. to have had to. “No. Fred.” the stranger said. but I … remember it! “I … remember you.” I’m sorry I … wait so many years before coming to visit you. Remember Me? There was a knock at the door. can’t. I …not” the stranger said.” 163 . He produced my card: Fred Ames. I opened it and saw a stranger.” I said “We exchanged cards years ago. I … given it to him ten years ago. couldn’t. “You said. My wife and children are in the car and we wonder if we … stay with you for a month. haven’t been able to. “Hello. “We met ten years ago on a ferry-boat and you gave me your card. “You … come and stay with us for as long as you like any time you’re in England. but here I am at last! Better late than never! I’ve just arrived on the ferry. Put in can.” He said. must. may. I ….

Shall is used in formal rules and regulations (in written notices. She asked the manager what she should or was to do with it. whether you want to or not! It shall be done! 164 .UNIT XI SHALL / SHOULD Shall Use: 1. be lent. suggestions: How shall I cook it? Which one shall I buy? or Which one should I buy? Shall I open the window? Where shall I put it? Shall I help you to pack? Shall I get you some fresh coffee? Shall we go out for a meal? Let’s go and see Lucy. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not. intention. No player shall knowingly pick up or move the ball of another player. hired out… 3. Shall used with the second and third persons can express a duty (obligation). Shall I? shall we? are used in requests for advice or orders. re-sold. (to ask after the will of the person addressed) offers. by way of trade or otherwise. threat or warning: You shall wash up. (Shall I shall we? are replaced by was/were to or should in indirect speech). to state an order or rule): Members shall have one vote each. promise. 2. shall we? “What shall I do with it?” She asked the manager.

You shouldn’t (oughtn’t to) say things like that to Granny. should can be used to express a strong obligation politely: Applications should be sent before December 30th. should + simple infinitive (in affirmative. major? He shan’t come here.” his father said angrily. Should Modal auxiliary should is used with reference to the present or future and remains unchanged in reported speech. negative sentences) You should (ought to) pay your debts. but it seemed too difficult. Should is less strong than must. Use: Obligation 1. ought to can also be used. Should is used to express duty or obligation which in different contexts may acquire additional shades of meaning. Where should appears. such as advisability and desirability. He shall do as I say.Who shall answer the telephone. Shouldn’t you pay this time? In writing. “You shall stay just where you are. Giving advice or asking for advice 2. do you think …?) 165 . interrogative. I knew that I should write to him. We can use should to give advice or to ask for advice (or to give an opinion with I think. I don’t think. (I won’t let him come) You shall have my answer tomorrow.

(in general) Also. with had better. 4. He should be here by now. there is always a danger or a problem if you don’t follow the advice. Should we invite Mark to our party? Do you think I should apply for the job? I don’t think you should work so hard. They should be at school. Criticism of an action 3. negative forms) You should (ought to) eat more fruit. You shouldn’t believe everything you read in the newspaper. You should (ought to) have come. (a particular situations) I think all drivers should wear seat belts. It’s a good film. The film starts at 7. You’d better take an umbrella. interrogative.(¸áõ å»ïù ¾ ·³Çñ /ǽáõñ ã»Ï³ñ) You should (ought to) have asked him about it. We should go and see it. Note: Had better and should We use had better only for a particular situations (not for things in general) We can use should in different situations to give an opinion or to give advice: It’s raining. I wonder where Sam is. Why didn’t you do? 166 .00 We had better go now or we’ll be late. (= he isn’t here yet and this is not normal) Those boys shouldn’t be playing football at this time.should + simple infinitive (affirmative. Should (ought to) + perfect infinitive shows that a desirable (sensible) action wasn’t carried out: It was a great party. We also use should when something is not right or what we expect.

” That should (ought to) be nice”. Should may be used to express supposition implying strong probability: “We are spending the winter in Florida. It is found in the following cases: a) In rhetorical questions beginning with why: 167 . 5. There are plenty of hotels in the town. Margaret should (ought to) pass the exam.I’ll phone them.” “You shouldn’t (oughtn’t to) have eaten so much. Should (not ought to) may have a peculiar function. Henry should get here soon – he left home at six. Should + simple infinitive (refers the action to the present) Should/shouldn’t + perfect infinitive (refers the action to the past) The use of the emotional should is structurally dependent. It shouldn’t be difficult to find somewhere to stay. (ought to is less common in this case) It’s nine o clock: They shouldn’t have left home yet. she has been studying very hard. (negative probability) Emotional should 6.Shouldn’t (oughtn’t to) have + past participle shows that an undesirable action was carried out: “I’m feeling sick. Deduction.it may be used for emotional colouring. He spoiled everything. In this function it may be called emotional should. The film should /ought to/ must be very good as it is starring first-class actors.” (¸áõ ãå»ïù ¾ ³Û¹ù³Ý ß³ï áõï»Çñ:) I shouldn’t (oughtn’t to) have invited him to my party.

absurd. terrible. e) Emotional should can be used in object clauses after expressions of regret. b) In object clauses beginning with why: (the speaker expresses doubt about the reasonableness or justice of an assumption) I don’t know why you should think that I did it. odd. He didn’t know why he should have expected them to look different.Why should I do it? Why shouldn’t you invite him? I went into business with him as his partner. natural. wonderful… 168 . where. surprising. what in dramatic expressions of surprise (quite often the surprise is embarrassing): What should I find but an enormous spider. (refers the action to the past). I don’t see any reason why she shouldn’t make friends with him. (sometimes pleasure or displeasure) as well as after it is/was + certain adjectives such as: it is strange. Why shouldn’t I have done it. interesting. The door opened and who should come in but his first wife. There were fifteen equally good reasons why she should not have played bridge. (the action of the subordinate clause precedes that of the main clause) d) Idiomatically with who. funny typical. (the action of the subordinate clause precedes that of the main clause) c) In attributive clauses beginning with why after the noun reason: There is no reason why they shouldn’t get on very well together. surprise. queer. I don’t know why he should want to see us.

. If you should see Tom this evening.“Shall we meet at the station? ” asked Bob. (emotional colouring) We are sorry that she should have had a row with her boyfriend. The hirer shall be responsible for maintenance of the vehicle. (the action of the subordinate clause precedes that of the main clause) f) In constructions of the following kind: How should I know? That it should come to this! To think that it should come to this! To think that it should have happened to me! Should is sometimes used in purpose clauses as alternative to would /could He wore a mask so that nobody should (would/could) recognize him. “You shall have no 169 . Explain the meanings of “shall” in the following sentences. 3. can you ask her to phone me? ACTIVITY Ex.1. 1. áñ / »Ã» ѳÝϳñÍ ï»ëÝ»ë ÂáÙÇÝ.2. It is /was strange that he should have left without saying goodbye to anyone. can you ask him to phone me? (ºÃ» å³ï³ÑÇ ³ÛÝå»ë.. It was strange that he should behave like that.. Should may be used in if clauses to show that the possibility is smaller.I am so glad that you should help our son..) or Should you see Ann this evening.

7. They should be at school. 3. by way of trade or otherwise. ÏáÝý»ï Ïëï³Ý³ë. be lent. ÇÝãå»ë »°ë »Ù ù»½ ³ëáõÙ. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not. so she ought to pass.à°ã.³ë³ó ïÇÏÇÝÁ ÷áùñÇÏ ïÕ³ÛÇÝ: 4. ¸³ Ñݳñ³íáñ ¿ ³Ý»É. æ»ÛÝ: . You ought to (should) have 170 . -ºë ¹»é ùá å³ï³ë˳ÝÇÝ »Ù ëå³ëáõÙ. 1. Do you think I ought to (should) apply for this job? 6. 3. but her son hasn’t been to see her. 6. dear. 1. -¸áõ Ï³Ý»ë ³ÛÝå»ë. ë»Õ³Ý å³ïíÇñ»Ù: . It was a great party last night. Aunt Mary’s voice was stern. -¼³Ý·»±Ù. She has been studying hard for the exam. Ðñ³Ñ³Ý·áõÙ ·ñí³Í ¿. Translate the following sentences into English using “shall”. Beatrice is in hospital.“Who shall send this letter to them. 10. hired out or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent. Those boys shouldn’t be playing football at this time. 5. û ÇÝ㠷ݻ٠Ýñ³ ѳٳñ: ܳ ³ÛÝù³Ý ùÙ³Ñ³× ¿: 7. 8. 4. Explain the meanings of “ought to” and “should” in the following sentences. “You shall wash up. Ex 2.. boss? ” 7. Âá°Ù. 2. »Ã» ¹áõ ÙdzÛÝ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ»ë û·Ý»É Ù»½: 5. ³í»ÉÇ É³í ¿` ½³Ý·»ë.¸áõ ÇÙ å³ï³ë˳ÝÁ í³ÕÁ Ïëï³Ý³ë: 6. 4.à°ã. »ë ³ñ¹»Ý å³ïíÇñ»É »Ù: Ex.” said mother. -ƱÝã ï³Ù ²ÝݳÛÇÝ Çñ ÍÝÝ¹Û³Ý ïáÝÇÝ: . You should always lock the front door when you go out. -ú·Ý»±Ù ù»½ Çñ»ñ¹ ¹³ë³íáñ»É: . re-sold.cause to complain of me. ¨ ³ÛÝ Ï³ñíÇ. whether you want to or not!” 5. “How shall I cook it? ” asked Mary. He ought to go and see her. áñ Ûáõñ³ù³ÝãÛáõñ Ùñó³ÏÇó å»ïù ¿ ѳٳñ³ÝÇß ÏñÇ: 3. . -ºÃ» ѳݷÇëï Ýëï»ë. ï³ùëÇ å³ïíÇñ»ë: 2. Members shall have one vote each.³ë³ó ѳÛñÇÏÁ µ³ñϳó³Í: 8.ºë ÇÝùë ¹»é ã·Çï»Ù. Shall I give you an example? 9. People really shouldn’t smoke when there are children around. There shall be no difficulty about money.“You shall stay just where you are!” his mother cried angrily.

Why didn’t you do it? 6. You ought to (ask) your boss for a raise. Put it in its place. You shouldn’t (play) with the match.” Ann went to open the door. You shouldn’t (call) him a fool – it upset him. 8.” “That ought to (be) nice. Ex 4. We ……………………………………………………… 3. Ex 5. 11. Dave is five years old. You should (see) “Daughter of the Moon” – it’s a great film. Example: You are watching TV instead of doing your lessons. “That should (be) Janet coming upstairs now. Christopher has a new CD player. He ……………………………………………………… 171 . “Should I (use) this kind of paper in my typewriter?”-asked Sue showing the paper. You…. 7. “How can you know what his feelings are?” “I ought to know.” 3. You shouldn’t (ought not to) have shouted angrily at him. He is playing with a box of matches. I ought to (phone) Ed this morning but I forgot. 1. we’ll have to send you home. The Parkers ought to (get back) from holiday yesterday. If that should happen again. Some of the sentences are past and some are present. They ……………………………………………………… 2.come. 1. The children use it without his permission. Use the required form of the infinitive after “ought to” and “should”. We called at our friend’s house but he was out. We hadn’t phoned him before we left home. 9. for he is always telling me about them. 4. 10. She is a terrible woman. Read the situations and write sentences with ought to/ ought not to or should / shouldn’t.” 10. “We are spending the winter in Miami. They ought to have arrived by now. Tom. Andrew is very upset. Has anybody seen them? 9. 5. 2. should be doing your lessons instead of watching TV. 8. He ought to (give) a medal for living with her.

I had better leave now. He is expected at formal reception. Add not if it is necessary. I don’t think people … keep pets if they don’t have time to care for them properly. 11. They … go sailing today. I live in Edinburgh. 4. Ron is wearing jeans. You ……………………………………………………… Ex. You … turn that music down before your Dad gets angry. When people are driving. 2. It’s cold today. Can you buy me some stamps when you go out? There … be some change in my purse if you haven’t got enough money. He………………………………………………………… 7. They are too young.4. 172 . or I’ll miss the bus. You … take something good to read because you’ll have quite a long wait in the departure lounge. they… keep their eyes on the road. 9. 8. Example: I … leave now. The apple trees have lots of ripe fruit on them but no one can be bothered to pick it so it will be wasted. Sometimes either is possible. You … wear a coat when you go out. The tank is almost empty. or I’ll miss the bus. You came to Edinburgh last week but you didn’t visit me. Someone ………………………………………………… 5. 3. 7. Put in ‘had better’ or ‘should’. 6. We … stop for petrol soon. 6. 5. The sea is rough and it might be dangerous.” 12. 1. I’m in a difficult position.” “You … pay your phone bill or you may have problems. What do you think I … do. You are talking and laughing instead of listening to your teacher. “I received my phone bill four weeks ago but I haven’t paid it yet. You ……………………………………………………… 6. You … try one. I don’t think they … get married. 10. These biscuits are delicious.

1. Isn’t it typical of Roy that he should leave without saying goodbye to anybody? 4. ³ÛÉ ¹³ë»ñ¹ ÏñÏÝ»ë: ì³ÕÁ ûëï »ë ·ñ»Éáõ: 4. 2. “I can't understand why you should do this. ¸áõ ß³ï ³Ýù³Õ³ù³í³ñÇ ¿Çñ ÇÙ ÁÝÏ»ñÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ý¹»å: ¸áõ ãå»ïù ¿ ù»½ ³Û¹å»ë å³Ñ»Çñ: 8. It’s strange that Ann should be so worried about the exams. What advice could I give him? 5. áã û »ñ³ÅßïáõÃÛáõÝ Éë»ë ÑÇÙ³. á·¨áñ»Éáõ ѳٳñ: 6.” said mother. áñ ÉëáõÙ »ë: 5. signore. àãÇÝã ã¿Ç ï»ëÝáõÙ ÙÃáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç: ºë å»ïù ¿ ɳåï»ñ í»ñóñ³Í ÉÇÝ»Ç: 7. It outraged 173 .µáÕáù»ó æ»ÛÝÁ. ²ÛÝ ³ÝÓÝ³Ï³Ý ¿ñ: 1. -ºñµ Ù»Ýù é»ëïáñ³Ý ·Ý³óÇÝù. ³ÛÝï»Õ áã ÙÇ ³½³ï ë»Õ³Ý ãϳñ: . Why should I avoid them?” The girl looked surprised. ¨ »ë Ùï³Í»óÇ. ²ÛÝ ÑáÛ³Ï³å ¿ñ: ´áÉáñ Ù»ñ ÁÝÏ»ñÝ»ñÝ ³ÛÝï»Õ ¿ÇÝ: 9. ϳñÍáõÙ »Ù »ë å»ïù ¿ ÙÇ ³ÛÉ ³ß˳ï³Ýù ÷Ýïñ»Ù: 3. ¸áõ ãå»ïù ¿ Éë»Çñ Ù»ñ Ëáë³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ. The landlord demanded that we should pay the rent by Friday. I was surprised that he should ask me for advice. Translate the sentences into English using “should” or “ought to”. áñ å»ïù ¿ ³Ù»Ý Ñݳñ³íáñ µ³Ý ³Ý»Ù Ýñ³Ý ëÇñï ï³Éáõ. ƽáõñ ã»Ï³ñ »ñ»ÏáõÛÃÇÝ. 7. Explain in which syntactic conditions the emotional “should” is used in the following sentences and translate these sentences into Armenian trying to convey the emotional colourung expressed by “should”. 3.” 7. Kate was frowning. ܳ ß³ï ÁÝÏ×í³Í ¿ñ. 6. Ex 8. -ÆÙ ³ß˳ï³í³ñÓÁ ß³ï ó³Íñ ¿. üñ»¹Á ˻ɳóÇ ïÕ³ ¿ ¨ µ³óÇ ³Û¹` ݳ ç³Ý³¹Çñ ¿³ß˳ï»É ³Ûë ÁÝóóùáõÙ: ä»ïù ¿ áñ ݳ ɳí ѳÝÓÝÇ Çñ ùÝÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ: 10. γñÍáõÙ »Ù` ¹áõ ãå»ïù ¿ ѳí³ï³ë ³ÛÝ µáÉáñ µ³Ùµ³ë³ÝùÝ»ñÇÝ. I’m sorry that you should have had a row with Pat about it. 9. “They are my family.¸áõù å»ïù ¿ ë»Õ³Ý å³ïíÇñ»Çù ݳËù³Ý ³Û¹ é»ëïáñ³Ý ·Ý³ÉÁ: ²ÛÝ ß³ï ѳÛïÝÇ ¿: 2. . ¸áõ å»ïù ¿. “I don’t see any reason why we shouldn’t go to their wedding party.Ex. 8.

. 10. 5. áñáíÑ»ï¨ »ë ×ßÙ³ñïáõÃÛáõÝÝ »Ù ³ëáõÙ: î³ñûñÇÝ³Ï ¿. 4. 11.” “Yes.him that his wife should be so foolish. 2. This is too terrible! To think that you should talk to me in this way. 4. 6. áñ ¹áõù Ýñ³Ýó ãå³ïÙ»óÇù ²ÝݳÛÇ Å³Ù³ÝÙ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ: â»Ù ѳëϳÝáõÙ. û ÇÝãáõ ¹áõ å»ïù ¿ ¹»Ù ÉÇÝ»ë Ýñ³Ýó Ù»ÏÝ»ÉáõÝ: îÇÏÇÝ æ»ùëáÝÝ ³ÛÝù³Ý Ñáõ½í³Í ¿ñ ͳÕÇÏÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ: -ºë »ñç³ÝÇÏ »Ù. áñ µáÉáñ áõë³ÝáÕÝ»ñÁ Ý»ñϳ ÉÇÝ»Ý ³Û¹ ÅáÕáíÇÝ: ¼³ñٳݳÉÇ ¿. 9.” “I am shocked that she shouldn’t (invite) her to her party. Don’t be late.” Ex 10. “I hear Mary divorced Tim. ³ë³ó ݳ: -ºë ϳñÍáõÙ »Ù. áñ ¹áõù ³Û¹ù³Ý µ³ñÇ »ù ÇÙ Ýϳïٳٵ. They insisted that we should have dinner with them. Translate the following sentences into English using emotional should.àõñÇß ¾É áñ±ï»Õ ϳñáÕ ¾ ÉÇÝ»É. áñ ¹áõ ³Û¹åÇëÇ Ëáë³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝ »ë áõÝ»ó»É ùá ï³ÝïÇñáõÑáõ Ñ»ï: ä³Ñ³ÝçíáõÙ ¿.” 5. 6. áñ ݳ ѳٳӳÛÝ»ó û·Ý»É ù»½: êáíáñ³µ³ñ ݳ áã áùÇ ãÇ û·ÝáõÙ: 174 . 8. »Ã» áã ¹åñáóáõÙ: ò³íáõÙ »Ù. “Ann is always in trouble. I’m sorry you should (think) I did it on purpose. It’s surprising that he should (say) such a thing to you yesterday. Use the required form of the infinitive after emotional “should”. 7.” “It’s absurd that such things should (happen) to a girl like her.” 8. 3. 1. 7.²Û¹ ÇÝãá±õ »ë å»ïù ¿ ѳí³ï³Ù ù»½: . Ex 9. 2. “Where is Phyllis?” “Ann hasn’t invited him to her party. 3. It’s essential that you should (be) there on time.¸áõ ëïÇåí³Í »ë ÇÝÓ Ñ³í³ï³É. It’s only natural that parents should (worry) about their children. 1. It’s strange that you should (ask) me such questions now. áñ Ù»Ýù ÙdzëÇÝ å»ïù ¿ ·Ý³Ýù ³ÛÝï»Õ: ºë ³ÛÝï»Õ ÙdzëÇÝ ·Ý³Éáõ áã ÙÇ å³ï׳é ã»Ù ï»ëÝáõÙ: -àñï»±Õ ¿ ÂáÙÁ: . it’s monstrous that he should (treat) her like that.

Choose one of the following topics and write a short paragraph on it. must be done to solve this problem? 175 . Ñáñ³ùáõÛñ ²ÉÇëÁ` ÉÇ Çñ ÷ÝÃ÷ÝÃáóÝ»ñáí: Ex. What could. 11. 3. might you have done to avoid it? What could. 2. (or should not). ¨ DZÝã »ù ϳñÍáõÙ` áí Ùï³í. ¸áõéÁ µ³óí»ó.10. should. might. must (or must not) be done to improve understanding between people? Choose one of the environmental problems people are considering today. What could. should. Write about one embarrassing incident in your life. should. may. 1.

UNIT XII WILL / WOULD The original meaning of will is volition (volition is a general term which includes such meanings as willingness. We would nearly always eat with my mother on Friday. Will (would in past time contexts) implies willingness. Will and would are used to express will. “Did you ask him for help?” “Yes. consent. intention and determination to perform an action). Use: Habitual action 1.” The box won’t open. (ܳ ųٻñáí ÝëïáõÙ ¾ñ ³ÛÝï»Õ`ݳۻÉáí ÃéãáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ) Compare: A dog usually obeys his master. decision: 176 . (emphasizes that this is one of the characteristics of a dog) Note 1: Won’t and wouldn’t may express a refusal (see unit V) I don’t care what you say. 2. determination. (habitual action) She will do nothing for months and then suddenly she’ll phone me. personal interest on the part of the doer of the action or emphasizes the characteristics of the performer rather than the action: will/would + simple infinitive His father will spend most evenings playing chess. readiness. I won’t do it. but she wouldn’t help me. intention. (habit in general) A dog will usually obey his master. (regular or usual behaviour in the past) He would often sit and watch the birds. The car wouldn’t start.

177 . He invited (asked) me to tea/dinner. Invitation: 3. (conditional use) If you will keep your watch half an hour slow it is hardly surprising that you are late for your appointments. consent. If you will come this way. I’ll take you to the manager’s office. or If you would come this way I’ll take you…. (more polite form) If he would only trust me. 4. Will and would can be used for requests and invitations: Will you type this letter. please? Would you show me the way to the station? (would is a more polite form) Will you come to tea tomorrow? Will you come with me? (an invitation) Note 2: In indirect speech. polite request or obstinate insistence: If you will only let me talk I’ll explain to you everything. He asked if I would have some more wine.” “ I’ll go. Request. will changes to would: We knew that he would be late.I will stop smoking! I really will! “There’s the doorbell. We decided that we wouldn’t interfere. But it is more usual to avoid the verb: He offered me some more wine. we could get on much better. Will and would can also be used in clauses of condition (in if clauses) to express willingness.

” (It’s typical of her) Jack would get lost. She would.” (I didn’t expect you would) “Aunt Meg has been very brave. similar to must or is/are to but more peremptory (not to be disobeyed or questioned) much used in schools or military establishments): will + simple infinitive “You will stay here till you are relieved.” You’ll have heard about this. This is a formal.” “Yes. wouldn’t be! (It’s typical) 178 . typical of a person: “I don’t understand him and I don’t approve of his decision. impersonal type of command.” “That’ll be for me. (I am sure you have heard about this) You won’t have heard about this.” “No. “The phone is ringing. The use of ‘will’ and ‘would’ is not parallel in the following cases: Supposition/Deduction 6. You wouldn’t. Will can introduce an assumption (supposition/deduction). Would can refer to an annoying habit.” said the officer. This meaning is found with the second and third persons: will + simple infinitive (refers the supposition to the present or future) will have + past participle (refers to the past) (affirmative and negative form) This will be the book you wanted. (I’m sure he has reached Paris) 7. (I am sure you haven’t heard about it) He will have reached Paris by now. All boys will attend roll-call at 9 o’clock.Order 5.

Would you mind getting me a cup of tea? We may find would (or would + perfect infinitive) in unreal conditions. I wish it would stop raining.) Would you mind my smoking here? or Do you mind if I smoke here? I don’t mind your staying here. would…mind in interrogative and negative sentences means to object. (in interrogative sentences it may also express a polite request. Notice the use of will in the following sentences: Boys will be boys. Would you rather stay here or go home? He’d sooner die than let me think he was a failure. Accidents will happen. would rather (’d rather) and would sooner (’d sooner) = to prefer would rather/ would sooner + simple infinitive without to (= to prefer) I’d rather have coffee.8. I won’t have my house turned into a hotel. Set phrases with will and would: won’t have (won’t allow) won’t have + somebody +do something. won’t have + something + done I won’t have you speak your father like that. Nobody would agree with that idea if we asked them 179 .

Do you have a spare pen? My pen won’t/wouldn’t write. please? 8.“Sue would sooner die than wear this dress. Explain the meanings of “will” and “would” in the following sentences and say in which cases they may be used in a parallel way. “How about a drink? “ “I’d rather have something to eat.“Why didn’t you give her a lift?” “The car wouldn’t start this morning. 3. 1. he will settle down in an armchair to read the paper.13. 7.” said Ann. 14. I begged David to accept some money. 1. On Saturday. Often. 5.Nobody would have agreed with that idea if he had asked them. Each time we went out together he would show me something new. 4. 2. 6. “I won’t have you speak to your father like that. I like these trees. 180 . 5.” “I will go whether you want me or not. I wonder why we haven’t heard from him – do you think he won’t have got our letter yet? 2. but he would/wouldn’t hear of it. after dinner. “OK. Any letters from Italy will be/won’t be for Tina. 10. Without them the garden would be/wouldn’t be the same.” Ex. We can’t go and see them now – they will have gone/ will go to bed.” 15. 3.” “He would.” 6. Will you do the shopping this afternoon.“Who’ll light the fire for me?” “I will. 4. 12.1.” 11. something interesting.” said granny angrily. “Bob talked politics the whole evening. 2.“If he were to apologize. “You shan’t go there alone. when I was a child we would/will all get up early and go fishing.” said John. We’ll buy the tickets if you will buy supper after the show. I don’t care what you say. ACTIVITY Ex. would you forgive him?” asked Barbara. Choose the correct word. I won’t do it. I wish you wouldn’t keep making that stupid noise.” 9.

She had rather/would rather read the letter first. 4. He turned off the lamp. 9. 9. 12. 2. 14. 3. I wonder what is wrong with it. 16. Jim keeps giving me presents. What about this meat? Do you want me to roast it or stew it? Jane has been studying hard for the exam. 7. I’ll see that you get a sweet. 8. It was a great party last night. But sleep wouldn’t/won’t come. Why did you tell her? I wonder where Liz is? We expect her to be here by now. 5. He will/would sit talking to himself for hours.” It’s no use expecting Barry to turn up. He will have forgotten/would have forgotten. He refused to help me yesterday. 13. Tom suggested my selling the house. 15.” I won’t have/wouldn’t have you speak to me like that. I’m sure you have heard about this. Ex. 11. He will/would interrupt when I’m talking. so I expect her to pass. 10. 14. 8.7. 12. 17. Do you want me to make you fresh coffee? That is not typical of Helen’s behaviour. Tom is very impatient. 16. “His mother didn’t even listen to us. Would you care for some more wine? “If you sit still. 13. 181 . 3. Do you mind if I shut the window? It is cold in here. I think I’ll go and watch TV if you will/won’t excuse me. It isn’t a good thing to believe everything you read in the newspaper. I wish she would/won’t take things seriously.” said the mother to her little child. Re – word the sentences using “shall/should” or “will/would” 1. 6. The car refuses to start. It was supposed to be a secret. 15.” “She wouldn’t /won’t. 11. 10. “How’s grandfather?” “Much the same. I doubt whether Helen would/will know the answer. Why didn’t you come? I’m sorry my daughter doesn’t go to dances.

