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Chapter 39

Wave Nature of Particles

39.11 Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of a 4.90-g bullet that is moving

at 344 m/s. Will the bullet exhibit wavelike properties?

λ= = = = 3.9 ⋅10 −33 m

p mv (0.0049)(344)

The wavelength is too short to exhibit any observable wavelike properties.

39.12 (a) Through what potential difference must electrons be accelerated

so they will have the same wavelength as an x ray of wavelength

0.190 nm? (b) Through what potential difference must electrons be

accelerated so they will have the same energy as the x ray in part (a)?

1

(a) Energy conservation: e∆V = mv 2 λ = h mv → v = h m λ

2

2

mv 2

m h h 2

∆V = = =

2e 2e mλ 2emλ2

∆V =

(6.626 ⋅10 ) − 34 2

= 41.7V

(

2 1.60 ⋅10 −19

)(9.11⋅10 )(0.19 ⋅10 )

−31 −9 2

(b)

E photon = hf = =

(

hc 6.626 ⋅10 −34 3 ⋅108

= 1

)(

. 05 ⋅ 10

)

−15

J

−9

λ 0.19 ⋅10

e∆V = K = Ephoton

∆V = = −19

= 6560V

e 1.6 ⋅10

39.17 A CD-ROM is used instead of a crystal in an electron-diffraction experiment. The surface of

the CD-ROM has tracks of tiny pits with a uniform spacing of 1.60 µm.

(a) If the speed of the electrons is 1.30×104 m/s, at which value of θ will the m = 1 intensity

maxima appear?

(b) If the speed of the electrons is 1.30×104 m/s, at which value of θ will the m = 2 intensity

maxima appear?

(c) The scattered electrons in these maxima strike at normal incidence a piece of photographic

film that is 55.0 cm from the CD-ROM. What is the spacing on the film between these

maxima?

h h mh

d sinθ = mλ . λ = = , so θ = arcsin . constructive interference

p Mv dMv

(a) m = 1

θ = sin −1 (

(1) 6.626 ⋅10 −34 )

= 2.00o

( −6

)( )(

−31

1.6 ⋅10 9.11⋅10 1.3 ⋅10

4

)

(b) m = 2

θ = sin −1 (

(2) 6.626 ⋅10 −34 )

= 4.01o

( −6

)( )(

− 31

1.6 ⋅10 9.11 ⋅10 1.3 ⋅10

4

)

(c) ( )

y1 = L tan θ1 = (55) tan 2.00o = 1.92cm

y 2 = L tan θ 2 = (55) tan (4.01 ) = 3.86cm

o

39.20 A 10.0-g marble is gently placed on a horizontal tabletop that is 1.75 m wide.

(a) What is the maximum uncertainty in the horizontal position of the marble?

(b) According to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, what is the minimum uncertainty in the

horizontal velocity of the marble?

(c) In light of your answer to part B, what is the longest time the marble could remain on the

table? (Hint: Can you know that the horizontal velocity of the marble is exactly zero?)

(d) Compare this time to the age of the universe, which is approximately 14 billion years.

∆v ≥

h

=

(

6.626 ⋅10 −34 )

= 6.03 ⋅10 −33 m / s

(b) ∆x ∆p ≥ ћ

m∆x 2π(0.01)(1.75)

(c) t = d/v = 1.75/(6.03 x 10-33) = 2.9 x 1032 sec = 9.2 x 1024 yrs

(d) 9.2 x 1024 yrs / 14 x 109 yrs = 6.6 x 1014 times longer than the life of our universe

39.31 Consider a particle moving in one dimension, which we shall call the x-axis.

(a) What does it mean for the wave function of this particle to be normalized?

(b) Is the wave function Ψ = eax, where a is a positive real number, normalized?

(c) Could this be a valid wave function?

(d) If the particle described by the wave function Ψ = Ae-bx, where A and b are positive

real numbers, is confined to the range x ≥ 0, determine A so that the wave function

is normalized.

