M500 VSAT/SCPC Satellite Modem

PSM-500/PSM-500L/500LT
Installation and Operation Manual







Revision 0.90

PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Table of Contents
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 i
Table of Contents

Safety Notice .............................................................................................................. vii
EMC Notice ................................................................................................................. vii
Revision History ................................................................................................................................ viii
Pen and Ink Changes Made to this Manual ............................................................................... viii
Chapter 1 - PSM-500 Modem Description .........................................................................................1-1
1.0 Introduction ..............................................................................................................................1-1
1.0.1 How to Use This Manual ................................................................................................1-1
1.0.2 Quick Start for Experienced Modem Users ...................................................................1-2
1.0.3 What‟s New – This Modem and This Manual ................................................................1-2
1.1 Modem Capabilities .................................................................................................................1-2
1.1.1 Modem IF Variations ......................................................................................................1-2
1.1.2 Modem Feature Set Variations ......................................................................................1-3
1.1.3 Applications ....................................................................................................................1-4
1.1.3.1 SCPC Point-to-Point Links ...................................................................................1-4
1.1.3.2 SCPC Point to Multi–Point Links in a Broadcast Application................................1-4
1.1.3.3 DAMA (Demand Assigned Multiple Access) ........................................................1-5
1.1.3.4 TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Remote Site Application .........................1-5
1.2 Modem Functional Assemblies ...............................................................................................1-6
Figure 1-2 Modem Block Diagram .........................................................................1-7
1.2.1 Modulator .......................................................................................................................1-8
1.2.2 Demodulator ..................................................................................................................1-9
1.2.3 Modem Bit Rate Timing ...............................................................................................1-10
Figure 1-3 Clock Source Options ........................................................................1-11
1.2.4 Control Processor ........................................................................................................1-12
1.2.5 Acquisition Processor ..................................................................................................1-12
1.2.6 Standard Data Interface ...............................................................................................1-12
1.2.6.1 Data Interface Loop-Back Function ....................................................................1-13
1.2.6.2 Data Interface BERT Function ...........................................................................1-13
1.2.6.3 Data Interface 1:1 Redundancy Function ...........................................................1-13
1.2.7 Standard Framing and IBS Multiplexer ........................................................................1-14
1.2.7.1 Modem Control Channel (MCC) ......................................................................1-14
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Table of Contents
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 ii
1.2.7.1.1 AUPC Control Channel (AUPC) ............................................................1-15
1.2.7.1.2 Remote Modem Control Channel (RMC) ..............................................1-15
1.2.7.1.3 Auxiliary Bit Control Channels (RFC) .....................................................1-15
1.2.8 Standard and Optional Modem FEC Cards .................................................................1-15
1.2.8.0 Special Codec CT Modes ...................................................................................1-18
1.2.8.1 Viterbi, Trellis Code Modulation Codec ..............................................................1-18
1.2.8.2 Reed-Solomon Codec Capability .......................................................................1-18
1.2.8.3 Turbo Product Codes FEC Capability ................................................................1-20
1.2.8.4 LDPC FEC Capability .........................................................................................1-20
1.2.9 Optional Interface Capability ........................................................................................1-21
1.2.10 Modem Circuit Implementation ..................................................................................1-21
Chapter 2 - Installation ........................................................................................................................2-1
2.0 Installation Requirements ........................................................................................................2-1
2.1 Unpacking ...............................................................................................................................2-1
2.1.1 Removal and Assembly .................................................................................................2-1
2.2 Mounting Considerations .........................................................................................................2-1
2.3 Modem Connections ...............................................................................................................2-2
Figure 2-1 Modem Rear Panel .................................................................................2-5
2.3.1 Data Interface Pin Connections .....................................................................................2-6
Table 2–1 Data Interface Connector J3 Pin Assignment by Signal...................................2-6
2.3.1.1 Connecting the Data Interface to Other Equipment ....................................................2-7
2.3.2 Remote Control Connection ..........................................................................................2-7
Table 2–2. Remote Control Connector J6 Pin Assignment ................................................2-8
2.3.3 Alarm Connection ..........................................................................................................2-8
Table 2–3. Alarm Connector J5 Pin Assignment ..................................................2-8
2.3.4 Auxiliary (AUX) Connection ...........................................................................................2-9
2.3.5 L-Band BUC Power Connection ....................................................................................2-9
Table 2–4. BUC Power Connector J11 Pin Assignment .......................................2-9
2.3.6 Redundancy Connection ................................................................................................2-9
Figure 2-2 - Modem Connections for 1:1 Redundancy ..............................................2-10
2.3.6.1 Set-Up Procedure for 1:1 Redundancy .....................................................................2-11
2.4 Modem Checkout ..................................................................................................................2-12
2.4.1 Initial Power-Up ............................................................................................................2-12
2.5 Modem Control from the Front Panel ....................................................................................2-12
2.5.1 Parameter Setup ..........................................................................................................2-13
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Table of Contents
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 iii
2.6 Modem Terminal Mode Control .............................................................................................2-13
2.7 Self-Test Mode ......................................................................................................................2-13
2.8 IF Loop-back Test Mode .......................................................................................................2-14
2.8.1 Built-in BERT ...............................................................................................................2-14
2.9 Modem Configuration ............................................................................................................2-15
2.9.0 Configuring the Modem for Operation .........................................................................2-15
2.9.1 Setting Essential Parameters ......................................................................................2-15
Modulator and Demodulator ......................................................................................2-15
Modulator ...................................................................................................................2-15
Demodulator ..............................................................................................................2-15
2.9.1.1 IBS Multiplexer and Reed-Solomon Selection.....................................................2-16
2.9.1.2 Using The Proper Scrambler ..............................................................................2-16
IESS-308 Scrambler Mode Operation .......................................................................2-16
IESS-309 Scrambler Mode Operation .......................................................................2-16
Fixed Scrambler Mode Operation ..............................................................................2-16
Alternate Scrambler Mode Operation ........................................................................2-16
2.9.1.3 Using The L-Band PSM-500L Transmit RF Frequency Feature ........................2-16
2.9.1.4 Using The L-Band & L Receive RF Frequency Feature ....................................2-17
2.9.2 Carrier Acquisition Parameters ....................................................................................2-17
2.9.2.1 Initial Acquisition .................................................................................................2-18
2.9.2.2 Carrier Re-acquisition .........................................................................................2-18
2.9.3 Sample Configuration Setting ......................................................................................2-18
2.9.4 Setting Additional Parameters .....................................................................................2-19
2.9.4.1 Data Interface Compatibility .........................................................................2-20
2.9.4.2 Automatic Correction ...................................................................................2-20
2.9.4.3 Alarm configuration ......................................................................................2-20
Figure 2-3 - Alarm Processing ...................................................................................2-20
2.9.5 Using the Internal or an External Reference ................................................................2-21
2.9.5.1 Reference Calibration ...............................................................................................2-22
2.9.6 Setting the Modem Station ID Name ...........................................................................2-22
2.9.7 Setting the Modem Address for Command Mode Operation .......................................2-23
2.10 Interface Type Configuration ...............................................................................................2-23
2.10.1 Adding or Changing the Optional Interface Type .......................................................2-24
2.11 Option FEC Card Installation ...............................................................................................2-25
2.11.1 Turbo Product Codes Option Installation ...................................................................2-25
Figure 2-5 FEC Option Card Installation .................................................................2-27
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Table of Contents
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 iv
Chapter 3 - Operation ..........................................................................................................................3-1
3.1 Operating Procedures .............................................................................................................3-1
3.1.1 Front Panel Control ........................................................................................................3-1
3.1.2 Front Panel Layout and Features ..................................................................................3-1
3.1.2.1 Front Panel LCD Display ......................................................................................3-1
3.1.2.2 Front Panel Keypad ..............................................................................................3-2
3.1.2.3 Front Panel LED Indicators ..................................................................................3-4
Modem LED Indicators ................................................................................................3-4
Modulator LED Indicators ............................................................................................3-4
Demodulator LED Indicators ........................................................................................3-4
3.1.3 Guide to Front Panel Monitor and Control .....................................................................3-5
3.1.3.1 Navigating Modem Parameters ............................................................................3-5
3.1.3.2 Monitoring Modem Parameters ............................................................................3-6
3.1.3.3 Changing Modem Parameters .............................................................................3-6
3.1.3.4 Automatic Modem Parameter Sequences ............................................................3-7
3.1.3.5 Finding Modem Parameter Limits ........................................................................3-7
3.2 Front Panel Monitor and Control Parameters..........................................................................3-7
Table 3-1 PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Unit Sheet .......................................3-9
Table 3-4 PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Interface Sheet ..............................3-11
Table 3-5. Modem (Unit) Parameter Detail .....................................................................3-12
Table 3-6. Modulator Parameter Detail ...........................................................................3-16
Table 3-7. Demodulator Parameter Detail .......................................................................3-20
Table 3-8. Interface Parameter Detail .............................................................................3-24
3.3 Terminal Mode Control ..........................................................................................................3-26
3.3.1 Modem Setup for Terminal Mode ................................................................................3-26
Figure 3-2a. Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Status Screen ..........................3-27
Figure 3-2b. Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Status Screen Selection ........3-27
Figure 3-3. Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Test Screen ...............................3-28
3.3.2 Programming Modem Operational Values From the Terminal Screens ......................3-28
3.4 Remote Command Interface Control ....................................................................................3-28
3.4.1 System Unit Programming/Communications ...............................................................3-29
3.5 Modem Checkout ..................................................................................................................3-29
3.5.1 Power-Up .....................................................................................................................3-29
3.6 L-Band Feature Operation .....................................................................................................3-30
3.6.1 L-Band BUC Control ....................................................................................................3-30
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Table of Contents
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 v
3.6.2 L-Band LNB Control .....................................................................................................3-31
3.7 Data Interface Clock Options ................................................................................................3-31
3.7.1 VSAT Mode..................................................................................................................3-31
3.7.2 SCPC Mode .................................................................................................................3-31
3.7.3 Transmit Interface Clock Auto Mode ...........................................................................3-32
3.8 Automatic Uplink Power Control (AUPC) Operation .............................................................3-32
3.9 Demodulator Receive Data FIFO Operation .........................................................................3-33
3.10 Built-in 1:1 Redundancy Mode Operation ............................................................................3-34
3.10.1 Setting Up 1:1 Redundancy Mode .............................................................................3-34
3.10.2 Operating 1:1 Redundancy Mode ..............................................................................3-35
3.10.2.1 Forcing a Transfer Switch in 1:1 Redundancy Mode .......................................3-36
3.10.3 Removal and Replacement of Units in Redundancy Mode .......................................3-36
3.11 Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) Set Operation ..........................................................................3-36
3.12 Analog Monitor Output Operation ........................................................................................3-37
3.13 Storing and Recalling Configuration ....................................................................................3-37
3.14 Automatic Configuration Recovery - ACR ...........................................................................3-37
3.15 Special Control Mechanisms ...............................................................................................3-38
3.15.1 Power-Up Behavior ....................................................................................................3-38
3.15.2 Monitors and Outputs ................................................................................................3-39
3.16 Burst Mode Operation .........................................................................................................3-39
Chapter 4 - Maintenance .....................................................................................................................4-1
4.0 Periodic Maintenance ..............................................................................................................4-1
4.0.1 Internal Reference Calibration .......................................................................................4-1
4.1 Common Test Procedures ......................................................................................................4-1
4.1.1 Loop-Back Testing .........................................................................................................4-1
4.1.2 Using the Built-in BERT .................................................................................................4-3
4.2 Troubleshooting .......................................................................................................................4-4
4.2.1 Onboard Diagnostic Indicators ......................................................................................4-6
4.2.2 Onboard Processor Power-On Sequence and Diagnostics...........................................4-6
4.2.3 Built-in Lamp Test ..........................................................................................................4-7
4.3 Updating Modem Software ......................................................................................................4-7
4.3.1 Update Software Installation – .......................................................................................4-9
4.3.2 Performing the Software/Firmware Update – ..............................................................4-10
4.4 Upgrading the Modem Feature Set .......................................................................................4-13
4.5 Frequently Asked Questions - FAQ .......................................................................................4-14
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Table of Contents
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 vi
A. Link Set Up and Installation. ...............................................................................................4-14
A.1 Compatibility with other Modems. ...................................................................................4-14
A.2 Operating and Performance Questions. .........................................................................4-15
A.3 Why does It do that? ......................................................................................................4-17
B. Front Panel Control ............................................................................................................4-17
C. Remote Control ..................................................................................................................4-18
D. Data Interface .....................................................................................................................4-19
E. Manual ...............................................................................................................................4-20

Appendices
Appendix A – PSM-500 Technical Specifications ............................................................... A–1
Appendix B – Remote Control Command Protocol ............................................................. B–1
Appendix C – Cabling Specifications ................................................................................... C–1
Appendix MUX – Framing/Multiplexer Addendum ......................................................... MUX–1
Appendix TPC – Turbo Product Codes FEC Addendum ............................................... TPC–1
Appendix HSSI – High Speed Serial Interface Addendum ............................................ HSSI–1
Appendix SNIP – SnIP Ethernet Interface Addendum .................................................. SNIP–1
Appendix LDPC – LDPC FEC Addendum ................................................................... LDPC–1

Note: All appendices may not be present in manual. Some Appendixes may be shipped with
the option.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Notices
PSM-500/500L/500L - Rev. 0.90 vii
Safety Notice
This equipment has been designed in accordance with UL and CSA standards for Safety of
Information Technology Equipment.
The PSM-500 Modem contains potentially lethal voltages inside the case. Extreme caution should be
exercised when the cover is removed by following the precautions listed below
Never operate the equipment with the cover removed. Never remove the cover with power applied.
As a safety measure the power cord should be disconnected from the unit when preparing to remove
the cover.
This modem is designed for indoor use. Do not operate this equipment in a wet environment or
outdoors.
Do not operate the modem in an unsafe environment near explosive or flammable gases or liquids
Insure good grounding practices. The grounding lug on the rear of the modem should be connected
to a good earth ground with low impedance cable in rack installations.
The modem is supplied with an IEC filtered power inlet module designed to accept a 3-wire mains
connection consisting of an earth ground, neutral and line conductors. The mating power cord should
have a line cord and plug suitable for the country of operation.

EMC Notice

This equipment has been designed in accordance with FCC and CE standards.
FCC: Part 15, Subpart B, Class A
CE Emissions: EN 55022 Class A, EN 61000-3-2 Class A, EN 61000-3-3
CE Immunity: EN 55024
ICES-003, Class A
To maintain compliance with these standards the following the precautions must be observed.
The equipment must be operated with the cover and all cover screws in place.
Do not remove the rear panel option plate without replacing it with one designed for a specific option
assembly.
All rear connections are designed to have integral shielding on the cable and connector assembly.
“D” type signal connectors must have grounding fingers on the connector shell.
Notices PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem

PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 viii
About This Manual
This manual is composed of several separable documents. They include the main body of the
manual and several “Appendices”. The main body itself is separated into several “Chapters” and
“Sections”. A “Section is considered a sub-section of a Chapter, such as Section 4.1.2 is a numbered
section within Chapter 4. Page numbers include the Chapter, as in page 3-14.
This manual is available in a printed form and as an electronic “Portable Document Format” or .PDF
file. The electronic format is produced as a universal Adobe Acrobat readable file, and can be
requested directly from Datum Systems, Inc., or via download from the web at
www.datumsystems.com. The electronic format on the web is always the latest revision.
Revision History
Revision 0.8 3/17/2006 Initial Public Release. ** Preliminary ** Requires minimum Modem
Software Revision 0.12.
Revision 0.83 12/4/2006 Still. ** Preliminary ** Includes additional FEC modes. Requires minimum
Modem Software Revision 0.21.
Revision 0.85 12/14/2006 Includes additional FEC modes and corrections. Requires minimum
Modem Software Revision 0.26.
Revision 0.86 8/12/2007 Includes additional FEC modes, corrections and new menu features for
Unit Configuration, RTS Monitor and Transmit Mute. Requires minimum
Modem Software Revision 0.52.
Revision 0.87 1/10/2008 Includes added Advanced TPC modes and corrections. Requires minimum
Modem Software Revision 0.63.
Revision 0.88 4/10/2008 Includes added 8QAM modulation, HSSI references, revised M500 Update
procedures and corrections. Requires minimum Modem Software Revision
0.72.
Revision 0.90 10/20/2010 Removes references to PSM-500H modem which is not available in the
PSM-500 Series.