Why did you eat so much? Ex. É³í ·ÇñùÁ ÙÇßï ¿É Ññ³ï³ñ³ÏÇã Ï·ïÝÇ: 9.18. áñ ¹³ ÇÙ ·ñ³ë»ÝÛ³ÏáõÙ å³ï³ÑÇ: 182 . It can’t be the postman. Make up situations justifying the use of the following statements.³ë³ó Ñáñ»Õµ³Ûñ æáñçÁ. . ºë ³é³ç³ñÏ»óÇ. . Ex. It will be the postman. Ø»ñÇÇ Ó³ÛÝÁ µ³ñÏáõÃÛáõÝÇó ¹áÕáõÙ ¿ñ.ºë »ñµ»ù Ýñ³ÝÇó û·ÝáõÃÛáõÝ ã»Ù ËݹñǦ. 19.â»Ù ³ÝÇ.²Ûá. -»¹Á ³ÙµáÕç »ñ»Ïá Ëáë»ó Çñ Ýáñ Ù»ù»Ý³ÛÇ Ù³ëÇÝ: . .³ë³ó Ù³ÛñÇÏÁ: . ºë Ïáõ½»Ý³ÛÇ. That man on the motorbike isn’t wearing a helmet. -ÎÙݳë ï³ÝÁ ¨ Ñáñ¹ Ïû·Ý»ë. 2. ë³Ï³ÛÝ Ý³ ³Û¹ Ù³ëÇÝ Éë»É ³Ý·³Ù ã¿ñ áõ½áõÙ: 6. I promise to pay you back on Monday. It might be the postman.»ë Ï·»ñ³¹³ë»Ç Ù»éÝ»É. That’s dangerous. 4. -ºë ¹³ ÝáñÇó áõ ÝáñÇó ϳë»Ù. »Ã» ѳٳӳÛÝ»Ýù ·Ý³É áõ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ ûñ ³ÝóϳóÝ»Ýù Çñ Ñ»ï: 11. ¶ÉáñÇ³Ý ³ëáõÙ ¿. ù³Ý û·ÝáõÃÛáõÝ Ñ³Ù³ñ Ýñ³Ý ¹ÇÙ»É: 2. You are feeling sick because you ate too much. 5. 1. Translate the following sentences into English using “will/would” and set phrases with “will/would” 1. áñ Ù³ÛñÇÏÁ µÅßÏÇ ¹ÇÙÇ. ²ñ¹»Ý ųÙÁ 12–Ý ¿: ì»ñçÇÝ ³íïáµáõëÁ ³ñ¹»Ý Ù»ÏÝ³Í ÏÉÇÝÇ: ²í»ÉÇ É³í ¿ ï³ùëÇ ·ïÝ»Ýù: 10. å³ï³ë˳ݻó ÂáÙÁ: ܳ ³Û¹ ûñÝ Çñ ÝÙ³Ý ã¿ñ: 5. . Æݱ㠿 å³ï³Ñ»É ³Ûë ϳñÇ Ù»ù»Ý³ÛÇÝ: ²ÛÝ ãÇ Ï³ñáõÙ: 3. ¹³ Ýñ³Ý µÝáñáß ¿: 8. áñ »ë ÃáõÛÉ ã»Ù ï³. áñ ³Û¹ ѳñóÁ ãùݳñÏí»ñ Ýñ³Ýó Ý»ñϳÛáõÃÛ³Ùµ: 7. æáÝÁ ɳí ïÕ³ ¿. 4. Üñ³Ýù ·Çï»Ý. µ³Ûó ëÇñáõÙ ¿ ³ÙµáÕç Å³Ù³Ý³Ï Çñ Ù³ëÇÝ Ëáë»É: 4. Thanks for lending me the money. It must/ought to be the postman. 20. 3. áñ ÇÝùÁ áõñ³Ë ÏÉÇÝÇ.

áñÁ »ë Ïáõ½»Ç ù»½ óáõÛó ï³É: 14. Ø»Ýù æ»ÛÝÇÝ ÙÇßï ³ëáõÙ »Ýù. ²Ûëï»Õ áã Ñ»éáõ ÙÇ ·»Õ»óÇÏ í³Ûñ ϳ. áñ ÇÝÓ ÝÙ³Ý Ó¨áí »Ý í»ñ³µ»ñí»Éáõ ³Ûëï»Õ.³ë³ó ²ñÃáõñÁ: 13. áñ ݳ Ù³ñϳÝó ãÁݹѳïÇ.12. »ñµ Ýñ³Ýù ËáëáõÙ »Ý. -²í»ÉÇ É³í ¿ »ë ÁݹѳÝñ³å»ë ïáõÝ »Ï³Í ãÉÇÝ»Ç: ºë ã·Çï»Ç. µ³Ûó ݳ ѳٳéáñ»Ý ß³ñáõݳÏáõÙ ¿ ¹³ ³Ý»É: 183 . . ÜÙ³Ý ³ÝÓñ¨áï »Õ³Ý³ÏÇÝ »ë Ï·»ñ³¹³ë»Ç ï³ÝÁ ÙÝ³É ¨ ÙÇ Ñ»ï³ùñùÇñ ·Çñù ϳñ¹³É: 15.

it can have the forms either of an ordinary verb or (in British) of a modal auxiliary. The teacher said that we needn’t bring our books to class. need + simple infinitive (affirmative. Need I explain everything twice? Need it have happened? I wonder if I need fill in a form. (modal auxiliary need remains unchanged in reported speech) 3. Need as an ordinary verb has an infinitive form and participle and can be followed by an infinitive with to – it means to have to do something as a necessity. (modal auxiliary) 2. interrogative and negative forms) 184 . But it is also possible in questions (as well as after if clauses). When need is followed by another verb. In interrogative sentences need usually implies that there is no necessity of performing the action.UNIT XIII NEED. (ordinary verb) It’s OK – You needn’t pay for that phone call. (For the difference between needn’t and don’t /won’t need. He needn’t stay until the end. see Unit IX) Everybody needs to rest sometimes. DARE Need Use: 1. to ask or to give permission – usually permission not to do something. Both forms are used to express necessity. Need as a modal auxiliary is used mainly in negative sentences.

luckily.a waste of time. Your hair needs to be cut. 4. Won’t you need to take some food? Note: Notice that need can’t be used after interrogatives when. Compare: It started raining. Needn’t have+ past participle is used to express an unnecessary action which was actually done.You need to work harder. it started raining. (it was unnecessary . I needn’t have watered the flowers. or Your hair needs cutting. I didn’t need (didn’t have to) to go to the dentist again. (it makes orders and instructions sound less direct) You will need to fill in this form before you see the inspector. Do you need to use the photocopier? Will you be needing me this afternoon? Tell her she doesn’t need to work tonight.(It was a waste of time or effort. where. Just after I finished. 185 .) I needn’t have cooked so much food. so I didn’t need to water flowers. Must is used instead: Where must I put it? Didn’t need to refers to an unnecessary action which was not done. Nobody was hungry. effort) You needn’t have brought your umbrella. what etc. You are going by car. Other uses of ‘need’: If need be (= if it is necessary) If need be I’ll ask Joe to help me. who. I agree that she needs to be told about the arrangements. You will need to start work soon if you want to pass your exam.

Dare as an ordinary verb has all the necessary forms. Dare (dared the past form) can be used in two ways: a) as a modal auxiliary without to b) as an ordinary verb followed by the infinitive with to. b) He didn’t dare to tell what had happened. It has the same meaning as the modal auxiliary dare (=have the courage. Dare as a modal auxiliary and as an ordinary verb means have the courage. In modern English it is more common to say He is not afraid to say what he thinks..= to have a need for a person or thing You all need plenty of exercises. How dare he do that! How dare she come here! 3. impudence) to do something: He’s a man who dares to say what he thinks.It needn’t be (= it doesn’t have to be) Need smb. a) I daren’t say what I think. 2. It is mainly found in negatives and in questions beginning with how to express indignant exclamation: He daren’t lie to me./smth. Do you need any help? I’m here if you need me. 186 . The boy needs a slap! (deserves) Dare Use: 1. impudence to do something. dare he? He dared not look at me.

Nobody dared to speak. And now she dares (to) accuse me of theft. She told me she had never dared to ask him about it. He wouldn’t dare to speak to me like that. 4. Dare may express to challenge a person to do something (usually dangerous) suggesting he or she doesn’t have the courage or ability: He has dared me to swim across the channel. “Another boy dared me to throw the stone through the window,” said the boy. We dared him to ask her for a dance. 5. Dare is used to warn a person not to do something when one is angry: Don’t you dare do that again! (ãѳٳñÓ³Ïí»ë) You dare do that again! Notice the set phrase I dare say (I daresay) I daresay there’ll be a restaurant car on the train. (I suppose) My son is not in town, but I dare say he will be before long. (I think probably) ACTIVITY Ex.1. Explain the meaning of “need” in the following sentences and translate them into Armenian. 1. You don’t need to pay for emergency calls in most countries. 2. It’s OK – you needn’t pay for that phone call. 3. “Need it have happened?” Father was indignant. 4. You need your eyes examined. 5. There is no need to hurry – we have got plenty of time. 6. Will you be needing me this afternoon? 7. We’ll need to repair the roof next year. 8. You’ll need to start work soon if you want to pass your exams. 9. It started raining so I didn’t need to water the flowers. 10. I
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needn’t have watered the flowers. Just after I finished it started raining. 11. “The boy needs a slap”, said Aunt Mary angrily. 12. “She looks quite ill. I’m sure it’s flu.” ”It needn’t be – maybe she is just over-tired. 13. “There is a real need to improve our newspaper,” said the editor-in-chief, at the meeting. 14. Tell her she doesn’t need to work tomorrow. Ex.2. Choose the correct word. You needn’t / mustn’t tell Jennifer about it. She already knows. You needn’t / mustn’t tell Margaret. I don’t want her know. Need I / must I explain everything twice? Need you / must you go now or can you wait a little longer? This is a valuable book. You need / must look after it carefully and mustn’t / needn’t loose it. 6. You needn’t / mustn’t light a match; I can see well enough. 7. You needn’t / mustn’t light a match; the room is full of gas. 8. If must / need be I’ll ask Ben to help me. 9. The sofa is dirty. It needs / must to be cleaned again. 10. 10.“What sort of house do you want to buy? Something big?” “Well, it mustn’t / needn’t be big – that’s not important, but it must have a nice garden – that’s essential. 11. You mustn’t / don’t need to eat it if you don’t want to. 12. You don’t need to pay / you mustn’t pay for emergency in most countries. Ex.3. Complete the second sentence using should/shouldn’t or needn’t followed by a perfect infinitive. Example: It was wrong of you to speak to my mother like that. You... shouldn’t have spoken to my mother like that. 1. 2. I was driving behind another car. Suddenly, the driver in front stopped without warning and I drove into the back of his car. The driver in front …………………………..................... When we went on holiday, we took the camera with us but we didn’t use it in the end. We …………………………............................................
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

3. 4. 5.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

His advice was a great help, but she didn’t even thank him. She ……………………………......................................... Why did you leave the child in its sister’s care. She isn’t old enough. You ………………………………................................... Why did you type this? A handwritten note would have been quite adequate. You ……………………………........................................
I am sorry I bought these gloves. Mother gave me better ones for my birthday. I ………………………….............................................................. I am going to be in trouble. I completely forgot to post these letters yesterday. I………………………………...................................................... Mother made far more sandwiches than we needed. She didn’t know Ann and Fred wouldn’t come. She……………………………………………………………… I’m not feeling well. It’s probably the fish I ate for lunch. I ……………………………………….......................................... I am sorry I changed before dinner. Nobody else did. I ………………………………………..........................................

Ex. 4. Match the two halves of these sentences. Example: We needn’t reserve seats on the train – there’ll be plenty of room. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. We needn’t reserve seats on the train. You mustn’t make so much noise. She shouldn’t stay in bed all day. He doesn’t have to get up yet. He didn’t need to rest. You shouldn’t borrow money. You have to train regularly. He shouldn’t have fallen asleep. She needn’t have set the alarm clock. He mustn’t oversleep. You don’t have to pay extra for delivery. You ought not to have shouted angrily at her.
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a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l)

She is very upset now There‘ll be plenty of room Because there is no extra charge for delivery You will be asked to leave otherwise Or he’ll miss his interview Unless she is ill Because she woke up early anyway If he is not going to work today When she was supposed to be working Because he wasn’t feeling tired From people you hardly know If you want to succeed in athletics

Ex. 5. Explain the meaning of “dare” in the following sentences and translate them into Armenian. 1. Don’t you dare do that again! 2. He dared me to swim across the channel. 3. They daren’t open the letter – Daren’t they? 4. How dare you speak to me like that! 5. And she dares to accuse me of theft! 6. He dared not even whisper. 7. I didn’t dare to ask him to call off his trip. 8. I dare say you’re a little tired after your walk, dear. 9. I dare you to ask her for a dance. 10. “The boys dared me to swim across the channel,” said Tom to his father. Ex. 6. Translate the following sentences into English using “need” and “dare”.
1. -ä³ïÙ»±Ù ù»½, û ÇÝãå»ë ¿ ³Û¹ ³Ù»ÝÁ å³ï³Ñ»É: - à°ã, ϳñÇù ãϳ. »ë ³Ù»Ý ÇÝã ·Çï»Ù£ 2. ºë Ýñ³Ý ß³ï »Ù å³ñï³Ï³Ý£ ܳ û·Ý»É ¿ ÇÝÓ ÇÙ Ý»ÕáõÃÛ³Ý å³ÑÇÝ £ 3. ÆÝãå»±ë »ë ѳٳñÓ³Ïí»É µ³ó»É Ç٠ݳٳÏÝ»ñÁ£ 4. ƽáõñ »ë ³Û¹ù³Ý »ñϳñ ³ÏݳñÏ ·ñ»É£ àõëáõóÇãÁ Ëݹñ»ó, áñ ³ÛÝ 300 µ³é å³ñáõݳÏÇ, ÇëÏ ¹áõ 600 µ³é »ë ·ñ»É£ 5. -ÆÝãáõ± ù³ñáí å³ïáõѳÝÇÝ Ë÷»óÇñ: - ÂáÙÁ ¹ñ¹»ó ÇÝÓ ¹³ ³Ý»É£ 6. ä»ïù ã¿ñ, áñ »ë ³Û¹ù³Ý ß³ï áõï»ÉÇù å³ïñ³ëï»Ç (ǽáõñ ³Û¹ù³Ý ß³ï áõï»ÉÇù å³ïñ³ëï»óÇ). áã áù ù³Õó³Í ã¿ñ£ 190

7. -γñÇù ϳ±, áñ »ë í³ÕÁ ³ß˳ï³ÝùÇ ·³Ù£ - à°ã, ¹áõ ϳñáÕ »ë ï³ÝÁ Ùݳɣ γñÍáõÙ »Ù, áñ í³ÕÁ ß³ï ·áñÍ ã»Ýù áõݻݳ£ 8. -ºÃ» ³ÙáõëÇÝë ³Ûëï»Õ ÉÇÝ»ñ, ¹áõù ã¿Çù ѳٳñÓ³ÏíÇ ÇÝÓ Ñ»ï ³Û¹å»ë Ëáë»É, - ³ë³ó ïÇÏÇÝ ø³ñï»ñÁ£ 9. ºë »ñ»Ï ѳëóñ»óÇ Ù»ù»Ý³·ñ»É ³Û¹ µáÉáñ ݳٳÏÝ»ñÁ, áñáíÑ»ï¨ ×³ß »÷»Éáõ ϳñÇù ãϳñ£ ºñ»Ë³Ý»ñÁ ¹ñëáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ×³ß»Éáõ£ 10. γñÍáõÙ »Ù, áñ Ù»Ýù µáÉáñë ¿É ÙÇ ÷áùñ-ÇÝã ß÷áÃí³Í ï»ëù áõÝ»ÇÝù, »ñµ Éë»óÇÝù ³Û¹ ÝáñáõÃÛáõÝÁ£

Ex. 7. Combine the correct forms of ‘dare’ and ‘need’ with the verbs in brackets. Unwelcome Fresh Air! It was a routine flight from Hilo on Hawaii to Kahului 110 miles away. Suddenly, there was a tremendous noise and the top of the plane was torn away! Ninety-four passengers (not move) …… wondering what would happen next. They (not worry) …… because Robert Schornsteimer, the pilot, was firmly in control. For 25 minutes they hardly (breathe) ……, though there was plenty of unwelcome fresh air “I (not open)……. my mouth,” one of the passengers said later.’ I hardly (tell)……. you how terrified I was.’ The passengers embraced the pilot who had brought the plane down safely. ‘I’ve heard of a plane flying off a roof,’ joked one of them later, ‘but never of a roof flying off a plane!’

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REVISION OF MODAL VERBS Modals and similar expressions Ex. 1. Choose the correct completion. (Give an explanation to your choice.) 1. Most evenings he … just sit in front of the TV and go to sleep. A. would B. will C. could 2. “Mary’s new jacket doesn’t seem to fit her very well.” “She … it on before she bought it.” A. might try B. had to C. should have tried 3. Jimmy and Alex were mischievous children. They … play tricks on their teachers. A. ought to B. were supposed to C. used to 4. “We are going to a restaurant this evening. It’s a very popular restaurant.” ‘You … phone to reserve a table’. A. will B. are to C. had better 5. Small children … have difficulty in understanding abstract ideas. A. can B. must C. would rather 6. “Mummy, can I draw a picture on the wall?” “You …!” A. don’t have to B. dare C. should 7. I haven’t heard Molly moving about. She … awake yet. A. must be B. ought to be C. mustn’t be 8. Mr. Green is very rich. He … work for a living. A. used to B. has to C. doesn’t have to 9. “Why are you sure that your son didn’t commit the crime?” “He … the crime. He was out of town on that day.” A. couldn’t have committed B. could have committed C. shouldn’t have committed 10. She knew everything about our plans. She … to our conversation. A. could have listened B. must have been listening C. might listen
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We’re already here. 3.” A. Pay no attention to what Paul said. are going to C. A. He … an umbrella. ” A. A. couldn’t B.11. Thank you for your kind help. am 15. He took an umbrella because he thought it was going to rain. might C. needn’t have taken C. He shouldn’t have been serious. A. What happened to it?” “I don’t know. shall B should C. must have failed to C. might have eaten B. shouldn’t have taken B.” “It’s too late now. Fortunately I needn’t have gone to the bank in person. 2. “It would be better not to seek them. didn’t dare to Ex.” “Why … I avoid them?” A. used to fail to B. 193 . would sooner B. may as well 19. Correct any errors in these sentences. “There was a chocolate cake on the table. could eat C. should C. We realized that he … persuade Laura to come with him. 1. We … need it later. will 16. A. could have stayed 18. Why did you stay at a hotel? You … with us. “It will be a strange return for me. are allowed to 17. can’t but B. would sooner B. But it didn’t rain. must have stayed C. didn’t have to C. could B. had better not take 13. A. George came back home alone. I don’t think we should throw that letter away. The children … it. I might not manage without you. She was afraid of him and … tell him what had happened.” “I don’t think anyone … give you a welcome-home party. “Did he tell you his secret?” “He … die than tell me his secret. 2.” A. needn’t 12. “We … be here. would eat 14. didn’t need to B. aren’t supposed to C. That sign says ‘No Trespassing’.” A. should have failed to 20.

You should leave before he gets back. You say: ………………………………………………… 194 . 3. I’m not sure about my application. Your friend is offended by your remarks. 8. She left for Canada for good and we weren’t to see her any longer.4. The accused man could establish an alibi by proving that he was at a party when the money was stolen. 16. 9. “I gave up my job. You have to turn it on. They could be injured when the car crashed. It wasn’t very nice of you not to invite her to your party! You must have invited her. You say: …………………………………………………… The telephone is ringing and you are almost sure it is your boyfriend/girlfriend. Sally got home at four o’clock this morning. 11. 6. The party could have been really good. 3. but when you went to the concert you saw that there were plenty of tickets left for the concert. 12. Don’t worry that John is late. 5. The heating comes on automatically. Use modal verbs. You say: ………………………………………………… You had bought tickets for the concert in advance. It is strange that he should live without saying good-bye to the hostess. 15. The camel is to go for days without water. 10. but you didn’t mean to hurt him. 7. Jack is very angry with you. 13. He should have missed the train. What will you say or ask in the following situations?. but they weren’t. 1. 4. May I send two copies or three? Everyone was angry because Sam won’t turn off the television. 14. You say: ………………………………………………… The door is open and you are sitting in a draught. 2.” “You should think twice before you gave up your job” Ex.

8. You want to make him fresh coffee. You say: …………………………………………………… Your younger brother/sister is watching TV instead of doing his/her lessons.. You think something has happened to her. 11. You bought a nice dress. You would like her to put ice in it. You ask: …………………………………………………? Your mother goes to the kitchen to get you a glass of juice. 9. You ask: …………………………………………………? 195 . but you bargained and bought it for 70. You say: ………………………………………………… You had a lovely holiday last month. You say: ………………………………………………… The fish is spoilt because you didn’t put it in the refrigerator in the morning.……………………………………………… Your boss is rude to you. You say: ………………………………………………… Your father looks tired. It’s two hours since she started speaking. 10. it doesn’t give him the right to be rude. You say: ………………………………………………… It was supposed to be a secret but your friend told everybody about it. It cost $ 100.5. 6. You say: ………………………………………………… Your teacher is usually very punctual. It was great and all of you enjoyed yourselves. 13. but she is late today. You want to phone your friend but your sister is still speaking on the phone. 12. You think that although he is in charge. You say: …. You say: …………………………………………………… You are irritated. 7. 14.

Women. objects. crew. April. Christmas. Classification of Nouns a) Proper nouns are used for individual persons. b) Abstract nouns describe a concept or idea. honour. Yerevan. Common nouns in their turn are subdivided into countable nouns and uncountable nouns. a doctor. The Gender of Nouns En English the gender of a noun only affects its pronoun (his. herd. and always begin with a capital letter: George Henderson. honesty. girls and female animals are feminine. abstract notions. In the concept of substance we include not only concrete nouns (a physical object that we can see. flock. silk. c) Collective nouns describe a group of people or animals: staff. a flower. The Pacific. team. The Nile. but also names of abstract notions. touch or smell). grass. its). it.THE NOUN The noun is a word expressing substance in the widest sense of word. place etc. Easter. journal. Countable nouns denote objects that can be counted: student. cattle. dignity.(that is any representative of a class): a girl. milk. her. 196 . him. Armenia. Men. Ani. places. a table. Thanksgiving. courage. Saturday. water. d) Common nouns refer to any person. beauty. a house. Labor Day. thing. towns. Mount Ararat. bird Uncountable nouns (all proper nouns. Inanimate things are neuter. something that has no physical appearance: justice. Nouns have the grammatical categories of number and case (grammatical gender barely concerns nouns in English). and nouns of material) are names of objects and notions that cannot be counted: John. boys and male animals are masculine. integrity. Buddhism. English. freedom.

Most nouns have the same form for masculine and feminine: cook. which tore a huge hole in her bow. horse – mare etc.Exceptions: ships are normally considered feminine. and so are countries when referred to by name: The ship struck an iceberg. driver. lord – lady. dancer.) 197 . duke – duchess. cock – hen. Scotland lost many of her bravest men in two great rebellions. journalist Some nouns form the feminine from the masculine by adding –ess. singer. (For more details. Note that words ending in -er or -or often drop the -e or the -o: actor – actress. heir – heiress prince – princess waiter waitress but hero heroine Some have different forms: uncle – aunt. conductor –conductress. see Appendix 4. cousin.

) But piano. day – days.pianos. ss. tomato-tomatoes…). safe-safes.UNIT XIV THE NUMBER OF NOUNS Formation and Pronunciation The plural of most nouns is made by just adding the suffix. [s] after voiceless consonants (e. buzzbuzzes. x and z (e.logos. solo. balls). Eskimo. only –s is added. taps. dress-dresses. Nouns ending in f or fe have the ending –ves in the plural: wife-wives. brush-brushes.keys 4. g.solos.s or .radios. ch. key . days. tch. gulf-gulfs. bags. fox-foxes. But house. . -es is also added to nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant (e. g.houses [hauzi:z] bath -baths [ba: ðz] or [ba:θs] mouth-mouths [mauθs] or [mauðz] 1.es. boats) and [Iz] after sibilants (e. cuff-cuffs. 3.es is added to nouns ending in s. life-lives. grief-griefs handkerchief-handkerchiefs. proof-proofs. g. sh. toy – toys. hero-heroes. country .photos. photo. shelf-shelves But roof-roofs. If a noun ends in o preceded by a vowel only -s is added (radio. bridges.) 2. g. story – stories. It is pronounced [z] after vowels and voiced consonants (e. sopranosopranos. logo. g. Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant change the y into –ies army – armies. The following nouns have both forms in the plural: 198 . kilo-kilos. horses). match-matches. bus-buses. bushes. cuckoo-cuckoos. belief-beliefs.Eskimos.countries If a nouns ends in y preceded by a vowel. cliff-cliffs.

appendix-appendices. formula-formulae. goose-geese. Some nouns which come from foreign languages have special plurals: analysis-analyses. brother-brethren (= not blood relations. The following nouns ending in -s in the singular remain unchanged in the plural. Compare: Do you cat much fruit? but the fruits of the earth. There were two fishees in the basket. but members of the same society). means-means. The bus fare cost him eighty pence. woman-women. a counsel-counsel (= legal adviser. A few nouns form their plural by a change of vowel. Common examples: series-series. wharf-wharfs/wharves. bacterium-bacteria. criterioncriteria. a deer-deer. tooth-teeth. barracks-barracks. crossroads-crossroads. 5. 8. 9. 6. dwarf-dwarfs/ dwarves. child. a craft-craft. foot-feet. species-species. basis. Nouns which have the same form for the singular and plural: a sheep-sheep. Note 1: The nouns fruit and fish can be used as countable nouns and as uncountable nouns. works (= factory) works Note 2: The noun penny has two plural forms: pennies (when referring to individual coins) and pence (when the amount only is meant): She dropped three pennies in the slot Machine. cactus-cacti or cactuses.scarf. headquarters-headquarters. He didn’t caught any fish yesterday. a swine –swine. Notice also the peculiar plural form in the following nouns: ox-oxen. fungus-fungi or 199 . barrister). They are: man-men. diagnosis-diagnoses. mouse-mice. louse-lice. hoof-hoofs/hooves.children. 7.scarfs/scarves..bases. crisis-crises.

woman doctor –women doctors c) In noun + adverb combinations. the plural is usually added to the noun: passer-by – passers-by runner up – runners up looker-on – lookers-on 200 . handful – handfuls. nucleus. Roman – Romans Note 3: When the first component is man or woman.in -chief – editors-in-chief brother-in-law – brothers-in-law court martial – courts-martial b) In some compound nouns the final element takes the plural form: lady-bird – lady-birds bookcase – bookcases. radius-radii or radiuses.funguses. tooth brush – tooth brushes.) 10. oasis-oases. see Appendix 4. hypothesis-hypotheses. (For the pronunciation. postman – postmen policewoman – policewomen Englishman – Englishmen but German – Germans. medium-media or mediums. stimulus-stimuli.nuclei or nucleuses. Norman – Normans. In compound nouns the plural is formed in different ways: a) As a rule a compound noun forms the plural by adding -s to the head –word: editor. writing table – writing tables. phenomenonphenomena. the plural may be expressed twice: man servant – men servants.

physics the activities: athletics. sand. economics. and I’m looking for some accommodation. dominoes the illness: measles. darts. merry-go-round – merry-go-rounds 11. excitement. 201 . fun but idea – ideas. -s is added to the last element. drawback – drawbacks breakdown . suggestion – suggestions f) the material nouns: copper. mathematics. For example: advice baggage behaviour accommodation damage furniture information permission chaos luck news luggage progress scenery weather traffic knowledge research transport travel a) b) c) d) e) You need some luck to win at this game. oil.d) verb+ adverb particle. 12.breakdowns e) If there is no noun-stem in the compound. The athletics we watched yesterday was quite exciting. iron. wine. There are some nouns that are usually uncountable in English but often countable in other languages. forget-me-not –forget-me-nots. butter. Nouns which are used only in singular: the subjects: politics. sculpture. anger. Darts is often played in pubs. bread. jaundice the abstract nouns: generosity. gymnastics the games: billiards. I’m here for two nights. chalk Politics is an interesting subject. The plural is formed by adding –s to the word.

gentry. has played a most b) nouns which have the form of the singular but agree with a plural verb: public. The public are requested not to litter. Nouns which denote groups of persons and animals: a) nouns which have a singular form and take a singular verb: the proletariat. police. 14. the aristocracy. The police have arrested the criminal. revolutionary part.The television news is at ten o’clock. The contents of the case have disappeared. people. Carol’s earnings aren’t as much as she would like. the peasantry. 202 . trousers pants shorts pyjamas clothes trunks drawers braces scales fetters scissors spectacles glasses tongs pincers goods bowels proceedings surroundings savings belongings winnings contents thanks goings on My savings are in the bank. historically. cattle etc. The bourgeoisie. Her hair is long. Note 4: Unlike other languages hair is an uncountable noun in English. the bourgeoisie. but There is a hair in the soup. jury. clergy. The cattle are grazing. There are a number of nouns in English which are used only in the plural. 13.

weight as one thing. team. 1. the singular and plural. Four miles is a long way to walk. We think of a sum of money. The staff at this company is rather large. Three years is a long time to be without a job. a distance. delegation. bachelor bridegroom female cows goddess hens heroin heiress 203 lioness mares nieces nuns princess spinster widower prince . (it is thought of as a collective body) The staff at this company aren’t happy with their new working conditions. committee. a period of time. government. Complete the sentences using one of the nouns in the list. The coach says that the team are now resting. 15. crew.c) nouns which may have either the singular or the plural form: family. staff. so we use a singular verb: Fifty thousand dollars was stolen in the robbery. firm. (the members of the group are thought of individually) The college football team has done badly this season. a colour-colours (=hues) a force-forces (=powers) a custom-customs (=habits) a draught-draughts (=currents of air) a glass-glasses (vessels for drinking from) a manner-manners (=ways) a moral-morals (=lessons of a story) a minute-minutes (=spaces of time) a quarter-quarters (=fourth parts) colours (=regimental flags) forces (=an army) customs (=taxes on imported goods) draughts (=a game) glasses (=spectacles) manners (=behaviour) morals (=standards of behaviour) minutes (=secretary’s record of proceedings) quarters (=lodgings) ACTIVITY Ex. group. Let’s take a taxi. I think two kilos is enough. board. Note 5: Nouns which happen to be homonyms of nouns which are used in both forms. company.