(e) Determine the units of A if x is in meters.

∞

(a)

∫ −∞

|ψ ( x) |2 dx = 1 It means the total probability to find the particle

somewhere along the x-axis is 1.

2 ax ∞

∞

ax 2

∞ e

(b) ∫ ( e ) dx = ∫

−∞ −∞

e2 ax dx =

2a

=∞ Since the integral diverge,

it cannot be normalized.

−∞

∞ 2 −2 bx ∞

A2

1 = ∫ |ψ | dx

(d) 2 ∞

− bx 2

∞ Ae

∫ ( Ae ) dx = ∫

2 −2 bx

= Ae dx = = =1

−∞ 0 0 −2b 0

2b

(e) A = 2b

2

39.32 A particle is described by a wave function Ψ = Ae-αx , where A and α are

real, positive constants.

(a) If the value of α is increased, the particle's uncertainty in position must

increase or decrease?

(b) If the value of α is increased, the particle's uncertainty in momentum must

increase or decrease?

(a) Larger α means Ψ decays faster away from x = 0, i.e. more localized, In

other words, the uncertainty in position decreases.

∫xe

2 −2α x 2

dx

1 ∂ −2α x2 1 ∂ 1 1

∞ ∞

∫ ∫−∞

−u 2

〈x 〉 =

2 −∞

= − ln e dx = − ln e du = ,

∞

2 ∂α −∞ 2 ∂α 2α 4α

∫

2

−2α x

e dx

−∞

But <x2> ≠ 0 (gaussian distribution – bell curve).

39.40 Electrons go through a single slit 150 nm wide and strike a screen 24 cm away.

You find that at angles of 20o from the center of the diffraction pattern, no electrons

hit the screen but electrons hit at all points closer to the center.

(a) How fast were these electrons moving when they went through the slit?

(b) What will be the next positive larger angle at which no electrons hit the screen?

λ = h mv → v = h mλ

.

6.626 × 10−34 J ⋅ s 4

v= −31 −8

= 1.42 × 10 ms

(9.11× 10 kg)(5.13 × 10 m)

λ 5.13 × 10−8 m

sin θ2 = ±2 = ±2 −9 = ±0.684

a 150 × 10 m

θ2 = ±43.2°

39.43 An electron beam and a photon beam pass through identical slits. On a distant

screen, the first dark fringe occurs at the same angle for both of the beams. The

electron speeds are much slower than that of light.

(a) Express the energy of a photon in terms of the kinetic energy K of one of the

electrons and appropriate constants (take the mass of the electron to be m ).

(b) Which is greater, the energy of a photon or the kinetic energy of an electron?

hc

(a) Same diffraction pattern → same λ E photon = hf =

λ

2 2

p2 1 h 1 E photon

K electron = = =

2m e 2m e λ 2m e c

E photon = c 2m e K electron

(b) E 2 photon

= 2m e c 2 v << c ⇒ γ ≈ 1

K electron

2

E photon 2m e c 2 K electron << m e c 2

=

2

K electron K electron E photon

>> 1

K electron = (γ − 1)m e c 2 K electron

39.51 The radii of atomic nuclei are of the order of 5.5×10−15 m.

(a) Estimate the minimum uncertainty in the momentum of an electron if it is confined

within a nucleus.

(b) Take this uncertainty in momentum to be an estimate of the magnitude of the

momentum. Use the relativistic relationship between energy and momentum,

equation E2 = (pc)2 + (mc2)2, to obtain an estimate of the kinetic energy of an

electron confined within a nucleus.

(c) Calculate the magnitude of the Coulomb potential energy of a proton and an electron

separated by 5.5×10−15 m.

(d) Compare the energies calculated in parts (b) and (c).

(e) On the basis of the result of part (d), could there be electrons within the nucleus?

∆p ≥ = = 1.9 ⋅10 − 20 kg ⋅ m / s (e) No. Electron cannot be

∆x 2π 5.5 ⋅10 (

−15

) trapped within the nucleus.