Pen and Ink Changes Made to this Manual
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PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-1
Chapter 1 - PSM-500 Modem Description
1.0 Introduction
The Datum Systems‟ PSM-500 Series are multi modulation mode VSAT/SCPC Satellite Modems.
They are capable of BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, 8PSK, 8QAM and 16QAM modulation modes on
transmit and receive independently Their main use is as part of the transmitting and receiving ground
equipment in a satellite communications system. The PSM-500 series uses the latest Digital Signal
Processing (DSP) technology and proprietary techniques to provide unsurpassed performance at a
low cost.
The PSM-500 series is available in 4 IF versions with 3 upgradeable “feature sets” in each. The
matrix below shows the current IF versions available or planned, and the matrix in Section 1.1.2 on
the next page shows the feature sets available. Note that the terms PSM-500S and N are not
normally used except to differentiate between different IF versions.
PSM-500 Series IF Interface Versions.
Interface
Versions PSM-500S PSM-500N PSM-500L PSM-500LT
IF Transmit 50 ~ 90 MHz 100 ~ 180 MHz 950 ~ 1750 MHz 950 ~ 1750 MHz
IF Receive 50 ~ 90 MHz 100 ~ 180 MHz 950 ~ 1900 MHz 950 ~ 1900 MHz

The PSM-500 with a standard 70 (or 140) MHz IF is the first member of Datum Systems‟ M500 Class
Modem products, representing a major extension to our fifth generation of innovative design
concepts proven and refined over ten years of production. The PSM-500L is the second, utilizing L-
Band frequencies for both the Transmit and Receive IF, it creates the ability to build extremely simple
and low cost high performance VSATs All M500 class products encompass significant performance
improvement over previous modems at reduced cost. The PSM-500LT is the third, providing an
integrated BUC power supply.
The modem is designed for service in varied types of satellite systems. Either SCPC systems where
two modems are set for continuous operation with each other, or shared resource systems where
modem carriers are not continuous in nature, such as DAMA networks, where outgoing signals from
the modem can be operated in an extremely fast acquisition mode.
The modem is designed to be easily integrated into either a master or remote station via rack
mounting. A highly integrated design allows the PSM-500 to be built into a one rack unit (1 RU, 1.75”)
high mounting case, using minimal power for dense applications. The modem is an integral part of a
satellite earth station‟s equipment operating between the Data Terminal Equipment and the station
Up and Downconverter equipment.
1.0.1 How to Use This Manual
This manual provides Installation, Operating and Maintenance procedures for the PSM-500 Satellite
Modem and available options at the time of printing.
This manual is an integral part of the modem and is used to explain the installation and operating
procedures for the PSM-500 and present its capabilities and specifications. The manual is divided
into 4 Chapters with Appendices. The 4 Chapters are the Modem Description, Installation, Operation
and Maintenance. The Appendices include the Specifications, Remote Control Protocol and gives
further information on Options, Cabling and information related to placing the Modem in service.
The divisions of the manual are intended for use by personnel to answer questions in general areas.
Planners and potential purchasers may read the Introduction and Specifications to determine the
suitability of the modem to its intended use; Installers should read the Installation Chapter and the
Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-2
Cabling Specification Appendix; Operating Personnel would use the Operations Chapter to become
familiar with the Modem; while System Programmers would use the Remote Control Protocol to
determine control requirements.
The PSM-500, 500L and 500LT modems are fully interchangeable with the single exception of the IF
input frequency range. In addition all options available for the PSM-500 are usable with the L or LT
version. The term PSM-500 is used throughout this manual where references apply to either the
PSM-500, 500L or 500LT modems. Where a subject is specific to one modem the “L” or “LT” suffix is
used or the specific differences in operation between the three modem versions are detailed.
1.0.2 Quick Start for Experienced Modem Users
If you are experienced with modems, but not this particular one, you may want to skip some of the
introductory material and learn how to operate the front panel to set up the modem immediately. Go
directly to Section 3.1 – “Operating Procedures” and get a feel for how the front panel operates. Then
scan Tables 3-1 through 3-4 listing the parameters that can be changed, and set up the modem for
your application. We strongly recommend that you go back to learn more, as these modems have
extensive capabilities and features that are unique. A list of abbreviations is located at the end of the
“Frequently Asked Questions” (FAQ) in Chapter 4.
1.0.3 What’s New – This Modem and This Manual
If you are familiar with Datum Systems modems, especially the PSM-4900, then you should feel
comfortable with both this modem‟s operation and this manual. There are some significant
differences you should review in the list below.
New in This Modem:
- The PSM-500 series is the first to include 8PSK, 8QAM and 16QAM modulation modes,
requiring new procedures and remote control interaction.
- The PSM-500 now includes remote control and firmware update via USB interface on the
rear panel. This was especially necessary since the 10 fold increase in firmware requires a
faster method to load new firmware configurations.
- Each PSM-500 IF version is capable of 3 standard value software upgradeable “Feature
Sets”, as described in section 1.1.2. Many features of the modem are field upgradeable
without adding new hardware. Subsets of these Feature Sets are available.
- There are two option slots on the main PCB used for FEC/processing options. One is always
used for the standard FEC set as a minimum. They are wired in parallel like the PCI slots on
a computer, but use an SO-DIMM form factor. Please don‟t plug memory in!
- The IBS multiplexer with AUPC is now standard and built into the main board FPGA logic.
- The Reed-Solomon concatenated FEC is now standard and built into the standard FEC card.
New in This Manual:
- A new “How-To” Appendix is added in Appendix H. It gives quick instructions on setting up
common features and capabilities.
1.1 Modem Capabilities
1.1.1 Modem IF Variations
The PSM-500 series is currently offered with 3 main Intermediate Frequency (IF) variations designed
to meet the needs of various station types. The standard PSM-500 modem has a 70 MHz (or optional
140 MHz) transmit and receive IF which is typical for use in large stations with indoor or outdoor up
and down converters. The PSM-500L and PSM-500LT units feature an L-Band transmit and receive
making it ideal for low cost Vsat remote earth stations.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-3
1.1.2 Modem Feature Set Variations
Feature sets are specific capabilities that suit a modem for a particular purpose. The PSM-500 series
is the first modem Datum Systems has offered with variable feature sets. The advantage is that a
customer does not have to pay for features he does not use, but later features can be upgraded in
the field electronically by adding new firmware Intellectual property to the modem. The user has the
best of both worlds. Feature sets are purposely kept to a minimum to make their control easy and
therefore reduce the cost. There are currently only 3 feature sets offered for the PSM-500 series, and
they apply to any of the IF variations.
For comparison, the features available in the PSM-4900 modem are also shown.
PSM-500 Series Feature and Option Matrix.
Original M5 PSM-500S/N/L/LT Series
Feature PSM-4900 M505 M511 M523
Modulation
BPSK
   
QPSK
   
OQPSK N/A
  
8PSK/QAM N/A Upgrade
 
16QAM/APSK N/A Upgrade Upgrade


Max Data Rate M523 rates slightly higher at higher FEC rates. See Notes below.
BPSK 2.46 Mbps 2.5 Mbps 5 Mbps 7.38 Mbps
QPSK/OQPSK 4.92 Mbps 5 Mbps 10 Mbps 14.76 Mbps
8PSK/TCM N/A N/A 10 Mbps 20 Mbps
16QAM/APSK N/A N/A N/A 20 Mbps

FEC Modes
Disabled N/A
  
Viterbi
  
Reed-Solomon Option
  
TPC – 4K (2) Option Option Option Option
TPC – 16K N/A Option Option Option
LDPC-16k (2k) N/A Option Option Option

IBS Mux/AUPC Option
  

SnIP Ethernet Int. Option Option Option Option

There are multiple items lists as “Options”. Options are specifically hardware items that are installed
in the modem, while a “feature” is a software installation listed as an “upgrade”. To upgrade the
modem from one feature set to another refer to the instructions in Section 4.4.
Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-4
Maximum data rates are dependent on many factors besides the basic capabilities of the interface,
including cabling, interface type, features and options installed. The TPC4K hardware codec is
limited to 5Mbps.
1.1.3 Applications
Following are just a few representative forms of satellite communications links and networks in which
the PSM-500 modem series may be used.
1.1.3.1 SCPC Point-to-Point Links
The most straightforward application for a satellite modem is to serve as the Data Communications
Equipment (DCE) for a point-to-point data link. When used in this mode, two modems located at two
different sites are tuned to complementary transmit and receive frequencies. Each direction of the
communications link may have the same or entirely different transmission parameters. In this
application it is typical that the link is established and maintained on a continuous basis, although a
special “on demand” case is described later.
In SCPC point-to-point links the power required from the satellite or the size of the receive antenna is
dependent upon the modem receive performance. The PSM-500 modem uses the most rigorous
methods to maintain performance as close to the theoretical “waterfall” curves as possible. In most
cases the modem will perform at 0.1 to 0.2 dB from the curve (although we say “typically” 0.3 dB).
This consistent performance, plus advanced technology such as TPC results in the absolute
minimum power requirements, which equates to the minimum operating.
Ku Band satellite systems are subject to changing performance due to rain at one or more sites. The
PSM-500 contains built in software to perform Automatic Uplink Power Control (AUPC). If the
modems at each link end are provided with an external asynchronous channel of 300 bps they can
be set to automatically maintain a constant Eb/No within programmable limits. This can result in
significantly lower satellite power requirements in a large system in addition to maintaining proper
performance in any system. The optional Multiplexer/interface card can provide this low rate channel
in addition to an Earth Station to Earth Station overhead service channel.
1.1.3.2 SCPC Point to Multi–Point Links in a Broadcast Application
A broadcast application might involve the necessity of sending continuous or intermittent data from
one source and
“broadcasting” the
information to many
remote locations. For
instance, constant
pricing information and
updates may be sent by
a central location to
many store locations.
There may be minor
return information from
the remotes
acknowledging receipt.
Another broadcast
application could be
transmitting background
music from a central
location to many store
sites. In this case there
would be no return path.
The topology of the
network in both of these broadcast examples would typically be called a “Star” network. As shown in
Figure 1-1, the shape of the configuration is drawn with the central “Hub” as the center of the star
Figure 1-1 Simple Star Network

Hub Station
Remote A
Remote B
Remote C
Remote D
Satellite
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-5
and the remotes as points of the star. In both cases the transmit frequency and other parameters
may be shared by the receive of all the remotes.
The PSM-500L and LT are ideally suited for use at remote or small stations. Since the receive down-
converter requirement is significantly reduced in this version, requiring only that a data grade LNB
(Low Noise Block down-converter) be connected to the modem. The L-Band version modems can
even supply power and reference to the LNB if needed. In addition the PSM-500L and PSM-500LT
modems are designed for use with a Block Up Converter or “BUC” and can supply power and
reference signals on the transmit cable. Most BUCs today are designed to receive these signals on
the cable.
In Broadcast type systems where the remotes only require a receiver, the L or LT is very low cost and
the transmit modulator section can be simply turned off.
A “Star” network configuration is also commonly used with multiple point-to-point links where the hub
is common to every link. An example might be where each remote represents a house or building
with voice or data traffic all destined for a common switch located near the hub. Each link is then
usually dedicated to that customer and the link resources are wasted when no traffic is carried. That
loss is partially offset by being able to use smaller antennas and power at each of the remotes,
concentrating costs at the hub.
1.1.3.3 DAMA (Demand Assigned Multiple Access)
Suppose that we wanted to simulate a telephone network with a virtual switch between modems
carrying digitized voice information. We might use a central computer to assign a pair of frequencies
for any conversation and send this connection information to the proper sites to set up the
connection. Many systems of this type use “Star” network topology, but this has the disadvantage
that for a person at Remote A to talk to someone at Remote D the traffic must go through the hub.
The resulting delay through 2 satellite hops is just at the limit of what is tolerable for voice traffic.
In this application a new network configuration is usable. That is a “Mesh” network where any of the
voice modems at any site can be programmed to link with any other modem directly at any other site.
The resulting link diagram looks like a mesh of interconnects. Now there must be sufficient antenna
size and power at each remote to link to every other remote. The station costs can go up
significantly, and are multiplied by the number of stations.
Since the frequencies can be assigned on demand, the network is then called “Demand Assigned,
Multiple Access”, or DAMA. One important characteristic of a DAMA system used for voice
information is the lock-up time of the modem. At the low data rates used to digitize voice today (4.4 to
32 kbps) the modem receive acquisition method of sweeping results in lock-up times of tens of
seconds to minutes. The PSM-500 modem is uniquely designed to significantly reduce this time:
The fast acquisition digital signal processor used in the PSM-500 looks at the receive signals within
its acquisition range much like a person might view the same region using a spectrum analyzer. It
then “homes in” and locks to the most probable carrier. This acquisition mode can reduce the receive
acquisition time to approximately 1/3
rd
of a second at 9.6 kbps in QPSK mode over +/- 30 kHz, and
less in BPSK mode.
1.1.3.4 TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Remote Site Application
In a TDMA network the central Hub continually transmits a stream of outbound data containing
information for multiple remote sites, while the remotes transmit back to the Hub on a timed basis.
Each of these remotes is said to “burst” its information back on a specific frequency. This may be the
same inbound frequency for all sites. Each of the remotes is responsible for accessing its own
information from the outbound data stream by reading the address assigned to specific parts of the
data.
The TDMA network usually looks like the Star network described above. The outbound (from the
Hub) data rate may be quite high to accommodate many remotes with low latency, while the inbound
data rate may be low to allow use of a small antenna and power amplifier at the many remote sites.
Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-6
The PSM-500L is specifically designed to be usable as the remote site modem of a TDMA network
when coupled with a proper “Burst” demodulator at the hub site. Note: As of the time of this
manual the “TDMA burst” mode is a special factory request option and not installed in
standard modems.
Another variation could use both the DAMA (star or mesh configuration) with a concurrent TDMA
system as the monitor/control network for the DAMA. Again the PSM-500 modem is ideally suited for
both modem applications at both low and high speeds.
1.2 Modem Functional Assemblies
The PSM-500 VSAT/SCPC Modem consists of seven main functional elements arranged on three
electronic printed circuit assemblies, as shown in Figure 1-2.
The Main Modem Circuit Assembly consists of the following major assemblies:
1. The Modem digital PSK/QAM modulator with carrier generation in the 50 to 90 MHz
range for standard modem, or 950 to 1750 MHz in the L-Band versions.
2. The Modem digital PSK/QAM demodulator accepting signals in the 50 to 90 MHz range
for the standard modem and 950 to 1900 MHz in the L-Band versions.
3. The Modem microprocessor monitor/control subsystem.
4. The Modem Digital Signal Processor Acquisition subsystem.
5. The Programmable Data Interface. Seven standard data interfaces are built onto the
main modem assembly. The unit can also accept special interfaces via an optional
interface card.
The other two printed circuit assemblies are the Front Panel Control Assembly, and the Power
Supply Assembly.
In addition the main PWB can accept two plug-in sub-assemblies for Forward Error Correction
(FEC). The first subassembly normally contains either the standard Viterbi and Reed-Solomon FEC
set or a combination card containing Viterbi/TCM, Reed-Solomon and either a 4k block size Turbo
Product Codes (TPC) or a 16k block size TPC. The TPC could also be installed alone on a card
placed in the second plug in location. The second location could also be one of a number of FECs
that are be available for the M500, such as FlexLDPC.
The IBS Multiplexer circuitry that was on another daughter card in previous modems is now part on
the main board‟s FPGAs.
Note in the functional block diagram below that, with the exception of the receive FIFO buffer, there
are complementary signal processing blocks in the transmit and receive paths. Note also that there
are no typical superhetrodyne mixing and filtering blocks. That is because there are none used in the
direct modulation and demodulation scheme used in the PSM-500, sometimes referred to as Zero IF.
The following sections described more detail on the design of the modulator and demodulator.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-7
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Figure 1-2 Modem Block Diagram
Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-8
1.2.1 Modulator
The PSK/QAM modulator in the modem employs a unique digital modulation scheme requiring no
heterodyne operations (mixing and filtering to an IF) to arrive at the transmit RF frequency. The
desired carrier frequency is synthesized and directly modulated with the baseband signal. The
baseband signal is itself digitally derived and generated using a digital to analog (D/A) converter. The
digital signal processing of the transmit signal includes the equivalent of a 144 tap FIR filter function.
As previously shown in Figure 1-2, synchronous transmit data and clock signals are accepted by the
modulator, then processed by the V.35/Intelsat scrambler and differential encoder. The modulator
can be set by the processor to operate at a number of data rates between 1.2 kbps (BPSK, rate 1/2)
and 20 Mbps (8PSK +, M520 feature set). Refer to the specification in Appendix A for exact rate
capabilities. The data is then encoded for Forward Error Correction (FEC) at rate 1/2, 3/4, 5/6 or 7/8
resulting in an encoded signal at between 2.4 and 14,760 ksps (kilo symbols per second). The Viterbi
convolutional encoder can be programmed for rate 1/2, 3/4, 5/6 or 7/8 and is set for a constraint
factor (K) of 7 for use by a (receiving end) Viterbi convolutional decoder with the same rate and K
factor. A Reed-Solomon FEC is available for concatenated operation with the Viterbi Codec and two
types of “Turbo Codes” Codecs are also available to replace the Viterbi Codec. A special case is
8PSK, which only operates in a Trellis Code Modulation (TCM) mode at rate 2/3, unless a non-Viterbi
FEC is added such as TPC or FlexLDPC.
The FEC is followed by an optional differential encoder. The differential encoder output is then sent
to the transmit baseband signal processor whose main function is to convert the data stream into
analog baseband I and Q channels for modulating the carrier. The actual conversion process is
accomplished in a lookup table, latch and D/A converter. The lookup table represents a digitally
preprocessed function required to produce the proper RF signal output when mixed with the desired
carrier frequency. A low-pass filter is applied to the D/A output to reduce the level of sampling
components.
Transmit Local Oscillator generation is accomplished in two parts. A PLL step synthesizer is used to
generate a basic LO in the 52 to 92 (or 104 to 184 or 952 to 1752) MHz range with 500 kHz step size.
A Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS), consisting of an NCO and D/A conversion, is used to generate an
approximate 2 MHz signal with fine step size of approximately 1 Hz and a range of ±1.25 MHz. When
the DDS is subtracted from the step synthesizer output in a second PLL, the available LO can be
tuned in 1 Hz steps over the full range of 50 to 90 MHz (100 to 180 MHz if built for that version).
The processed baseband signal is then mixed with the transmit synthesizer's LO carrier signal to
generate an output modulated carrier in the 50 to 90 MHz range (or 950 to 1750 MHz in the L-Band
modem). A classic IQ modulator with two mixers is used and the LO is fed into the second mixer
shifted 90 degrees from the first. The modulated baseband signal can take two forms at this point
depending on whether BPSK or QPSK modulation is used. In BPSK mode, the baseband signal fed
to the two mixers is identical. In QPSK mode, the two signals represent the baseband I and Q
channels of the baseband.
The resultant RF signal is then low pass filtered and amplified to produce a signal at approximately
over 5 dBm into 75O. An output attenuator controlled by the onboard processor is used to set the
modulator output level over a range of +5 to –35 dBm. The actual attenuator is a set of pin diodes
whose voltage is derived from the processor via a 12-bit D/A converter. The processor also holds a
calibration table of DAC input vs. RF output level/frequency in non-volatile memory.
No physical adjustments are present in the modulator. All necessary adjustments are electronically
performed during calibration and are intended to last the life of the unit without requiring resetting.
The modulator is capable of operating in two different modes: Continuous mode for SCPC use and
“Burst” mode for use at a VSAT location. When set to VSAT operating mode, the transmit signal is
turned off and on according to the status of the data interface control lines and framing information in
the data stream as described in the “Operation” Chapter of this document. The burst mode allows
multiple station modulators to link up consecutively with a single master station “burst demodulator”.
Note: As of the time of this manual the burst mode is a special factory request option and not
installed in standard modems.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-9
The Modulator IF output can be routed to the Demodulator input using a built-in “IF Loop-back”
function. The loop-back path provides a 25 dB attenuator to avoid overloading the receive input.
1.2.2 Demodulator
The Modem Demodulator uses direct conversion techniques for recovery of data from an incoming
carrier, and therefore like the modulator does not use heterodyning, and has no internal IF signal or
processing. Referring to Figure 1-2, the input RF signal is first input to the receive AGC amplifier. The
AGC amplifier has a range of greater than 40 dB at any data rate, allowing inputs over that range
while still meeting performance criteria. The range is controlled in several steps depending on the
data rate extending over the range of –20 dBm at high data rates to –84 dBm at low data rates. The
proper AGC gain is digitally determined as that which produces an optimal output from the A/D
converters and is thus derived after the A/D converters.
The RF input is then demodulated using a “Costas Loop”, phase locked loop demodulator where the
signal is split using a 90 degree hybrid into I and Q channels. In BPSK mode, the I channel carries
the data information and the Q channel represents the noise and carrier phase information in the
Costas loop. For QPSK operation, the I and Q channels each carry data information. The I and Q
channel “eye” signals are not available as in many other modems because the signal/data
representation at this point is still strictly digital for direct signal processing.
A receive synthesizer generates the demodulator local oscillator which is at the desired receive
carrier frequency. The synthesizer is tunable over the range of 50 to 90 MHz (or 950 to 1900 MHz in
the L-Band modems) and has two tuning components; the LO step synthesizer used to tune in steps
of 500 kHz, and a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) component used to acquire and track the received
carrier. The DDS control has two tuning sources; (1) the digital Costas demodulation loop phase
detector used to track an already “locked” signal and (2) the processor control used to set the carrier
frequency and acquire new signals. The processor controls the acquisition search over a
programmable range from ±100 Hz to ±1.25 MHz.
The I and Q channel baseband outputs of the Costas Loop demodulator are converted to digital data
streams by parallel 12 bit D/A converters. The digital information is then filtered via a Datum
Systems‟ proprietary programmable digital filter. The filtered sample output is sent to the input of the
Forward Error Correction (FEC) process (either Viterbi convolutional, concatenated Reed-Solomon,
8PSK TCM rate 2/3, Turbo Codes or LDPC decoder) circuit. Multiple bits of the filtered A/D converter
are used for “soft decision” decoding in the FEC, providing an improvement in performance over hard
decision decoding.
The A/D output is also available to a special Digital Signal Processor (DSP), which is used to
examine the incoming signals for known energy patterns and acquire carriers significantly faster than
conventional sweep acquisition. This DSP controlled acquisition is especially useful at low data rates
and can improve over a typical sweep by more than 2 orders of magnitude.
The receive signal processing shown in Figure 1-2 serves the following multiple functions:
1. Generates the soft decision symbol information for input to the FEC.
2. Recovers the bit rate clock from the incoming signal.
3. Measures the Es/No of the received signal.
4. Generates the receive AGC signal to set the input stage gain.
The FEC decoders are contained on one or two adaptor cards plugged into the main board (all
except the TPC are contained with the adaptors FPGA), which is under control of the onboard
processor.
A differential decoder and INTELSAT / V.35 descrambler for the received data signal can be
individually enabled or disabled by the processor based on the current FEC and other settings. It is
no longer under control of the front panel or command interface. This configuration is held in the
nonvolatile EEPROM and does not have to be reconfigured on power-up. The resulting received data
and clock signals are sent to the interface assembly. Receive interface clocking can take several
forms as explained below.
Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-10
1.2.3 Modem Bit Rate Timing
The Modulator and the Demodulator each have 4 possible sources for their bit rate timing.
The Modulator always outputs the Send Timing signal, but the source of this timing may be either:
1. An Internally generated bit rate NCO locked to the Internal Reference,
2. The Demodulator Receive Clock,
3. An External input at the data rate or
4. An external input on the Interface Terminal Timing input.
The modem‟s internal reference is a 2.0 parts per million clock oscillator, which is sufficiently
accurate for most applications. If system timing requirements dictate a better reference, the internal
oscillator may be phase locked to an external reference applied at the rear panel.
The Demodulator always outputs the Receive Timing signal. The receive demodulator clock derived
from the receive signal is synchronous with the Receive Data and is the normal source of the receive
timing. If the system requires a different clock (which still must be the same average rate as the
demodulator‟s receive clock) then provisions are made to buffer the data in a programmable FIFO.
The demodulator receive clock is always used to clock the data into the FIFO. The clock output can
be either:
1. The Demodulator Receive Clock,
2. The Modulator Clock
3. An internally generated bit rate NCO locked to the Internal Reference, or
4. An External FIFO Clock applied on the interface connector.
If the demodulator receive clock is selected then the FIFO itself is physically bypassed by switching
circuitry.
The internally generated bit rate NCO locked to the Internal Reference oscillator is settable to 40 bit
accuracy. That is 1 part in 10 to the 12 or 1 part per trillion.
The PSM-500 series includes two changes to previous modems to insure proper operation. First, the
modem detects if no data is present on the input by a lack of transitions for approximately 5 seconds
and will produce a programmable alarm after that time. Second, due to the higher data rates the
PSM-500 input circuitry automatically fine tunes the clocks to attempt to place the data period at the
optimal point with respect to the clocks. This also helps tremendously when using the TT clock to
create the transmit timing.
A block diagram simplified representation of the Transmit and Receive clock sources are shown in
Figure 1-3.

PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-11
Transmit Clock Sources
Receive Clock Sources
Demodulator
Modulator
Receive FIFO
Buffer
DATA
CLOCK
DATA
IN
IN OUT
OUT
DATA
Optional Reed-Solomon Decoder
& IBS Multiplexer
CLOCK
Demodulator RCV
External
Reference Input
(Rear Panel)
From Modulator
bit timing
CLOCK
Internal
Reference
Oscillator
External
Reference PLL
Terminal
Timing
Terminal
Timing
From
Interface
Demod output
clock is phase
locked to receive
bit timing
FIFO output clock selected from
"RCV Clock", "Internal", "External"
or "Mod Clock". Selection of "RCV
Clock" bypasses the FIFO buffer.
Bit Rate NCO
From
Receive
Clock
Send Data
From
Interface
Send
Timing To
Interface
Modulator bit clock source is
selected from "Internal", "Terminal
Timing", "External" or "RCV
Clock". The Send Timing is
always an output from the modem.
Receive
Data To
Interface
Receive
Timing To
Interface
External
FIFO Clock
From
Interface
Bit Rate NCO
"Internal"
External Send Timing Input
(Rear Panel)

Figure 1-3 Clock Source Options

These Clock sources may be used in various ways in a system implementation to provide correct
timing at a destination. Each of the clock sources can be set either from the front panel or from an
external monitor and control system.
Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-12
1.2.4 Control Processor
A single microprocessor manages all monitor, control and communications functions on the modem
board. The processor continuously monitors all onboard status signals.
The modem control processor uses external address and data buses to connect to external Flash
PROM containing the instruction code. The processor uses both internal and external RAM for all
operations and maintains configuration and permanent parameters in parallel EEPROM. The
processor also connects to the FEC, the custom ASICs, the DSP processor, the front panel, and
various onboard peripheral functions via the address and data bus.
The control processor also maintains a serial peripheral interface to connect to several onboard
peripherals. These include external D/A converters holding calibration and current analog settings,
identification EEPROMs on option and interface cards and step synthesizers.
The control processor also contains an internal 12-Channel 10-bit A/D converter for gathering analog
information from various onboard monitored points including the phase locked loop tuning voltages.
Digital I/O used to monitor and control the modem is handled mainly through the DSP circuits and
their interface to the processor. Such parameters as the current Eb/No and receive offset frequency
information are read by the processor from the DSPs while most configuration information is written
to the DSPs.
The control processor uses a full-duplex Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) for
communications with either the RS–232 / RS–485 remote command port or with a separate VT100
type “console” terminal device connected to the modem. In addition a USB control interface is
provided.
The control processor has provisions for communicating with another PSM-500 modem for
implementation of Automatic Uplink Power Control (AUPC). The channel for this communications is
normally provided by equipping the unit with the optional IBS multiplexer interface card.
1.2.5 Acquisition Processor
The acquisition processor, a Texas Instruments 320C5xxx Digital Signal Processor, manages the
receive signal acquisition and lock functions to achieve fast acquisition performance at low data
rates. This DSP is controlled by the control processor via a communications protocol managed
through a special bi-directional parallel interface to the main processor.
The signal acquisition DSP accepts sampled data from the receive chain A/D Converters and
mathematically determines the location of the incoming carrier. This is accomplished in a multi–step
process which continues to narrow down the exact frequency until it is known within the lock range of
the PLL demodulator. At data rates below 16 kbps this process is more than an order of magnitude
faster than a standard sweep method. Typical signal acquisition times at 16 kbps QPSK are 0.2
seconds using the acquisition processor vs. over 20 seconds using a standard sweep.
1.2.6 Standard Data Interface
The standard Interface in the PSM-500 is built onto the main PWB and contains the drivers and
receivers for one of five possible data interface standards (seven including minor variations of each).
All interface standards are selected under program control via the front panel or remote control. Five
of these standards are common interfaces used in the communications industry:
- RS-449, terminated and un-terminated
- V.35,
- V.36
- Synchronous RS-232 (Limited to 128 kbps by drivers and receivers.)
- EIA-530 and EIA-530A
- Asynchronous RS-232 (Limited to 115 kbps by various protocols).
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-13
The un-terminated versions of these standard interfaces and are used to implement one for one (1:1)
redundancy between two PSM-500 units.
A single 37 pin “D” type female connector is available on the rear panel at J3 providing the terrestrial
data interface. The interface standard is electronically selectable via front panel or remote control.
Optional interfaces are provided by a separate option interface card which is mounted inside the
modem chassis. The provision of an optional interface “adds” to the available interfaces which can be
selected under program control. An interface field kit of parts to add an option interface is available
from the manufacturer for installation by qualified technical field service personnel. When an optional
interface is installed the main processor automatically queries and installs the necessary software
controls for accessing the interface.
1.2.6.1 Data Interface Loop-Back Function
The standard and most optional interfaces also provide the data loop-back function. Ethernet
interfaces do not have this function. The data loop-back can be controlled from the front panel or via
remote control command. The data towards both the terrestrial and satellite sides can be looped
back individually by enabling this function via the front panel or remote control
¬ Caution: Enabling the “Data Loop-Back” functions will result in loss of traffic. It
should not be used in operating links without prior arrangements.
The data loop-back allows testing of the signal path connection up to the loop-back and back to the
source. Since both terrestrial and satellite sides of the signal path can be looped, the connection from
a local DTE can be checked on the terrestrial side while the connection from the far end DTE over
the satellite and through the modem can be checked on the satellite side.
More information on use of the loop-back modes is given in Section 4.1 Common Test Procedures.
1.2.6.2 Data Interface BERT Function
The standard interfaces also include a programmable Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) set. It is located
between the modem‟s satellite and terrestrial data loop-back functions. Ethernet interfaces do not
have this function. The BERT can be controlled from the front panel or via remote control command
and provides extensive test result data.
¬ Caution: Enabling the “BERT” function will result in loss of traffic. It should not be
used in operating links without prior arrangements.
New in this modem is the ability to set the BERT set to point toward the “Line” side external cabling,
acting as a DCE device. More on use of the BERT functions and modes is given in Section 4.1.2
“Using the Built-in BERT”.
1.2.6.3 Data Interface 1:1 Redundancy Function
The standard interfaces are also capable of operating in a special 1:1 redundancy mode. In this
mode the data interfaces are tied directly in parallel using a special “Y” cable. Software control built
into the modem can then be set to indicate that the two connected modems are operating in a
redundant mode. The two modems communicate with each other to determine the alarm status of
each and force the “off-line” unit‟s data interface into an un-terminated condition. This allows both
interfaces to receive incoming data and clock signals, which are necessary to ascertain correct
functioning. At the same time the transmit and receive IF ports are also connected together through
the stations (or separately supplied) transmit and receive IF combiner/splitter assemblies.
The alarms that are used to determine switching criteria are programmable, and the first modem set
up for this mode automatically loads its configuration information to the second or “back-up” unit.
These features create a very low cost redundancy system that is both flexible and easily set up.
More information on the set-up and use of the 1:1 redundancy functions and modes is given in
Sections 2.3.5 “1:1 Redundancy Connection” and 3.10 “Built-in 1:1 Redundancy Mode Operation”.
Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-14
1.2.7 Standard Framing and IBS Multiplexer
The framing/multiplexer is capable of multiplexing a relatively low speed overhead channel onto the
terrestrial data stream resulting in a slightly higher combined or “aggregate” data rate through the
modem. The overhead channel is recovered at the far end. This added channel is termed variously
an overhead channel, ESC, service channel, “asynch” channel or, in IESS terminology, an ES to ES
data channel. A simplified block diagram of the data multiplexer is shown in Appendix RS.
The basic frame structure used by the multiplexer is that specified in the IESS-309 standard, Page
60, Figure 10, resulting in a 16/15 aggregate to through data ratio. This means that when the
multiplexer is enabled the modem aggregate operating data rate is computed as the terrestrial
connection (through) data rate multiplied by 16/15. The user sets only the desired through data rate
while the modem computes the aggregate rate required. The multiplexer is also capable of expanded
operating modes which include custom setting of the ratio of data to framing bytes.
The Multiplexer provides the following modes of operation. They are described more fully in The IBS
Multiplexer/Reed-Solomon Appendix RS.