13. 15. 12. He’s still a … and she’s a …. A widow can often manage much better on her own than a …. 4. drawback 204 . 26. 13. 24. 6. I enjoy being an aunt. a woman –doctor 34. 10. 3. 21. 11. Ex 2. 12. 23. Example: glass – glasses 1. 2. 14. self 30. series datum ox calf couch bath stomach criterion stimulus epoch policewoman man-servant editor-in-chief [gla: sIz] 27. 25. Supply the correct spellings of the plural forms of the following nouns and transcribe them. In mythology. Male tigers are less aggressive than … tigers.1. 6. gulf 28. We took a photo of the bride and … at the wedding. 17. Mars is the god of war: Diana is the … of hunting. 20. 18. 9. glass 29. 11. These days few men become monks and few women become …. We went to a wildlife park and saw a lot of lions and …. 9. 5. 8. merry-go-round 39. hero 36. 7. In fairy tales the handsome …usually marries the beautiful …. crisis photo attorney fish parenthesis louse umbrella gentleman soprano proof tax deer zoo 14. bridge 37. 2. The stallion is in a separate place from the …. There is a cock and five … in the coop. 4. 7. warf 38. 8. monarch 31. but there are dozens of …. 3. German 32. Why does everyone expect the hero of the story to marry the …. I have two … and three nephews. phenomenon 35. a tooth-brush 33. She is the only … of her grandfather’s fortune. 16. 22. There are only two bulls in the field. 10. My mother’s brother and sister have never married. 19. 5.

8. 4. 1. 5. The government (to decide) to pass the bill. 17. 9. When he came the baseball team (to practise) on the school field. French are famous for their food. 6. Ex 4. Do you know where it is? The bicycle is an excellent mean of transport. The black jeans you bought for me doesn’t fit me. There (to be) two fish in his basket. Where are you going to put all your furnitures? It is said that Robin Hood robbed rich and gave the money to poor. She has got a two-year contract. 16. The government (to want) to increase taxes. The team (to have) baths at the moment and then (to come) back here for tea. 8. Does the police know how the accident happened? I am going to buy a new pyjama. Right 1. Correct them where necessary. Mary has just started a new job. 2.3. Chose the correct form of the verb.just two small bags. The staff at the school (not to be) happy with their new working condition. 3. Most of these sentences are wrong. At the zoo we bought some bread for him to feed the deers. 7. 10. 12. Last Sunday we took our little son to the zoo. 11. 14. 18. 7. 15. What is the man’s name who lent us the money? It’s about a three hours’ drive to the station from my house. His staff (to be) very small last year. I can’t find my binoculars. Many people has given up smoking. 2. 5. 13. “Surely I have caught 205 . singular or plural. 4. Mine is already old. put “Right” if the sentence is already correct. Three years is a long time to be without a job. Example: Gymnastics is my favourite sport.Ex. 9. We went for a six-miles’ walk in the country. This plant is a very rare specie. I didn’t have many luggages . 3. I first met him at Bob’s and Ann’s wedding. The clergy (to be) generally dressed in black. 6.

I had to find out whether the committee (to be) competent enough to consider the project. Ex. Ten pounds (not to be) enough to buy it. I need more money than that. 22. 21. The number of the unemployed (to rise) very fast. Twenty thousand pounds (to steal) in the robbery. 19. 20. The board (to be) going to consider your application at the next sitting. 17. The public (to request) not to leave litter in the woods.all the fish that (to swim). That day the committee (to be) to meet at her friend’s house. Everybody says that the Swiss police (to be) great at finding people. 11. The job is unpaid. The board (to be) extraordinarily kind to you. 25. Con’s family who (to be) occupied each with their particular guest didn’t notice anything. b) Nouns which are used only in plural in English but can have a singular form in Armenian. 16. Write a short paper on the following points. 13. 18. Can I borrow your scissors? Mine (not to be) sharp enough. 24. Close by. a) Nouns which are countable in Armenian but uncountable in English. Monty’s family (to be) of about the same social status as my own. 5. 14. 12.” he said to himself and laughed. 206 . A group of students (to go) on a tour to Poland in summer. but a number of persons (to be) willing to undertake it. 23. Three days (not to be) enough for a good holiday. c) Nouns which are uncountable both in Armenian and in English. 15. a group of men (to sit). 10.

It’s three miles’ walk. The world’s population is rising.UNIT XV THE CASE OF NOUNS English nouns may have two case forms. If the plural noun doesn’t end in -s we use-’s: men/women/children/people The men’s changing room is over there. It’s about four hours’ drive to London from my house. (or the history of Algeria is interesting) 2.the common case and the genitive case. He is the people’s choice.mile walk. The government’s decision shocked everybody. organization. The genitive case is formed by means of the suffix-’s or the apostrophe (’) 1. (things that happen regularly) I want two dollars’ worth of popcorn. That’s my grandfather’s house. We normally use –’s when the first noun refers to a person or animal. 207 . or to a country. or It’s a three. My cat’s eyes are green. (or the decision of the government) Algeria’s history is interesting. Brazil’s football team won again. Our city’s water supplying system isn’t good. or other group of living creatures. 3. You can also use-’s with time expressions and measurement: Did you watch last Sunday’s match? (we talk about particular event) but I don’t like to listen to evening news.

a gold watch. the ocean’s tide. (or the garage roof…) The temperature of the sea is 25 degree today. Nature’s sleep 8. a lamb chop 6. to one’s heart’s content. 9. fox fur. out of harm’s way. the play’s title. horse hair 5. at one’s wit’s end. a bird’s egg.4. the ship’s crew. tortoise shell. duty’s call. The –’s structure is often used for products from living animals: cow’s milk. a stone roof. Sometimes we can use the structure noun + noun: The roof of the garage needs to be repaired. (or the sea temperature…) The owner of the restaurant is a very decent person. lamb’s wool but camel hair. at one’s finger’s end. a hen’s egg. the island’s outline. chicken soup. we usually use noun + noun calf skin. (or the restaurant owner. the door of the car). The noun + noun is normally used to say what things are made of: a silk dress. sheep’s wool.. a needle’s point. we normally use of (the page of the book. The –’s may be found with nouns denoting inanimate things and abstract notions: The sun’s rays. When the animal is killed to provide something. a pin’s head. ideas etc. For things. chamois leather.) 208 . a lead pipe 7. for goodness’ sake. In English there are a considerable number of set phrases in which –’s is used: in one’s mind’s eye.

………… 3. we usually prefer the of structure: the top of the page. inside. front. 11. ACTIVITY Ex. bottom. work of seven months ……………… 209 . We do not always use –’s for people.10. This is called a double genitive: He was an old business client of Grandfather’s. the back of the car. Jeff and Ann’s project Ann wasn’t present at Jack and Mary’s wedding. It was a good idea of Tom’s to go swimming. middle. Henderson’s children are very unruly. beginning. Brown and Baker’s office. an absence of a year … …. 1. part. 12. The suffix –’s may be added not only to a single noun but to a whole group of words. We went on holiday with some friends of ours.. edge. Sometimes we find –’s and of together. outside. we would use of… in this sentence: What is the name of the man who brought this letter? (“the man who lent us the money” is too long to be followed by – ’s) 13. and Mrs. With words like top. end. Mr. the inside of the house……………… 2. the end of the film. For example.1. back. side. Use -’s or –s’ only where possible. the bottom of the glass. It is called the group genitive: the Prime Minister of England’s residence.

wedding / Dave and Cathie 10. dentist’s. shoe-repairer’s. 1. storm / last week 17. 6. 7. the sister / the doctor who is very famous 15. Ex 2. umbrella / somebody else 11. walk / ten miles 3. the husband / the woman talking to Tom 9. Choose a noun from the box to answer the following questions. the ocean / tide 6. call / duty 8. the name / the man I saw you with yesterday Ex.4. sleep / eight hours 13. the butterfly / the wings 2. the daughter / Charles 18. fish-monger’s.3. 10. hairdresser’s/barber’s 210 . baker’s. Nature / sleep 4. 9. silver/gold smith’s. the shade of the tree ………………… the book of the film ………………… a delay of an hour …………………… at the door of death ………………… the price of success ………………… the company of the ship …………… the surface of the earth……………. 5. butcher’s. florist’s. the identity / man living next door 12. Join the nouns using appropriate form of the possessive case. carpenter’s. 8. crew / ship 5. the Residence / Prime Minister of England 14. water supplying system / the city 19. policy / the United States 20. please stop it for goodness / sake 7. the manager / the company 16. jeweller’s.

cleaned or taken out? Where do usually women/men have their hair cut or done? Where can we buy bread. 10. 6.At the chemist’s. 3.Where can we buy medicine or medical goods? . Where can we have our teeth filled. 5. 8. 1. rolls or cakes? Where do we usually buy or sell our jewels? Where can we buy flowers? Where do we have wooden things made or repaired? Where do we usually get good meat for a barbecue? Where can we have silver/gold articles made? Where do we get fresh fish? Where can we have our shoes repaired? 211 . 9. 4.Example: . 7. 2.

A palm tree is usually very tall. a historical moment… (have a consonant sound) a university. e. An ostrich is a large bird. 212 . an honour. a wonderful day… a hotel. an hour. Articles can also show whether we are talking about things in general or particular things. an actress. The form a is used before a word beginning with a consonant. a union of two people… (have a consonant sound) The form an is used before words beginning with a vowel (a. The indefinite article a/an is used before a singular countable noun which is used as an example of a class (when it is mentioned for the first time and represents no particular person. o. an unusual antique…(have a vowel sound) Use: 1. The articles a/an and the belong to a group of words called ‘determiners. a mystery. or a vowel sounded like a consonant: a scientist. an heir… (have a vowel sound) an ugly painting. The absence of the article (zero article) also specifies the noun and has significance. Articles are used to show whether we are referring to things that are known both to the speaker/writer and to the listener/reader (definite) or that are not known to them both (indefinite). animal or thing). i.UNIT XVI THE ARTICLE The article is a structural word specifying the noun.’ The Indefinite Article Pronunciation The indefinite article is a or an. u) or words beginning with a mute h: an elephant.

(He didn't buy two or three shirts) We can use a/an or one with no difference in meaning when counting or measuring time. etc. I need a/one kilo of tomatoes. countable nouns: What a hot day! What a pretty girl! Such a pity! but What big houses! What pretty girls! What nasty weather! The indefinite article is not used: 1. four times a day… They go to Europe twice a (per) year. He bought one shirt. 2. In expressions of price. a/an may have the meaning of one: (note that a/an and one are not always interchangeable. I have a lot of English books. Note 1: We use a/an to refer to an unspecified thing.: (a/an may replace the word per). to put emphasis on number. It means any one. 213 . This includes names of professions: Jane’s father is a doctor. weight. His salary is two thousand dollars a (per) month. He became a great man. He bought a shirt. 5. 3. tenpence a dozen. fivepence a kilo. speed.It’s an interesting article. (We are not talking about a specific blouse) We use one when we are counting. With a noun complement. ratio etc. distance. In exclamations before singular. Before a plural countable noun: Men are different from women. 4. I have a friend whose father is a pilot. sixty kilometers an hour.

She has a beauty nobody has. a little. names of meals: Windows are made of glass. but They gave us a good breakfast. There isn’t any news. The child was pale with fear. the moon. (it is preceded by an adjective) The Definite Article Pronunciation The is pronounced [ðə] before words beginning with a consonant and [ðɪ] before a vowel: the gardener. but I have got a (news) paper. (they are used in a particular sense) We have breakfast at eight. any. 214 . a lot of & c. Iron is a metal. abstract nouns. Before nouns which are considered as one: the earth. the sun.2. the sky. 3. Before materials. but I use an electric iron. a piece of. I’ll give you a piece of advice. Before uncountable nouns: (they are often preceded by: some. We write on paper. You need some more furniture. but Have a glass of wine. the weather. the artist [ðə] [ðɪ] The definite article is used: 1.) Nature is an interesting subject to study. but Some children suffer from a fear of the dark. the world. The earth goes round the sun and the moon goes round the earth.

and only used as adjectives or pronouns: The Nile is the longest river in the world She is the only person who knows about it. but I tried to park my car but the space was too small. The Smiths aren’t invited to that party. 5. the Browns. Before a noun made definite by the addition of a phrase or clause: The man (whom) she is talking to comes from Canada. 2. The dinner which was given to celebrate their victory cost $ 300. The old and the young should be able to live together. They tried to do all they could to help the wounded. the Italians. Before a noun which has become definite as a result of being mentioned a second time: His car struck a tree. 6. Before singular nouns used to represent a class of objects: 215 . 7. you can still see the mark on the tree.Note that we say space (without “the”) when we mean “space in the universe”: There are millions of stars in space. Before an adjective used to represent a class of persons: the rich. Before superlatives and first/second &c. the wounded. 4. the Europeans. The Armenians are hospitable.. February is the second month of the year. the poor the blind. 3. Before proper names if we mean the whole family: the Smiths.

the East. the Odeon Cinema c) museums/galleries The British Museum. the Red Lion b) theatres/cinemas The Globe Theatre. the Tate Gallery 216 . a desert. The violet is a lovely flower. the Middle East. A violet is a lovely flower. the South. the Italian Peninsula 11. The precedes the name of an archipelago. a/an is also used in this manner: A shark has big jaws. or a peninsula: the Malay Archipelago. These places usually have names with the: a) hotels/restaurants/pubs The Hilton Hotel. the Indian Ocean. the National Restaurant. seas. the Netherlands 9. 8. a forest. the Sahara Desert. The aeroplane has made the world a small place. The USA. the Equator. rivers. a gulf. the Mediterranean Sea. the Orient.The male lion is lazy. Before the points on the globe and with the names of geographical areas: The North Pole. the Persian Gulf. Before names of oceans. the North. the English Channel. The South Pole. chains of mountains. channels. the Andes. groups of islands (and countries when the name refers to a political union): The Amazon. the Black Forest. the Occident 10. The Himalayas. the West. the Far East. the Far West.

Hide Park. the Hague. parks. uncle. Mount Ararat exception: the Matterhorn 4. Madrid. The definite article is not used: 1. 2. Wall Street. the High Street.d) other buildings 12. The Finger Lakes 3. No article with the name of a single mountain: Mount Everest. No article with titles (relatives): Doctor Johnson. Margaret.) Aunt Alice likes to watch TV. The Great lakes. the Strand. Lake Sevan (or the Baikal. the Sevan when the word ‘lake’ is omitted) but The Bay of Biscay. but The Ukraine. the Crimea. towns. countries. Lake Baikal. David. We do not usually use ‘the’ with proper nouns: before continents. streets. Johnson. squares. aunt. proper names: Africa. cousin… Professor Smith lectures on English phonetics. Major Williams. the Vatican. Before musical instruments: The White House. (but He is a professor. Westminster Abbey. 217 . Victoria Station. Before lakes and bays: Hudson Bay. Trafalgar Square. Mount Kilimanjaro. Canterbury Castle. the Caucasus. the Empire building She learnt to play the piano when she was five years old. London Zoo. Norway. Buckingham Palace.

No article with names of diseases: Jaundice. These nouns are used without ‘the’ when they are visited or used for their primary purpose: home.5. work. measles. the following very common nouns always take the: the cathedral. prison. flu (but to have a headache / a toothache) She has got influenza. bed we go to church to pray to school to study to college to study to bed to sleep to sea as sailors to market to buy or sell to hospital as patients to prison as prisoners to court as litigants to work as workers When these places are not visited for their primary purpose the article the is used: The tourists went to the church to see the carvings. The Use Of Articles In Some Set Expressions 1. The definite Article to tell the truth to be on the safe side the other day on the whole 218 . school. chapel. Jaundice is a nasty disease. college. After that incident Tom’s mother went to the school to speak to the headmaster. the theatre. In contrast to the above list. market. the cinema. court. church. hospital. The Indefinite Article It’s a shame It’s a pity It’s a pleasure to speak in a low/loud voice 2. 6. sea. the office We met them at the theatre.

to speak in a whisper to keep the bed to have a lovely/good time to play the piano/guitar to take a fancy to smb. unkind person) to be at a loss (for smth. Zero Article be in disgrace from morning till night from head to foot from beginning to end to lose heart to take to heart to take offence to give/ask/get permission to eat without appetite by chance/by mistake by car/train/land/air/sea to go to sea at sea at. after. before sunrise/sunset/dawn at/after/ before breakfast /lunch/dinner/supper to get into trouble to be asking/looking for trouble live in peace at war/ to declare war against/on smth.) to be paid by the hour to get to the bottom of smth. to be in debt to call somebody names to keep house at first sight arm in arm day after day/day in day/day out day and night/night and day 219 . in the original to fly into a rage to take the trouble to do smth to tell a lie to be out of the question in a hurry on the one hand… on the other hand a bad lot (immoral. /to do smth.

8. … useful book 5. 5. Don’t come near me. 3. 12. Write a or an in the space. who greeted him and said: “…kind man. “I didn’t know how fast you could walk. After he had gone some distance.” … traveler turned round in … astonishment. She has … eye-sore. 7. can you tell me how soon I shall get to?” “Go” Aesop answered.” Aesop said again angrily. 10. My boss suffers from … high blood pressure.. Put in a/an. 4. 1.” Ex. I’ve got … terrible headache.” … traveler thought and went on. He wrote many fine stories. I have got … flue. “Why didn’t you tell me that before?” he asked. ” “Go. 7. Aesop And The Traveller Aesop was … very clever man who lived many hundreds of years ago in … Greece. the or o. Supply a/an or o (-) where necessary. … German measles can be very unpleasant. Aesop shouted after him. 11. “How could I have told you that before?” answered Aesop.ACTIVITY Ex. Ex. He was well known as … man who was fond of … jokes. … European … house … uniform … unused car Ex. 2. I was awake all night with … toothache. 1. … hour 4. as he was enjoying … walk. 6. 1. I’m going home. 2. One day. 3. … honorable judge 2.” protested … traveler. “I know I must go. … honest person … university … horse … used car 9. Use the proper article. he met … traveler. Alice should see the doctor. my neighbour’s children are in bed with … mumps. 6. 220 . 4. “You will get to … town in two hours. “but I should like you to tell me how soon I shall get to … town. … unusual story 3. “This man must be mad.

Sam recommended. 3. 1. 7. Did you visit The British/British Museum when you were in London? 5. 221 . 6. I feel very tired. Lunch I ordered was burnt. We went to The Lion Inn/Lion Inn. We got up early to admire … dawn. 8. 7. 6. 10. It was cold and we decided to stay to a tea.1. … winter was very fine that year and we were very happy. I often sat up … night with him and read to him to ease his pain. Their son is a student at London University/the London University. 5. We flew to Yerevan from Orly/Airport/The Orly Airport. 8. Ex. I work from … morning till … night. 3. He used to work for British Airways/British Airways. 6. They are setting off at … dawn. 5. Ex. Choose the correct form and underline it. Tom’s father usually reads The Times/Times. Our favourite movie theatre is ‘Classic/The Classic. 2. 6. I think we can get good supper here. Dinner was excellent. 9. She didn’t look well. 9. She said they had passed … sluggish winter and … lazy summer. Hyde Park/The Hyde Park is situated in central London. George. My grandfather is often wide awake at … night. The situation is improving day by … day. Walter is excited. 3. We were asked to dinner. 4. 4. The weather was very cold on … day of his arrival.’ 4. 2. The Grand/ Grand Hotel is in Baker street. 1. 2. 7. 5. You must be home before … midnight. He wants very special dinner. They were at the lunch when I called. Find and correct the errors in the following sentences. They were talking about it at the breakfast.

7.” … Smiths had … son and … daughter. She goes to … church every Sunday. Put in the or a/an where necessary. When you get home. 9. … son was in … Army and … daughter was training to be … doctor. If you live in … foreign country. 4. We didn’t manage to visit Houses of parliament/the Houses of parliament. Sometimes it seems to me that she never turns off … television.10. 2. 3. 1. You’re always exhausted. You have glimpses of … Andes or Pacific. 6. When you’re in … sky. His friends went to … hospital to visit him. John himself doesn’t go to … church. 8. Ex. you should try and learn … language. eh?” Give me Home Sweet Home any day! Ex 8. John’s mother is a regular churchgoer. Your wife or husband complains you’re never there to take … children to … school or put them to … bed. Keith is … seaman. High Flyer I travel all over … world on business and my neighbour thinks my life is one long holiday. but yesterday he went to … church to take some photographs of the building. “Do you often listen to … radio?” “No. your neighbour says. 7. Peter was injured in … accident and was kept in … hospital for a few days. Sheila spends most of her free time watching … television. If no article is needed. 5. you see only snow in … Arctic or … Greenland. 222 . He spends most of his life at … sea. … breakfast in … London. in fact I haven’t got … radio. … President Kennedy was assassinated in 1963. “Another nice holiday. … lunch in New York. the or o. You know what … business travel is like: up at … dawn to catch … plane. write 0 in the space. Supply a/an. … President is … most powerful person in … United States.

… Nile is in … Egypt. … English is an international language. George Rawson owns a nightclub on … Santa Monica Boulevard. … Professor Williams used to say. When I studied at … University. “… young have the future in their hands. … Lake Titicaca is in … South America. … Mt Everest is … highest mountain in … world. 7. I don’t usually have … lunch. please?” “But … sugar isn’t very good for you. 6. 9. Do you know that in many places people are in … prison because of their political opinions? 15. … Mediterranean Sea is between … Europe and … Africa. 3. 22. … Arrow Lake is one of … prettiest lakes I’ve ever seen. Everybody knows that … Chinese have a long history. I asked the pilot how high above … ground we were flying. I want to enter … Greenville University.” 12. Travel through … space to other planets interests many people today. write 0 in the space. 20. Write an article in the space provided. The more I study this subject. Caroline Newman is majoring in … art at the university. She told the boy to go down … Kingston Street and turn right into … Mill Road.10. They say … University of Greenville is a good place to study. 4. 18. Some people think that … bicycle is … excellent means of transport. 19. 223 . 17. 2. The other day the fire brigade were called to … prison to put out … fire. It is in … Nepal. 1. … milk in … refrigerator is bad. 11. 21. 9. Ex. If no article is needed. … milk is good for babies. Coffee in this restaurant is only 25 cents … cup. 5. 8. 16. 13.” 14. … English of Shakespeare is often difficult to understand. Everyone in the class missed … question number 23 on the test. but I always eat … good breakfast. “Can you pass … sugar. … more confused I get.

you will see Polaris. ѳÛÑáÛ»É 14. 19.. Many wonderful works of literature are written in … Spanish language. Ex. … violin. íÇñ³íáñ³Ï³Ý ³ÝáõÝÝ»ñ ï³É. Ý»ÕáõÃÛáõÝ Ïñ»É. 18. 24. è³ÝóáõÏ 13.. 12. îÝï»ëáõÃÛáõÝÁ í³ñ»É 2. Ý»ÕáõÃÛáõÝ Ñ³ÝÓÝ ³éÝ»É. ³å³Ñáí ÉÇÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ 9. but … next year I will. ÙÛáõë ÏáÕÙÇó 8. 13. Gobi Desert is located in Mongolia.10. And then they formed a musical group called … Crickets 22. å³ï³Ñٳٵ 19.. I can’t take a summer vacation right now. ϳï³ñ»É ·ñ³íáñ. The doctors at Mercy Hospital give … patients excellent care. ·³½³½»É. If you look into … north on a clear night. Ñáõë³Ñ³ïí»É 18. ³ãùÇó ÁÝÏ³Í ÉÇÝ»É. 224 . íÇñ³íáñí»É. Our club is going to have a picnic at … Audubon Park. . 20. There is one musical instrument I truly love. ã³ñã³ñí»É 7. 10. ·ÉËÇÝ ÷áñÓ³Ýù µ»ñ»É 10. í³ï Ù³ñ¹ 5. ÙÇ ÏáÕÙÇó. Ý»Õ³Ý³É 12. the North Star. Translate the following words and expressions into English. ϳï³Õ»É. I want you to clean … top of the refrigerator. ßÝáñѳ½ñÏí³Í ÉÇÝ»É 15. 15. I want to buy … computer with a lot of memory. 23. ë˳Éٳٵ 20. ³Û¹ Ù³ëÇÝ Ëáëù ãÇ Ï³ñáÕ ÉÇÝ»É 11. … Art Museum is located in the James Fisher Building.. 1. 11. … arthritis is a painful disease. 17. ï³ÝÁ ÙÝ³É 3. 16. … Urals are a major range of mountains in Europe. ½áéáí ÷áñÓ³ÝùÇ Ù»ç ÁÝÏÝ»É 16. ëñïÇÝ Ùáï ÁݹáõÝ»É 17. I wonder what happened to … old camera that my grandfather used to have. ÷áñÓ³ÝùÇ Ù»ç ÁÝÏÝ»É. 14. ÙáÉ»·Ý»É 4. ³Ý»É³Ý»ÉÇ ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ÉÇÝ»É 6. Most airlines can travel at 600 miles … hour. 21. íѳïí»É.

criterion) for the treatment of passengers by the immigration authorities. person) have tried to analyse this emotion. There were a lot of (9. city) of New York and Brooklyn. They flew the (15. They carried (14. regardless of their feelings. And if a single louse was found. silk) from China and teas from India as well. Most of the third class passengers stood waiting their turn as quiet as (19. bearing) in their new and strange (24. The buildings stood out against the skyline like enormous (5. deer). vermin). of (12. As we went up the river. (17. we experienced a sensation which is. machine) and (13. common to all (2. though some were as noisy as a flock of (20. Many seemed to have completely lost their (23. traveler) who come to the end of their voyage. sheep). It seemed as if each building brushed the (8. ARTICLES Ex 1. child) stared around like startled (28. the individual was taken to Ellis Island. colour) of almost every seafaring nation on the globe. wife) and (27. surrounding) and seemed as bewildered as (25. according to the class in which they traveled. I think. and the rest of their (22. Many (3. house and church) were completely dwarfed by them. mouse). ship) in the river mouth. Form the plural of nouns in parentheses. goose). The first class passengers filed before him as solemn as (18. As we sailed up the River Hudson towards the (1. box of match) struck on end. handkerchief). The (6. toy) and many other things. came on board. ox). Armies of (16. and I have read many such (4. while their (26.REVISION OF NOUNS. There seemed to be varying (29. potato) and (11. glass). 225 . customs-official). belonging) in bundles. They carried their savings in knotted (21. They were bringing cargoes from all over the world – cargoes of meat and (10. The passengers were paraded before the port doctor. Those of the third were examined for (30. sky). analysis) but none have ever really satisfied me. we examined it all with our (7. louse) and other (31. He was a huge fat man. mango). port-authorities) and others.