(b) (

pc = 1.9 ⋅10 −20 )(3 ⋅10 ) = 5.75 ⋅10

8 −12

J = 36MeV KE + PE = 0 means the

electron is free from any

E 2 = (36MeV ) + (0.511MeV )

2 2

orbit. KE + PE > 0 means

E = 36MeV = KE + m o c 2 the electron has enough

KE = E − m o c 2 = 36 − 0.511 ≈ 35MeV energy to break from the

“bond”.

)( )

−19 2

e2 9 1.6 ⋅10

(c) U = −k = 9 ⋅10

r

( 5.5 ⋅10 −15

= −4.2 ⋅10 −14 J = −0.26MeV

39.55 If your wavelength were 1.0 m, you would undergo considerable diffraction in

moving through a doorway.

(a) What must your speed be for you to have this wavelength? (Assume that your mass

is 60.0 kg)

(b) At the speed calculated in part (a), how many years would it take you to move a

distance of 0.80 m?

(c) Will you notice diffraction effects as you walk through doorways?

h h 6.626 × 10−34 J ⋅ s

(a) λ = , so v = = = 1.1× 10−35 m/s

mv mλ (60.0 kg)(1.0 m)

distance 0.80 m 34 7 27

(b) t= = −35

= 7.3 × 10 s(1 y/3.156 × 10 s) = 2.3 × 10 y

velocity 1.1 × 10 m/s

(c) No, the λ is too small for any wavelike behavior to be observable .

39.56 A certain atom has an energy level 2.58 eV above the ground level. Once excited

to this level, the atom remains in this level for 1.64 x 10-7 s (on average) before

emitting a photon and returning to the ground level.

(a) What is the energy of the photon (in electron volts)?

(b) What is its wavelength (in nanometers)?

(c) What is the smallest possible uncertainty in energy of the photon? Give your answer

in electron volts.

(d) Show that |∆E/E| = |∆λ/λ| if |∆λ/λ| << 1.

(e) Use |∆E/E| = |∆λ/λ| if |∆λ/λ| << 1 to calculate the magnitude of the smallest possible

uncertainty in the wavelength of the photon. Give your answer in nanometers.

(a) E of photon = 2.58 eV

(c) ∆E∆t ≥ћ, ∆E ≥ ћc /c∆t = (0.2 eV-µm)/(3 x 108 m/s)(1.64 x 10-7 s) = 4.1 neV

(d) E = hc/λ, ∆E/E = − ∆λ/λ. This comes from taking derivative on both sides. Lim ∆λ→0

(e) |∆λ|≈ λ(∆E/E) = (480 nm) (4.1 neV)/(2.58 eV) = 7.6 x 10-7 nm.

i.e. The visible spectrum has a finite linewidth !!

ћ = 1.054 x 10-34 J-s, ћc = 0.198 eV-µm

39.60 Consider a particle with mass m moving in a potential U = ½ kx2, as in a mass-

spring system. The total energy of the particle is E = p2/2m + ½ kx2. Assume that p

and x are approximately related by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, px ≈ h.

(a) Calculate the minimum possible value of the energy . This lowest possible energy,

which is not zero, is called the zero-point energy.

(b) Calculate the value of x that gives this minimum E.

(c) For the x calculated in part (b), what is the ratio of the kinetic to the potential energy

of the particle?

p2 1 2

E= + kx (c) KE = PE at that position as

2m 2

2

evidenced in the Eo equation.

1 h 1 2

E= + kx

2m x 2

2

Note: the problem uses h instead of ћ

dE h but it really is more consistence

=− 3

+ kx = 0

dx mx with the notation used here. This

also works well with Planck’s

4 h2 idea that radiation was in a form

x =

mk of oscillation in quantum each

h with energy = hf.

(b) x2 =

mk

h 2 mk 1 h k

(a) Eo = + k = h = hω = hf

2m h 2 mk m

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