Mode Standard/
Compatibility
Overhead
Ratio
Notes
Disabled N/A 1/1
Standard IESS-309 16/15 Fixed synchronous ESC, No AUPC, No MCC
Enhanced Modified IESS-309 16/15 M4 compatible ESC and AUPC (limited MCC).
Custom Modified IESS-309 Variable Full ESC and MCC including AUPC, Remote
Modem Control, 2 one=bit control channels.
Also variable data load per frame.
The ESC Data Channel can be set under software-control to either RS-232 or RS-485 mode. The pin
assignments for both modes are shown in Section 2.3 and Appendix RS. These pin assignments
appear on the rear panel “AUX” (Auxiliary) connector J4 only when the Multiplexer function is
enabled. The RS-485 Transmit Data Drivers can set to “RS-485” or “RS-485 ON” when in
“Enhanced” mode. The “ON” setting forces the driver continuously on while the “RS-485” setting
controls the output into tri-state when the modem is not transmitting data, allowing multiple modem
outputs to be connected together. In the standard IBS mode only the “RS-485 ON” mode is available.
In Enhanced or Custom mode a 2 wire receive operating mode can be selected for the receive data
into the ESC channel. In this mode the receive input is muted while the transmit data output is active.
In 4 wire mode the receive is always enabled. In the standard IBS mode only the 4 wire mode is
available. Note that the transmit and receive pairs are physically separate wires and must be
connected together if true RS-485 2 wire connectivity is desired.
The processor on the main board performs software/hardware assignment of bits to specific
purposes in the Custom mode and buffers the ESC Data Channel to standard asynchronous data
rates.
The user does not have to compute data framing variables to use the Custom Multiplexer Mode.
When placed in this mode the entry parameters are the ESC and MCC channel rates selected from
standard asynchronous data rates (300 to 38,400 bps). The modem then computes the proper
relationship between the framing and terrestrial data rates to achieve the proper operation. The
modem also displays the terrestrial data to aggregate ratio.
1.2.7.1 Modem Control Channel (MCC)
The MCC is available in both the Enhanced and Custom Multiplexer modes. In the Enhanced mode
the MCC provides for an AUPC channel. In the Custom mode the MCC provides for the AUPC plus
the Remote Modem Control (RMC) Channel and the Auxiliary control bits (RFC).
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-15
1.2.7.1.1 AUPC Control Channel (AUPC)
When the modem is placed into either the “Enhanced” or “Custom” modes the AUPC control channel
becomes available. The AUPC operation itself is under control of the modem while the AUPC facility
in the MCC provides the channel for the information. This channel provides a minimum 300 baud
control channel in each direction to allow the modems at two ends of a link to interactively maintain
the receive Eb/No by controlling the power output at the transmit site.
Refer also to the AUPC operation description of the main manual in Section 3.8 titled “Automatic
Uplink Power Control (AUPC)” Operation.
1.2.7.1.2 Remote Modem Control Channel (RMC)
When the modem is placed in the “Custom” mode the Remote Modem Control Channel becomes
available. This channel allows the control of a far end modem from the near end site. This control is
not however allowed from the near end front panel, but only via the remote control interface port. The
command protocol for remote unit control is explained in Appendix B, “Remote Control Protocol”.
Note that the Automatic Configuration Recovery or ACR is partially designed as a safety feature to be
used with the remote programming of modems. It can help prevent “losing” the modem at an
unattended site. Refer to the ACR section of the main manual in 3.14 “Automatic Configuration
Recovery”.
1.2.7.1.3 Auxiliary Bit Control Channels (RFC)
When the Multiplexer is placed into the “Custom” mode the auxiliary bit control RFC channels
becomes available. These consist of two single line or “one-bit” control channels that can be used to
send control information independently in both directions over the link. The input signals on these
channels can be either a contact closure or a logic type signals while the output is a form C relay
contract set whose state depends on the state of the input signal. The low input logic level is 0 to 0.4
VDC, while the logic high level can be from 2.4 to approximately 20 VDC. The input is current limited
to accept this wide voltage range without damage. Higher voltages may damage the inputs however
and caution should be exercised. Pin connections for these one bit channels are shown in the RS
Appendix.
1.2.8 Standard and Optional Modem FEC Cards
All of the M500 class modems have two card slots on the main PCB for two FEC function boards.
One board is normally installed containing the standard Forward Error Correction set including Viterbi
(with Trellis Code Modulation mode when in 8PSK mode only) and Reed-Solomon concatenated
codecs. The same standard card has several variations which includes either a 4k or 16k block size
TPC or both on the same board if ordered that way initially. The second slot can be used for optional
FECs as desired, for example the FlexLDPC FEC featuring exceptional performance at very low
Eb/No.
These two FEC slots are wired in parallel and the control processor on the main board searches for a
requested FEC on the first card containing that capability. The same FEC functions can exist on both
cards, but only the first card will be used in that case.
FEC technology is in many ways a matter of tradeoffs. In most cases the tradeoff is between
bandwidth and performance, which also relates to power and performance. FECs are normally
specified by “Rate”, which is the ratio of data information bits to transmitted bits, and coding gain,
which is the Eb/No reduction able to achieve a specified BER as compared to an unencoded signal.
The extra bits required for a given rate are redundancy processing bits needed to perform forward
error correction. For example, the common rate ½ means that for every data bit two bits are
transmitted, and in rate 5/6, 6 bits are transmitted for every 5 data bits. Better performance is
commonly considered higher coding gain at a given rate. There are always other factors to consider,
such as the latency (processing time) required, time to recover from a synch loss, signal acquisition
time, etc, etc.
Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-16
FECs technology is often specifically adapted to a particular use. For example, it is common to use
special forms of Reed-Solomon, TPC and LDPC for video signals. These type signals and FECs
typically have a fairly high performance floor that are of little consequence for a wideband video
signal, but would be entirely unacceptable for most data information especially at low data rates.
Viterbi has been the standard high performance FEC used in satellite communications for
approximately 10 years. It has only been in the past few years that new technologies have emerged
which provide more coding gain with reasonable implementations. The standard PSM-500 FEC card
includes the circuitry for a Viterbi, TCM and Reed-Solomon Codec providing the PSM-500 with basic
functional capability for all standard operating parameters including 8PSK TCM and 16QAM. The
following are general descriptions of the characteristics of each of these functions.
The table below shows the currently available modes depending on modulation.
Note in Table A that the front panel selection number for each of the options is listed as the “Sel #”.
For example The Modulation modes show the selection numbers 0 through 6, and the FEC Type,
Option and Code Rate selection numbers are listed in the column to the right of each item. These
numbers can be referred to for front panel operation but are even more applicable to the SnIP Telnet
command line program named “m500ctl”. This program has specific commands that allow entering
either just the 3 digit FEC options or the full Modulation, FEC Type, Option, Code rate and Reed-
Solomon mode (MTOCR) in a single entry. Refer to the SnIP documentation for more information.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-17

1. The TPC M5 Full, Short and Legacy modes are intended for PSM-4900 Compatibility only
2. * TPC 4k/16k restrictions apply to that line and Code Rate only
3. TPC4k Max data rate limits see below
4. TPC16k operates up to 20 Mbps depending on Feature Set and modulation
5. The Viterbi, Rate 3/4 & 7/8, 16QAM CT modes are only for Comtech modem compatibility as
they only operate in this mode with R-S at 220, 200, depth of 4. R-S is auto-enabled
6. TPC Advanced modes are Datum Systems proprietary implementations that require the
TPC16k option only for the colored lines. They offer superior performance to CT modes
Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-18
1.2.8.0 Special Codec CT Modes
The wide range of FECs available today and the possibility of many different operating modes and
parameters for each can make compatibility with other brands of modems extremely difficult. To aid
in FEC compatibility with other brands of modems, the PSM-500 series offers special “CT” modes,
standing for “Competing Technology”. These modes use the same parameter settings as popular
modems by other manufacturers.
Take note of the special CT modes available for Viterbi, Reed-Solomon and TPC modes below.
1.2.8.1 Viterbi, Trellis Code Modulation Codec
Viterbi has been the standard high performance FEC used in satellite communications for
approximately 10 years. It has only been in the past few years that new technologies have emerged
which provide more coding gain with reasonable implementations. Viterbi still maintains the
advantage of fairly high coding gain with very low latency. So, for voice circuits or DAMA links
requiring fast acquisition times Viterbi may be the FEC of choice.
Viterbi is part of a class of FECs considered “convolutional”, basically meaning folded as in the
redundancy bits are folded into the data bit stream. The important issue here is that it is not block
oriented and not framed. It is therefore the responsibility of the FEC decoder to determine which are
the proper data bits.
Trellis Code Modulation or “TCM” is a standard part of the M500 used with 8PSK at rate 2/3.
The Viterbi CT option mode follows that of competitive modems for 16QAM operation at rates ¾ and
7/8. The CT mode at this setting defaults to selecting Reed-Solomon CT mode at n, k and depth
values of 220, 200, depth of 4 and inverts the data. This is a closed circuit mode that does not meet
normal IESS standards, but is necessary in order to link to those modems.
1.2.8.2 Reed-Solomon Codec Capability
Reed-Solomon Codec places a second Forward Error Correction (FEC) process outside of and in
series with the existing Viterbi FEC. The two FECs are thus considered "Concatenated". In addition,
the data between the two FECs is "interleaved" which effectively reduces the possibility of multiple
consecutive errored block symbols, thus improving the Reed-Solomon Codec performance.
The performance improvement achieved by this combination is significant. For example, the BER vs.
Eb/No performance of concatenated Viterbi rate 3/4 coding with R-S is better than Viterbi rate 1/2
alone and it uses less bandwidth than the Viterbi rate 1/2 alone.
Reed-Solomon is a block oriented code, meaning that data is framed into fixed size blocks and
processed in a specific way. A full block must be received before processing can begin, thus adding
to the latency. The PSM-500 type R-S Codec is capable of operating in multiple standard and custom
modes as shown in the table below.
Reed-Solomon uses framing which allows the use of a synchronous scrambler resulting in slightly
improved performance relative to the self-Synchronized scrambler normally used.
A simplified block diagram of the Reed-Solomon Codec is shown in the Figure below.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-19
Transmit Reed-Solomon
BlockEncoder &
Synchronous Scrambler
Processor
Transmit
Terrestrial Data
Channel
Recei ve
Terrestrial Data
Channel
Transmit
Data Channel
Recei ve Data
Channel
C
o
n
t
r
o
l
XMT
Clockand Frame
Generation
RCV
C
o
n
t
r
o
l
C
l
o
c
k
C
l
o
c
k
Main Modem
Assembly
Cl ocks
Reed-Solomon Codec Simplified Block Diagram
Transmit Reed-Solomon
BlockInterleaver
Receive Reed-Solomon
BlockDecoder &
Synchronous
Descrambler
Receive Reed-Solomon
BlockDe-Interleaver
FIFO From
Main Modem
IBS
Multiplex
Option

The Reed-Solomon modes shown available below can be selected from the front panel or remote
control. The CT220,200 mode is a special compatibility mode and is automatically set by certain CT
FEC modes, for example when Viterbi, Rate ¾ is selected when in 16QAM mode. It can be over-
ridden by choice from the Reed-Solomon parameter.

Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-20

Mode Compatibility Terrestrial
Data Rate
Overhead
Ratio
n, k and depth Values
Disabled N/A 1/1
IESS-308 IESS-308 1.2 kbps to
<1.544 Mbps
9/8 126, 112, 4 (M4 modem compatible)
IESS-308 1.544 Mbps to
<2.048 Mbps
45/41 225, 205, 4
IESS-308 >2.048 Mbps 73/67 219, 201, 4
IESS-309 IESS-309 All 73/67 219, 201, 4
CT220,200 Comtech All 11/10 220, 200, 4
Custom Modified
IESS-309
All Variable Allows setting the “n”, “k” and “depth”
values for special requirements. Can
also be set for M4 compatibility to
max M4 data rate.
The IESS 308 mode automatically adjusts the n and k factors dependent on the data rate. The
“Overhead” ratio is the ratio of the data rate at the R-S encoder output to the data rate at the input. It
is defined as n/k. The modem automatically adjusts to accommodate the new rate.
The Reed-Solomon Codec function can be turned on and off under software control, and is
independent of the IBS ESC Data Channel enabling.
1.2.8.3 Turbo Product Codes FEC Capability
The addition of the Turbo Product Codes (TPC) option allows replacement of the standard Viterbi
FEC selectively for the transmit and receive paths independently. The performance improvement
achieved by the TPC is significant. For example, the BER vs. Eb/No performance of TPC Rate ¾ is
approximately equal to Rate ½ Viterbi and uses over 40% less bandwidth. TPC also provides better
bandwidth/power utilization than either Reed-Solomon concatenated on Viterbi or 8PSK/TCM with
Reed-Solomon.
The PSM-500 series offers extensive TPC capabilities including both first generation 4k block TPC
with both PSM-4900 compatibility (M5) and Competitive Technology (CT) operating modes plus a
newer second generation 16k block TPC. This second TPC offers superior performance at the
expense of more delay due to larger processing blocks.
The Datum Systems‟ proprietary TPC “Advanced” mode has been optimized to provide the highest
performance available in any TPC on the market. These modes not only outperform other
manufacturer‟s TPC, but also LDPC in many cases.
The Turbo Product Codes FEC is more fully explained in Appendix TPC.
1.2.8.4 FlexLDPC FEC Capability
The addition of the FlexLDPC FEC option allows replacement of the standard Viterbi FEC selectively
for the transmit and receive paths. The performance improvement achieved by FlexLDPC is the
highest and most flexible of any specialized FEC technology to date, outperforming TPC in across all
modes. FlexLDPC at rate ½ are capable of operating at a sustained Eb/No of only 1.5 dB with an
error rate less than 10
-9
.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 1-21
1.2.9 Optional Interface Capability
The M500 modems are also capable of accepting optional interface cards to replace the standard
synchronous serial interfaces. The first of these cards is the Ethernet interface embodied in the
Datum Systems‟ Satellite Network Interface Processor, or “SnIP”. The SnIP is more fully explained in
Appendix SNIP.
A second specialized interface card available is a High Speed Serial Interface or HSSI that is
commonly used for connection to some routers. The HSSI interface is more fully explained in
Appendix HSSI.
For users that require the option to select either SnIP or HSSI interfaces in addition to the standard
synchronous serial interfaces, both cards can be installed in a “stacked configuration.
Installed option interfaces are automatically recognized by the modem, making them a selectable
option on the front panel or remote control protocols.
1.2.10 Modem Circuit Implementation
Much of the functionality in this modem has been achieved by incorporation of extensive circuitry into
Digital Signal Processing parts and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). Depending on features
and options installed there are between 1.2 and over 2 Million gates of logic encapsulated in the
FPGAs, a 10 fold increase over the last generation modem. The logic can be augmented and
changed as requirements change. The modems unique direct modulation and demodulation scheme
also completely eliminates all IF mixing and filtering circuitry.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 2-1
Chapter 2 - Installation
2.0 Installation Requirements
The PSM-500 VSAT/SCPC Modem is designed for installation in any standard 19-inch equipment
cabinet or rack, and requires 1 RU mounting space (1.75 inches) vertically and 12 inches of
depth. Including cabling, a minimum of 15-inches of rack depth is required. The rear panel of the
PSM-500 is designed to have power enter from the left and IF cabling enter from the right when
viewed from the rear. Data and control cabling can enter from either side although they are closer
to the left. The unit may be placed on a table or suitable surface as required.
¬ CAUTION: There are no user-serviceable parts or configuration settings located
inside the PSM-500 modem case. There is a shock hazard internally at the power supply
module. DO NOT open the modem case unless power is removed for option installation.
¬ CAUTION: Before initially applying power to the modem, it is a good idea to
disconnect the transmit output from the operating satellite ground station equipment. This
is especially true if the current modem configuration settings are unknown, where
incorrect setting could disrupt existing communications traffic.
2.1 Unpacking
The PSM-500 Modem was carefully packed to avoid damage and should arrive complete with the
following items for proper installation:
1. PSM-500 Modem Unit. L-Band Units may include an external BUC power supply.
2. Power Cord, 6 foot with applicable AC connector.
3. Installation and Operation Manual plus other information on CD.
2.1.1 Removal and Assembly
If using a knife or cutting blade to open the carton, exercise caution to ensure that the blade does
not extend into the carton, but only cuts the tape holding the carton closed. Carefully unpack the
unit and ensure that all of the above items are in the carton. If the Prime AC power available at the
installation site requires a different power cord/AC connector, then arrangements to receive the
proper device will be necessary before proceeding with the installation.
The PSM-500 Modem unit is shipped fully assembled and does not require removal of the covers
for any purpose in normal installation. All normal hardware configuration, including setting the data
interface type and IF impedance is under software control. The type of Feature Sets, FEC Options
and Interface Options installed can be read from the LCD display on the front panel under <Unit:
Status – > column by scrolling down after initial application of power.
Should the power cable AC connector be of the wrong type for the installation, either the cable or
the power connector end should be replaced. The power supply itself is designed for world-wide
application using from 90 to 264 VAC (100 to 240 VAC +/- 10%).
2.2 Mounting Considerations
When mounted in an equipment rack, adequate ventilation must be provided. The ambient
temperature in the rack should preferably be between 10 and 35° C, and held constant for best
equipment operation. The air available to the rack should be clean and relatively dry. The modem
units may be stacked one on top of the other to a maximum of 10 consecutive units before
Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 2-2 PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.90
providing a 1 RU space for airflow. Modem units should not be placed immediately above a high
heat or EMF generator to ensure the output signal integrity and proper receive operation.
Do not mount the PSM-500 in an unprotected outdoor location where there is direct contact with
rain, snow, wind or sun. The modem is designed for indoor applications only.
The only tools required for rack mounting the PSM-500 is a set of four rack mounting screws and
an appropriate screwdriver. Rack mount brackets are an integral part of the front panel plate of
the unit and are not removable.
The following interface connections should be available at the mounting location as a minimum:
1. Prime AC power.
2. A 75O Transmit IF cable with BNC male connector. (50O optional) or a 50O Transmit
IF cable with type N male connector for the L-Band version.
3. A 75O Receive IF cable with BNC male connector. (50O optional)
or a 75O Receive IF cable with type F male connector for the L-Band versions.
4. A Terrestrial data interface cable to mate with the modem or installed option; either a
37-pin male “D” sub connector for all standard or appropriate connector for an
optional interface (such as G.703 or Ethernet 10 Base T).
Other optional connections are shown below.
2.3 Modem Connections
All modem connections are made to labeled connectors located on the rear of the unit: The
connector definitions below are those on the modem unit. Any connection interfacing to the
modem must be the appropriate mating connector. Cabling and Connections are detailed in
Appendix C, “Cabling Specifications”. Refer to Figure 2-1 to locate the following connectors:
Prime AC power to the far left IEC male input at J1:
90 to 260 VAC, 47 – 63 Hz.
Maximum unit power consumption is 50 Watts (Typical < 30 Watts).
Integral switch provided as part of power entry connector.
Chassis ground connection at #8 stud location J2.
Data Interface Connection at Data Connector J3:
Standard RS–449 Connector (37-pin female “D” sub connector).
DB25 adaptor cable supplied with modem for V.35, EIA 530, RS-232.
Alarm Connection at 9-pin male “D” connector J5.
RS–485 Control Port connection at 9-pin female “D” sub connector J6:
Shield ground on pin 15
Transmit A on pin 6 (output from modem)
Transmit B on pin 1. (output from modem)
Receive A on pin 9 (input to modem)
Receive B on pin 8. (input to modem)
OR
RS–232 Control port connection at 9-pin female “D” sub connector J6:
Transmit on pin 3 (input to modem)
Receive on pin 2 (output from modem)
Common on pin 5.

PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 2-3
The Modulator 70 MHz IF Output at female BNC J7
50 – 90 MHz
Programmable +5 to –35 dBm output at 75O
Programmable +3 to –35 dBm output at 50O.
The L-Band Modulator (PSM-500L) L-Band IF Output at female Type N J7
950 – 1750 MHz
Programmable +3 to –35 dBm output at 50O.
BUC Power Source (normally 24VDC @ <4A) to be output on this connector. Various
supplies are available and all are connected to the 5 pin DIN connector at J10.
Programmable 10 MHz Reference signal to be output on this connector.

¬ CAUTION!: Extreme Care should be exercised when connecting test
equipment in the transmit line either directly to the modem output or within the
line to the BUC. The voltage present to power the BUC can cause severe damage
to the input of test equipment like spectrum analyzers. A DC Block device is
highly recommended for test equipment connection.

¬ CAUTION!: Extreme Care should be exercised when handling the transmit
cable as it is possible to have hazardous voltages on the transmit line. When
higher voltages are used to supply BUCs that require 48VDC the transmit line can
seriously injure personnel.

To avoid injury or equipment damage unplug the L-Band modem
and BUC power supply whenever the transmit cable is
disconnected!

The L-Band Modulator (PSM-500L) Block Up Converter Power Supply at J10
12 to 56 Volts DC, up to 6 Amp capability.
Programmable enable and disable onto the transmit cable at J7
The BUC Power Status LED next to J7 shows the status as follows
Red – No voltage sensed on DIN input connector or power is input and the
enabled but the cable to the BUC is shorted.
Green – Power sensed and enabled (connected) to transmit cable
Off – Power sensed but disabled (disconnected) from transmit cable.
The Demodulator 70 MHz IF Input at female BNC J9, 50 – 90 MHz
–20 to –60 dBm input at 75 or 50O. (to –84 dBm at lower bit rates)
The L-Band Demodulator (/L) L-Band IF Input at female Type F J9
950 – 1900 MHz
–20 to –60 dBm input at 75O. (to –100 dBm at lower bit rates)
Programmable 0, 13VDC or 18VDC @ <500mA to be output on this connector
Programmable 10 MHz Reference signal to be output on this connector.

¬ CAUTION: Extreme Care should be exercised when connecting test
equipment in the receive line to the LNB. The voltage present to power the LNB
can cause severe damage to the input of test equipment like spectrum analyzers.
A DC Block device is highly recommended for test equipment connection.
The Modem External Reference Input at female BNC J8
1, 5, 9 or 10 MHz input
+10 to –15 dBm input level at 50O (normally a sine wave).
Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 2-4 PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.90
The ESC channel connection at 37-pin male “D” sub connector J4 (AUX). (When the optional
IBS multiplexer is enabled). See Appendix C, “Cabling Specifications” for the pins used
for each of the following interfaces available on the “AUX” connector.

RS-232 Standard Mode Connection (synchronous)
RS-232 Transmit on pin 4 (input to modem, sampled on rising clock edge)
RS-232 Transmit Clock on pin 13 (output from modem)
RS-232 Receive on pin 6 (output from modem, changes on falling clock edge)
RS-232 Receive Clock on pin 7 (output from modem)
RS-232 Enhanced/Custom Mode Connection:
RS-232 Transmit on pin 4 (input to modem)
RS-232 Receive on pin 6 (output from modem)
RS-232 CTS on pin 7 (output from modem)
RS-232 RTS on pin 9 (input to modem)
RS-232 DSR on pin 11 (output from modem)
RS-232 DTR on pin 12 (input to modem)
RS-232 DCD on pin 13 (output from modem)
RS-485 Connection:
RS-485 Receive A on pin 11 (output from modem)
RS-485 Receive B on pin 6. (output from modem)
RS-485 Transmit A on pin 12 (input to modem)
RS-485 Transmit B on pin 4. (input to modem)
User Remote Facility Control channel A
Pin 33 - RFC channel A Input (TTL, Internal 1mA Pull-Up)
Pin 34 - RFC channel A Form-C Common
Pin 35 - RFC channel A Form-C N.C.
Pin 16 - RFC channel A Form-C N.O.
User Remote Facility Control channel B
Pin 15 - RFC channel B Input (TTL, Internal 1mA Pull-Up)
Pin 17 - RFC channel B Form-C Common
Pin 18 - RFC channel B Form-C N.C.
Pin 36 - RFC channel B Form-C N.O.
Grounds
Pins 14, 19, 20, 32, 37
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 2-5
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Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 2-6 PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.90
2.3.1 Data Interface Pin Connections
The unit is supplied with an electronically programmable data interface assembly. Table 2-1
shows the pin assignments for the possible standard interfaces. Additional information aiding the
creation of “adaptor” cables from the unit‟s 37-pin female “D” sub connector to other types of
interface connections such as V.35 “Winchester” type connector standard pin-outs or RS-232 type
DB25 connector is presented in Appendix C “Cabling Specifications”.

Table 2–1 Data Interface
Connector J3 Pin Assignment by Signal
Modem
Pin #
RS–449 Signal Name V.35, V.36 Signal
Name
RS-232 Signal Name
*(5)
Eia-530 Signal Name Direction
1 Shield (GND) Shield (GND) Shield (GND) SHD (GND) GND (4)
4 Transmit Data (A) – SD A (SD-)
SD
TD A Input
22 Transmit Data (B) + SD B (SD+)

TD B Input
5 Transmit Clock (A) – SCT A (ST-)
ST
TTSETC A Output
23 Transmit Clock (B) + SCT B (ST+)

TSETC B Output
6 Receive Data (A) – RD A (RD-)
RD
RD A Output
24 Receive Data (B) + RD B (RD+)

RD B Output
8 Receive Clock (A) – SCR A (RT-)
RT
RSETC A Output
26 Receive Clock (B) + SCR B (RT+)

RSETC B Output
7 RTS (A) – RTS RTS RTS A Input
25 RTS (B) +

RTS B Input
9 CTS (A) – CTS
CTS
CTS A Output
27 CTS (B) +

CTS B Output
11 Data Mode (A) – DSR
DCR
DCR A Output
29 Data Mode (B) +

DCR B Output
12 TR (A) – DTR DTR DTR A Input
30 TR (B) +

DTR B Input
13 Receive Ready (A) – RLSD RLSD RLSD A Output
31 Receive Ready (B) +

RLSD B Output
17 Terminal Timing (A) – SCTE A (TT-)
TSETT
TSETT A Input
35 Terminal Timing (B) + SCTE B (TT+) TSETT B Input
3 External data Clock
(transmit data clock or
receive FIFO Buffer
output Clock (A) – *(3)
Ext Data/FIFO Clock
A (-)*(3)
Ext Data/FIFO Clock
A (-)*(3)
Ext Data/FIFO Clock
A (-)*(3)
Input
21 External data Clock
(transmit data clock or
receive FIFO Buffer
output Clock (B) + *(3)
Ext Data/FIFO Clock
B (+)*(3)
Ext Data/FIFO Clock
B (+)*(3)
Ext Data/FIFO Clock
B (+)*(3)
Input
19 Signal GND SIG GND GND SGND GND
20 Common Chassis GND
10 Mod Fault Alarm *(2) Mod Fault Alarm *(2) Mod Fault Alarm *(2) Mod Fault Alarm *(2) OC TTL
output
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 2-7
Table 2–1 Data Interface
Connector J3 Pin Assignment by Signal
Modem
Pin #
RS–449 Signal Name V.35, V.36 Signal
Name
RS-232 Signal Name
*(5)
Eia-530 Signal Name Direction
28 Demod Fault Alarm
*(2)
Demod Fault Alarm
*(2)
Demod Fault Alarm
*(2)
Demod Fault Alarm
*(2)
OC TTL
output
32 Aux RS-232 Receive
*(1)
Aux RS-232 Receive
*(1)
Aux RS-232 Receive
*(1)
Aux RS-232 Receive
*(1)
Input
34 Aux RS-232 Transmit
*(1)
Aux RS-232 Transmit
*(1)
Aux RS-232 Transmit
*(1)
Aux RS-232 Transmit
*(1)
Output
37 Send Common GND

Notes on Data Interface Connections:
1. If Automatic Uplink Power Control is provided by an external multiplexer the control
channel may use the Aux RS-232 signal lines. These lines are however dedicated when
the 1:1 redundancy mode is enabled for inter-modem communications.
2. The modulator and demodulator fault alarms are Open Collector TTL outputs used to
interface to redundancy control equipment.
3. The External Data/FIFO clock pins are an input to the modem. An input at the receive
data rate can be used to clock data out of the demodulator FIFO buffer. An input at the
transmit data rate can be used to provide a transmit send timing clock which the modem
will phase locked to (if within acceptable range). The send timing signal is still an output
from the modem, but in this case will be at the input signal rate. Both functions can be
used simultaneously if the transmit and receive data rates are the same.
4. The Shield is normally connected to the cables shield at one end of the cable only.
Connecting at the DCE end only prevents ground loop currents being carried on the
shield.
5. The synchronous RS-232 connection is limited to 128 kbps.
2.3.1.1 Connecting the Data Interface to Other Equipment
The PSM-500 physical connector is that of an RS-449 interface. The electrical interface however
can be changed under front panel or remote program control to include the types of interfaces
shown above. Connecting the Data Interface to other types of equipment involves building cables
between the PSM-500 and that other equipment‟s physical interface. Refer to Appendix C,
“Cabling Specifications” for more information on building and connecting these cables.
2.3.2 Remote Control Connection
The modem has a command interface serial control port which can be configured for either of two
electrical interface modes of operation. Both are located on the rear panel 9-pin female “D” sub
connector J6. Connection to either the RS–232 or RS–485 is selected by connecting to the proper
set of pins as shown in table 2-4, and setting the remote mode as applicable via the front panel
control. If the user desires a 2 wire RS-485 bus then the transmit and receive 485 lines should be
externally connected together (1 to 8 and 6 to 9).

The USB type B connection is also available for use as a remote control connection, although its
primary purpose is loading new firmware. Computers that do not have an available RS-232 port
could use of this port for control, but it requires that a special USB device driver be loaded into the
computer to access the modem via this port. This driver makes the control port appear similar to a
serial port. The latest driver is available on our web site.
Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 2-8 PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.90

Table 2–2.
Remote Control Connector J6 Pin Assignment
P2 Pin # Signal Name Use Direction
1 Transmit B RS–485 Transmit Data (B) + Output
2 Transmit RS–232 Transmit Signal Output
3 Receive RS–232 Receive Signal Input
4 Not Used
5 Common RS-232 Signal Common I/O
6 Transmit A RS-485 Transmit Data (A) - Output
7 Not Used
8 Receive B RS-485 Receive Data (B) + Input
9 Receive A RS-485 Receive Data (A) - Input

Refer to Appendix C, “Cabling Specifications” for information on making a remote control cable.
2.3.3 Alarm Connection
The modem has two form-C dry contact alarm relays on board and an alarm connector located on
the rear panel, the 9-pin male “D” sub connector J5.
The two relays are designated “A” and “B” and the particular alarms that are summarized on each
relay are programmable from the front panel of the unit or via remote control. Connection to the A
and B relays is via the proper set of pins as shown in Table 2-5 below and programming the
applicable alarm entries via the front panel control or remote control. Non-Alarm is defined as the
powered state of the relay resulting in an alarm when power is lost.
The analog monitor output is programmable from the front panel to select either receive Eb/No,
receive AGC voltage or transmit output power.




Table 2–3.
Alarm Connector J5 Pin Assignment
J5 Pin # Connection
1 Relay A - NO on Alarm
2 Relay A - Common
3 Relay A - NC on Alarm
4 No Connection
5 Analog Monitor Output (1kOhm)
6 GND for analog monitor
7 Relay B - NO on Alarm
8 Relay B - Common
9 Relay B - NC on Alarm
Note:
By convention “NO”
means Normally Open, and
“NC” means Normally
Closed.
Both conditions are the
non-powered, Alarm State.

PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 2-9

2.3.4 Auxiliary (AUX) Connection
The modem has an auxiliary connector located on the rear panel, the 37-pin male “D” sub
connector J4. The pin-out of this connector is determined by option board(s) installed in the
modem; for example a multiplexer option would present overhead channel and analog channel
inputs at this connector. The pin definitions are defined in the addendum related to installed
options, for example when the IBS Multiplexer/Reed-Solomon option card is installed the I/O on
connector J4 is defined in Appendix RS.
2.3.5 L-Band BUC Power Connection/PSM-500L
The PSM-500L modem has a 5 pin circular DIN connector at the rear panel J11. This connector is
used to connect an auxiliary DC supply to power Block Up Converters that accept DC power via
the transmit line. This connector applies the input voltage to the transmit cable via a relay internal
to the modem and a “Bias-T” circuit. The relay is under processor control and can be enabled or
disabled using the front panel or remote control. The processor also reads the voltage and current
applied to the BUC and can create alarms in addition to reading voltage and current at the front
panel. The power connector pin-out and rear panel LED (labeled “BUC Power Status”) meanings
are shown below.












2.3.6 Redundancy Connection
The modem is capable of operating in a limited 1:1 redundancy protection mode without the use
of a separate redundancy switch. It does require specific minimal facilities at the transmit and
receive IF signal connections and at the terrestrial data connection. These are a combiner at the
transmit IF, a splitter at the receive IF and a “Y” cable at the terrestrial data connection. With this
connection scheme the switching is only performed on the outputs from the modem. The modem
IF and data inputs are always available at the modem allowing internal circuitry to determine if one
modem is correctly accepting and “locking” to the input signals while the other is unable to if in a
failed state.
The two modems communicate with each other over the data “Y” cable. In this cable all
connections are 1 to 1 except the auxiliary RS-232 transmit and receive lines. These two lines are
swapped between the two modems allowing them to talk over an auxiliary serial link. Specifics of
this cable wiring are shown in Appendix C, “Cabling Specifications”. Operation of the data
interface connected in parallel depends upon the programmable interface drivers to be tri-stated
and the receivers to be set in an un-terminated mode. This is accomplished under control of the
modem‟s internal software.
Table 2–4. BUC
Power
Connector J11
Pin Assignment
J11 Pin # Connection
1 Ground
2 Ground
3 V+
4 Ground
5 V+
¬ Caution: The BUC power input is DC
Only, 60 VDC maximum, 6 Amps maximum.
The power input is only intended for
positive voltages with respect to ground.
Rear Panel BUC Status Indicator
Red – No voltage sensed on DIN input
connector or power is input and enabled
but the cable to the BUC is shorted.
Green – Power sensed and enabled
(connected) to transmit cable.
Off – Power sensed but disabled
(disconnected) from transmit cable.
1
3
2

4

5

Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 2-10 PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.90
Note: The two modems should be at the same firmware revision for proper redundant operation.
The two modems operate in a “non-priority” redundancy mode, that is, no modem is specified as
“primary”, or having preference when both modems are operational. The first modem turned on
assumes a non-redundancy mode until the second connected unit is powered up. The on-line unit
can be set to send its configuration information to a second unit via the front panel. The modems
will remain in this state, constantly sending status information back and forth until one unit
indicates a failure. If that modem is currently on line, it is switched off-line and the alternate unit is
switch on.
The modem is also capable of operating in 1:N and M:N redundancy switching schemes. The
necessary connections to monitor and control switching are available on the data connector itself
in the form of the modulator and demodulator fault outputs and the auxiliary RS-232 control port.
The alarm outputs are also available. The other facility provided to aid in these redundancy
schemes is the ability to save and recall configuration information. Thus a back-up modem can
obtain and save the configurations from 8 other modems and switch immediately to the necessary
parameters to replace any of those units by simply recalling that unit‟s stored configuration. In
addition, the programmable interface and common physical data connector allows different
interface protocols between the primary modems.
A diagram of the connections required for installing 1:1 redundancy is shown in the figure below.
Modem A
Modem B
Aux Xmt
Aux Rcv
Aux Xmt
Aux Rcv
Transmit
IF
Combiner
Receive IF
Splitter
Data "Y" Cable Paired Modems
Station IF
Equipment
Xmt IF
Xmt IF
Rcv IF
Rcv IF