Roy and Jack (teacher). film (the beginning). Example: Jack fell in love with Clair when first saw her. Archimedes (law). and New York was beside itself with joy. apparatus). and what small consolation there would be for the men who had performed their (38. phenomenon). sister-in-law (present). Ex. women (liberation). crisis) would follow in the years to come. the bottom (the glass). On the day we landed. hour (drive). 3. We landed with every manifestation of high spirits and the customs people examined our (34. temperature (water). children (book). hanger-on) stared at us as though we were curious (36. the world (population). Nancy was a kind girl and the children were fond of her. Ex. Brown and Baker (office). 4. 6. Jack fell in love with Clair at first sight. 226 . Jack fell in love with Clair when first saw her. Armenia (economy). 1. Tom said that he had read the whole book. sheep (wool). the news got around that an armistice had been signed. owner (the restaurant). car (door). indefinite or zero article. brother) do nothing by halves. The (35. he became very angry. Brazil (football team). island (inhabitants). front (building). 7. Re-word the following sentences using set phrases with a definite. passer-by (remark). soup (chicken). hero) in “a war to end war”. We saw her a few days ago. and do not care sixpence for anybody’s opinions of their methods. 3. camel (hair). people (choice). When Father saw what we had done. students (test results). Our American (33.where were plenty of delousing (32. Write the following nouns in the possessive case. 2. Their question was unexpected and he was uncertain about what to answer. father-in-law (advice). We can’t go out in this weather. duty) like (39. 2. Has he allowed you to leave? 5. it is impossible. 8. Men (strength). the sun (rays). effect). Nobody then guessed how many world (37.

3. 10. áñ ³Ý³å³ëï³ÝÝ»ñÁ ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ÏáÕÙÇó ³í»ÉÇ ß³ï û·ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³ñÇù áõÝ»Ý: æ»ýÁ áãÇÝã ã·Çï»ñ Çñ ѳñ¨³ÝáõÃÛ³Ùµ ³åñáÕ Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýó ÇÝùÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ: سñïÇÝÁ ÙÇ ß³µ³Ã ³Ýóϳóñ»ó Çñ Ñáñ ÁÝÏ»ñÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÇ Ùáï. You have done a lot to help my son He has lost people’s respect and liking. 16. We traveled during the day and camped every night. ²Û¹ »ñÏñÇ ·É˳íáñ ׳ݳå³ñÑÝ»ñÇ Ù»Í Ù³ëÁ ϳéáõóí»É ¿ ÑéáÙ»³óÇÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó: ²÷ëáë. It gives me such pleasure to talk to a person like you Ex 4. I’m very grateful to you. §îá°õñ ÇÝÓ ÇÙ ³ÏÝáóÁ. 2. He didn’t have a desire to eat but he had to eat the soup. Translate the following sentences into English. 12. 4. 10. §¸áõ ß³ï ï³ñûñÇÝ³Ï Ï³ñÍÇù áõÝ»ë Ñáñ ¹»ñÇ Ù³ëÇݦ. 8. áñ ϻݹ³Ý³µ³Ý³Ï³Ý ³Û·áõ٠ϻݹ³ÝÇÝ»ñÝ Çñ»Ýó µÝ³Ï³Ý ÙÇç³í³ÛñáõÙ ã»Ý ·ïÝíáõÙ: ²Ûëûñ »ñ»ÏáÛ³Ý Ã»ñÃáõÙ æáÝÇ »ñϳñ Ñá¹í³ÍÁ ϳ ³Û¹ Ù³ëÇÝ: سÛñë ãÇ ëÇñáõÙ ß³ï ßá· »Õ³Ý³Ï: ºñ»ëáõÝ ³ëïÇ׳ÝÝ ³ñ¹»Ý ã³÷³½³Ýó ï³ù ¿ Ýñ³ ѳٳñ: γëÏ³Í ãϳ. áñ ß³µ³Ã³Ï³Ý áõÃëáõÝ ýáõÝïÁ µ³í³Ï³Ý ã¿ ³åñ»Éáõ ѳٳñ: 227 . áñÝ ³Û¹ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ³åñáõÙ ¿ñ ÈáݹáÝáõÙ: ØÇ ñáå» ÉéáõÃÛáõÝ ïÇñ»ó.³ë³ó ݳ: ¸»ñ³ë³ÝáõÑáõ ѳçáñ¹ ѳݹÇåáõÙÁ é»ÅÇëáñÇ Ñ»ï ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³í »ñÏáõ ß³µ³Ã ³Ýó: ø»ÛÃÁ å³ñëÏ³Ï³Ý Ï³ïáõ áõÝÇ: γïíÇ Ù³½»ñÁ »ñϳñ áõ ß³ï ÷³÷áõÏ »Ý: àã µáÉáñ áëïÇϳÝÝ»ñÇÝ ¿ ÃáõÛɳïñíáõÙ ½»Ýù Ïñ»É: ¾Ý¹ñáõÝ Ï³ñÍáõÙ ¿ñ. 9. 11. 14. 6.9. 1. 11. 14. 13. 5. He has studied Plato in the language it was first written.. 12. ¨ Ñ»ïá ݳ ³ë³ó. 7. áñ »ë ãϳñáÕ³ó³ å³ñ½»É ³Ûë ݳٳÏÁ µ»ñáÕ Ù³ñ¹áõ ³ÝáõÝÁ: àõëáõóÇãÁ µ³ó³ïñ»ó »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÇÝ. 13. 15. áñ Ù»½ ïñí³Í ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ëïáõÛ· ã»Ý: ºë ϳñÍáõÙ »Ù. »ë áõ½áõÙ »Ù ÇÝùë ϳñ¹³É ³Û¹ ݳٳÏÁ¦: ²Ù»Ý ÏÇë³ÙÛ³Ï ÍÝáÕÝ»ñÇÝ Ññ³íÇñáõÙ »Ý ¹åñáó` áõëáõóÇãÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï ѳݹÇå»Éáõ: ¶»ñ³É¹Á µ³ñÓñ³óñ»ó ÑáÝù»ñÁ.

preparatory…(show the relation to materials. masculine and feminine nouns: a clever boy – clever boys. According to their meaning and grammatical characteristics adjectives fall under two classes: a) qualitative adjectives. nice. yellow. etc. monthly. Positive cheap large thin but thick Comparative cheaper larger thinner thicker Superlative (the) cheapest (the) largest (the) thinnest thickest Most adjectives: + -er. one. silk. blue.UNIT XVII THE ADJECTIVE Adjectives are words expressing properties of objects (e. Italian. Adjectives ending in –e: + -r. daily. qualifying nouns. b) woolen. to some action). important (show the quality of the nouns and have degrees of comparison). wooden. to place. strong. -st.syllable adjectives (regular comparison) We normally use the before a superlative. b) relative adjectives. hence.) and. a) nice. European. big. -est. a clever girl – clever girls Comparison 1. which is used with singular and plural. Relative adjectives do not have degrees of comparison Adjectives in English have only one form. to time. g. attractive pretty. One vowel + one consonant: double consonant consonant + consonant 228 .

ly./est and more/most are both possible. er. some add er. polite.). With others (including adjectives ending in ing. two-syllable adjectives ending in y.2. -er. g. common. ish. ful. ple. less. ow. With many two.holier – (the) holiest (change the y to i (if it is preceded by a consonant) clever – cleverer – cleverest simple – simpler – simplest humble – humbler – humblest narrow – narrower – narrowest or more narrow most narrow handsome – handsomer –handsomest or more handsome most handsome 4. ed. only more / most is possible. ct. ous.syllable adjectives (e. irregular comparison Positive good bad far old late little many/much near Comparative better worse farther/further older/elder later less more nearer Superlative (the) best worst farthest/furthest oldest/eldest latest/last least most nearest/next 3. est: holy . annoying – more annoying – (the) most annoying tired – more tired – most tired famous – more famous – most famous childish – more childish – most childish useful – more useful – most useful careless – more careless – most careless exact – more exact – most exact 229 . ble. nt and st).

Before comparatives you can use: much. This is a most useful book. 7. Your coffee is not so/as good as the coffee my mother makes. Adjectives used only predicatively: afraid – more afraid aware – more aware When the children heard that their father was coming. She looks no older than her daughter. 6. It may have the meaning of very. they were more afraid than glad. Then it is preceded by the indefinite article. none the (not at all). use as…as in the affirmative and not as/ not so …as in the negative: A boy of sixteen is often as tall as his father. far (= a lot). Adjectives of three or more syllables have more and most intelligent – more intelligent –(the) most intelligent practical – more practical – most practical Note 1: Most when used before an adjective does not always form the superlative degree. or …than me 230 . a little. I think Russian is much more difficult than Spanish. at all).recent – more recent – most recent honest – more honest – most honest 5. 8. no (not any. Constructions with comparisons. Her illness was far more serious than we thought at first. My suitcase is slightly heavier than yours. You are older than I am. any (= to even a little extent). even. slightly (= a little). extremely.

She is the cleverest of them. organizations and groups of people (a class. When a group only has two members we use the comparative: This one is the better of the two. The warmer the weather the better I feel. She is getting fatter and fatter. The less luggage we have to carry the better. Note 2: We usually use of after superlatives for a period of time: It was the happiest day of my life.9. Comparison of three or more persons or things is expressed by the superlative with the …of or the … in (of places) Bob is the tallest of the three. the easier it is to learn. I like Betty and Alice. These days more and more people are learning English. It was the most important news of the day. The more I thought of the plan. but I think Alice is the nicer of the two. the more useless things he buys. The more money he makes. But we use in with places (towns. 12./team/company etc) 231 . The less I liked it. 10.). The younger you are. The…the (to say that things change or vary together or that two variable quantities are systematically related). buildings. double comparative: …er and…er more and more The weather is getting colder and colder. It is becoming more and more difficult to find a job. 11.

We can use three/ four etc. as poor as Lasarus… Her son is as stubborn as a mule. or Their house is three times as big as my house. Note that twice isn’t possible in this construction: Petrol is twice as expensive as it was last year. Adjectives of quality used as nouns: The poor. The poor are usually more generous to each other than the rich. The Nile is the longest river in the world. the rich. the blind etc. the wounded. 13. The young are generally intolerant. 15. the living. (refers to particular young people) Notice the following set phrases which contain the comparative or the superlative degree of an adjective: a change for the better/worse = ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝ ¹»åÇ É³íÁ /¹»åÇ í³ïÁ 232 . times + comparative: It was ten times more difficult than I expected. as safe as the Bank of England. as wise as Solomon. (is a general statement) The young men are talking about something in the next room. as… as is used to show equality (to say that people. After the battle they buried the dead. things are equal in a particular way). the young.Who is the best player in your team? I think he is the most generous man in the town. the dead. 14. They are used to represent a class of persons. Their house is three times bigger.

ѳٻݳÛÝ ¹»åë so much the better/the worse (for) = ß³ï ³í»ÉÇ É³í /³í»ÉÇ í³ï to be the worse for = ³í»ÉÇ í³ï³óÝ»É no (none the worse for) = ³í»ÉÇ í³ï / íݳë ãÇ ÉÇÝÇ if the worst comes to the worst = í³ï³·áõÛÝ ¹»åùáõÙ to go from bad to worse = í³ïóñ³Ý³É. 2. but his wife is…………………………………. 3. but Mars is…………………. 7. but his grandmother is………. He is crazy. but the other is………………………… The earth is far from the sun. This wine is good. 12. Algebra is difficult. A horse has little intelligence. Use the required form of the adjectives in the following sentences. 1. but China is…. ³í»ÉÇ í³ï³Ý³É as best = É³í³·áõÛÝë. but Mary is……………………………………. 1. 10. 4. but steel is……………. but ours is ………………………… Ex. 5.none the less = ³Ù»Ý ¹»åùáõÙ. ……………… Alcohol is bad for your health.. Put the if necessary. 6. 233 . Supply even (still) + an appropriate adjective in the comparative degree. Iron is very strong. 11. even larger. 2. 1. Pollution and overpollution are two of (serious) problems in the world today. Ñݳñ³íáñÇÝë ɳí at (the) best/at worst = É³í³·áõÛÝ ¹»åùáõÙ/ í³ï³·áõÛÝ ¹»åùáõÙ ACTIVITY Ex. 8. but cigarettes are…………… Barbara’s hair is thick. but calculus is ………………………… His grandfather is very wise. but Sue’s is ……………………… Gerald’s house is big. Example: India is a large country. 9. but a mule is………………. She is a beautiful woman. but her sister is………………… Tom is tall.

I think money is (important) than love. Julia was (afraid) than her husband. I thought she was younger than me but in fact she is slightly (old). At first I thought you were nice but really you are as (bad) as everybody else. He is (talkative) than his sister.2. 10. He is a far (intelligent) person than his brother. The (near) house is three miles away. 4. Sometimes adults are (childish) than children. 12. 18. I need something much (big). 5. 23. When the thief broke into their house. 7. This bag is too small. I was (amazed) at the news than her parents. You looked depressed this morning but you look a bit (happy) now. 9. 17. 22. The longer she waited (much) impatient she became.” joked father. 3. 21. She had to wait a very long time. It was one of (enjoyable) holidays we have ever had.” said Uncle George smiling. 16. The wine at the dinner party last night was bad. The Browns have got three daughters. “Today I am no (wise) than yesterday. 24. 6. I think he won’t tire you so much. “Of the two evils let us choose the (little). 8. I don’t think it matters in the (little) which seat I choose. Mercury is (close) planet to the sun and Pluto is (far) planet from the sun. 14. 20. We had a great holiday. The (near) item on the program is a piano sonata. 13. It is a lot (easy) to learn a foreign language in the country where it is spoken. Everybody thinks that Jack is the (clever) of the three brothers. 15. 19. but the food was even (bad). I am afraid the problem is much (complicated) than it seems. The (old) is 14 years old. 11. 234 .

.. kitten 10........ The more she eats........ ice 7.. h) My! Your hands are as cold as..... ox 16... m) Her voice is as clear as a. 7....... 5........ bird 8... j) What an appetite I have! I am as hungry as a..... The more you talk on the phone........... n) The fog last night was as thick as…………........ 3.... the…………………………….. 4.... d) He is as stubborn as a.... g) For some unknown reason........... gold 2..... i) I'm in a wonderful mood today! I feel as free as a……..... the more money it will cost.... The more one has...... rail ....... I feel as weak as a.... pea soup 14.... Complete the sentences with ‘the+ comparative…the + comparative’ construction.. mouse 6.. Complete each sentence from a) to p) with an appropriate ending from 1 to 6........ b) My boss is always as busy as a............ the……………… The sooner we pass our exams. beet 12.... wolf 9... he's as thin as a. c) She is as clever as a........ 1. fox 4... [əz] [əz] Example: Their child is always as quiet as a mouse a) Their child is always as quiet as a................ f) One of my teachers is always as nervous as a..................... the ……………………… The longer I think of his proposal..... Example: The bigger the house is............... The less you learn... o) My new sweater is as soft as a …………… p) Why are you blushing? My! Your face is as red as a …….......... 235 1........Ex... the………………... 3.... 4. bee/ beaver 5.... bell 15........ e) Their little boy is as good as...... mule/ donkey 3.. 8..... the…………………… Ex.. the……………………………. the……………… The more electricity you use.... k) His father has been very sick........ the……………………………… The warmer the weather. cat 11..... l) Our young son is as strong as an...... 6.... 2.......... pillow 13.....

They were having the (violent) ……. brain in the world fitted into the (big)…….. The examiners were … with his answer. “When Shortie wakes up. (satisfy) 5. All of us were … with it. man I have ever seen. The news was …. The one (far) ……. (depress) Ex. The newspapers are full of … news. words. (confuse) 4. Example: It’s …surprising that he passed his exam. to me was the (big) ……. and (strong) ……. Alternatives are possible. (disappoint) 7. head!” They were his (last/latest)10……. The film was …. We got … surprised when we heard it. She was … at what she saw. She says her life is …. His answer was …. “It’s a case of the (small)…. The boss is … in it.. (interest) 6. The students were …. She always looks …. We are …. 5. Her skin is … because the chemical is …. I had an egg for breakfast. Argument I had ever heard. from me was the (small/little) ……… and (weak)……. (surprise) 1.. 2... I took the eggs out of the … water. (disgust) The lecturer’s explanation was …. Put in the right forms. (shock) 11. My parents were … when they heard the news. Use the word given + the ending –ing or –ed.Adjectives ending in –ing and –ed Ex. Suddenly the little man said. The little man didn't know what hit him as he fell to the floor. The one (near)………. 6. (excite) 10. The match was …. tell him that 236 . This project is …. The boys were … when their team scored a goal. The Champion The two men were sitting at the bar. Complete the sentences for each situation. (bore) The scene was …. 3. (boil) 9. (irritate) 8..

was my (better/ best)11…….” 237 . ” Shortie said.” the big man told the barman as he left.. King Karate was at the bar as usual when Shortie crept in quietly. swung his arm and the champ fell to the floor. “When Karate wakes up. Karate chop. The next evening. Land Rover starting handle. “tell him it was my (oldest/eldest)12…….

adverbs of consequence and cause: therefore. adverbs of time: now.coyly beautiful – beautifully (final l is doubled) complete – completely (final e remains unchanged) 238 . a little. yesterday. b) It’s terribly cold today. hence. seldom. A considerable number of adverbs of manner are formed from adjectives by adding-ly (e. there.UNIT XVIII THE ADVERB An adverb modifies a) a verb. accordingly. soon. adverbs of degree: very. never 3. afterwards. adverbs of manner: well. completely. then. consequently. terribly. presently 2. deeply. e) past participle a) She dances beautifully. c) another adverb. always. According to their meaning adverbs fall into the following groups: 1. sly – slyly. b) an adjective. quickly. as a result. c) He speaks English very well. sudden – suddenly) Spelling: (-ly) happy – happily (-y usually changes to i) but shy – shyly. adverbs of place and direction: here. e) This steak is badly cooked. so 6. for one thing 5. badly. backwards 4. enough. clearly. inside. d) adverbial phrase. hardly ever. g. lately. coy . somehow 1. everywhere. adverbs of frequency: often. quite. d) He is madly in love with her. for this reason.

etc. g. noble – nobly… (le changes to ly after a consonant) 2. quick. lively. in a friendly manner. the adverb ends in –ically [ikli] but public – publicly terrible – terribly (when adjective ends in ble. 239 . She works hard. e. We haven’t seen him lately. deadly etc. elderly. late. early. She hardly ever works properly. due – duly. He nearly missed the train.but true – truly. We had to dig deep. such as manly. adjective a straight road a fast runner an early bird hard work low voice daily duty a close friend adverb to go straight home to run fast to come early to work hard to bend low to appear daily to come close 4. low. In most cases the two forms differ in meaning: late hard near deep lately hardly nearly deeply He came home late. ple and dle the le is dropped before adding -ly) idle – idly. fatherly. straight. likely. silly. friendly. close. lovely. In a few cases both forms can be used without any difference in meaning: loud -loudly. enough. These words are both adjectives and adverbs: fast. ugly. 3. slow -slowly. An adverbial phrase is used in this case instead of an adverb. daily. whole – wholly tragic – tragically (if the adjective ends in –ic. We are deeply (extremely) interested in the subject. He lives near the office. cheap -cheaply. hard. Notice that we cannot form adverbs from adjectives ending in –ly. in a silly way. Some other adverbs have two forms – the adjective form and the form in -ly.

quickly – more quickly – 240 (the) most quickly . to look. etc. hourly. The music sounds pleasant. (=to look promising) but She looks well. The degrees of comparison of adverbs are formed in the same way as those of adjectives. to sound. daily duty. to taste. e. You should remember that after the link – verbs to feel. Comparison 7. to appear daily 5. The roses smell sweet. They have been derived from nouns. The degrees of comparison of all other adverbs are formed by placing more and most before them. to smell. monthly. (= good appearance) 6. daily. hard – near – soon – fast – late – early – harder– hardest nearer– nearest sooner– soonest faster– fastest later– latest earlier– earliest 8. Note 1: There are a few adverbs and adjectives in English which have the same form in –ly.I got this dress cheap. The fur felt soft. weekly. She looks good. One – syllable adverbs and the adverb early form the comparative and the superlative degrees by adding the suffixes –er and –est. we use an adjective as predicative. to appear. But certain adverbs of manner can change for degrees of comparison. Most adverbs are invariable. etc. Please drive slower. g.

241 . A few adverbs are compared irregularly: Positive well badly far much little Comparative better worse farther / further more less Superlative the best the worst the farthest / furthest the most the least Much. many. (adjective) She slept very little last night. it is replaced by a lot (of) a great deal (of) I saw a lot of her when I was in London last month. Much and (a) little can be used as adjectives and as adverbs whereas many and (a) few can only be used as adjectives: He doesn’t like cabbage much (adverb) Do we have much food left? (adjective) I’m much more excited. (adjective) With a little effort you’ll succeed. (adverb) Many is not used as the object or part of the object of an affirmative verb. being normally replaced by a lot (of) She has a lot of toys. (adverb) Many people think so. (a) little. Much is not very often used with affirmative verbs.slowly – more slowly – most slowly or slow – slower slowest beautifully –more beautifully – most beautifully Alan did the work more quickly than his brother 9. (as almost always in the accusative and in the nominative). (adjective) A few students took the bus and the rest went by train. (a) few 10.

We must hurry. Note 3: Note that ‘only a little’ and ‘only a few’ have a negative meaning” Unfortunately. b) when much and many are modified by adverbs of degree. We’ve only got a little time. c) when much is used alone as an object: a) Many people think so. how: The sailors had no food and too little water. too. b) You made too many mistakes. I can lend you some. How little you know! In affirmative much is usually preceded by very. (hardly any towns have) A few towns have such a splendid market place. but much doesn’t need very in the negative: 242 . as. I could stay there only a few days. (some though not many) Note 2: We use few/little after too. Few towns have such a splendid market place. You can have as much fruit as you want. Much of what you say is true.They had a great deal of talking yesterday. as and how. Much and many can be used in affirmative sentences in the following cases: a) when they modify the subject of the sentence. so. c) His words meant much to me. They mean some though not much (many) Compare: on…) I have little money. (not enough to buy/lend/live I have a little money. Both little and few have a negative implication – they mean not enough. and a little/a few have a positive meaning. I had to return. so.

Some adverbs end in –ly and some do not. Supply the right adverb. My name is last I came…………………………………. Fred is a better player. He replied …………………… 243 . He runs……fast.. He is a hard worker.. He was brave. 5. 7.I enjoyed the play very much. It’s a wide window. 10. Interrogative adverbs These are: why. We had to dig ………………………….) how can also be used a) with adjectives b) with adverbs and c) with much and many: a) How wide is the river? How tall is your brother? b) How often do the buses run? How fast does he drive? c) How much did you pay for those shoes? How many postcards do you want to buy? ACTIVITY Ex. when.) When do you get up? (I usually get up at 8 a. It was a deep hole. He drives ……………………………. He plays …………………………… Make your best effort. He acted …………………………………….1. Example: He is a fast runner. It’s her daily duty..) Where do you work? (I work at the office) How did you come here? (I came here by bus. Sam is a bad driver... Open it ………………………………. The boy gave a rude reply. 4. 2. 6. He works …………………………. She does it ………………………. where and how Why were you late? (I was late because I missed the train. I don’t like it much. 3. 1.. We went …………………………. or I don’t much like it. 8. 11. m. 9. Do your …………………………… The house was near..

Complete the sentences with the correct word (adjective or adverb). The plane is very high. (light. the sky became …. 5. thoughtfully) Most of the students did … on their tests. anxiously) This list of names appears …. (famous. No more names need to be added. 13. 3. Example: The floor looks …… (clean. Ex. The plane landed … on the runway.12. well) 244 . 6. I get a monthly bill. He is … disappointed. lightly) Carol spoke … when she delivered her speech. 1. but he wasn’t. 7. well) Jack doesn’t believe anyone. The floor looks clean. 17. (good. wildly) The merchant looked …. (honest. (anxious. well) The contract offer sounded … to me. 2.. they smell …. honestly) Jane looked at her book. (bitter. 12. (wild.. I grew. safely) When the wind started to blow. 4. (thoughtful. (good. (good. She is an eager helper. 14. It’s flying ………………………. (complete. 14. famously) I don’t think this milk is spoiled. fairly) Jim felt … about forgetting his son’s birthday. (terrible. 2. 15. I pay ………………………………… 13. I discovered when I got home that he had cheated me. 18. … before she answered the teacher’s question. It tastes … to me. 8. She helps …………………………. well) Finally he is doing … after serious illness. confidently) The actor became … throughout much of the world. well) As dawn approached. (fair. (confident. 16. (fine. bitterly) A month’s rest did good to her health. finely) She passed her exam successfully and feels …. (safe.. (good. 10.. completely) The crowd yelled … when we scored a goal. 11. now she feels …. (good. terribly) Let’s buy these roses. so I accepted the job. cleanly). 9.