Figure 2-2 - Modem Connections for 1:1 Redundancy
It is important in L-Band systems to use special splitters and combiners that have the ability to
pass DC used to power the BUC and LNB with sufficient current capacity. One type of these is
termed “Wilkinson” combiners. For the lower power receive LNB connection there are low cost
DC pass combiners that may be suitable. Visit our web site for recommendations.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 2-11
2.3.6.1 Set-Up Procedure for 1:1 Redundancy
If redundancy mode is to be set up between a pair of modems then the following procedure is
followed during installation, other wise this section can be skipped. In overview the procedure is:
1. Physically install both units to be paired and connect the IF transmit and receive
coaxial cables and data cables to both units. The special data “Y” cable is connected
between the redundant pair. For convenience we will arbitrarily call one modem
“Primary” and the other “Secondary”.
2. Power-up and configure the primary modem completely for the intended operating
parameters, including setting the <Unit: Redundancy – Mode> parameter to “1:1”.
This initial unit should not be in alarm. The second unit should still be turned off.
3. Turn the power on the secondary unit on.
4. Go to the primary unit menu item <Unit: Redundancy – Config> and press the “Edit”
key. The on-line unit will ask permission to transfer configuration to the second unit
with the prompt “Config Backup?” Confirm by pressing “Enter”. The primary unit
should say “Sending Config” for approximately 1 second. If the transfer of any packet
results in an error, a “Send Fail” message will be displayed, but transfer will continue.
5. Verify that the units are functioning correctly in redundancy mode. Go to the <Unit:
Status – Redundancy> item in both units. The on-line unit will say “On-Line, Bckup
OK” while the off-line unit will say “Standby, OK”.
Physical installation of the two units is best accomplished with one unit directly above the other in
the rack. This allows the status of the two modems to be seen together and avoids confusion.
Care should be taken that both units are not turned on in a non-redundant configuration with the
“Y” data cable installed. This will result in the two unit‟s data output drivers possibly conflicting and
causing damage.
During configuration of the primary unit several new parameters will become available after the
mode is set to 1:1. In addition to the <Unit: Redundcy - Config> parameter of step 4 above there
will also be parameters that allow the alarms and timing to be configured for the application. The
default values for these parameters are probably good in most installations, but they may require
specific configuration, especially if the unit had been configured for another unique application.
These new parameters are:
- <Unit: Redundncy – Sw Rqst> This parameter allows you to determine which alarm
indications result in a switch request. The possible selections are “On Any Alarm”, “On
Alarm A”, “On Alarm B”, or “On Alarm A & B”. Since the specific alarms which comprise
Alarm A and Alarm B are programmable themselves, then a switch request is highly
programmable itself. For most applications though the default “On Any Alarm” is a
preferred selection.
- <Unit: Redundncy – Sw Hold> This parameter determines how long an alarm must exist
on the on-line unit and not the off-line unit before switching will occur. Allowable values
are 0.0 to 600.0 seconds. The value could be set to zero, but this is not advised. A
nominal value of 0.5 seconds insures that intermittent cases do not cause undue
switching. A built in factor of 10 seconds is provided once a switch has occurred before a
switch back to the original unit is allowed (except in the case of a manual switch request
or loss of power in the on-line unit which requires 2 seconds).
Teardown or un-pairing of two redundant units is accomplished by turning both units off before
removing the “Y” cable. Then power on and set the <Unit: Redundancy – Mode> to “Disabled”.
A unique case can arise when both units are off-line and powered up at the same time. They will
probably go out of alarm at virtually the same time. In such tie cases, which unit will be placed on
line is determined by the unit serial numbers, where the highest serial number wins the tie.
Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 2-12 PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.90
2.4 Modem Checkout
The following descriptions assume that the modem is installed in a suitable location with prime AC
power and supporting equipment available.
2.4.1 Initial Power-Up
¬ CAUTION: Before initial power-up of the modem, it is a good idea to disconnect the
transmit output from the operating satellite ground station equipment. This is especially
true if the current modem configuration settings are unknown, where incorrect setting
could disrupt existing communications traffic. New modems from the factory are normally
shipped in a default configuration which includes setting the transmit carrier off.
Turn the unit “ON” by placing the rear panel switch (above the power entry connector) to the “ON”
position. At every power-up, the modem processor tests itself and several of its components
before beginning its main monitor/control program. These power-up diagnostics take
approximately 1 second and show no results if successful. If a failure is detected, the indications
vary by the type of fault detected. A serious failure will result in the front panel Alarm LEDs
flashing at a rate of approximately 4 times a second, and the unit beeper sounding.
Most potential failures will result in the modem giving a verbal indication of the problem on the
front panel LCD display. Status indications are shown highest priority first.
The initial field checkout of the modem can be accomplished from the front panel or in the
Terminal Mode. The Terminal Mode has the advantage of providing full screen access to all of the
modem‟s parameters, but requires a separate VT100 terminal or computer running a terminal
program in VT100 or ANSI mode. The modem unit is placed into terminal mode by setting two
options via the front panel. First set the <Unit: Remote – Protocol> parameter to “VT100” (option
0), then set the <Unit: Remote – Port> parameter to “RS–232” (option 0). The <Unit: Remote –
Bit Rate> and Format also require setting to match the terminal settings. The <Unit: Remote –
Address> serves no function in the Terminal mode. See below for a quick introduction on the use
of the front panel and steps for entering parameters.
2.5 Modem Control from the Front Panel
The front panel can be used to completely control the modem setup and operating parameters.
Front panel control of the modem is more thoroughly discussed in the Operations Section, 3.1.3
“Guide to Front Panel Monitor and Control”, but a quick introduction to the front panel operations
is given here to allow initial setup. The Navigation figure in Section 3.1.3 is especially useful.
The modem parameters are arranged in four matrices, one each for “Unit”, “Mod”, “Demod” and
“Int‟f”, representing Unit, Modulator, Demodulator and Interface. Each matrix is 4 to 10 columns
wide and up to 20 rows long as shown in the parameter matrix tables. The particular functional
matrix is selected by pressing one of the four buttons to the immediate right of the LCD display. In
response the modem will highlight the particular button text selected. Within each matrix the
columns designation is shown in the upper left hand corner of the LCD Display and is selected
using the left and right arrow keys. Columns common to all matrices are “Status”, “Alarm” and
“Test”, while others vary by the parameters required. The particular parameter within a column is
shown in the upper right hand of the LCD display and is selected using the up and down arrow
keys. The LCD display allows viewing only one of the many parameters at one time, while the four
arrow keys (|), (|), (÷), (÷), allow scrolling through the rows and columns of the parameter
matrix. The complete matrix is shown as Tables 3-1 through 3-4 in Chapter 3, “Operation” of this
manual.
In this manual operation of the keypad to access a certain parameter is shown in the format
<Function: Column – Row>. For example, to get to the Modulator IF Level the method is to
press the “Mod” key then use the left and right arrow keys to access the “IF” column and the up
and down arrow keys to arrive at the “Level” parameter. This is shown by convention in this
manual as <Mod: IF – Level>
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 2-13
2.5.1 Parameter Setup
Each individual item that may be read or set is referred to as a “parameter”. Parameters are
arranged in a matrix of rows and columns. To set any parameter:
1. Select the functional matrix by choosing one of the four function keys; Unit, Mod, Dem
and Int‟f.
2. Select the parameter to be set using the four arrow keys to the right of the LCD display.
The Left and right arrow keys control the column of the matrix and is shown in the upper
left position of the LCD display. The up and down arrow keys control the row of the matrix
and is shown in the upper right of the LCD display. Then
3. Press the “Edit” key to indicate that a new entry is desired (If the “Quick” keyboard entry is
enabled this step may be skipped), next
4. Set the parameter via the numeric keypad, and
5. Finalize the data entry using the “Enter” key.
The current input can be canceled by pressing the “Clear” key at any time before pressing “Enter”.
When the entry involves selection of one of several choices; this is accomplished by either:
1. Use the up and down arrow keys to scroll though the available options, pressing “Enter”
when the desired option is displayed. When scrolling though the available options the
current setting is denoted by an arrow in the left column position, or
2. Pressing an option number selection (0 to max. where max. may be 1 to 8), then pressing
the “Enter” key. This method is faster when the option scheme becomes more familiar.
For instance, all options that can be enabled or disabled use “1” to enable and “0” to
disable. Note that the “yes” and “no” below the 1 and 0 key aid this convention.
Following a valid input, the modem will place the new setting into the nonvolatile EEPROM making
it available immediately and also automatically the next time the unit is powered on.
2.6 Modem Terminal Mode Control
The modem can be interactively monitored and controlled in the VT100 Terminal mode, with a full
screen presentation of current settings and status. Programming is accomplished by selecting the
item to be modified and pressing the terminal key of the option letter “A” through “Z”. For example,
to change the transmit data rate, press the terminal's “A” key (upper case is not necessary for
letters). The modem will respond by presenting the options available and requesting input. Two
types of input may be requested. If the input is multiple choice, the desired choice is selected by
pressing the indicated number key. This input type does not require pressing the “Enter” or
carriage return key. The other possible input type requires a numerical input (such as entering a
frequency or data rate). This type of input is followed by pressing the “Enter” or carriage return
key. An input can be aborted at any time by pressing the “TAB” key. Invalid input keys are
signaled by a beep or bell signal from the terminal. Note that the “ESC” key is not used to escape
or cancel an input because the common ANSI and VT100 terminal control sequences use the
escape character to flag start of sequence.
Following a valid input, the modem will place the new setting into the nonvolatile EEPROM making
it available not only immediately but also automatically the next time the unit is powered up.
2.7 Self-Test Mode
¬ CAUTION: The Self-Test Mode will disconnect the transmit and receive IF from the
ground station equipment and will therefore disrupt any traffic currently through the PSM-
500 under test. This Test Mode should not be used on a live traffic unit.
Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 2-14 PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.90
The PSM-500 provides a built–in self-test mode which uses the IF Loop-back and a predefined
sequence of actions to test the basic modem operation. This test mode can be used to verify
correct functioning of the modem before placing it into service. The modem is placed into self-test
mode by using the front panel controls to initiate the test mode sequence.
The Self-Test Mode does not use or change the current configuration parameters, and returns to
these parameters after the test is completed.
To access the Self-Test Mode from the front panel, select “Unit” and use the right arrow key to
scroll to the “Test” column of the configuration matrix and then scroll down until “Test Modem” is
displayed. Then press “Edit”, the “3” key then “Enter” to start the test. The modem self-test only
requires approximately one minute. This tests both the lamp and unit functioning. Just the lamp
test is performed by selecting “1” above or the Loop tests by selecting “2” above.
If any portion of the self-test fails, the modem will halt on the failed test and enter a loop with 4
short “beeps” then pause for several seconds and repeat the 4 short beeps.
The Self-Test Mode state is not stored in EEPROM, therefore if the unit is powered off during
Self-Test Mode it will be configured for Self-Test Mode disabled when powered up again
2.8 IF Loop-back Test Mode
¬ CAUTION: The IF Loop-back Mode will disconnect the receive IF from the ground
station equipment and will therefore disrupt any traffic currently through the PSM-500
under test. The transmit output is still active if it was enabled before initiating an IF Loop-
back. This Test Mode should not be used on a live traffic unit.
The PSM-500 provides a built–in IF loop-back mode which couples the transmit output to the
receive input via physical relays at the modem IF and an internal attenuator to achieve proper
input levels. This mode can be used to test modem operation with data, for instance using a BER
test set, before going up on the satellite.
The IF Loop-back Test Mode uses the current modulator carrier frequency (plus offset setting)
only and sets the demodulator to the same carrier frequency setting when in loop-back. The user
is responsible for all other compatible settings in order for the modulator and demodulator to
operate properly. When the IF Loop-back Test Mode is disabled, the demodulator carrier
frequency is returned to that stored in EEPROM (present before Loop-back was initiated).
To access the IF Loop-back Mode using the front panel, select the “Demod” and use the arrow
keys to scroll to the “Test” column of the configuration matrix and then scroll down until “IF
Loopbck” is displayed. Then press “Edit”, the “1” key for enable and then “Enter” to enable the IF
Loop-back. When finished using this mode, return to the “Test - IF Loop” position and press the
“0” option key to disable.
2.8.1 Built-in BERT
When in IF Loop-back mode a Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) can also be performed using the
modem‟s built in BER test capabilities. The transmit and receive BERTs are independent and are
enabled in the <Int’f: Test – Mod BER> and <Int’f: Test – Dem BER> parameters. Note this
convention for accessing a parameter. It means press the “Int‟f” key (if not already set) and scroll
left or right to the Test column and then up or down until the LCD displays ”Test – Mod BER” on
the upper line. The BER test is enabled by pressing “Edit” and then pressing either “1” for a “2047”
pattern or “2” for a “2^23-1” pattern. The “0” key will disable the BER test mode. BERT test
readings are displayed in the <Int’f: Status - BER> parameter and the 6 items below it.
Since there is no noise added in the IF Loop-back mode the BER results should show no errors.
This test is more useful once the modem is configured and a Loop-back over the satellite is
performed by setting the receive frequency to that output by the modulator.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 2-15
The IF Loop-back state and the BERT state are both stored in EEPROM, therefore if the unit is
powered off during IF loop-back and/or BERT test it will return to this state when powered up
again.
More information on the BERT functions is given in Section 4.1.2 “Using the Built-in BERT”.
2.9 Modem Configuration
Configuring the PSM-500 Modem operating parameters is essential before placing the unit into
service. The PSM-500 Modem operating parameters may be set up using the front panel, the
USB or the terminal command mode. The binary remote control input may also be used if the
remote interface parameters are already known and set.
2.9.0 Configuring the Modem for Operation
The following description assumes that the modem setup is to be done manually at a depot
location or in the field via the front panel. Alternately, the modem could be automatically set up
using a controller and the command interface. No software is provided for such an external control
application and therefore this task is the responsibility of the using organization.
2.9.1 Setting Essential Parameters
The setting of several basic parameters is essential to achieve proper operation and carrier lock
with the modem. Improper setting of any of these parameters will probably result in failure to
communicate with the far end of the link. These basic parameters are listed here to serve as a
minimum checklist for installation.
Modulator and Demodulator
1. Carrier Frequency (Note special procedures below available for L-Band interfaces.)
2. Modulation Mode (BPSK or QPSK)
3. Bit Rate
4. FEC Code Rate
5. Scrambler (Normally Enabled in IESS 308/309 mode – See “Using The Proper
Scramble” below)
6. Clock sources set per system requirements.
7. Reed-Solomon Codec settings if enabled
8. IBS Multiplexer settings if enabled
9. External reference set properly
10. Modulator and Demodulator functions enabled
Modulator
1. Output Level
2. Carrier Enable
3. The L-Band modem can also supply power and reference to a BUC.
Demodulator
1. Carrier Acquisition Mode and Acquisition Range
2. The L-Band modems with L-Band Receive can be set to supply power at either 13 or
18 VDC and/or a 10 MHz reference signal on the receive input connector for coupling
to the LNB via the receive cable.

Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 2-16 PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.90
2.9.1.1 IBS Multiplexer and Reed-Solomon Selection
The PSM-500 Modem contains on-board circuitry implementing either an IBS Multiplexer or a
Reed-Solomon concatenated FEC capability independently.
The IBS Multiplexer and Reed-Solomon functions are independent and each can be enabled and
disabled as required. The Modulator (Transmit) and Demodulator (Receive) functions of each
option are also independent and can be enabled and disabled as required.
For additional information on the configuration of the IBS Multiplexer/Reed-Solomon capabilities
refer to Appendix RS.
2.9.1.2 Using the Proper Scrambler
The PSM-500 modems now have had an “Auto” mode used to automatically select the preferred
scrambler setting in any FEC or other dependent mode. This replaces the previous “IESS 308” or
“IESS-309” auto modes used in the PSM-4900. There is no IESS Standard covering the Turbo
Product Codes FEC. The Auto mode is highly recommended. Following is the setting chosen by
the modem when in Auto Scrambler mode:
- When TPC is either not installed or not enabled the preferred scrambler and descrambler
is automatically selected to “IESS 308” or “IESS 309”. See below for the difference.
- When TPC is enabled but the IBS multiplexer option is not installed or not enabled “Auto”
uses the new Scrambler and Descrambler option #7 “TPC Sync” this uses a synchronous
scrambler specific to the TPC Codec.
- When both TPC and IBS multiplexer are installed and enabled Auto uses the “IESS 308”
option.
Remember that the scrambler and descrambler may be set independently in each link direction.
IESS-308 Scrambler Mode Operation
- With no mux or RS then the self-synchronizing Intelsat scrambler is enabled.
- With just the IBS mux enabled then the IBS synchronous scrambler is used
- With just the R-S enabled then the R-S synchronous scrambler is used
- With both IBS Mux and R-S enabled then the IBS synchronous scrambler is used.
IESS-309 Scrambler Mode Operation
The operation is the same as the IESS-308 option with the exception that
- With just R-S enabled then the self-synchronizing Intelsat scrambler is used.
Fixed Scrambler Mode Operation
The V.35 and Intelsat scrambler modes use the V.35 and Intelsat self-synchronizing scramblers
respectively in all modes.
Alternate Scrambler Mode Operation
The alternate V.35 and alternate Intelsat scrambler mode performs a data inversion required by
some “Comstream” modems.
2.9.1.3 Using The L-Band PSM-500L Transmit RF Frequency Feature
The PSM-500L can cover the entire satellite‟s receive range from it‟s transmit output. This output
can be tuned to any frequency on 1 Hz increments in the 950 to 1750 MHz range. The coverage
can be “projected” to the actual satellite RF frequency being transmitted at the BUC output. To
enable this feature simply supply the <Mod: BUC – LO Frequency> parameter with a value other
than “0”. When the value set here is equal to the BUC‟s LO frequency then the modem can
automatically compute the RF frequency at the BUC output.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 2-17
The PSM-500L modem will also determine if the LO is high or low side and sets the spectrum so
that it is always “Normal”, i.e. not inverted. You do not have to change the IF spectrum setting
from “Normal” to achieve this.
Note: After entering a new BUC LO frequency the modem requires a new Transmit IF
frequency input to recalculate the proper output frequency setting.
To return to using the L-Band IF frequency setting, simply enter a value of “0” into the BUC LO
parameter. A common BUC LO frequency for the C-Band 5.925 to 6.425 GHz Range is 4900 MHz
(low side LO), while a low side LO for the Ku Band 14.0 to 14.5 GHz range is 13150 MHz.
2.9.1.4 Using The L-Band & L Receive RF Frequency Feature
The L or LT models can cover the entire satellite‟s transmit range on it‟s receive input. This input
can be tuned to any frequency on 1 Hz increments in the 950 to 1900 MHz range. The coverage
can be “projected” to the actual satellite RF frequency being received at the LNB input. To enable
this feature simply supply the <Dem: LNB – LO Frequency> parameter with a value other than
“0”. When the value set here is equal to the LNB‟s LO frequency then the modem can
automatically compute the RF frequency at the LNB input.
The L/LT modems will also determine if the LO is high or low side and sets the spectrum so that it
is always “Normal”, i.e. not inverted. You do not have to change the IF spectrum setting from
“Normal” to achieve this.
Note: After entering a new LNB LO frequency the modem requires a new Receive IF
frequency input to recalculate the proper input frequency setting.
To return to using the L-Band IF frequency setting, simply enter a value of “0” into the LNB LO
parameter. A common LO frequency for the C-Band 3.7 to 4.2 GHz Range is 5150 MHz (high side
LO), while a common LO for the Ku Band 11.7 to 12.2 GHz range is 10750 MHz (low side LO).
2.9.2 Carrier Acquisition Parameters
The PSM-500 Modem has two main modes and several programmable receive carrier acquisition
parameters available. These parameters control the initial acquisition of a carrier and reacquisition
of a carrier when it has been removed and reapplied.
There are two main acquisition methods used by the PSM-500. The normal mode for fastest
possible acquisition (especially at low data rates) is the “Fast” mode which utilizes an onboard
digital signal processor (DSP) to mathematically determine the location of the carrier and lock as
fast as possible. This mode initially goes for the largest carrier power within the acquisition range.
A new acquisition attempt will always repeat the same process and go to the same carrier. The
“fast” acquisition mode is optimized for the fastest possible acquisition speed, and is set as the
default acquisition mode for the modem.
A second mode called “Search” also uses the DSP but performs a piece-wise sweep of the
programmable acquisition range to locate the carrier and lock to it. If the modem cannot lock to
the first carrier it detects it will attempt to find another carrier in the next step of frequency. The
sweep always starts at the low end of the acquisition range and moves upward, wrapping around
to the low end when the top is reached. The Search mode is optimized for crowded spectrum
applications where nearby high power carriers may interfere with the standard “Fast” acquisition
mode. To our knowledge no one has ever had a problem using the standard Fast mode over
several years with many thousands of units, but the “Search” mode is still supplied just in case.
The hybrid “Auto Narrow” and “Auto Track” modes available in previous generations of this
modem are no longer available as separate entries. The “Auto Narrow” function of initially
searching in a smaller acquisition range is incorporated into the latest version of the “Search”
mode. Setting the “Search” mode also enables a new menu item for “Sweep Time”. To be
enabled the <Dem: IF – Sweep Time> is set to a value other than 0 Seconds. Then, when a
Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 2-18 PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.90
carrier lock is lost, the modem will search in a reduced acquisition range (equal to the symbol rate
in Hertz) for the specified Sweep Time.
The “Search” acquisition mode also allows a modified version of the previous “Auto Track”
function. When in this mode the modem can be commanded to an offset from the set receive IF
frequency and the modem will begin its narrow search about that offset for the specified Sweep
Time. In this mode the Demod Offset may be set by any command method and the demodulator
will search at that point in the narrow DSP mode. (Note that in the standard fast acquisition mode
the Demod Offset is read only) This mode is intended for possible DAMA use where the offset can
be maintained to insure the fastest lock time.
The acquisition mode is set by setting the <Demod: IF - Sweep Mode> option parameter to either
“Fast” (0), or “Search” (1). The “Fast” mode is the standard setting.
2.9.2.1 Initial Acquisition
For initial acquisition, a single setting allows programming the acquisition sweep range that the
modem will search to find an available carrier. This parameter can be set from ± 100 Hz ± 1.25
MHz, where ± 30 kHz is common for standard demodulators. If all of the system offsets are
known and stable for a given installation, the initial acquisition range can be set to a low value
which will slightly reduce acquisition time, especially at low data rates. Conversely if a very “loose”
downconverter is in use such as a block down converter, for example, the initial acquisition range
can be set very wide to allow locking to a carrier well outside the range of standard modems.
Several cautions are in order here. If the acquisition range is set too small and the system offsets
drift, then a carrier may be locked out of acquisition or lost during operation. If the acquisition
range is set too wide and other compatible carriers are within the acquisition range, then the
wrong carrier may be locked.
If a Demodulator Offset frequency parameter is entered in “Search” mode, the Demodulator
carrier frequency setting plus the offset setting is used as the start point for attempting to acquire
a signal. If a sweep time has been set in the “Search” mode the modem uses the last carrier lock
offset as the initial setting.
If the demodulator lock to a signal is forcibly aborted in “Search” mode, the Demodulator will
attempt to acquire another signal immediately higher in frequency than the aborted signal. This
pseudo-sweep always progresses more positive in frequency until it reaches the upper limit of the
set acquisition range, where it will start searching again beginning at the lower limit of the set
acquisition range. This allows a user to “search” through all of the available carriers within the
acquisition range by viewing the <Dem: Lock – Status> and pressing the “Edit” or “Enter” key. At
this keypress the modem will prompt with “Enter to unlock”. Pressing “Enter” will cause the
modem to unlock and find the next higher frequency carrier within the acquisition range.
2.9.2.2 Carrier Re-acquisition
For the “Search” acquisition modes the PSM-500 attempts to find a carrier in a reduced or
“narrow” search range for a specified period of time before reverting to the standard search range.
The reduced sweep range is equal to the symbol rate in Hertz. Once the “Search” acquisition
mode is set, the “Sweep Time” Demod parameter setting controls the acquisition search time in
the reduced range.
NOTE: The Narrow sweep range is relative to the receive frequency offset that is commanded via
the remote control or front panel, or the last lock offset.
2.9.3 Sample Configuration Setting
The following procedures are used to set each of the modem‟s parameters using the front panel.
Assuming the modem is to be used in the SCPC mode for a point-to-point link with another PSM-
500, the following sample configuration is representative of the required procedures:
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PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 2-19
For easier entry we can first set the entry mode to “Quick”. Go to <Unit: Keybrd – Entry> and set
the “Quick” mode. This is the default setting.
The desired transmit operating mode is 81.275 MHz, QPSK, 56 kbps, Rate 1/2 FEC, and receive
at 81.550 MHz, BPSK, 128 kbps, Rate 1/2 FEC. This example uses different transmit and receive
parameters to illustrate several points. The other end of the link would naturally have the opposite
transmit and receive parameter settings.
The transmit parameters will be set first. With the unit powered on, press the “Mod” function
button. Next, press the left or right arrow keys until the “IF” identifier is in the upper left line of the
LCD display indicating that we are in the Modulator IF column of the parameter matrix. Now scroll
down (or up) until the upper right of the LCD display indicates “Frequency”. The value displayed in
the lower line is the current setting for the transmit frequency. A new frequency can now be
directly entered by using the numeric keypad. First indicate that a new entry is desired by pressing
the “Edit” key, which will display the current setting with the cursor set on the first available digit.
Enter a frequency in MHz not including the decimal point, entering all digits required to specify the
shown frequency, then press the “Enter” key to apply this new parameter value. In this first setting
we did not use the quick entry mode, but the following will use that mode. Note that when not
using quick entry the frequency edit function skipped over the decimal point. Late you might try
returning to the frequency setting and enter the frequency directly using quick entry and the
decimal point.
Next scroll down to the “Modulation” entry and press the “1” key to request QPSK, then press the
“Enter” key to apply this new parameter value. Scroll right to the “Data” column and down to the
“Bit Rate” parameter and press “56” and “Enter”. (Without Quick entry we would have to press
“Edit”, “0”, “0”, “5”, “6” and “Enter”. Note that if digits other than “0” had been set in positions after
the last “6” of the valid entry, then they must be overwritten with “0”s.) Last, scroll down to the
“Code Rate” parameter and press “Edit”, “0” and “Enter”.
To set the receive parameters, press the “Demod” button and the right arrow key until the “IF”
identifier is in the upper left line of the LCD display indicating that we are in the Demodulator IF
column of the parameter matrix. Now scroll down (or up) until the upper right of the LCD display
indicates “Frequency”, and press the “Edit” key. Then edit the displayed frequency to 81.55 MHz
and press “Enter”. Note that if digits other than “0” had been set in positions after the last “5” of
the valid entry, then they must be overwritten with “0”s. Scroll down to the “Modulation” entry and
press the “Edit”, the “0” key to request BPSK and press the “Enter”. Scroll right to the “Data”
column and down to the “Bit Rate” parameter and press “Edit”, “0”, “1”, “2”, “8” and “Enter”. Last
scroll down to the “Code Rate” parameter and press “Edit”, “0” and “Enter”. Next scroll left and
down in the IF list to the “Sweep Range” parameter and set the value to 30 kHz.
This configuration example has illustrated how to “navigate” through the available parameter
matrix and has shown two modes of entry for numerical and list selected values. If the Unit
keyboard Entry had been set to “Quick” then all of the parameters shown above could have been
set directly without pressing the “Edit” key first. This mode also does not require that existing
characters be overwritten when entering new data.
Using the front panel or terminal command mode, set all modem parameters as necessary for the
type of service intended. This should prepare the unit for operation. If the modem is to be
controlled by an external command controller, set the modem address properly as described in
the next section. The modem should now be ready for service in an operating satellite system.
Once all parameters have been set and verified, the transmit output can be connected to the
ground station equipment for transmission to the satellite. Verify that the alarms are extinguished
and that the demodulator has locked.
2.9.4 Setting Additional Parameters
As stated before, the basic parameter settings are essential to achieve modem operation and
carrier lock. There are many other parameters, which must be set on the PSM-500 to configure
the unit to operate within your own system. These include setting those parameters which fall into
Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 2-20 PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.90
three major categories; Data Interface compatibility; Automatic Correction for link properties; and
Alarm configuration.
2.9.4.1 Data Interface Compatibility
Mod and Demod Data Sense
Mod and Demod Clock Source
Mod and Demod Clock Phase (Default Mod Clock is now “Auto”).
Modulator RTS Enable
2.9.4.2 Automatic Correction
Automatic Uplink Power Control (if equipped)
Demod FIFO Operation
2.9.4.3 Alarm configuration
The PSM-500 Alarm system represents a sophisticated method of controlling visual, relay and
logical alarm outputs which can be used for multiple purposes including redundancy. A basic
representation of the alarm system functioning is shown in the figure below.

Individual Alarms Processing Matrix Outputs
Unit Alarms
Modulator Alarms
Demodulator Alarms
Interface Alarms
Reference
Test Active
Hardware
Carrier
Bit Clock
Test Active
Hardware
No Data
BER Loss
Test Active
Option Fail
Carrier Lock
Low Level
Low Eb/No
Test Active
Hardware
No Data
Summary Alarm
Alarm Relay A
Alarm Relay B
NC
NO
C
NC
NO
C
Front Panel
Front Panel
Data
Interface
Data
Interface
Redundancy
Switch Request
Selection
Logic
Modulator
Alarm
Demodulato
r Alarm

Figure 2-3 - Alarm Processing
There are also other possible alarm inputs depending on the modem options and configuration.
Each of the individual alarm inputs has a configuration selection parameter under the “Alarm”
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 2-21
column of its matrix. The general options available are to set the alarm to either be ignored or to
form one of the “OR” inputs to the A or B alarm relay or both. The default set-up for these alarms
is to have all the modulator related alarms assigned to Alarm A and all demodulator alarms
assigned to Alarm B. The two alarm relays could be changed to represent “Major” and “Minor”
alarms.
The open collector outputs for the modulator and demodulator alarms are available on the data
interface connector and are used by some types of redundancy switches for determining alarm
status. The modem‟s built-in redundancy switch logic uses either all alarms or combinations of the
A and B alarms to activate a switch request.
A description of each of these settings is contained in Operations, Section 3.2 and Tables 3-5
through 3-8 later in this manual. A brief description of alarm configuration is also given here.
Possible alarm sources include the following items:
1. Unit Reference missing.
2. Unit Test Active.
3. Unit Hardware Fault.
4. Transmit Carrier Off.
5. Modulator Bit Rate Lock.
6. Modulator AUPC Alarm.
7. Modulator Test Active.
8. Modulator Hardware Fault.
9. Demodulator Signal Lock.
10. Receive Input Level below AGC range.
11. Receive Low E
b
/N
o
below threshold.
12. Demod Test Active.
13. Demodulator Hardware Fault.
14. Interface Test mode Active.
15. Interface BER Test Sync Loss.
16. Backward Alarm from IBS multiplexer (if equipped).
The inputs are read by the processor and eight outputs are produced including two alarm relays,
one Modulator , one Demodulator and one Summary alarm LED on the front panel, and a
modulator and demodulator redundancy open collector alarms on the interface card, plus the
redundancy switch request. The summary Alarm LED is the OR function of either of the alarm
relays. The front panel or remote control can be used to select which of the possible alarm
sources are assigned to each of the relays or can individually ignore any of the sources. Some
modems only present alarms based upon a hardware fault in either the modulator or demodulator.
The PSM-500 allows the user to select such items as a low input level or E
b
/N
o
to activate an
alarm. By providing two relays and the configuration options, several alternative alarm scenarios
can be used. The A and B alarm relays could represent a minor and major alarm, or they could be
separated into modulator and demodulator functions, or one could be a summary alarm while the
other is a dry contact input to a redundancy control unit.
2.9.5 Using the Internal or an External Reference
The PSM-500 contains an internal Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO)
reference which determines the basic accuracy of all modem frequency and rate settings. This
internal reference is a nominal 2.0 ppm stability over normal operating temperature, and exhibits
aging less than 1 ppm per year. This is accurate for most applications, and for example, produces
a worst case transmit center output frequency accuracy of 2.0 X 10
–6
X 70 MHz X 10
6
or ±140 Hz
(176 Hz at 88 MHz). If this accuracy is not sufficient, or the network operating mode dictates, an
external reference can be used.
Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 2-22 PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.90
The L-Band modem, PSM-500L, uses an Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillator (OCXO) and the
standard unit has a 1 x 10
-7
stability and 2 to 3 x 10
-7
aging rate per year. The increased stability is
necessary because the oscillator can be used as the reference for a BUC.
The external reference frequency is applied at the rear panel BNC connector, J7, at a frequency
of 1, 5, 9 or 10 MHz. Use of the external reference and the reference frequency are selected at
the front panel from the <Unit: Ref – Source>, setting to external which then enables the entry for
<Unit: Ref – Frequency>.
The external reference input does not perform any clean-up of an input other than band-pass
filtering with a pass-band from approximately 1 to 12 MHz. The reference input should therefore
been a low noise source.
2.9.5.1 Reference Calibration
During factory testing and calibration the modem unit is compared to a known in-house reference
and calibrated. A default value is permanently stored representing this factory calibration. The unit
may be offset from this factory value by using the manual tuning or automatic recalibration.
Manual tuning of the modem‟s reference is accomplished using the <Unit: Ref – Fine Tune>
parameter and entering a value from –127 to +127
Automatic calibration of the modem‟s internal reference is accomplished by inserting a known
high accuracy reference at the rear panel “External Reference” input and enabling the <Unit: Test
– Cal Ref> item. The calibration should take several seconds and will indicate a successful
completion. If the calibration fails then the external reference was out of range in either level or
frequency.
The factory calibration may be restored by setting the <Unit: Ref – Fine Tune> value to “0”.
2.9.6 Setting the Modem Station ID Name
Each PSM-500 contains two unique identification entries available at the front panel or remotely.
They are the unit serial number and the Unit Name or “Unit ID”. The serial number is set at the
factory and cannot be changed, but the Unit ID can be set and changed whenever necessary.
This field allows identification of the modem with up to 16 characters.
The Unit ID can be set easily from the VT100 terminal mode, and with slightly more effort from the
unit front panel. To set the Unit ID, use the front panel arrow keys to scroll to the <Unit: Status –
Unit ID> parameter and pressing “Edit” to begin entry. Each character position is selected using
the right and left arrow keys, and the character at that position is set using the up and down arrow
keys. When the proper entry is achieved press the “Enter” key to finalize the input. The first
character is the “Space” followed by the characters below.