It was a … brave action. You are standing too near the camera. 3. She types … of all the secretaries in the office. 4. 15. She was indifferent to him though he loved her …. 16. hardly) The waves were ………during the storm at sea. (hard. He didn’t want us to know that he was … ill. The operation was … successful. highly) 245 . 9. Make appropriate adverbial forms out of the adjectives in the following list and supply them in the blanks. Don’t go too ……… the edge. nearly) He can ……… expect me to lend him money again. 5.Ex. He gets embarrassed … than his sister.3. 3. 1. 2. 2. (near. (hard. You are talking very loudly. (high. Choose the right adverb in each sentence. 12. hardly) He works ………. The girl looked at him … but didn’t say anything. Everybody knew that he behaved … towards her than her exhusband. Ex. 5. Ann dresses … than her mother. Can you move a bit …? You hardly ever phone me. Her mother is a woman of great taste. 7. He always works … than his boss. Do you speak English … now than you did before you entered the University? Who speaks French / Spanish … in your group. 4. 10. but doesn’t earn much money. 13. Can you speak a bit…. doubtful true bad often fast serious complete far careful good beautiful easy Tom is a shy person. she usually arrives the …. deep quiet fluent early 1. 4. 11. Why don’t you phone me …? Of all the students. Tom! (near. We all admired him. nearly) The man ……… fell off the edge of the platform. 6. 8. 14.

(late. Use the required form of the adjectives. (high. We enjoyed the film.). lastly) 8. lastly) 9.” 246 . 5. 1. They had clearly had …… a good meal. many. I’d like to thank my father. m. Put in any suitable adverbs of degree (any. much. There was one …… middle-aged couple left. rather. fairly. (deep. (late. The waiters wanted to go home. Can We Go Home Please? It was …… late. They warned him. The others joined in. lately) 12. (good) it is. etc. the restaurant was …… dim. lately) Ex. The chairs were stacked on the tables round the couple who just sat and sat and sat! REVISION OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Ex. It clearly wasn’t …… use asking questions! One of the waiters had …… a good idea. Another waiter turned off the lights. (last. 1. The restaurant clock showed 1. The post was brought ……… this morning. deeply) 10. We had to dig ……… to find water. The waiters were feeling …… tired and were beginning to yawn. One of them asked the couple if they wanted …… more to eat or drink. Now they were looking at each other across the table and were …… unaware of the world around them. He began stacking chairs upside-down onto the tables. (deep. Add an article if it is necessary. I haven’t got any letters ……….6. deeply) 11. ………. He is ……… interested in the subject. “(Little) you say. He didn’t get an answer. It was a ……… amusing film.30 a. And ……… but not least I’d like to thank you all for coming. quite. In the end. highly) 7. (last.

Besides. 2. so it was difficult to communicate with him. 4. she is one of (nice) person I know. but Tom is (clever) of the two. I thought she was (old). so few/a few tourists come here. Don’t praise him. 5. I didn’t really like him when we first met. 7. The boy fell off the roof. I use the phone much/a lot at work. This town is not a very interesting place to visit. Their little boy is as (sly) as a monkey.” “But will you at (little) tell me if she is at home or not?” Ex. The patient seems a little (lively) this morning. 9. 3. Choose the right word and underline it. He spoke a little/little English. Mary is (patient) person I have ever met. But the more I got to know him. Example: I don’t like a lot of salt on my food. I’m surprised Catherine is only 28. My boss doesn’t like it. Sue has worked for the company for ten years. 10.2. she is much (experienced) than Mike. I add little/a little salt to my food. 247 . You have (good) accent in English than me. His interest in this matter is far (serious) than we at first thought. 12. 13. 15. “I can’t let you in. 5. They have got so a lot of/ much money that they don’t know what to do with it. Both of them are clever. 2. so we were able to communicate with him. 3. he added a little/little salt to it. 14. 8.” I saw him no (late) than 9 o’clock this morning. 11. (much) I like him. He is (little) musical than his sister. “Why didn’t you close the door?” “Bob was (late) to come. She has a few/few problems. 4. After Peter tasted the soup. Things are not going so well for her. 16. 6. It’s becoming (hard and hard) to find a job. but he feels none the (bad) for it. 6. He spoke little/a little English. 1.

The stadium was overcrowded.” he said (. that’s why you are so fat. and the coat that he was wearing was old and dirty. “I think I am lost. 15. 16. 3. The conference hall was crowded. 9. We must be quick We’ve only got little/a little time.” she said (cold) and looked down at the papers lying on her desk. Make appropriate adverbial forms out of the words in parentheses. 10. 14. “Excuse me. The Office Visitor A (poor . “I know you are. Nowadays he is very busy and sees many/few of his friends.” 248 .dress) man entered an office in the University of Littletown. What much/a lot of time you take to dress! I’d like to ask you a few questions.7. I’m not very busy today. I haven’t got much/a lot to do. “I can’t find the person whom I came to see. There were a great deal of/a great number of supporters. 19. The professor lectured very clearly. Ex. apologetic). The man’s hair was long and stringy. 11. “He is expecting me.” The secretary who was sitting at the desk in the office looked up at him (idle) and frowned. It’s an interesting exhibition. 13. 8. You eat too much/a great deal of food. 18. The village was very small. I need a little/a few more information.” the man said. He has had to spend a good deal of/a great number of money on medicines. As a result few/a few students had questions at the end of the class period. There were only a few/few houses. I have so many/a lot of things to do that I don’t know which to do first. Virginia returned to England at the moment when many/a lot were leaving it. There were too lots of/ many people. 20. There are plenty of/a great deal of things to see. 12. 17.

James Crawford. Æݱ㠻ë ϳñÍáõÙ.“Well.гÛñÇÏÁ Ùï³ÍÏáï ¿ »ñ¨áõÙ ³Ûëûñ. 4. Þï³åû·ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ù»Ý³Ý»ñ ųٳݻóÇÝ íóñÇ í³ÛñÁ ¨ ïáõųÍÝ»ñÇÝ ï³ñ³Ý ÑÇí³Ý¹³Ýáó: 5. гÛñÁ µ³ñϳó³Í ݳۻó »ñ»Ë³ÛÇÝ.¸áõ ÙÇßï Ó³ÝÓñáõÛà ³ñï³Ñ³ÛïáÕ ï»ëù áõÝ»ë: øá ÏÛ³ÝùÁ ÇëÏ³å»±ë ³Û¹ù³Ý Ó³ÝÓñ³ÉÇ ¿: 11. what a pleasure it is to meet you. She looked at Professor Crawford (shy) and went out.²Ûë ëáõñ×Á ß³ï ÃáõÛÉ ¿: ºë ëÇñáõÙ »Ù ùÇã ³í»ÉÇ Ãáõݹ ëáõñ×: 12. Translate the following sentences into English. “ – but did you say Bigcity? Are you …?” “I am Dr. àôÇÉÛ³ÙëÝ»ñÁ ¹³¹³ñ»óÇÝ Ññ³íÇñ»É »ñÇï³ë³ñ¹Ý»ñÇÝ Çñ»Ýó ïáõÝ: 6. “Good day. »ñµ ݳ Áݹѳï»ó Çñ»Ý: 10. ÆÝãù³Ý ßáõï ëÏë»Ýù ³Ûë ³ß˳ï³ÝùÁ ³ÛÝù³Ý ³í»ÉÇ ßáõï Ïí»ñç³óÝ»Ýù: ÆëÏ »Ã» ²ÝÝ³Ý Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝíÇ û·Ý»É Ù»½ ³í»ÉÇ É³í: 3.” He looked (exhaust). – ºñ»Ï ¹áõ ß³ï »ë³ëÇñ³µ³ñ å³Ñ»óÇñ ù»½: – ºë ß³ï ó³íáõÙ »Ù ³ñ³ÍÇë ѳٳñ: 9. Æñ»Ýó áñ¹áõ Ù»ÏÝ»Éáõó Ñ»ïá.” said the secretary (impolite). “Oh.” “Will you at least tell me where the Department of Chemistry is?” asked the man “I drove all the way from Bigcity. ¨ ³é³íáïÛ³Ý ¿É ѳٳñÛ³ áãÇÝã ãÏ»ñ³í: 249 . ß³ï ³í»ÉÇ í³ï ù»½ ѳٳñ: 4.” answered the secretary. á±ñ ¹»Õ³ÙÇçáóÝ ¿ ³Ù»Ý³É³íÁ áõÅ»Õ Ùñë³ÍáõÃÛ³Ý ¹»åùáõÙ: 7. ºñ»Ë³ÝÝ»ñÁ ëáíáñ³µ³ñ ³í»ÉÇ ³½ÝÇí »Ý ù³Ý ٻͳѳë³ÏÝ»ñÁ: 2. ²Ûë ³Ý·³Ù ¹áõ ³í»ÉÇ ß³ï ë˳ÉÝ»ñ »ë ϳï³ñ»É: ºÃ» ÝáñÇó ë˳ÉÝ»ñÇ áõÕÕáõÙ ã³Ý»ë.” the man replied. ì³ïóñ³·áõÛÝ ¹»åùáõÙ ¹áõ ÙÇßï ϳñáÕ »ë í»ñ³¹³éÝ³É ïáõÝ` ÍÝáÕÝ»ñǹ Ùáï: 8. Professor Crawford. sir. the person expecting you is (certain) not here. “This is the Chemistry Department.” A few minutes later the secretary entered with a coffee and (fresh squeeze) orange juice. Ex. The frown on the secretary’s face disappeared and she smiled (sweet). Welcome! Welcome to Littletown. 1.

– ¸áõù å»ïù ¿ ³Ù»Ý³áõßÁ ÙÇÝ㨠»ñÏáõß³µÃÇ ³Ûëï»Õ ÉÇÝ»ù: .13. áñå»ë½Ç ËÙ»Éáõ çáõñ ·ïÝ»ÇÝ: 250 . áñù³Ý ²ÉÇëÇÝÁ. Üñ³Ýù ëïÇåí³Í ¿ÇÝ ËáñÁ ÷áñ»É. ´áµÇ ³ß˳ï³í³ñÓÁ ³ÛÝù³Ý µ³ñÓñ ã¿. ºÏ»ù ³°Ûë Ù»ù»Ý³Ý í³ñÓáí í»ñóÝ»Ýù: ²ÛÝ áãÝãáí ³í»ÉÇ í³ï ã¿ ù³Ý »ñ»Ïí³ Ù»ñ ï»ë³ÍÁ ¨ µ³óÇ ³Û¹.´³Ûó Ù»Ýù É³í³·áõÛÝ ¹»åùáõÙ ÙdzÛÝ »ñ»ùß³µÃÇ ûñÁ ï»Õ ÏѳëÝ»Ýù: 19. ³Û¹ å³ï׳éáí Ý»ñë Ùï³ áñù³Ý Ñݳñ³íáñ ¿ñ ³Ý³ÕÙáõÏ: 15. û¨ Ýñ³ ³ß˳ï³ÝùÁ ß³ï ³í»ÉÇ íï³Ý·³íáñ ¿: 16. îÇÏÇÝ êÙÇÃÁ ѳٳñÛ³ ÝáõÛÝ ï³ñÇùÝ áõÝÇ ÇÝã-áñ Çñ ³ÙáõëÇÝÁ. ºë ã¿Ç áõ½áõÙ áã áùÇ ³ñÃݳóÝ»É. ܳ í³ï ѳÝÓÝ»ó ùÝÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ` ³í»ÉÇ í³ï ù³Ý Ù»Ýù ëå³ëáõÙ ¿ÇÝù: 14. »ñ»ù ³Ý·³Ù ³í»ÉÇ ùÇã µ»Ý½ÇÝ ¿ ͳËëáõÙ (û·ï³·áñÍáõÙ): 20. ÂáÙÁ ã¿ñ áõ½áõÙ éÇëÏÇ ¹ÇÙ»É: ֳݳå³ñÑÝ»ñÁ ë³éó³å³ï ¿ÇÝ ¨ ݳ Ù»ù»Ý³Ý ß³ï ½·áõÛß ¿ñ í³ñáõÙ: 18. µ³Ûó ݳ ß³ï ³í»ÉÇ »ñÇï³ë³ñ¹ ¿ »ñ¨áõÙ ù³Ý Çñ ³ÙáõëÇÝÁ: 17.

what. g. 4.). like nouns. this – these. 3. (object) She was young and liked to live by herself. 10. but only point to them. each etc. which becomes clear only in the context. 9. Pronouns may be divided into the following classes: 1.) others have the category of case (e. 5. case.THE PRONOUN Unlike nouns and adjectives. that – those. gender and person. 6. (predicative) That young man promised to help us. such.). They have a generalized meaning instead. He was the same as before. pronouns do not name objects or qualities. (subject) Isabel left the others and went over to him. we – us. 2. 8. g. (adverbial modifier of manner) He hadn’t changed at all. personal pronouns possessive pronouns reflexive pronouns emphatic pronouns reciprocal pronouns demonstrative pronouns quantitative pronouns distributive pronouns relative pronouns conjunctive pronouns interrogative pronouns 251 . all. attribute. predicative. Some of them have the category of number (e. (attribute) Various individual pronouns may have different grammatical categories – the categories of person.). adverbial modifier of manner. somebody – somebody’s. g. 7. Nobody seemed to know him well. who – whom – whose. I – we etc. prepositional object. 11. they are devoid of concrete lexical meaning. still others are unchangeable (e. In other words. Pronouns. each other – each other’s etc. may perform different functions in the sentence (they may be used as subject.

The forms of the objective case function in the sentence as objects: We saw him yesterday.UNIT XIX PERSONAL PRONOUNS. They have the category of case. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS Personal pronouns The Nominative Case Singular I you he she it Plural we you they me you him her it The Objective Case Singular Plural us you them Use: The personal pronouns are used as nouns in the sentence. (indirect object) We know everything about them. The forms of the nominative case function in the sentence as subjects: I think he’ll phone today. the nominative case is considered to be very formal. as and but.” 252 . (nominal part of the complex object) When personal pronouns are used as predicative or after than. “Who is it?” “It’s me. (direct object) They sent us a telegram. the use of the objective case is preferred in spoken English. (prepositional object) I heard her play the piano.

aircraft as well as for countries and cities. scientific prose.“I need a secretary to dictate my piece to.) He is as clever as him. Traditionally English has used he in cases where the sex of a person is unknown. One should take care of his or her health.” My brother and me went to the station. but It was he who told us about it.” “I’ll be her. She is sometimes used for inanimate objects. especially ships. (the pronoun is followed by a clause) Personal pronouns have a few other special applications: 1. You (or one) may be used as impersonal pronouns (= means ‘any person. However. love. (instead of My brother and I…. The so – called ‘editorial’ we is believed to sound more modest than I. (or as he is). 4. tell him I’ll be home at 7. etc. 5. We are convinced that the Government has made a grave mistake in imposing this tax. he or she is becoming increasingly common. It is a tradition to use we instead of I in newspaper articles. If anybody asks me. 2. motor cars. especially in formal style. a person) should always try to be friendly to your neighbours. especially in rather formal and rhetoric speech. people in general’) You (people. Have you seen my car? She is wonderful. 253 . The personal pronoun us is quite often used instead of me in very informal British speech: Give us a kiss. 3.

If a student doesn’t work, he or she will fail. We often use anybody/anyone they/them/their after somebody/someone/

Someone has forgotten their umbrella. (his or her umbrella) If anybody wants to leave early, they can. (= he or she can) 6. The pronoun it is used: a) to refer to nothing, everything and all: Nothing was said at the meeting, was it? Everything is cleaned, isn’t it? I did all but it wasn’t enough. b) as a formal subject in impersonal statements about weather, time, distance, temperature and all kinds of measurements. It is cold/noisy in this room It is freezing/raining. It’s a lovely day. It is a month since I saw her. It is three miles to the nearest motel from here. “How high is Mount Everest?” “ It is about 9000 metres high.” c) as an object of the sentence. In this case the pronoun it isn’t translated into Armenian. somebody thinks/finds/considers + it + adjective I find it impossible to deal with him. (γñÍáõÙ »Ù /·ïÝáõÙ »Ù, áñ ¹Åí³ñ ¿ Ýñ³ Ñ»ï ·áñÍ áõݻݳÉ:) I think it strange that they took objection to what I said.
(γñÍáõÙ »Ù ï³ñûñÇÝ³Ï ¿, áñ Ýñ³Ýù ѳϳ׳é»óÇÝ ÇÙ ³ë³ÍÇÝ:)

d) in various idiomatic expressions where it seems to have very little lexical meaning of its own.: hang it, hop it, beat it…
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Now that you’ve said everything, beat it. (= go away)

Possessive Pronouns I form (determiners)
my your our your

II form (absolute form)
mine yours his hers its (- noun) ours yours theirs

his her their its (+ noun)

That’s my umbrella, not yours. (a possessive adjective) That dog is theirs, not ours. I’m afraid of theirs. (possessive pronoun) It isn’t her bag. Hers is black. Use: 1. In English the possessive pronouns are often used instead of articles with nouns denoting relations, parts of the body, articles of clothing and various other things belonging to a person. She took a pound out of her pocket. He put on his jacket and left without a word. She folded her arms and stared at him. 2. But we use the definite article (the) instead of a possessive pronoun with prepositional phrases and verbs such as hit, punch, slap, bite, touch, pat, sting, etc. (These idiomatic phrases are mainly connected with parts of the body).
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Defeat stared her in the face. I am sure he is not right in the head (= to be behaving strangely) He patted his wife on the shoulder. Jack gripped him by the throat. 3. We use the word own in the following structures to emphasize the fact that something belongs to someone. noun + of + my/your, etc + own my/your, etc. + own + noun I’ve got a car of my own. I’ve got my own car.
Note: The form yours is commonly used as a conventional ending to letters, e. g. Yours sincerely/truly/faithfully…

ACTIVITY Ex 1. Use the appropriate personal pronouns in the following sentences. 1.“I am writing another article about the young. … take such big decisions and … don’t worry about money and status and … aren’t afraid to live in the present,” Laura said. 2. Jonny Fontane reached down and lifted the bride up on the bandstand so that Connie stood between … and Nino. 3. “What was that noise?” asked the lady. “…was the wind,” the maid answered. 4. It is much easier to cycle with the wind behind …. 5. “I think, Tom,” Uncle Harold had said, “it was because of the wound. Your father took … very hard.... brought out the dark side in ….” 6. What a lot of questions … ask in these application forms. 7. If … see a giraffe once a year … remains a spectacle; if … see … daily … becomes part of the scenery. 8. I have a wonderful family. I love … very much and … love me. 9. Just between you and …, I think Bob is going to lose his job. 10. “Our aim
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is to keep Italy out of the war until … is strong enough to come in on our side,” said the colonel. 11. She considers … important that I sit the exam. 12. … say she has had the baby and … is a girl. 13. When the waiter came up to his table he didn’t at once realize … was Paul. … was as handsome as ever. 14. Boys came and went, especially two. I thought of … as “students” though … studied nothing but pleasure. Ex.2. Fill in the gaps with of where necessary, and my, your, etc. own. Example: I would like to have a house… of my own. I would like to have … my own house. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. She doesn’t travel by bus any more because she’s got … car. I don’t need to borrow your umbrella. I’ve got one …. My job includes doing research in …. Don’t let the dog sleep on your bed. It has got a bed …. Sam is tired of using his friends computer, so he is going to buy one …. 6. The couple moved into … house after they got married. 7. Jane doesn’t live with his parents any more. He’s got a flat ….

Ex 3. Supply either a possessive pronoun or the definite article for the following sentences. 1. I’m sorry I can't help you. The decision is now out of … hand. 2. He tried but gave up as … heart wasn’t in it. 3. The doctors were unable to save his life. He was shot through … heart. 4. You can argue until you are blue in … face but I’ll never agree. 5. Everyone knew his mother had been to prison, but his wife continued to throw it in … face. 6. After she refused to help me, I washed … hands of her. 7. She got to … feet and began to brush off … dress. 8. Sue refused to go to the theatre that evening. She had a pain in … knee. 9. The critics were very sever and the young writer was very hurt by … criticisms. 10. Fred had a sip of whisky and put … glass back on the table. 11. He took me by … hand and led out of the room. 12. “He is laughing up … sleeve right this minute,” she said. “They
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never found the body, did they?” 13. The Isle of Man is an island off the coast of Britain. It is not completely independent but it has … own parliament. 14. Learner drivers are not allowed to drive on … own. 15. Ann invited some friends of hers to … flat. 16. She tried to bite his hand and he grabbed her by … hair to lift … head up. 17. He got a nasty knock on … head when he fell. 18. Jonny sat on the floor with his face in … hands. Ex. 4. Put in the missing personal pronoun (including who). Too Much To Bear! If you are on holiday in the Western Islands of Scotland and …… see a bear, avoid ……! It might turn out to be Hercules, the famous star …… has appeared in TV ads, films and cabaret. Hercules disappeared when his owner, Andy Robbins, took …… for a swim. Police and troops have joined in the search, but ……haven’t had any success. After all, Hercules is unlikely to appear suddenly, shouting, “it’s ……! Here ……am!” The search party are carrying yoghurt and bananas to offer the bear because that’s what …… likes best. “…… isn’t dangerous, but …… is very hungry”, a searcher said. So if you see a ten-foot bear in the Western Islands, make sure …… are carrying some bananas. …… may be just what a hungry bear is waiting for and if …… don’t find the bear, you can always eat ……yourself.

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UNIT XX
REFLEXIVE, EMPHATIC AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS Reflexive Pronouns Singular myself yourself himself herself itself Plural ourselves yourselves themselves

There is one more reflexive pronoun which is formed from the indefinite pronoun one – oneself. They are called reflexive pronouns because they show that the action performed by the subject passes back again to the same person. Ann blamed herself for the accident. He bought himself a gold watch. Use: 1. Reflexive pronouns may be used in different way – together with the verb they may form set phrases characterized by idiomatic meaning: to forget oneself, to find oneself, to come to oneself, to be myself/herself etc. You may be angry but you shouldn’t forget yourself. When he came to himself, it was already dark. The soldiers found themselves in the forest. What’s the matter with you? You don’t seem yourself today. 2. A few other verbs are always followed by reflexive pronouns with which they form a close sense-unit: to pride oneself on

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However reflexives can be used if it is necessary to make clear who does the action: She is old enough to dress herself now. washed. Besides. (= to be pleased and satisfied about something) to avail oneself of something. He prides himself on his skill as a pianist. there are a few prepositional phrases with reflexive pronouns which are to be treated as set phrases because they have idiomatic meaning: beside oneself (=to lose all self-control because of anger joy etc. 3. Jenny and myself. Reflexive pronouns may also be used instead of personal pronouns in co -ordinated noun phrases: There will be four of us at dinner: Bob. We normally use wash/shave/dress without reflexive pronouns: He got up. Notice the following sentences where personal pronouns are preferred to reflexive pronouns: Close the door behind you! The exam results were bad but he has put that behind him now. Does he shave himself or not? Note 3. in itself 260 . We do not use a reflexive pronoun after concentrate/feel/relax/meet: I tried to study but I just couldn’t concentrate.) for yourself by yourself/myself etc. Note 2. shaved and dressed.something. Note 1. but He dried himself.

261 . as for myself among ourselves/themselves etc. The queen herself gave him the ring. 3. She liked the diamond itself but not the setting.to leave smb. In their letters they used to inquire after one another’s relatives. to himself/herself etc. We spoke to the president himself. The whole team was proud of one another. When it emphasizes the object it is placed immediately after it. 2. only one another is normally used. However. Both each other and one another can be used when speaking of two persons. The reflexive can be placed after the subject or after the object if there is one. It usually emphasizes the subject. They smiled at each other. Reciprocal pronouns (each other. Charles painted the house himself. one another) show that something is done mutually: We promised each other that we would stay together. 2. Reciprocal pronouns 1. Emphatic pronouns 1. Each other and one another can be used in genitive case: They have already forgotten each other’s names. when more than two persons are meant. Reflexive pronouns can also be used to emphasize a noun or pronoun.

ACTIVITY Ex. Don’t worry about …. be ashamed of be honest with defend talk to promise work for 1. you need …. I give him a key to my house so that he could let. 2. What I did was very wrong. If somebody attacks you. We’ve got a problem. Put in a reflexive or a personal pronoun.” 7. and start doing something to solve your problems. laugh at be proud of feel sorry for be beside be angry at kill seem pat find amuse live by entertain I am terribly sorry. 1. I …. Whenever she comes to visit us she always brings her son with …. It was a great party. 6. and her boss is getting impatient with her. 262 . 3. Carol has … to do better work in the future. Let them take some money with …. Help…. They can take care of …. 2. 5. 4. Humour can ease the trials and tribulations of life. but They hurt themselves.. 3. in. 1.Note: Compare the difference between – selves and reciprocal pronouns each other/one another: The two boys hit each other on the nose. “Can I take another biscuit?” “Of course. Carol made several careless mistakes at work last week. You should stop …. 5. Ex 2. Nothing good ever comes from self-pity.. I hope you can help …. We enjoyed …. George. 4. Complete the sentences by using a word or expression from the given list and an appropriate reflexive pronoun. Sometimes we have to be able to ….

263 1. Complete the sentences with reflexive or reciprocal pronouns only where necessary. He was amiability …. Fred had to walk two miles to a gas station. We … are responsible for our actions. 15. 12. Williams. 16.6. I am going out with Chris this evening. Has anything happened to you?” You did a good job. 2. All of you did a good job. Some time later he came round and … in hospital. 8. People might think you’re a little crazy. I need you and you need me. We had locked … out. 6. 10. 7. I wasn’t very well yesterday but I feel … much better today. 4. Bob’s father wanted to know if my father …. Now that children are grown. You’re always rushing around. We were all shocked by the news that he …. 7. 14. they … with anger at the news. 11. She liked the diamond … but not the setting. You should … on the back. He is still … for forgetting to fill the tank. In some sentences reflexive pronouns are used for emphasis. When Ann’s parents heard the news. so we couldn’t wash …. Why don’t you sit down and relax …. 18. 17. . and Mrs. We need …. We’re meeting … at the station at 7. 9. 8. We had never met before. 5. Grayson …. 10. Yesterday Fred’s car ran out of gas. 3. “You … today.30. They … by playing school. It is important for all of us …. A man down the street committed suicide. There was no water. We couldn’t get back into the house. Tom wasn’t … yesterday. Mr. but … is one way to practice using English. 13. so we introduced … to …. 12. You should be …. I am not my usual … today. I feel it. It is not always easy … on holiday. 9. Ex 3. In Britain friends often give … presents at Christmas. Mr. The children played very well without adult supervision. At the party Frank came up to me and said. 11.

13. 16.We promised … that we would stay together. 17. 15. You may think Stan is telling the truth but I … don’t believe him. 14. In their letters they made it a rule to inquire after … relatives. When he entered the café he saw the people wink at …. All the members congratulated … on the victory. 264 .

that/those 1. It upset the neighbours a bit. such and same. (demonstrative pronouns) 2.UNIT XXI DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Demonstrative pronouns are: this. or So she decided………. Is that Ruth? This/that and it used in discourse 3. They can be used as adjectives and as pronouns: this man. (this/that are more emphatic than it) 4. that. Those are her papers. Use: This/these. When more than one thing has been mentioned. So she decided to paint her house pink. this/that generally select the last thing mentioned: 265 . that and it can all be used in discourse to refer back to things that have been talked or written about earlier. This. When this and that are used as pronouns (without nouns) they normally refer to things: This is better than that one. this/that really upset the neighbours. this is Elizabeth. However this/that can be used as pronouns when we are identifying people: Hello. it generally refers to the main subject of discussion whereas. that shop (determiner) This is my house.

The pronoun that/those may be used instead of a noun already mentioned. He found it easier to believe that her actions were those of a spoilt girl. (the machine is used by the children). These poems aren’t so good as those written by you last year. ߳ѳ·ñ·éí³Í ³ÝÓÇÝù 8. Those (= people) rescued were still in hospital. It is called a prop – word. raise your hands. Those present and those concerned are to be treated as the phrases meaning: Ý»ñϳݻñÁ. 7.We keep the ice – cream machine in the spare room. 5. I can’t walk that far. 266 . Now what do you think about this? Will you be able to do this? 6. Those followed by a who – clause. It is mainly used by the children. It’s about that high. That is mainly used by the children. participle or an ing –form refers to persons: Those who (= people who) want to attend the seminar. A dog’s intelligence is much greater than that of a cat. We keep the ice – cream machine in the spare room. In an informal style this and that are often used with adjectives and adverbs in the same way as so. Notice that only this can refer forward to something that hasn’t yet been mentioned. (the spare room is used by the children). We didn’t know he was that stupid.

(pronoun) 267 . The demonstrative pronoun (the) same can be used as an adjective. He is the same age as me. (adverb) 2. do) that settles it for that matter (= so far as that subject being mentioned is concerned) (the) Same 1. (pronoun) I would do exactly the same if I were you. say nothing more) so that’s that and that’s that (= there is nothing more to say. (determiner) Such were his words. adverb or a pronoun in the sentence. The pronoun such can be used as an adjective and as a pronoun in the sentence. Such 1. (pronoun) Older people don’t feel the same about pop music. (determiner) Waitress – I’ll have the same again. All such plants have long leaves. please.Set phrases with this/that that’s all right like this/that (= such a…/in this/that way) but for all that (= despite that) more than that (=in addition to) to know better than that (= to be cleverer) hardly that (= not quite) and all that that is leave it at that (=to do. He would do it in the same way as I did. The same + that/as clause He had the same absurd appearance that I remembered. (determiner) He lived in the same house for 50 years.

Such is mainly used to refer to information which has already been given. opinion etc.2. Some such story was told to me years ago. (the speaker wishes to emphasize) He is such a pleasant person! That’s such a good idea! His room is such a mess. He didn’t say any such thing. To express the idea “of the kind that I’m showing you” or 268 . 4. great. I have never heard such nonsense before. (giving information) Why did you have such a bad day? (referring to information which is already known) There was great confusion (giving information) Why was there such confusion? (referring to information which is already known) Note 1: Such is not generally used demonstratively to refer to things in the present situation. are used when we are simply giving information. Very. Compare: I’ve had a very bad day. any. Jack is such an idiot. On every such occasion dozens of people get injured.) such + a/an before singular countable nouns and some phrases a) There is no such person working here. Such may mean a) the kind of person or thing already mentioned b) high degree (it may also be used to emphasize a feeling. She has such a marvelous voice! We had such a lovely time there! b) 3. or Her room is so messy. extreme etc. no. On such occasions we usually make a cake. which is already known or is obvious. Notice that such may be combined with some. every… I’ll do no such thing.

She is such a baby! It was such a cold day! Her mother is so patient with her. Set phrases with such and the same As such a) =as that kind of person.“of the kind that we can see/hear now”. 269 . we prefer like this/that or this/that kind/sort of Look over there! Would you like to have a house like that? Note 2: We use such before a noun with or without adjective. thing b) = considered without other facts Such as it is = used to suggest that something is of poor quality It’s all the same to me = it makes no difference All the same = in spite of that Much the same = not apparently different He is a doctor and as such can be trusted. So is used before an adjective or an adverb alone (without a noun).

They don’t know what to do with it. 2. He speaks English quickly. 5. I could hardly recognize her. The film was boring. I’m almost the same height … as my mother. … that she bought it as soon as she saw it at the store. I can’t understand anything. I fell asleep in the armchair. Everybody likes them. The weather was nasty. such and (the) same Example:. 3. using so. 7. …as that of mine. 4. … that we took a long hike through the forest. Example: They are such nice people that everybody likes them. 2. 11. He drove fast. … that I had to use several extra blankets on the bed. 6. He talked nonsense. They are nice people She made herself ill. … as the sky on a clear day. 1. … that I had to go to my lawyer/doctor/priest/teacher … as my living room. Complete the following sentences with appropriate main clauses. … as dinner at home. 3. 10. I hadn’t seen her for a long time. 4. 8. Use so or such (a/an). Ex. … that he didn’t get a very good grade. They have got much money. 9. We decided to go on a picnic. We preferred to stay at home.2. 7. 1. … as my left foot. 12. … as my little girl. 9. Make one sentence from two. 8. 5. 10.. Nobody wanted to listen to him. It was a fine day.ACTIVITY Ex. 1. The policeman stopped him. … as the length.. 270 . 6. She worked hard.

17. My services. A dog’s intelligence is much greater than … of a cat. You can visit me at any time you like.Ex 3.” Michael said. 6. Thank you very much. … as they are. it’s all the … to me. “Now … I’m home I’ll probably get it fixed.” she said curtly. Use one of the demonstrative pronouns in the following sentences. and not every Sunday at … 9. 10. Some … story was told to me years ago. sad.” Answered the secretary. You can do it now or later. are at your disposal.12. 2. I want a shirt that’s the … as the one in the window. embarrassing. … three days at Robin hill had been exciting. He dined there only on Sundays. 4. Martin raised his voice. Adeline was young and beautiful. “You have to understand … before anything else. “I’m not coming with you and that’s …. 20. More than …. 18. … is Elizabeth. Picturesque. Joe and Carol went on a camping holiday. She took a maternal interest in my young people: “Much the ….” I said. “How is Christopher?” said Laura. His behaviour was… that everyone disliked him. I remember now. and I think we’re going to do the …. 11. I am an honest man. 1. 14.“There is no… person working here.” 3. Hello. Useless. 8. You have been … a help! 7. “I won’t have you speak to me like …. 271 .” 13. Harmless. 16. 19.” 15. I’ll make a final explanation and … one will be really final. she was rich now. I believe you but there are … who wouldn’t. “What did she say?” “She gave the… answer as before. I couldn’t write you or anything. Is … Ruth? 5.

few. They can be used as adjectives and as pronouns. Some and any usually express an ‘indefinite quantity’ (indefinite amount or indefinite quality) and are used when it is not important to say exactly how much/how many we’re thinking of. none. Won’t you have some cake? (determiner) If I find some I’ll tell you. Do you have any friends here? We haven’t any more left. Use: Some and any 1. any. many. (or when the question or negation contained in the sentence doesn’t concern some) Compare: Did you see any men here? Did he see some tall men with black beards? (I know that they were there. (quantitative pronoun) 2. But when the question is an invitation or a request some is used: Won’t you have some cake? Will you carry some of these boxes for me please? 4. (quantitative pronoun) Please buy any fruit that looks fresh. Some can also be used when the answer ‘Yes’ is expected. much. little. Some is used in affirmative sentences and any is used in interrogative and negative sentences. 3. no. so feel sure that he saw them) 272 .UNIT XXII QUANTITATIVE PRONOUNS These are: some. (determiner) Please take any that you like. one.

What’s wrong? Have you got something in your eye? (it seems that you have got something in your eye and I expect you to answer ‘yes’. Both some and any are common in if clauses (any is used when some doubt or condition is implied): If you want some/any help. 6.) I couldn’t answer some of his questions. It happened some ten years ago. You can wear any shoes with that dress. 273 . Any is used in affirmative clauses to mean ‘practically every’ ‘no particular one’ and after words that have a negative or limiting meaning: never. 8. You never give me any chance. If any of your friends is/are interested in the project. let me know. We’ve got hardly any food. Some with a number is used to say approximately or to suggest that the number is a high or impressive one. let me know. We have exported some four thousand tons of apricot this year. Some is often used for contrast. I don’t think that there is any milk in the house. seldom. 5. barely and without (which are almost negatives) Any who have questions to ask are requested to do so in writing. He was trying without any hope of success. I have to go shopping. scarcely. 7. So'me of the work is too difficult. Then it is strongly stressed. so'me are too easy. I couldn’t answer any of his questions. Hardly anybody likes his paintings. hardly.

A noun can be dropped after any. No and none can be used with affirmative verbs to express a negative. The compounds in –one and in body can have the genitive case: Did you take anybody’s photograph at the party? 3. Both no and none are used with countable and uncountable nouns.. None can be used as subject or object (it’s a noun pronoun). any and no follow the same rules: Someone/somebody – anyone/anybody – no one/nobody Something – anything – nothing 2. Compounds formed with some. -’s is added to else: It’s not yours. 4. ‘any’ 1. if the meaning is clear: “Did you get the oil?” “No. Note the expressions any good/use…. It’s someone else’s. while the compounds in –one sometimes are: Does anyone of you correspond with her family? No. (determiner) None of us believed him. buy it. You don’t look any different in that photograph. No is an adjective pronoun and is used as a determiner.” 10. there wasn’t any left. any idea/ difference/ different If it is any good. Compounds with ‘some’.9. none 1. The compounds in –body are never followed by an –of phrase. If –one and –body are followed by else. (subject) 274 . No Forsyte can stand it for a minute.

none at all.” 275 . He is no good as a pianist No fear! (= I certainly will not!) No way! (= Nothing will persuade me!) 3. Were none of them the right size? None but the brave would dare to say that. No may mean not any or not a: He has no desire for wealth.) No other person can do it. None may mean not one or not any. “What are you doing there?” “Nothing. No one (nobody) is used in answer to a who-question. He is no hero. The verb following none can be singular or plural None of the visitors have/has returned.The doctor said that the child had none of the true signs of the disease. (or He doesn’t have any desire for wealth. “Who are you talking to?” “No one” (nobody. It is no joke! Compare the use of no in the following sentences: It’s no use worrying about her now. “Is there any petrol left?” “No.) We had no idea you were coming. (or we didn’t have any idea…) I have no time for such nonsense. (object) 2. (or not a person can do it.” Note1: The difference between none and no one (nobody) and nothing is easily brought out with the help of questions.) Nothing is used in answer to a what-question.

One may have different uses: a) It is used to stand for people or for any person.” “How much coffee is left?” “None. (see Unit XIX) One cannot always be right. Would you like this table or that one? I prefer red roses to white ones. Students who get the highest marks are not always the ones with the highest intelligence.” For any. Which one do you want? -The longer one. It isn’t my beret. no and none + the comparative see unit The Adjective) One 1. b) One may also have the meaning of a person. He is not one to be scared. 2. One doesn’t like one’s word doubted. an article must be used. Do you want to be the one to spoil all that? He is not the one to deal with./the person/the persons.But none is used in answer to a how many or how much – questions. Mine is a black one. -There are two rulers on the table. (He is not the person to deal with. There was a look in his eyes of one used to risking his life. The pronoun one in all of its uses refers to persons or things that are countable.) c) One helps to avoid the repetition of the same noun. “How many letters did you write?” “None. 276 . When one is preceded by an adjective.

She won’t use your computer. (a) little/(a) few 1. It was the loveliest day of my life but His collection of paintings is a most valuable one. (a) few can also be used as pronouns: I have some sweets but not many. extremely) Note 3: one is to be avoided in formal or scientific English. most of (etc.Note 2: one is not used after own and after a superlative adjective preceded by the definite article. Notice the idiomatic uses of one: all one to me (= all the same to me) by one and all (= by everybody) one after the other (=in succession. little/few as well as the words in the box with of: all/some/any/most/much/many little/few/none/half/one/two some of. You can use much/many. (a most is used in the meaning of very. many. one at a time. I’ll never forget that day. 277 . Much. not together) for one thing (=for one reason) the little ones (=children) the pretty ones (= pretty girls) Much/ many. not together) one by one (= singly. A few bought cakes and the rest bought sandwiches She earns very little. Much of what you say is true. She will use her own.) + the/this/that/these/those/my/his/Tom’s etc. (a) little. 2.

None of them wanted to help her. most people. most tourists. Any of you can use this computer. most of these tourists Note 4: Notice that we use most + noun without an article (countable nouns are always plural after most e. g. Some of Tom’s friends didn’t want to help him.Some of the students disagreed with the lecturer. most students) George is easy to get on with. None of this money. none of his friends Most of the tourists. Most people like him 278 .

He is somewhere/nowhere around. 13. She never tells something/anything to someone/anyone. “Please buy … fruit that looks fresh. Tom and Bob are very good friends. You know … women can’t see the telephone without taking the receiver off. “Which song shall I sing?” “… song. Nick. “Do you live somewhere/anywhere near Jim?” “No. What a stupid thing to do! … intelligent person would do such a thing. said Hagen. 279 . 12. speak now and I’ll inform Don Corleone”. he lives in another part of town. I don’t think I’ll get that job. It was unlikely that … of the members would agree to his suggestion.” said Michael. Go and ask for … more paper. Can you give me … information about places of interest in the town? 10. 8. 1. 4. 14 There was hardly … place in the house where we could talk alone. … fewer than 60 people have applied for the job. Anything/nothing ever pleases her.. It’s getting dark. “If you have … objections to this. Alice is so choosy. … of the cities I would like to visit are Rome and Venice. He wants.” said mother to me “And there are … matches left. Example: I don’t know nothing / anything about economics.” said Uncle John. I had … confidence in my ability not to love a man as cultivated as Larry. 2. 18. You can cash these traveller’s cheques at … bank. 11. I can't find Bob. 3. 2. a young man could always use … pocket money. We can't go … further. “I have … intention of placing my fate in their hands. Sue is very secretive. I don’t mind. You must buy …. They understand each other without … words.ACTIVITY Ex 1.” 9. 4. Isn’t there … way you can help him? 6. 20.. Ex. 19. You can take it away. “After all. 17. He was waiting outside with two counselors and … of the other children when Daphne and John arrived. 15. Choose the right word and underline it. “any” or “no” for the following sentences. Supply “some”.” 5. 16.” 3. I haven’t … in my desk. 1. 7. 2. more pudding.

3. I think nobody/somebody has any right to interfere in this matter.5. no. He is … good as a painter. Sometimes he would sit silent and abstracted. Does anybody/somebody mind if I open the window. Supply not. Nobody/somebody at the office could tell me something/anything about the incident. he discovered that it wasn’t there. no one. “If anything/something happens to her. 7. Nobody/anybody can learn to use it in a very short time. Don’t blame yourself. When he returned for his wallet. This medicine is very easy to use. 1. 12. let alone advice. “What’s wrong with Jeff?” “I hear he has broken an arm or anything/something. It’s something/nothing. 14. 10.” 18. 4. Jeff. 15. The landlady doesn’t want to wait. We must find money for the rent anyhow/somehow. “You have hurt your arm. It’s hot in here.” 13. It was winter and in winter he lived without doing something/anything. 5. 2. … of us is perfect. 6. none for the following sentences. We were somehow/somewhat disappointed when we heard the news. We have had … news from him but we are still hoping. Ann. we all make mistakes. Ex 3. 8. Sally was upset about anything/something and refused to talk to nobody/anybody. 6. We had … to give us accurate information. He had the power of a leader and … a few people wanted to make friends with him. 9. He had … money with him.” “Don’t worry. 17. Hardly 280 . I’ll blame you. taking no notice of someone/anyone.” said Nick to me. “What’s wrong? Have you got something/anything in your eye?” 16. 11. When we got there it was already too late to do anything/something.

Mr.” Ex. 6. 2. “Don’t speak to me about Frank. … you saw are David and Tommy.” “Yes. “I don’t like it. When we were on holiday we took a few photographs but … of them were very good.anybody likes his paintings. 10. They are six in the family. 8. Let him do it himself. Many teachers think that students who get the highest marks are not always the … with the highest intelligence. The girls school was on … side of the road. Though he is growing old. 5 Supply of where necessary. the boys on the other. Since … had an answer to his question.” 9. He is … more ill than I am! 11. 3. silence fell in the room. 12. “How many tickets did you get?” “…. 16. 8. “Can you meet me later?” “I am afraid …. 11. I wanted some more coffee but there was …. He likes to live in other people’s worlds and has … of his own. 19. 9. He was rather pale. 15. Evans’ funeral was such ….” 7. 20. She … only looks beautiful but she dresses well. 4. People can't be their best if … is tired all the time. and the expression on his face was … I had never seen before. and it’s cheaper. so there were … any shops open. 18. Let’s buy it. I liked my old bike but I find this other … uncomfortable. 7. His parents never appeared in the parish church except on special occasions. If necessary with the required article. … else could tell you that.” 21. he is … wiser than he was yesterday. 10.” 17. “This mixer is much better than … we saw yesterday. Complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the pronoun one. “What is your opinion of the plan?” “The plan seems a good …. … should always try to be friendly to … neighbours. I am sure you heard it from Mary. All the seats were sold out.” “But such … as you want is very rarely seen. It is the most natural thing to start talking to someone who knows nothing whatever about … and who is never likely to cross … way again.” 12. Ex 4. 14. 1. 5. We decided not to discuss that matter as … of us were sure of the facts. Would you like any …cake? 281 . 13. It was a public holiday. I hope she is … the worse for the accident. 1. During that time he saw … who could tell him what had gone wrong. He is … friend of mine.

“Did they find their luggage?” “No. 4. Ex. 8.” 14. 6. 6. Shall I buy six or seven eggs? . is there … at the door? 2. .” 13. How much … the milk have you used? – None … it. “Nobody respect him here. 8. 3. “How many letters are there to type?” “…. “Which bus do I have to catch?” “… bus.Six will be plenty …. 7. … of them were the right size. 1. Would you like any … this cake? How much milk is there in the jug? – None …. None of the students cheat in the exams. Reserve a table. Some … my students have complained about the canteen. There is plenty … food for everybody.2. How’s Dad today? He’s feeling a lot … better today.” “He is a … here but he is a … in his village. “Don’t drink all the water. They all go to the centre.” 10. Ex. 7.” 7. let’s keep a little for tomorrow. 6. please? 5.” advised the captain. 12. 5. … would agree with you and still … would vote for you. Agree or disagree with the following statements 1. 282 . Virginia returned to England at the moment when … were leaving it. I have some money but not …. All the pairs were either a size larger or a size smaller. 10. 9. There have been a lot … changes to our plans. Some … students have complained about the canteen. … who wants to do the exam must give me their names today. I heard a knock. 4.. I couldn’t make an omlette because there were … eggs. and try to get … near the door. Will you carry … of these packets for me. Complete the sentences with the appropriate quantitative pronoun. I have already typed them all. 9. 3.” 11. … could find their luggage. There is not much hope.

5. 283 . There are no lazy students in your group. 3. 4. Any student can use the internet to get necessary information/material for his/her lessons.2. Most of the students are deeply interested in the subjects they take at the University. Students with good knowledge will have much chance of finding a good job.

All can modify a noun or a pronoun: All (of) the demonstrators were shouting. I’ll take both scarves. All is well that ends well. the whole of a thing. it is singular and when it means everybody. (with a noun) I haven’t looked through all of it. animals and things. Compare: I’ll take all three scarves.UNIT XXIII DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS These are all. (adjective) We looked all round. 2. All is lost. She was all alone. When pronoun all means everything. but didn’t see anything. prepositions and conjunctions. other and another Use: All 1. All of them want to stay there over the weekend. (with a pronoun) All used as a determiner may be singular or plural depending on the noun modified by all. neither. 284 . All can be used to emphasize some adjectives. every (everybody/everyone/everything). each. The distributive pronoun all refers to three or more items. either. both. (conjunction 3. 4. (adverb) What is it all about? (preposition) It’s all because of you. the total number of persons. All are here. They are all cold. adverbs. it is plural.

Pronoun + all Alice sent her love to them all. She has invited all of you.). Not all birds can fly. All the students were having a test on grammar. All is used with verbs auxiliary verb + all am/is/ are/ was/were+ all We don’t all speak Spanish. (we usually use not all + noun + affirmative form) The use of all with personal pronouns 6. all + determiner (the.All the work was done in time. Not all of the students work hard. 7. all of + personal pronoun All of us can swim or We can all swim. She invited you all Mother has made us all something to eat. All hope is lost. Before a noun with a determiner (for example the/ my/ this. all and all of are both possible. American English usually has all of. or She invited you all. this) + noun All (of) my friends like hiking. 285 . my/his. 5. This doesn’t happen with predicative pronouns or in short answers: Is that all of them? “Who did you invite to your party?” “ All of them.” (not them all) The use of all with verbs 8.

All that… structure 9. They are all here. All that happened was that he left banging the door behind him. All (of) and whole can both be used with singular nouns to mean ‘complete’. every part of: all (of) the week/ the whole week.They were all doing the same work. I have just read the whole of/all of ‘Gone with the Wind’ The whole of /All of Venice was under water. not whole. expressing ideas like ‘nothing more’ or ‘the only thing’ This is all I’ve got. (=Every Indian tribe suffered…) Whole Indian tribes were killed off. The women were all singing. Note 2: With plural nouns all and whole have different meanings. Compare: All Indian tribes suffered from white settlement in America. (all is not generally used before indefinite articles) 11. All that… structure often has a rather negative meaning. I spent all the money you gave me. She has eaten a whole loaf. All (of) is also possible. The guests have all arrived. All I want is a place to sit down. Note1: Before proper nouns (names) and pronouns we always use the whole of. All and whole 10. all (of) my life/ my whole life but He can eat a whole chicken. (=Complete tribes were killed) 286 . All is like every: whole means entire. We do not normally use whole with uncountable nouns. complete.

) It was all my fault. (=considering all the facts) Each. Jane and Ann each bought a new coat. Every word he said is true. Compare: Each team has a place to practice. (= wholly) I warn you. (= for the last and only time) All in all it has been a successful conference. I sent a postcard to each of my friends. Each and every are followed by a singular verb. ‘the whole of’ All London was talking about her affairs.Notice the following idiomatic uses of all He is all in. Each one of you is to blame. (= entirely) The money is all gone. Each is an excellent example. You will each receive an invitation. that it must be stopped. every 1. Note 3: Each/every imply a number of persons/things considered individually. I have read every book she has written. (every part of London) We have been round all the village looking for the cow. 2. The only important differences between them are: each can be used for two 287 . once and for all. (= He is completely exhausted. (= completely) The child was all covered with mud. All lights were out Note 4: But we can use all with place names and some singular countable nouns to mean ‘every part of’. Each can be used as an adjective pronoun and as a pronoun whereas every is used only as an adjective pronoun. all implies a number of persons/things as a group: Every light was out.

We say each+ of/ each one +of Each of you has a chance of winning. but 4. Each one of you is to blame. etc car) They visit us every three days (= every third day) We had to stop every few miles. sixth. Everyone. She lost everything = She lost all (that) she owned. The expressions ‘all people’ and ‘all things’ are seldom heard: ‘all the people’/’all the things’ + a qualifying phrase or clause is possible: but everyone/everybody or everything is more usual. Compare: Everyone respects him = All the people who know him respect him.’ They take singular verbs. Each (man) was carrying a heavy suitcase. everybody and everything (pronouns) mean ‘all people’ or ‘all the people’ and ‘all things.or more persons/things while every is not normally used for very small numbers: Two men entered. pleasure. Everybody stood up = All the people who were there stood up. ridden a few miles) Every reason/faith. complete) 288 . 3. Every (or each) man carried a torch. fourth. I have read every book she’s written or every one of her books. Notice the idiomatic uses of very in the following sentences Every other car was damaged in the accident. (= every second. Everything is yours = All (that) I have is yours. (= We had to stop every time we had walked. opportunity… (= all possible.

The pronoun neither is the opposite to the both and neither . or Both my parents are… Are/Is either of your parents at home? Are /Is neither of your feet feeling better? 4. 3. .As for me we can go to either hotel.Is/ neither of them good?. I was invited to two weddings but I didn’t go to either of them. I don’t mind. After neither of/either of…a singular verb is usually used but they are often used with a plural verb in informal questions and (negative) statements. . Both of my parents are from Yerevan. . I tried two bookshops for the book but neither of them was open. We use both/neither/either of+the…/these/those…/my/your/his/Tom’s Both of the lungs are infected. or Both lungs are infected. 2. Are / Is either of your hands injured. 289 . We use both / neither / either for two persons or things. You can use both of/neither of with personal pronouns in objective case: both of/neither of/ either of + us/you/them Both of us have been to Paris or We have both been to Paris.There are two hotels in this town. Both / neither / either 1.Both hotels are very bad.He has every faith in you.

3. George neither smokes nor drinks. object. Some of the guests went off to bathe. (adjective) I saw both the father and the son. It has two cases: the common case and the genitive case (other’s. The other + a singular noun means the second of the two. The distributive pronoun other has two numbers: singular – other: plural – others. 2. You are not fair to the others. The other + plural noun or the others without a noun mean the rest. I didn’t manage to visit other museums. Others will offer better prices but is the quality as good? She left the others and went over to him.5. Those are yours and the others are mine. We can say both…and… neither…nor either…or Both the children and their parents were present at the parents’ meeting. (nouns) She both dances and sings (sometimes verbs are possible) Other and another 1. the other guests preferred to stay inside. either…or. others’). and attribute. 290 . neither…nor constructions. both + adjective + and + adjective both + noun +and + noun She is both pretty and clever. both…and. You take this chair and I’ll take the other one. In the sentence it is used as subject. We can leave either today or tomorrow. the remaining.

She didn’t like it so she took another one. Notice the idiomatic uses of other and another the other day/night etc. Another + a singular noun means an additional one. different. Other +a plural noun or others without a noun mean additional. any. no in the following sentences. I won’t say another word about it. more) 291 . No other person behaves like you. 5. Have another cup of tea. Will you have any others? What other advice can I give you? Notice the use of other with some.4.. remaining.(= one day/night recently) to be other than (= be different) somehow or other (= in some way that cannot be accounted for) some idiot or other (= an unknown idiot) every other somebody/something (= each alternative person/thing) one after another/the other (= one person thing then another) another ten minutes/five kilometers/ twenty drams (= ten minutes/…. (an additional) I’ll come another day. (a different) I would never steal another girl’s boyfriend. a different one. Some other facts are necessary. any other. Any other man could do this job. Learn from other people’s mistakes My parents and six others went to the meeting. You have this ticket and I’ll buy another.

He is a greedy person. 8. everybody / all left the building immediately.He left after another few/six days. All / everything she said was that she was going away.1. 15. Please return the whole /all the six copies. 9. You will have to wait another fifteen minutes. Everybody of/ all of them passed. All / everything I have eaten today is a sandwich. Example: I spent the whole / all the money you gave me. Don’t take it to heart. ACTIVITY Ex. the whole / all the team played well. She didn’t say where she was going.” 18. I have wasted two hours because the whole / all the information they gave was wrong. 12. 292 . 11. They did well in the examination. 14. 4. Why are you so lazy? Why do you expect me to do everything / all for you. “What happened to her father? ” “He lost all / everything he owned. 5. 10. All / all of children can be difficult. Everyone in the team played well. Everything / all went wrong. Money means all / everything to him. Our holiday was a disaster. 17. On the all / whole I agree with you. He shouted at all / everybody of us although most of us had done nothing. 13. 7. 6. I have lived here whole my life / all my life. 1. Choose the right word. When the fire alarm rang. Julie felt bad. I need them badly. The whole / all London was talking about her affairs. I waited for her a whole / the whole hour. She spent the whole / all week at home. but she didn’t turn up. In fact. 3. 16. 2.

I’d like to go with you. “I can't understand her. Stop arguing! You are … right in a different way. and … is instability of their country. 2. 7. It’s a long trip. Supply each other. 9. 1. but we still have … two hundred miles to go. One of the students is from Mexico. 10. Louis and I have been friends for a long time. 4. Choose between “all”. 7. but … are terrible. “That’s the sort of job … boys like doing. 12. 5. … my luggage was stolen. 3. He had been brought up by a mother who had taught him that … pleasure must be paid for.2. 8. Example: The students in the class come from many countries. Other students are from Brazil. When I was on holiday. We’ve known … since we were children. Mr. Jay are happily married couple. We had a great weekend. … the people were cheering loudly. He shouted her name twice. He always takes full advantage of … opportunity to see the child. I just 293 . other or another in the following sentences. 13. 15. … time banging his fist on the table. Use article if it is necessary. I tried to phone her two or three times. Thank you for inviting me to go on the picnic.” said aunt Maria smiling.3. I have read … book she has written. and “each” to use it in the following sentences. … driver should wear one. Others are from Algeria. That country has two basic problems. It’s a good idea to have check up with the dentist … six months. 17. but … time there was no reply. 5. It was a great occasion and … the family were present. Car seat belts save lives. Some TV programs are excellent. Another is from Japan. 14. 6. I am almost finished. … one of the students is required to take the final test. 16. 3. Another student is from Iraq. but I’ve already made … plans. One is inflation. I enjoyed … minute of it. 18. They … listened carefully to what the other said. 11. 4. and Mrs. … time I ask her out she refuses. 1. “every”.Ex. They love …. Ex. It was an exciting match.” Tommy had complained. 6. I’m getting tired of riding in the car. … trunks must be labeled before being deposited in the left-luggage office. 2. They are a nice couple and I want them … to be happy. I like Danielle Steel.

we met them in the club … night. Ex. … trucks arrived later. 9. Some people prefer classical music. 3. I would like to read more on this subject. I have two candy bars. Two countries border on the United States. I’d like…. There are three colours that I especially like. One has graduated from college and has a job. Many people like jazz while … people prefer rock and roll. Let’s go home. 17. … two aren’t. but …. 16. After the examination. He doesn’t read any … newspapers. I am still thirsty. 18. That’s one way to do. One is Canada. The doctor said you are getting better but you should see him every … week. Only two of the students failed the quiz. 13. 14. His father reads the New York Times every day. 14. 12.4. most of the students congratulated one …. … is in school at the University of Arkansas. Some of these letters are more important than …. Eight are mine. 10. One is …. … is Mexico. 10. but there is …. One man’s meat is …. I want only one of them. 7. 17. Mary’s computer broke. The committee hasn’t finished the work yet. There are ten books here. using an appropriate form of other (the other. 2. 8. 15. I think the first thing to do is to have … talk with your sister. Would you like …. There are three places in particular that I would like to visit. Do you have any …. another…) 1. They need …. Then I read the novels of George Meredith one after …. Without … word he started up the car. 13. 15. 11. I like this country. so she bought …. “Where did you see them?” “Well. 8.need … five minutes. 294 . The first fire truck arrived in one minute. Well. 5. 11. …day’s work finished. 4. 18. Complete the sentences. Prices continually rise. One is …. 12. He comes here every … day. I’ll be here for …. that’s that.” 16. All of …. He is a frequent guest. He was furious. others. 9. … is still living at home. I think after what happened they won’t do …. 6. Next year a new car will cost … three or four hundred dollars. They have three children.

5. 6.“What have you written. I saw an accident this morning. 7. Both the leopard and the tiger face extinction.” 5. Ex. It was a very boring film. One car drove into the back of another. either … or / neither … nor. 3. both … and. Paraphrase the following sentences using both. The match ended in a draw. “Are/is … of your parents at home?” asked the postman when the little boy opened the door. … side scored a goal. They are away on holiday. 10.6. Example: The leopard faces extinction. Her mother doesn’t know either.” “Which day is suitable for you.Ex. George doesn’t smoke and he doesn’t drink. Monday or Tuesday?” “… of the days is convenient. or we can take them to a restaurant. Her roommate doesn’t know where she is. a short story or an essay?” “I’m afraid it doesn’t come within … description. or Mrs. 7. Nick and Tom are … my friends. 4. 2.” “either” or “neither” in the following sentences.” 8. 9. They are … in the Navy. The tiger faces extinction. It was very long too. I haven’t got time to go on holiday. And I haven’t got the money. 6. Use “both. 3. 2.” 4. “Where did you go for your holidays – Scotland or 295 . We can fix dinner for them here. 8. but she cooks well and entertains well. Mary is 14 years old. “I want to make an appointment for my son to see his doctor. Fortunately … driver was injured but … cars were quite badly damaged.5. and handed them … to her. But … is in the town now. 1. We can leave today or we can leave tomorrow. Jim is on holiday and so is Carol. “Can I speak to Mr. Fields?” “I’m afraid … of them is here. 9. And without another word John scribbled a name on a piece of paper. 10. wrote her a check for a thousand dollars. 1. She hasn’t written or phoned me since last autumn. Fred’s father buys and sells used car. We drove along a wide road with ditches and trees on … side.

The ……… list is endless. all. A week in Scotland and a week in Ireland. everything. another. “ It wasn’t like meeting a stranger. everyone. I don’t have any desire for drink tonight.Ireland?” “We went to …. Almost ………experience they had had was the same: there were exact parallels for ………… they had ever done. who were adopted by different families at birth and who met ……… for the first time at the age of 39. Put in each. Many similar things happened to them ……… in their lives.” “I’m afraid I won’t see … of them today. brandy or whiskey?” “…. Jim Meets James I’ve just heard the ………story of the Lewis twins from Ohio. ……… of them had been divorced and married ……… woman called Betty. anything. “Tell … your mother and father that I’m expecting them tonight.” 296 . The couples who adopted them had ………… called them ‘Jim’.” 12. As Jim said when he first met James. every.” Ex. 7. ……… wanted to know if they had ……… in common. each other. They had! They had ………married a woman called Linda.” 11. “What are you going to have. whole.

that. What happened to the documents which/ that were on the table? That’s the house whose roof collapsed in the storm. Defining relative clause Defining clauses describe the preceding noun in such a way as to distinguish it from other nouns of the same class. Surgeons are people who perform medical operations. What have you done with the papers that I gave you? 1. We use who. 2. We use which. whom. whom. Notice that there is no comma between a noun and a defining relative clause.UNIT XXIV RELATIVE PRONOUNS. The word they refer to is called their antecedent. Is that the man whose house was burnt down last week? The boy who (that) won the first prize is my classmate. Defining 2. Connective relatives) Use: Relative pronouns who. which and that introduce relative (attributive) clauses. It may be a noun or a pronoun. 297 . Relative clause tells us which person or thing (or what kind of person or thing) the speaker means. whose when we are talking about things: A dictionary is a book that/which gives you the meaning of words. The girl whom (who) we saw yesterday is a ballet dancer. whose. whose and that for persons. The woman who serves in the shop is the owner’s wife. (Relative adverbs. Relative clauses are of two kinds: 1. Non – defining.

nobody no one. much. anybody. c) for groups of people and animals or things: the people and animals that live on the farm the staff and equipment that will be needed d) after a noun modified by same: Put it back in the same place that you took it from. nothing. none. Anybody else who needs tickets must tell me. someone. somebody. She had always had everything that she wanted. Note: After all.3. anybody. A mystery is something that can’t be explained. This is the most expensive hotel (that) I know. All apples that fall are eaten by the goats. (the subject) 298 . You must use who/that/which when it is the subject of the relative clause and you can leave them out if they are the object of the relative clause: The people who live next door are very friendly. little. somebody. b) after quantitative and distributive pronouns: all. nobody. All who/that heard him were delighted with him. no. something. Those are the ones that I was describing. everything. we can use either who or that: She was all that he ever wished for. There is not much that can be done. Notice that that is more usual: a) after superlatives Mozart was one of the greatest composers that ever lived. one. 4.

Five people applied for that job. It is more usual to move the preposition to the end of the clause. neither of whom is married. Non – defining relative Clauses 299 . This is Mrs. Green. about whom I was telling you. Remember to use commas before all/none/some…+ whom/which): Tom has two sisters. all/none /some any/much/many/both/either/neither/each/half/one/two of + whom/which. (the object) Preposition + whom /which 5. or or 6. This is Mrs. none of whom were suitable. We can use a quantitative or a distributive pronoun + whom (people). This is Mrs. The lecture which/that we listened to yesterday was very interesting. two of which they hardly ever use. Green. (the subject) The jacket that/which he bought doesn’t fit him at all. The lecture we listened to yesterday was very interesting. using which or whom or omitting the relative pronoun altogether. who (whom) I was telling you about. which (things). Ann’s flat consists of five rooms.The people who (whom) we met at the party were very friendly. Green I was telling you about. (the object) The jacket that/which was bought yesterday doesn’t fit him at all. that cannot be preceded by a preposition): The lecture to which we listened yesterday was very interesting. (Unlike which and whom.

1. They give us extra information about the person or thing. which Ann recommended to us. Which can refer to a whole clause: 300 . I bought this dictionary. Preposition + which The preposition can be placed before the relative pronoun which. Unlike defining clauses. It helped me a lot. whose father is a pilot. they are separated from their noun by commas. Connective relatives 1. The computer. which I paid $ 500 for. 2. who gave me this invitation. Fireman. or at the end of the clause: The computer. are usually paid less than the police. whose (people).Non – defining relative clauses are placed after nouns which are definite already. can do many things. can do many things. they are not essential in the sentence and can be omitted without causing confusion. Alice. for which she paid $ 500. wants to become a stewardess. or Similarly: I bought this dictionary. She gave me this invitation. which (things) in nondefining clauses. which helped me a lot. 2. could be combined as I saw Kate in the office and she gave me this invitation. We stayed at The Hilton hotel. Also unlike defining relatives. whose work is often dangerous. I saw Kate. This morning we met Dave. Connective relatives are who and which I saw Kate in the office. We use who (whom). whom we hadn’t seen since last summer.

The city we live in is beautiful. What is parallel to the thing /the things that: The things that we saw astonished us. The city which/that we live in is beautiful. I’ll never forget the day when/on which we first met. Notice that commas are used with connective relatives.=What we saw astonished us. which was most uncomfortable. I’ll never forget the day that we first met I’ll never forget the day we first met 301 . which was perfectly true. when and why to replace a preposition + which: when replaces in/on/which. used for time where replaces in which/at which. What cannot be used as a connective relative and neither can that. = He said that he had no money. The city where/in which we live is beautiful. We can use relative adverbs where. Everything that he said was true=What he said was true Relative adverbs 1. used for place why replaces for which.He said that he had no money. where her sister lives. 3. We had to sleep in our wet clothes. used for reasons the day on which she arrived = the day when she arrived he house in which he lived = the house where he lives the reason for which he came = the reason why he came Ann is going to spend a few weeks in Russia. This was perfectly true.

which. Make one sentence from the sentences given. 8. I have known him for a very long time. whose. Its history goes back thousands of years. where and when. 11. 302 .) Example: The student writes well. A lot of people applied for it. that. 13. Margaret has a son. There was a strike at the car factory. 7. 6. 10. 9. He’s a policeman. I read her composition. Firemen are paid less than the police. (You will need to use who. 12. but its population is now falling. Their work is often dangerous. He took me to the airport. Ann recommended it to us. She showed me a photograph of him. Her wallet was stolen. I was looking for a book this morning. Few of them had the necessary qualifications.The reason (why/ that) I am phoning you is to invite you to my party Notice that you cannot leave out relative pronouns in non – defining relative clauses. London was once the largest city in the world. The taxi driver was very friendly. We stayed at the Grand Hotel. I come from a small country. sometimes at the end. It is now over. It lasted ten days. Sometimes the clause goes in the middle of the sentence. 5. Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland. Sheila is away from home now. 1. The woman called the police. 3. My brother lives there. 4. Her job involves a lot of travelling. 2. ACTIVITY Ex. A job was advertised. The student whose composition I read writes well. I have found it now.1. using a relative clause. whom. John is one of my closest friends.

when (during which time) she’ll talk to all the staff. 17. Do you still remember the day when we first met? 12. Example: They asked me a lot of questions. Decide whether it is possible to leave out the word underlined in each sentence. She is the lady who (m) I told you about. 5. a number of. The computer can do many things. half of. The scientist that we met yesterday is well known for his research. none of. I recently went back to the town where I was born. 3. She paid $500 for it. all of. 2. many of. two of.. 7... neither of.14. several of. In the whole book there was only one chapter which interested me. little of. I first met you then. 4. (possible) (The building he lives in is very old. 3. Catt has a painting whose value is inestimable. The woman stepped on my toe. Use commas before the expressions of quantity. where her son lives. The picture was beautiful. There is only one Greek island which he hasn’t visited. Ex. Fortunately we had a map.) 1. most of. etc). Mrs. 16. 11. I’ll never forget the day. a few of. Complete the following sentences using an expression of quantity with of (some of. (impossible) b) The building where he lives in is very old. I was dancing with her. Do you like the person who sits next to you in class? 6. 15. each of. 303 . Ex. The letter that arrived this morning contained bad news I’m afraid.2. She was looking at it with admiration. Bond is going to spend a few weeks in France. We would have got lost without a map. most of. Mr. The manager will visit the factory in April. This school is only for children whose first language is not English. 10. Example: a) I thanked the woman who helped me. both of. 8. 18. 9.

none of …. some of. 2. 10. one of. 7.. Ten people applied for the job. which / that he’s enjoying very much. 1. Colin told me about his new job. Julia has two sisters.. only a few of.000.. Jane works for accompany which / that makes shoes. There were a lot of people at the party. There are some words which / that are very difficult to translate... Norman won $ 50. We are given a lot of information.. Kate has got two cars. over one hundred people were taken to hospital.... 4. After the riot. 4... 5. Jeff introduced me to his roommates. two of.... The sun which/that is one of millions of stars in the universe provide us with hear and light. The company hired ten new employees.. 9.. 6. all of.. 7. 4.They asked me a lot of questions. 7. The office which / that I’m using at the moment is very small. 2. Ex.... 8. In some of these sentences both are possible in others only which is possible... Choose the correct word. 6. most of which I couldn’t answer. one of.. The teachers discussed Jim. She told me her address which / that I wrote down on a piece of paper... My office which / that is on the second floor of the building is very small.. I have sent her two letters. That company currently has five employees.. 1. neither of …. 3. both of. 3. most of. half of. 11.. 5. many of.. 304 .

object clauses.UNIT XXV CONJUNCTIVE PRONOUNS. (subject clause) Life in my country isn’t what it used to be. how much.). That is not a conjunctive pronoun when it introduces subject. what. what. (prepositional object) We didn’t know what Gloria had told Mr. predicative clauses. except adverbial clauses and appositive clauses. It is a mere conjunction because it has no syntactic function in the sentence. whose. (predicative clause) He surprised us by what he did. introducing different kinds of clauses (subject clauses. which are introduced only by conjunctions. Who (m). (subject clause) 305 . Use: 1. (subject) 3. That they are going to get married is no longer a secret to anyone. Conjunctive pronouns can perform different functions in the clauses they introduce. We didn’t know to whom he had given the letter. which. which are not only used in relative clauses but also have conjunctive power. Barton. whose. how many. (object clause) 2. What is done cannot be undone. (prepositional object) She didn’t know who was in the boat. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS Conjunctive pronouns The conjunctive pronouns are: who(m). predicative and an object clauses. (object clause) I can’t tell you who brought that letter.

(object clause) Interrogative Pronouns Interrogative pronouns are used in inquiry. (predicative clause) We know that she is smart. Which will you have juice or mineral water? Which of your friends will you invite to your wedding? Compare the use of what and which in the following sentences: 306 . which. to form special questions. how many.My guess is that he is in love.) You can find his name in Who’s Who. how much Use: 1. The use of which is more restricted than that of what because which is selective – it selects one or more out of a definite number of persons or things. What artists are going to be exhibited this spring? What films do you like to see? 3. They are: who. what. (= couldn’t tell one person from the other. (= a reference book on contemporary outstanding people. It may be used as a) a direct object or b) a prepositional object: a) Who (m) did you meet there? (direct object) b) By whom was is written? (prepositional object) Note: Notice the following idiomatic uses of who It was so dark that I couldn’t tell who’s who. whose.) 2. When what is used as a determiner (attribute to nouns) it can denote both persons and things. The objective case of who is whom which is used as an object in the sentence.

He examined the official records to find out in … name the house and plot were registered 3.. indignation. whoever. Whichever of them will take the prize? Whoever can be calling at this time of the night? ACTIVITY Ex.. 307 . They asked a young woman … the street was called Ex. 1. Change these What + noun questions into How + adjective Questions. I was sure … he said about the girl was true. 4. What’s the age of this building? How …. 2. 7. etc). 2. 1. Tell me … daughter you’re going to take along with you and … is staying behind. Ever here has a meaning like on earth. It’s for you to decide … is to speak to the chief... questions introduced by the emphatic forms in – ever express different emotions (surprise. despair. Put in a suitable conjunctive pronouns.. What distance is Ashtarak from here? How…. anger. 2. The use of the form in –ever is (whichever. If you ask for “the German”. in the world. which may be made emphatic by adding ever. etc) distinctly colloquial. 5.What cassettes do you have at home? Which of them is your favourite one? What examination are you going to take this term? Which of them do you find most difficult? Note: The interrogative pronouns who. Depending on the situation. Example: What is the depth of this pool? How deep is this pool? 1. every one will know … you mean 6. They are a family that would quarrel about … way a doorknob turns. what.

The girls called their step-mother “Cruella. 3. What height is this wall? How …. 5. Ex. g) Very well. That’s very kind of you. d) How do you do? e) Yes. 10. How would you like to have lunch with us? a) I’d love to. How’s the garden? 6. 2. The tulips are coming out. How’s life? 5. It’s twenty kilometers to Echmiadzin from here. This road is twelve metres wide. 3. How do you like your coffee? Jack is about medium height and has red hair and freckles. Match the questions and the answers.3. Ex. 6. 5. 9. Make questions from the following sentences. It’s a building meant for offices. And you? h) Fine! How’s life with you? 308 . My friend is nearly two metres high. What’s the width of this street? How …. that’s a nice idea. The street I live in is called Aram Khachaturian. 4. 8. Sue is very serious and hardworking. but I had a cold last week.How about going to the cinema? 7. 4. How do you do? 2. Let’s. 1. How was the concert? 8.” I’m sixty kilos in weight. Example: 1. What length is this room? How …. 6. My sister takes her coffee with sugar. 7. What size is your briefcase? How …. How have been? 4. f) Coming along nicely. I like my coffee black. c) Not bad. thank you. How are you? 3. b) It was very enjoyable. 4.

4. conjunctive and interrogative pronouns. 22. 3. There is whisky. 19. … sort of factory do they intend to put up in this area?. We climbed to the top of the tower. I told him everything … was relevant. “… high is Mount Everest?” “It is over eight thousand metres high. The reason … I’m phoning you is to invite you to a party. We need to have … talk with him. 20. 16. 20. The man … opinion I respect most is my father. 10. “… does she look like?” “Oh. 8. Later that afternoon Phil went to San Fernando.” 2.. 3.. I don’t believe that … of your friends is coming today..1. 309 .. …do you call the sea between England and France?. Smith” “…of them do you want? We have two here. “… do you want to speak to?” “I want to speak to Mr.” 9. 1.” 18. I think she looks like a scarecrow.” 7. He doesn’t like to speak about it. “… tall is your brother?” “He is almost two metres. “I have never been given any of Granny’s things. 4. REVISION OF PRONOUNS Ex. That’s the worst news … we’ve ever had from you. gin and sherry: … will you have? 12.. Now … you see all the family together tell me … you think of us. 6 “… did you come here?” “I came in my car.Ex. They had brought few books with them … she hadn’t read. 13. Before leaving he gave … student a task. … he soon found the house in … their father was said to live. All … Enid said was: Uncle Thomas. … I saw was a solid-looking brick house.” “… about her watch?” 15. from … we had a beautiful view. Complete the sentences with appropriate relative.5. 2. 1. Complete the sentences with the appropriate pronouns. you look funny this morning. You are one of the few people … I would like to know better. Smith didn’t catch the sense of our offer.” 14. 17. 5. … of us know how much he suffered. Our little boy will never forget the time … we got stuck in a lift. Mr. A few days ago I met someone … brother I went to school with. … quality do you admire in a man? 11. 21.

. … is left there. 13.. Jacky and Suzie are … my friends. They are … abroad.. 19. He invited us ….” said the professor. I have four dictionaries. hand and walked him across the street.. 17. 14. 7. 2. 15. You’re one of the people. … shall we do in … case? 10. 18.. few extras. dog that growls will very often bite as well. But … is with me now. … I saw was a miracle....” “ I’ll buy … on my way home. 2. 8. just ask.. On … occasions we usually make a cake Ex. 4. 23. but we knew he wouldn’t like … of us at the party. He can hit the ball by … leg. 24. It was … who uttered the first words. Johnny’s mother took him by. 22. write 0 in the space. If no article is needed. Two are Japanese and. We asked them … company they represented and … sort of goods they offer. “There are … matches left. others are English. 21. 20. some. I think after what John did yesterday he ought to be ashamed of …. He plays football perfectly. I met him in the club the … day. We have O’Henry and Byron. “I think. 11. … who were absent will write the test today. 16. 310 . one or a possessive pronoun. If anyone needs a pen. Put in a. I have. 9. a little defiantly. Do you see … trees over there? 6. When we get there it might be too late to do …. … the money was spent. 12. Fleur was smiling.. 3. in … it has been a successful conference. … … they want to tell is about Mary. She is … busy or ill. Which of the books you’d like to have? Oh. the. . …will do. 1. … I’d like to know better.5. She saw him coming out of the station with a kit-bag in … hand.

. leg. the hunter patted the dog on. µ³Ûó ÙÇ³Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ½·áõÙ ¿ñ.. ²ÉÇ°ë: ÆÝÓ ÃíáõÙ ¿. birds cannot fly.3. “I perceive. 10. After lunch we spent. 8... 11. “that you are trying to kill two birds with … stone.. 7. Translate the following sentences into English. úñÇݳϪ ãå»ïù ¿ ÍËÇ: ÌË»ÉÁ ï³ñµ»ñ ÑÇí³Ý¹áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ å³ï×³é ¿ ¹³éÝáõÙ: èáõ¹áÉýÁ ³ñѳٳñÑáõÙ ¿ñ Çñ»Ý ³Û¹ ÃáõÉáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ.³ë³ó ѳÛñë: . å»ïù ¿ ï»Õ»Ï³óÝ»Ý áëïÇϳÝáõÃÛ³ÝÁ: ¸³ ³Û¹ù³Ý Ñ»ßï ã¿. áñ ¹áõ ã³÷Çó ³í»ÉÇ Ñ³ë³ñ³Ï³óÝáõÙ »ë ³Û¹ ËݹÇñÁ: ´áÉáñ ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ å»ïù ¿ Ù»Ï³Ï³Ý Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇã áõÕ³ñÏ»ÇÝ ³Û¹ ÏáÝý»ñ³ÝëÇÝ: ²Û¹åÇëÇÝ ¿ñ ѳٳӳÛÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ: 311 5. 13. áíù»ñ ï»ë»É »Ý ¹Åµ³Ëï å³ï³Ñ³ñÁ... others were closed... .. Almost all. 3... 2. time in.. 1.. û ݳ Ï÷áËíÇ: ²Û¹ Ù³ñ¹Á í³Õáõó ¿ Ïáñóñ»É Çñ í³ñÏÁ: سñ¹ å»ïù ¿ Ñá· ï³ÝÇ Çñ ³éáÕçáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ.5. 12. . 4. It was Sunday. shop was open... next year. cars have seat belts today. I bought more coffee because we have only. not his both legs as we thought at first. “ Could you open up. 6.. When the dog brought the duck... 8. little left.. National Museum.. 15. The climber broke. 7. . áñ Ýñ³Ýù. back.” said Jolyon. . 6. suitcase for me please?” 9. but all..ÂáÙÝ Çñ ÝÙ³Ý ã¿ñ »ñ»Ï: ƱÝã ¿ñ å³ï³Ñ»É Ýñ³Ý: ²ß˳ï³ÝùÁ Ù»Ï áõñÇßÇÝ ¿ÇÝ ïí»É. most people don’t like snakes. I don’t have enough credits to graduate now. áñ å³ñ½³å»ë ãÇ Ï³ñáÕ ãÙï³Í»É æáõÉdzÛÇ Ù³ëÇÝ: Ø»Ýù ã»Ýù ϳñáÕ û·Ý»É ù»½. ²Ýû·áõï ¿ Ñáõë³É... ²ñÃá°õñ: ¸áõ ëïÇåí³Í »ë Ù»Ý³Ï ÉáõÍ»É ³Û¹ ËݹÇñÁ: ºí ÑÇßÇñ` Ù»Ýù ÇÝùÝÝ»ñë »Ýù å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõ Ù»ñ ·áñÍáÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ. ¨ ݳ µ³ñÏáõÃÛáõÝÇó Çñ»Ý Ïáñóñ»É ¿ñ: ÎáÝëﻵÉÝ ³ë³ó. The Custom Officer said to the lady. 14.” Ex. so I have to wait until..

áñ Ù»Ýù ëïÇåí³Í ¿ÇÝù ¨ë »ñ»ù ų٠ëå³ë»É û¹³Ý³í³Ï³Û³ÝáõÙ: ²ÛÝ. 23. ù³ÝÇ áñ á°ã ÷áÕ áõÝ»ñ. ÇÝãÁ Ý߳ݳÏáõÙ ¿ñ. áñ ß³ï ¿ Ñ»ï³ùñùñíáõÙ Ù»ñ ݳ˳·Íáí: ´áµÁ ëÇñáõÙ ¿ñ Ùáñ Ù³ëÇÝ Ëáë»ÉÇë ϳï³Ï»É. û¨ Ù»½³ÝÇó ¨ áã áù áã ÙÇ ëË³É µ³Ý ã¿ñ ³ñ»É: ¸ñëáõÙ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ ïÕ³Ù³ñ¹ µ³ñÓñ³Ó³ÛÝ ùÝݳñÏáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ·³ÉÇù ÁÝïñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ: Üñ³ÝóÇó Ûáõñ³ù³ÝãÛáõñÁ å³ßïå³ÝáõÙ ¿ñ Çñ ûÏݳÍáõÇÝ: Ì»ñ å³ñáÝ êÙÇÃÁ Ù»Ý³Ï ¿ñ ³åñáõÙ© ݳ »ñ»ù áñ¹Ç áõÝ»ñ. 16. áã ÙÇ Ï³å ãáõÝÇ ÇÙ ³é³ç³ñÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó ¨ áã Ù»ÏÇ Ñ»ï: 312 . 15. 19. ¨ áõ½³Í¹ Ù³ñ¹Á ϳñáÕ ¿ ³Ý»É ³ÛÝ: ºñµ ݳ ³é³çÇÝ ³Ý·³Ù ³Ûë ù³Õ³ù »Ï³í. 18. áñ áñáß áõë³ÝáÕÝ»ñ ÙÇßï áõß³ÝáõÙ »Ý ¹³ë»ñÇó. 12. Þí»¹Ç³Ý ¿. 25. 11. ³Ù»Ý ÇÝã ³é³çí³ å»ë ÝáõÛÝÝ ¿. ³ÛÝï»Õ Ï·ïÝ»ù ÇÙ ÙáñÁ: Ø»ñ ÃéÇãùÁ Ñ»ï³Ó·í»ó. 17. áñï»Õ ɳí áõï»ÉÇù ·ïÝ»ù. -µ³ñϳó³Í ³ë³ó ¹»Ï³ÝÁ ¨ Ñ»ïá ³í»É³óñ»ó. ï³ñµ»ñ ³ß˳ñÑ ¿ñ ÜÛáõ ÚáñùÇó: ºñÏñÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÁ. »ñç³ÝÏáõÃÛáõÝ ãÇ µ»ñáõÙ: îÝûñ»ÝÝ áõß³¹Çñ Éë»ó ³Û¹ »ñÏáõ ³é³ç³ñÏÝ»ñÁ ¨ Ñ»ïá ³ë³ó. 10. 14.³ë³ó ²¹»ÉÇÝÁ` Ñá·áó ѳݻÉáí: ÆÝãáõ± »ë ¹áõ ÙÇßï ÷áÕÇ Ù³ëÇÝ Ùï³ÍáõÙ: öáÕÁ` áñå»ë ³Û¹åÇëÇÝ.. áñ ¹ñ³ÝóÇó ¨ áã Ù»ÏÁ ÁݹáõÝ»ÉÇ ã¿: ÆÝÓ ï»Õ»Ï³óñ»É »Ý. ÙÛáõëÁª Ö³åáÝdzÝ: ÆѳñÏ». áñ Çñ ³ß˳ï³ÝùÁ ß³ï ¹Åí³ñ ¿. áñ ³ÛÝ ß³ï Ñ»ßï ¿. 24. áñáÝóÇó ¨ áã Ù»ÏÁ ã¿ñ áõ½áõÙ ³åñ»É Çñ Í»ñ áõ ÷ÝÃ÷ÝÃ³Ý Ñáñ Ñ»ï: гñë³ÝÇùÁ. ³ë³ó. 20. -²ÛÝï»Õ. -»ë ³Ù»Ý ÑÇÙù áõݻ٠ѳí³ï³Éáõ ¹ñ³Ý: ºÏ»ù Ñ»é³Ý³Ýù ³Ûëï»ÕÇó: ÆÝã–áñ Ù»ÏÁ ·³ÉÇë ¿. á°ã ¿É ÙݳÉáõ ï»Õ: ¸»ýÝÇÝ »ñϳñ ½µáëÝáõÙ ¿ñ ¹³ßï»ñáõÙª Ùï³Í»Éáí ¾Ý¹ñÛáõÇ Ù³ëÇÝ ¨ ݳۻÉáí ÓÛáõݳͳÍÏ É»éÝ»ñÇÝ: ê³ ÙÇ µáÉáñáíÇÝ áõñÇß. ÇëÏ »ë ã»Ù áõ½áõÙ. ëïÇåí³Í ¿ñ ϳ۳ñ³ÝáõÙ ùÝ»É. àãÇÝã ãÇ ÷áËí»É ³Ûë ù³Õ³ùáõÙ. µ³Ûó »ë ·Çï»Ù. áñ áñ¨¿ Ù»ÏÁ Ù»½ ï»ëÝÇ ³Ûëï»Õ: ÐÇɹ³Ý ÙÇßï µáÕáùáõÙ ¿. ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³í ³ÝóÛ³É áõñµ³Ã: ä³ñáÝ ø³ñï»ñÁ. ÇÝã ¹áõù ³ëáõÙ »ù. áñ »ë Ïáõ½»Ý³ÛÇ ï»ëÝ»É: ܳ ·áé³ó µáÉáñÇë íñ³.9. 22. ³Ûë »ñÏáõ »ñÏñÝ»ñÇó µ³óÇ Ï³Ý ß³ï ³ÛÉ »ñÏñÝ»ñ. áñ »ë Ïáõ½»Ý³ÛÇ ³Ûó»É»É. 21. áñÇÝ Ññ³íÇñí³Í ¿ÇÝ ÙdzÛÝ ÁÝï³ÝÇùÇ ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñÁ. áõÙ Ñ»ï ³ÝóÛ³É »ñ»Ïá ËáëáõÙ ¿ÇÝù Ñ»é³Ëáëáí. 13.

Accordingly numerals are divided into cardinal numerals and ordinal numerals. The latter (one) is generally used when these numerals are followed by some other numerals. sixth. hundred. thousands (of). (For more details. When we say dozens (of). a million and billion have no final –s when the exact amount is meant. second. thousandth etc. see Appendix VII) 1. hundreds (of). Cardinal numerals indicate number: one. fortieth fifteenth. billions (of). three hundred copies. three hundred etc. three dozen of eggs a few million years ago. 313 . thousand and million are always preceded by the indefinite article a or the numeral one. two. a hundred but one hundred and seventeen (117) a thousand but one thousand six hundred and thirty (1630) 2.UNIT XXVI NUMERALS The numeral is a part of speech which indicates number or the order of persons and things in a series. A dozen. a thousand. a hundred. we do not mean any exact number but only a great multitude of persons or things. millions (of). The numerals dozen. Ordinal numerals indicate order: first. fourteen. thirty-third. five thousand citizens. This also happens after several and a few. twentytwo. several thousand mile 3.

nineteen seventy-seven b) 1 June 1977 (GB) the first of June nineteen seventy-seven What day is it? It is the twenty-sixth of February (GB). a five – foot tall woman. 1968. Common ways of saying calculation in English are: a) How much is (are) 8 and 2? 8+ 2 =10 8 and 2 is (are) 10. a two – week holiday Dates and Years 4. d) How much is 7 multiplied by 3? 7 x3 = 21 7 multiplied by 3 is 21. millions of years ago I have been there dozens of times.hundreds of dollars. Dates are usually spoken or read aloud as ordinal numbers. a) June 1. 1977 – (US) June first. (or leaves 8) c) How much is 5 times 5? 5 x 5= 25 5 times 5 is 25. b) How much is 12 from 20? 20 – 12 = 8 12 from 20 is 8. It’s February twenty-sixth (US) – 2/26/1978 Callas packed up and wrote a letter to her godfather dated March 7. a two – hour lesson. a four – foot deep hole. thousands of demonstrators. This verdict was announced on October 31. 1975. and years are expressed in groups of ten. Simple Mathematical Terms 5. Singular forms are used as modifiers before nouns in plural measuring expressions: a five – pound note. a three – month – old baby. 314 . a six – mile walk.

Common fractions are read in the following way: 3 5 1 3 = one third 8 = three eighths 12 = five twelfths Decimal fractions are read as: 2. 1. 27/I 2001. a) 2/IV 1478. 64 = naught point sixty . that a room is twelve feet by fifteen feet. 14/VII 1990. 09 = seven point naught nine Areas 7. 3. 31/I 2004 315 . for example.1.e) How much is 5 into 20? 20 ÷5 =4 5 into 20 is 4. 30/II 2003. 5 = two point five 0. Fractions 6. 10x10=100 (10 multiplied by 10 is (are) a hundred). or that a garden is thirty metres by forty-eight metres A room twelve feet by twelve feet can be called twelve feet square: the total area is 144 square feet. 8÷2=4 (8 divided by 2 is four). 8-2=6 (8 minus 2 is six). The dining room was forty square metres. (or goes 4) f) How much is 100 divided by 2? 100 ÷2=50 100 divided by 2 is 50. 3x3=9 (three times three is (are) nine). ACTIVITY Ex. We say. 2. Read and write down the following dates and fractions. 5+5=10 (five plus five is (equals) ten). 4. 5.four 7.

07% 0. Ü»ñϳݻñÇ 5.5 d) 7. Êáõ½³ñÏáõÝ å³ñ½»ó. áñ 2 × 2 ѳí³ë³ñ ¿ ãáñëÇ: 10. гÛïÝÇ ¿. 100.09 46. 5. áñáíÑ»ï¨ Ù»ù»Ý³Ý í³ñ»É ¿ñ 150 ÏÙ/Å ³ñ³·áõÃÛ³Ùµ: 316 . 7. àëïÇϳÝÁ ïáõ·³Ý»ó ¾Ý¹ÇÇÝ. 56% 12. 55 0.b) 1. 3. 08% 12. гñÛáõñ³íáñ Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ å³Ñ³ÝçáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ýñ³ Ññ³Å³ñ³Ï³ÝÁ: 8. àã áù ã·Çï»ñ. Do (and read aloud) these calculations. 9–3= 10 – 6 = 12 + 8 = 26 + 7 = 4×6 = 7×9 = 3 × 17 = 14× 12 = 9: 3 = 6: 2 = 20: 4 = 100: 5 = Ex. Ø»½ ¹áõñ ã»Ï³í µÝ³Ï³ñ³ÝÁ.2. 56 2 4 7 9 8 25 28 260 278 380 98 c) 5.ºë ó³ÝϳÝáõÙ »Ù ·Ý»É í³ñ³·áõÛñ 4 × 5 ã³÷ë»ñáí: 12.3. ²Û¹ ïÕ³Ý ³ÛÝù³Ý ³Ý·ñ³·»ï ¿` ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ ã·ÇïÇ.07 0.75 3. .56 4. г½³ñ ³Ý·³Ù ½·áõß³óñ»É »Ù ³Û¹ ÏÝáçÁ.ÆÝãá±í ϳñáÕ »Ù û·Ý»É Ó»½: . 1. áñ »ñÏñ³·Ý¹Ç 2/3-Á ͳÍÏí³Í ¿ çñáí: 3. ²Ûë ç³ÑÁ ѳ½³ñ ³Ý·³Ù ³í»ÉÇ ·»Õ»óÇÏ ¿ ù³Ý »ñ»Ïí³ Ù»ñ ï»ë³ÍÁ. 8. 10. ³ÛÝ ß³ï ÷áùñ ¿ñ: ֳ߳ë»ÝÛ³ÏÁ 30 ù³é³ÏáõëÇ Ù»ïñ ¿ñ: 6.гÙá½í³Í ã»Ù: г½³ñÇó Ù»ÏÁ ϳñáÕ ¿ ³Û¹åÇëÇ µ³Ý ³Ý»É: 7. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. .ºë ¹³ ϳñáÕ »Ù ³Ý»É: . 260. ²ñ³·³ÍÁ г۳ëï³ÝÇ ³Ù»Ý³µ³ñÓñ É»éÝ ¿: Üñ³ µ³ñÓñáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ùáï 4090 Ù»ïñ ¿: 4.8 6.7%-Á ¹»Ù ¿ñ ³Û¹ áñáßÙ³ÝÁ: 5. ¨ ß³ï ³í»ÉÇ ¿Å³Ý ¿: 14. áñ ÙÇÉÇáÝÝ»ñ ¿ÇÝ Í³Ëë»É ³Û¹ ݳ˳·ÍÇ íñ³: 11. 06% Ex. áñ ãáõ߳ݳ: ºë å³ñï³íáñ ã»Ù ³Ù»Ý ûñ ëå³ë»É Ýñ³Ý: 13. ¶ñùÇ Ã³ñ·Ù³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ Ù»½ í׳ñ»óÇÝ 225 ¹áɳñ: 9. áñ ݳٳÏÁ ·ñí»É ¿ñ 2000 Ã-Ç ÑáõÝí³ñÇ 17-ÇÝ` Ýñ³ Ù³Ñí³ÝÇó Ù»Ï ûñ ³é³ç: 2. 2.

She will follow him whenever he goes. b) facts that are always true: Water contains no nitrogen. b) for future time: He is leaving for Paris in two days. fixed events and clauses of time. Present perfect Present perfect I is used when the speaker merely states that an action took place in the past without mentioning any definite Present continuous Present continuous is used for a) an event occurring at this moment (now). itineraries. It is often used with reference to finished periods and moments of time. I don’t like milk. I last saw him in 1998. TENSE FORMS Simple present Simple present is used for a) habitual activities and states: Every Sunday Mrs. By the time I got to the airport the 317 . condition and concession): The ship sails at dawn. we’ll go to the seaside. Simple past Simple past is used to talk about past events. Be going to + be + a present participle is used to emphasize the duration of a future event: The earth is going to be revolving around the sun for millions of more years. I’ll forgive him if he apologizes. When he came in she was still speaking on the phone. It’s raining.APPENDIX 1. We often went to the library when we were students. Brown goes to church. Be going to + a base form is also used for a coming event: We’re going to learn a lot of new things in this course. The match begins at 6 o’clock. Past continuous Past continuous is used to express an action which was going on at a given moment (or period) in the past. So that fellow Jolyon was in Paris – what was he doing there? Past perfect Past perfect I is used to express an action accomplished before a given past moment. entertainment programs. Tomorrow is my birthday. Let’s stay at home. When summer comes. c) for future time (in timetables.

Present perfect III is found in time clauses. The United States has been independent since 1776. Past perfect III is used in time clauses to express a future action viewed from the past. Present perfect continuous Present perfect continuous I is used to express an action which began before the moment of speaking and continuous into it or up to it: I’m so happy to hear your voice. Past perfect II serves to express an action which began before a given past moment and continues into it or up to it. He was wet through. It shows that the action of the subordinate will be accomplished before the action of the principal clause starts. Present perfect II is used to express an action which began before the moment of speaking and continues into it or up to it. We had to talk to him before he had made a final decision. I’ve been thinking about you all this time. I'll give the magazine to you when I have read it. Present perfect continuous II serves to express an action which was in progress quite recently (it is connected with the present moment with its result): None of us want him to be present at the party. plane had already taken off. 318 . They have finished their work. He began to do things that he wanted to do for years. Past perfect continuous Past perfect continuous I is used to express an action which began before a given past moment and continued into it or up to it: She suddenly realized that she had been walking in the wrong direction all that time. He said he had been walking in the rain. He has been getting on our nerves lately. Past perfect continuous II is used to express an action which was in progress just before a given past moment: The door opened and George walked in.circumstances.

we will defend our country. Tom said he would have been working for five years for that firm next year. He was very excited because his book was to be published next month 319 . Alan said he was going to buy a new house. He was about to tell Ann about it but something prevented him from doing it. Future actions viewed from the past The use of the Future in the past is structurally dependent as it is mainly found in object clauses after one of the past tense-aspect forms in the principal clause: I said that I should/would visit him the following day. m.Future time Simple future Shall/will structure is used to say a) that we decide to do something at the time of speaking: I’ll visit him tomorrow. d) inevitability: The world will eventually come to an end. c) determination: If necessary. b) to express promise: I’ll always love you. She has taken ill. e) prediction: It will rain tomorrow. He said he was leaving for Berlin in a few days. b) an action which the speaker expects to take place in the future in the natural course of events: Ann won’t be coming. Future continuous is used to express: a) an event which will be happening at a future point: I’ll be doing my laundry in the evening. I asked her not to come to my place in the evening as I would be doing my laundry. Future perfect is used to express an action accomplished before a given moment in the future: The builders say they will have reconstructed the bridge by the end of this year. We didn’t know her plane flew at 9 p. The builders said that they would have reconstructed the bridge by the end of the year.

APPENDIX 2. THE PASSIVE Infinitive Simple Infinitive Continuous Infinitive Perfect Infinitive Perfect Continuous Infinitive Participle I Simple Participle Perfect Participle Gerund Simple Gerund Perfect Gerund Active to write to be writing to have written to have been writing Active writing having written Active writing having written Passive to be written/painted -------------------------to have been written --------------------------Passive being written having been written Passive being written having been written 320 .

321 You could have talked to your teacher. You can use my car tomorrow. PAST I could run fast when I was a child.Where’s John? He could be at home. MODALS AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS AUXILIARY can USES (1) ability / possibility (2) informal permission (3) informal polite request (4) impossibility (negative only) could (1) past ability (2) polite request Could I borrow your pen? Could you help me? . That couldn’t be true! I am able to help you.APPENDIX 3. You could talk to your teacher. (3) suggestion (4) less than 50% certainly (5) impossibility (negative only) be able to (1) ability . PRESENT/ FUTURE I can run fast. He could have been at home. . That couldn’t have been true! I was able to help him.I need help in math. but now I can’t. Can I borrow your pen? That can’t be true! That can’t have been true! I could run fast when I was a child.

I will be able to help you. She must be sick (present only) I have to go to class today. may (1) polite request (2) formal permission (3) less than 50% certainty might (1) less than 50% certainty (2) polite request (rare) must (1) strong necessity (2) prohibition (negative) (3) 95% certainty have to (1) necessity (2) lack of necessity (negative) (1) necessity (1) strong expectation (1) expectation May I borrow your pen? You may leave the room. You are to be here at 9:00. He may have been at the library. I have got to go to class today. He might have been at the library. I had to go to class yesterday. You were to be here at 9:00 Class was supposed to begin at 10. I had to go to class yesterday. I don’t have to go to class today.Where’s John? He may be at the library. Marry isn’t in class.Where’s John? He might be at the library. 322 Mary must have been sick yesterday. have got to be supposed to . Might I borrow your pen? I must go to class today You must not open that door. I didn’t have to go to class yesterday. . Class is supposed to begin at 10. I had to go to class yesterday. .

Will you please pass the salt? I should have studied last night. She ought to have done well on the test. (past form uncommon) ought to (1) advisability (2) 90% certainty had better (1) advisability with threat of bad result (1) 100% certainty (2) willingness (3) polite request will 323 .The phone’s ringing. or we will leave without you. She should have done well on the test. (future only. She ought to do well on the test. not present) I ought to study tonight. (future only) . (will = more common) I should study tonight. He will be here at 6:00. (future only. not present) You had better be on time.shall (1) polite questions to make a suggestion (2) future with “I” or “we” as subject Shall I open the window? should (1) advisability (2) 90% certainty I shall arrive at nine. I’ll get it. She should do well on the test. I ought to have studied last night.

When I was a child. I would rather go to the park than stay home. I would visit my grandparents every weekend. I would rather have gone to the park.would (1) polite request Would you please pass the salt? Would you mind if I left early. (2) preference (3) repeated action in the past used to (1) repeated action 324 . I used to visit my grandparents every weekend.

Singular is [ɪs] analysis axis basis crisis diagnosis hypothesis neurosis oasis parenthesis.synopsis thesis synthesis On/um [ən / əm] criterion phenomenon agendum stratum bacterium datum erratum memorandum symposium curriculum medium Foreign Plural Scientific Use es [ɪ: z] analyses axes bases crises diagnoses hypotheses neuroses oases parentheses synopses theses syntheses a [ə] criteria phenomena agenda strata bacteria data errata memoranda symposia curricula media English Plural General Use memorandums symposiums curriculums mediums (has a different meaning – a person who claims to be able to communicate with the spirits of dead people) 325 . Nouns keeping foreign plural. NOUNS.APPENDIX 4.

us [əs] alumnus alveolus bacillus cactus fungus nucleus stimulus radius syllabus terminus genius us [əs] corpus genus a [ə] amoeba antenna formula nebula alumna alga vertebra lava ex/ix [eks / ɪks] apex index appendix cervix matrix i [aɪ] alumni alveoli bacilli cacti fungi nuclei stimuli radii syllabi termini genii (fabulous spirits guarding a place) ora/era [ərə/ərə] corpora genera ae [i:] amoebae antennae formulae nebulae alumnae algae vertebrae lavae ices [ɪsi: z] apices indices appendices cervices matrices apexes indexes (list of contents of books) cervixes matrixes amoebas antennas formulas nebulas Corpuses cactuses funguses syllabuses geniuses (men of talent) 326 .

stag hart (a red deer) cock. bullock. rooster. gelding colt (a young horse filly horse up to the age of 4 or 5) cow sow doe hind hen bitch duck goose ewe mare Female Common word cattle pig. cherub seraph kibbutz Gender Male bull. ox. capon dog drake gander ram stallion. hog deer deer chicken dog duck Goose sheep horse cherubim seraphim kibbutzim cherubs seraphs 327 .o [oʊ] tempo libretto eau [əʊ] tableau bureau tempi libretti i [ɪ] tempos librettos eaux [əʊz] tableaux bureaux Bureaus Words ending in im in the plural (from Hebrew origin). steer boar buck.

a long wide street.) usually go before adjectives of shape and width (round/fat/thin/slim/wide/narrow etc. a large square table quality/opinion + size age shape colour from? past participle noun a valuable small medieval Armenian handmade candlesticks 328 .APPENDIX 5.) a tall fat girl. ADJECTIVES Word Order opinion fact noun a pretty young woman a beautiful large table a nice golden watch how big? big? how old? what colour? brown where from? what is it made of? wooden Noun old French cupboard Adjectives of size and length (big/small/long/short/tall etc.

school? How does he drive? Carefully. no.APPENDIX 6. few/a few all. Where is used to ask questions about place. everything). how many/how much QUESTION WORDS WHEN WHERE WHY HOW QUESTION ANSWER (a) When did they arrive? Two days ago. everyone. Where can I find a pen? In that drawer. which. another who/whom. every. How generally asks about manner. whose. . Why aren’t you coming I don’t’ feel with us? well. one another this/these. what. such. that/those. many. which. either/neither. PRONOUNS Personal pronouns Possessive pronouns Reflexive pronouns Emphatic pronouns Reciprocal pronouns Demonstrative pronouns Quantitative pronouns Distributive pronouns Relative pronouns Conjunctive pronouns Interrogative pronouns (nominative case) I/you he/she/it/we/they (objective case) us/you/him/her/them (I form) my/your/his/her/its/our/their (II form) mine/yours/his/hers/ ours/theirs myself/yourself/himself/herself/itself ourselves/yourselves/themselves each other. (b) Where is mom? In the kitchen. much. whose. (c) Why did you come late? Because my car broke down. little/ a little. any. 329 When is used to ask questions about time. that who/whom. each. how much/how many who (m). (d) How did you come to By bus.. one. (compounds with some/any/no) none. same some. Why is used to ask questions about reason. which. other. (everybody. both. whose. When will you come? Next week. what.

Who is used as the subject of a question. How often asks about frequency. who is usually followed by a singular We do. (j) Who (m) did you see? I saw Anahit. How is also used with Thirty. How long asks about length of time. How far is it to Echmiadzin from here? (h) Who can answer that I can. How is used with Fifteen. verb even if the speaker is asking about more than one person. In visiting? spoken English. is To whom should I used only in formal talk? (formal) questions. Three years. It refers to people. adjectives and adverbs. Every week. object of a verb.(e) How much money does it cost? How many people came? (f) How old are you? How cold is it? How soon can you get home? How fast were you driving? (g) How long have you been here? How often do you phone home? Twenty dollars. Note: Whom. Whom. In fifteen minutes. question? My friends. 60 miles an hour. Whom is used as the Who (m) are you My relatives. whom (k) Who (m) should I talk The secretary. not who. if preceded by a preposition. Five below zero. Who came to visit you? (i) Who is coming to dinner tonight? Who wants to come with me? WHOM Armen and Ani. How far asks about distance. much and many. WHO 20 kilometers. is rarely used. 330 . who is to? used instead.

WHOSE

WHAT

QUESTION (1) Whose hair-dryer did you borrow? Whose key is this? (Whose is this)? (m) What made you angry? What went wrong? (n) What do you need? What did Jane buy? (o) What did he talk about? About what did he talk? (formal) (p) What kind of soup is that?

ANSWER Alice’s. It’s mine. His rudeness. Everything. I need a good dictionary. A dish-washer. (About) his grandchildren.

Whose asks questions about possession. What is used as the subject of a question. It refers to “things” What is also used as an object.

It’s chicken noodle What kind of asks soup. about the particular variety or type of What kind of shoes did Sandals. something. he buy? (q) What did you do last I studied. What + a form of do night? is used to ask What is Mary doing? Listening to music. questions about activities. (r) What countries did Italy and Greece. What may you visit? accompany a noun. What time did she Seven o’clock. come? What colour is his Dark brown. hair? (s) What is your boyfriend He’s kind and What + be like asks like? friendly for a general description of (t) What is the weather Hot and humid qualities. like? (u) What does your He’s tall and has What + look like boyfriend look like? dark hair. asks for a physical description.. (v) What does her house It’s a two-story look like? tufa house. 331

WHICH

(w) I have two scarves. Which scarf do you want? Which one do you want? Which do you want? (x) Which book should I buy? (y) Which countries did he visit? What countries did he visit? (z) Which group are you in? What group are you in?

The blue one

Which is used instead of what when a question concerns choosing from a definite, known quantity or group.

That one France and Spain. In some cases, there is little difference in meaning between which and what This group. when they accompany a noun, as in (y) and (z).

332

APPENDIX 7. NUMERALS (numbers, dates and arithmetic) Cardinal 1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine 10 ten 11 eleven 12 twelve 13 thirteen 14 fourteen 15 fifteen 16 sixteen 17 seventeen 18 eighteen 19 nineteen 20 twenty 21 twenty-one 22 twenty-two 23 twenty-three 30 thirty 40 forty 50 fifty 60 sixty 70 seventy 80 eighty 90 ninety 100 a (one) hundred 1000 a (one) thousand 1.000.000 a (one) million 1.000.000.000 a (one) billion Ordinal 1st- first 2nd – second 3rd – third 4th – fourth 5th – fifth 6th – sixth 7th – seventh 8th – eighth 9th – ninth 10th – tenth 11th – eleventh 12th – twelfth 13th – thirteenth 14th – fourteenth 15th – fifteenth 16th – sixteenth 17th – seventeenth 18th – eighteenth 19th – nineteenth 20th – twentieth 21st – twenty-first 22nd – twenty-second 23rd – twenty-third 30th – thirtieth 40th – fortieth 50th – fiftieth 60th – sixtieth 70th – seventieth 80th – eightieth 90th – ninetieth 100th – a (one) hundredth 1000th – a (one) thousandth 1.000.000 – a (one) millionth 1.000.000.000 – a (one) billionth 333

vulgar fraction ¼ one-fourth ½ one-half ⅓ one-third ⅔ two- thirds

decimal fraction 0,125 =(naught) point one two five 0,33 = (naught) point two five 2,12 = two point twelve 5, 16 = five point sixteen

Common vulgar fraction – ѳë³ñ³Ï Ïáïáñ³Ï Decimal fraction – ï³ëÝáñ¹³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³Ï Proper fraction – ϳÝáݳíáñ Ïáïáñ³Ï Improper fraction – ³ÝϳÝáÝ Ïáïáñ³Ï Dates – GB – 23(rd) January 1993 23 Jan 1993 23/1/93 – US – January 23(rd) 1993 Jan 23, 1993 1/23/93 – International 1993-01-23 Simple Mathematical Terms + plus - minus ÷ times x multiplied by =

divided by

equals

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3. Galsworthy John, ‘To Let’, Moscow, Foreign Language Publishing House, 1954. 4. English Story (Àíãëèéñêèå ðàññêàçû XX âåêà), Ìîñêâà èçäàòåëüñòâî ‘Ìåíåäæåð’ 1993. 5. Eliot George, ‘Silas Miner’ Great Britain, Penguin Books, 1971. 6. Puzo Mario, ‘The Godfather’ New York, Fawcett World Library, 1969. 7. Ludlum Robert, ‘ The Matarese Circle’ Glasgo,; Grafton Books’ 1990. 8. Hemingway Earnest, ‘Selected Stories’ Moscow, ‘Progress Publishers’, 1971. 9. Steel Danielle, ‘Once In A Lifetime’, New York, Dell Publishing Co. Inc. 1983. 10. Sheldon Sydney, ‘A Stranger in the Mirror’ The USA. 11. Show Irwin. Rich Man, Poor Man, Great Britain, 1984. 12. Gage Nicholas, Greek Fire (The Story of Maria Callas and Aristotle Onassis), Great Britain, Pan Books, 2001.

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