ASCII Characters Available for Unit Station ID
Char Char Char Char Char Char Char
! / . M ] l {
“ 0 ? N ^ m |
# 1 @ O _ n }
$ 2 A P „ o ÷
% 3 B Q a p ÷
& 4 C R b q &
„ 5 D S c r
( 6 E T d s
) 7 F U e t
* 8 G V f u
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 2-23
+ 9 H W g v
, : I X h w
- ; J Y I x
. < K Z j y
= L [ k z

When entering this parameter via a terminal connected to the remote port the Unit ID Name is
entered directly as text from the terminal keyboard. The Unit ID can also be entered via remote
control at the rear panel DB9 or USB control ports.
After any entry mode the processor will center the input characters on the lower line of the LCD
display
2.9.7 Setting the Modem Address for Command Mode Operation
If Command Mode Binary Packet Operation is desired the modem packet “address” must be set
via the front panel before the modem will recognize packets. To set the address use the arrow
keys to go to the <Unit: Remote – Address> parameter and press “Edit”, then use the numeric
keypad to enter the address from 0 to 255. Then press the “Enter” key to enable the change.
The address 255 is “global” and all units will respond to a message packet with this address
regardless of its setting, but no unit will return a response message. It is suggested that you do
not use addresses 1 or 255 (1 is the factory setting, and any new unit added to a system will have
address 1).
The address “0” is also unique. This address causes the modem to accept commands and send
responses without the address fields normally required in the command packets.
2.10 Interface Type Configuration
The PSM-500 Modem contains on-board circuitry to implement several different interface types:
0 Disabled
1 RS-232 (Synchronous only, limited to 128 kbps by drivers and receivers)
2 RS-449
3 RS-449/Unterminated (used in redundancy)
4 V.35
5 V.36
6 EIA-530
7 EIA-530A
8 SnIP (Option)
9 HSSI (Option)
A single 37 pin female “D” type connector on the rear panel at J3 is used for all interface types.
The connector pin-out is shown in Chapter 2, Installation. Adaptor cables are available for other
physical connector types. The two we make are the DB25 (P/N DSF00-080) and Winchester M34
style V.35 (P/N DSF00-083). See Appendix C for more cabling information.
The modem is also capable of accepting one of several existing and to be implemented additional
option interfaces. These include a 10 Base T Ethernet interface, a High Speed Serial Interface
(HSSI), a G.703 interface and others. The main processor automatically determines the presence
and type of interface and options by querying the interface card. Adding an optional interface card
or changing an already installed interface should only be attempted by experienced personnel
familiar with electronic communications equipment. Either of these operations requires removing
Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 2-24 PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.90
the modem from service, and removal and replacement of the modem top cover to gain access to
the interface PCB assembly.
2.10.1 Adding or Changing the Optional Interface Type
An optional interface card may be installed or exchanged in a modem unit by removing the
modem‟s top cover. First the interface option card rear panel plate is released from the chassis by
removing the two screws on either side of this plate at the rear panel. The interface card to be
removed is disconnected from the main board by releasing the one or two ribbon cables from the
IDC connectors at P5 and P7 (or P5 only if so configured). These designations are those on the
main modem PWB. The three #6 screws and lock washers are then removed if in an existing
board and saved for placing
the new interface card into
the chassis. Once the new
interface card is installed
on the standoffs the two
rear panel screws are
installed first, then the three
#6 screws are used to
mount the board to the
chassis (some boards have
4 mounting screws). Finally
the required ribbon cables
are (re-)attached to the new
card and the main PWB at
P5 (and also P7 if used).
Finally the unit top cover is
replaced using the 8
screws removed above.
When the unit is powered-
up again the main modem
processor will automatically
query the new interface
card and determine the
type and options installed.
Most option interface cards
completely co-exist with the
on-board interface types,
allowing the optional
interface to represent one
or more added interface
types available. Only one interface type is however allowed to be enabled at one time.

The SnIP Ethernet interface and the HSSI interface may be installed alone or together. In the
latter case the two interfaces are “stacked” and a special ribbon cable is available for this
configuration to connect to the internal modem interface. More information on this installation is
provided with the HSSI interface option.
Once installed the main data interface for the SnIP option is its standard RJ-45 10/100 base T
Ethernet interface connector located on the rear panel.
Once installed the main data interface for the HSSI option is its standard High Density SCSI-2
type connector located on the rear panel. This connection is designed to interface directly with a
Cisco or compatible HSSI router interface module via a commercially available HSSI cable. See
Appendix C for more cable information.
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External Connector Area
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PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 2-25
2.10.2 Optional Interface Configuration
Installed interface cards are automatically recognized by the modem and an entry is added to the
Interface Option selection menu. Selection of the option interface then becomes identical to
selection of any of the standard interfaces. Both the SnIP and HSSI automatically use the
modem‟s transmit and receive data rate parameter as their clock signal just like the standard
interfaces.
2.11 Option FEC Card Installation
The PSM-500 Modem contains on-board circuitry and two “slot” connectors for adding several
available and planned FEC option “daughter” boards. These plug into either the A or B slots on
the main modem assembly. Installation of these cards is not difficult, but requires removal of the
modem from service and removal of the unit‟s cover, and should be accomplished only by a
qualified technician. The modem automatically recognizes the presence of the option card and
provides additional front panel and remote control parameter settings allowing control of the
option.
The modem‟s two FEC slots are identical, and if similar functions exist on two cards the modem
will select a requested FEC option from the first slot which has that capability
In some cases when options are first introduced a software update to the modems internal
program is necessary to allow use of the option. Refer to Section 4.3 “Updating Modem Software”.
The Datum Systems‟ M500 Update program will also recognize and install software for FEC cards
present in the modem.
The physical arrangement of the two FEC slots is shown in Figure 2-x below. The same PWB is
used for the standard Viterbi, Trellis Code Modulation and Reed-Solomon FECs with the
manufacturing option to add either the TPC4k or TPC16k chips when ordered. If these options are
ordered later a new board is supplied that has all of the necessary FEC capabilities and the
original standard FEC may be removed. FlexLDPC has a unique PWB, but comes standard with
Viterbi, Trellis Code Modulation and Reed-Solomon FECs, and is configurable to add either the
TPC4k or TPC16k chips when ordered.
2.11.1 Turbo Product Codes Option Installation
The PSM-500 Modem contains on-board circuitry and connectors for adding a Turbo Product
Codes Option Card. This card can co-exist with the IBS Multiplexer (and the Reed-Solomon
function also, but both cannot be used simultaneously).
Turbo Product Codes or TPC is available in multiple mechanical forms and also versions
depending on the link requirements. The three versions are a TPC4K which uses the same TPC
chip as in the PSM-4900 series of modems, and a TPC16K which uses a newer 16K block size to
improve performance, and a TPC-20K board with both the TPC4k and TPC16k chips installed.
Because of the larger processed block size, the TPC16K device has much higher delay or latency
than the 4K block device. It is also more expensive.
The modem can be ordered with any of these TPC options from the factory, and will then normally
be supplied as added components on the standard FEC card already containing the Viterbi, TCM
and Reed-Solomon FECs. Only one of these four versions can be installed on the standard FEC
card, and the type cannot be changed.
The other possibility is to add a card which has one of these two TPC chips into the Slot B of a
modem which already has Slot A occupied by the standard FEC card. Installation of these cards is
into a common SO-DIMM, 144 pin socket, and should be installed only by a qualified technician.
The modem automatically recognizes the presence of the option card(s) and capabilities and
provides additional front panel and remote control parameter settings to control the option.
Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 2-26 PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.90
The Turbo Product Codes option, when enabled, replaces the convolutional encoder/Viterbi
decoder functions. The Modulator (Transmit) and Demodulator (Receive) functions of each option
are also independent and can be enabled and disabled as required.
Top and side views of the FEC cards are shown in Figure 2-5 below. For additional information on
the installation and configuration of the Turbo Product Codes option refer to Appendix TPC.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 2-27
M500 Series Main PCB
F
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A
Rear Panel
Latches
Interface Option
Connector
TPC16k
TPC4k
Flash
FPGA
DRA05-002
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B
FEC Card
Main PCB
Side View
Showing Insertion
Top View
J3 and J4 Connectors
Slot B must be empty
to install in Slot A

Figure 2-5 FEC Option Card Installation

PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-1
Chapter 3 - Operation
3.1 Operating Procedures
Operation of the PSM-500 Modem consists of controlling the unit‟s operating parameters and
monitoring status and responses via one of the control interfaces. There are three possible control
methods for the modem:
1. Front Panel Keypad Control. (Section 3.1.1)
2. Terminal Mode Control via rear panel 232/485 or USB control ports. (Section 3.3)
3. Command Interface Binary Control via rear panel 232/485 or USB control ports.
(Section 3.4)
Any of these methods may be used separately or together to monitor and control the modem unit.
Each of these three interfaces and their respective methods are discussed separately below in the
sections noted above.
Additional operating procedures are also presented later in this section on using some of the
unique features of the PSM-500 that would not normally be set-up during installation. These
include such items as the FIFO buffer, built-in BERT, storing and recalling configuration
information, AUPC, the analog monitor output, redundancy and automatic recovery.
3.1.1 Front Panel Control
The front panel of the PSM-500 allows complete control and monitor of all modem parameters
and functions via a keypad, LCD display and status LEDs.
3.1.2 Front Panel Layout and Features
The front panel layout shown in Figure 3–1, identifies the location and labeling of items on the
front panel. The front panel is divided into three functional areas: the LCD display, the Keypad and
the LED Indicators, each described below.
3.1.2.1 Front Panel LCD Display
The front panel display is a 2 line by 16 character LCD display. It is augmented by the four LED
highlighted legends to the display‟s right. The display and legends are lighted and the brightness
can be set to increase when the front panel is currently in use, automatically dimming with
inactivity. The display has four distinct areas showing current information. The four legends
indicate the Modem‟s functional area that is currently being monitored or controlled, including
“Unit”, “Mod”, “Demod” and “Interface”. The upper left of the LCD shows the current area of use,
such as “Status”, “IF”, “Data”, “Alarm” or “Test” (for the Mod and Demod). The upper right shows
the current parameter being monitored, such as “Frequency”, “Offset” or “Bit Rate”. The lower line
shows the current value of that parameter. The LCD display is a single entry window into the large
matrix of parameters which can be monitored and set from the front panel. It is convenient to
imagine the matrix as 3 dimensional spreadsheet just like a multi-sheet Excel workbook, with the
different “sheets” selected by the buttons for Unit, Mod, Demod and Interface, while navigation on
a given sheet is accomplished using the up, down, left and right arrow keys.
The backlight brightness can be set for two states: Active and Idle. The active state is entered
whenever a key on the front panel is pressed, while the idle state occurs after approximately 60
seconds of inactivity. Each state may be set to “Off”, 1/3 brightness, 2/3 brightness and full
brightness. The default setting is full in the active state and 1/3 in the idle state. To change the
settings for either state go to the “Modem LCD Active” or “Modem LCD Idle” brightness parameter
and adjust to the desired values.
Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-2 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90

3.1.2.2 Front Panel Keypad
The front panel keypad consists of three areas:
First, is a 10-key numeric entry with 5 additional keys. Two keys provide for a “+/-” (change sign)
and “.” (decimal point) function, while three more on the far right provide “Edit”, “Clear” and
“Enter”. The “Enter” key on the lower right is normally blue while the rest of the numeric keypad
keys are gray. This allows easy identification of the Enter key.
The second area is a set of “Arrow” or “Cursor” keys used to navigate the parameter currently
being monitored or controlled. During entry, the cursor keys allow moving a cursor to individual
digits of a numerical entry or scrolling through the available options of a selection entry. The arrow
keys are also in blue.
The third area is the four selection keys previously discussed with the LCD display. They allow
selecting which functional area or “sheet” of the display matrix is currently in use. The four
functional buttons represent the Unit, Modulator, Demodulator and Interface.

PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-3
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Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-4 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90

3.1.2.3 Front Panel LED Indicators
There are 12 LEDs on the modem front panel to indicate current status of the modem‟s operation.
They are separated into three columns representing (from left to right) the Modulator status, the
Demodulator status and the Modem (Unit) status. The LED colors maintain a consistent meaning.
Green signifies that the indication is appropriate for normal operation, Yellow means that there is
a condition not proper for normal operation. Red indicates a fault condition which will result in lost
communications
When one of the Alarm lamps below is illuminated, the highest priority alarm condition is displayed
in the LCD window.

Modem LED Indicators
1. Power: Green – Indicates the modem unit is currently under power.
2. Alarm: Red – if summary fault condition exists from either Alarm A or
Alarm B.
3. Local: Green – Indicates that the unit is set to respond to the front
panel.
4. Remote: Green – Indicates that the unit is set to respond to the remote
control input.
Modulator LED Indicators
1. Transmit: Green – Indicates that the transmit output is currently active.
Green Flashing when an IF Looback test is active and the
carrier is configured to the “disabled” state.
2. Major Alarm: Red – Indicates that the transmit direction has failed, losing
traffic.
3. Minor Alarm: Yellow – Indicates a transmit warning condition exists.
4. Test Mode: Yellow Flashing – Indicates the modulator is involved in a
current test mode activity.
Demodulator LED Indicators
1. Lock: Green – Indicates receiver lock to an incoming CXR and data
including FEC sync.
2. Major Alarm: Red – Indicates that the receive direction has failed, losing
traffic.
3. Minor Alarm: Yellow – Indicates a receive warning condition exists, either an
incoming carrier with a low input level or a low E
b
/N
o

(programmable threshold), or a backward alarm received from
the far end.
4. Test Mode: Yellow Flashing – Indicates the receiver is involved in a current
test mode activity.


PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-5
3.1.3 Guide to Front Panel Monitor and Control
The front panel can be used to perform complete monitor and control of the modem setup and
operating parameters. The operation of the front panel should be intuitive after very little use to
familiarize the user with basic concepts and operations. Parameter entry operations have two
methods of accomplishing the same goal and the method used is up to the user although in most
cases one method will have potential advantages.

3.1.3.1 Navigating Modem Parameters
Consider that there are over 180 programmable or monitored parameters on the PSM-500 and
that the LCD display can only show one parameter at a time. To simplify locating any desired
parameter, they are organized into a 3 dimensional table or matrix form with 4 layers or “sheets”,
each one having 4 to 10 columns and up to 32 rows. This matrix is shown in Tables 3-1 through
3-4. Each matrix sheet represents a major functional area of modem operation (i.e. Unit,
Modulator, Demodulator and Interface) while the columns represent groupings within those
functional areas and the rows represent individual parameters associated with that function. The
columns include such divisions as Status, Alarm and Test areas. The LCD display allows viewing
only one of the many parameters at one time. At any time the LCD display shows the monitored
parameter value on the lower line of the two-line display. The upper left line of the display shows
the column name (such as Status, IF, Data, Alarm and Test) while the upper right shows the
parameter (row) name.
Data Bit Rate
256.000kbps
Unit
Mod
Dem
Int'f
Front Panel Parameter Matrix Navigation
Matrix
Column
Matrix Row
Matrix Sheet
Parameter

The four arrow keys located to the right of the LCD display are used to scroll through the rows and
columns of each parameter matrix layer or sheet. The left and right arrow keys scroll through the
columns and the up and down arrow keys scroll through the available parameters in each column.
Both the columns and rows “wrap around” such that scrolling past the last item in a row starts with
the first item in the same row again, and the same for columns.
In this manual operation of the keypad to access a certain parameter is shown in the format
<Function: Column – Row>. For example, to get to the Modulator IF Level the method is to
press the “Mod” key then use the left and right arrow keys to access the “IF” column and the up
and down arrow keys to arrive at the “Level” parameter. This is shown by convention in this
Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-6 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90
manual as <Mod: IF – Level>. We may also show selection of a specific value for the parameter
using the notation <Function: Column – Row> = value(#). The value is descriptive and the # in
parenthesis is the selection number key to press for optional parameters, if applicable, in the
direct entry mode explained below.
It is convenient to imagine the matrix as 3 dimensional spreadsheet just like a multi-sheet Excel
workbook, with the different “sheets” selected by the buttons for Unit, Mod, Demod and Interface,
while navigation on a given sheet is accomplished using the up, down, left and right arrow keys.
Until you become familiar with the location of parameters using the front panel, it is convenient to
use the Matrix Tables 3-1 through 3-4 as a quick reference.
3.1.3.2 Monitoring Modem Parameters
Any available modem parameter is monitored by simply using the function and arrow keys to
display the desired parameter in the LCD display. The item displayed will remain until changed or
power is removed from the modem unit. The display is “Live”, therefore when a currently
displayed parameter changes the display will change without operator intervention. When multiple
parameters could be displayed (such as when multiple test modes are currently running or
multiple alarms are present) only the highest priority item is displayed. When that item is no longer
valid the next highest priority is displayed. The priority of items is fixed within the modem software.
3.1.3.3 Changing Modem Parameters
To set any parameter, the 4 functional area keys and the 4 arrow keys to the right of the LCD
display are first used to select the parameter to be set, then one of several “entry” modes is used
to change the parameter. In any entry mode pressing the “Edit” key to indicate a new entry, then
editing the parameter via the arrow keys and the numeric keypad and finalizing the data entry
using the “Enter” key will work. The “Quick” entry mode allows direct entry of a new value without
first pressing the “Edit” key. All entry items take one of two forms:
1. Numeric entry such as frequency or bit rate; and
2. Selection from a list such as selecting FEC rates 1/2, 3/4 or 7/8.
Numeric entries may be entered by performing one of the following:
- When a numeric parameter is displayed, it can be changed by pressing the “Edit” key,
then using the left and right arrow keys to select the first digit to be changed and
entering a new digit. Successive digit entries go to successive characters on the
display, skipping over the decimal point which is in a fixed location. Leading zeros
must be used to enter smaller numbers than are currently displayed, and trailing
zeroes are used to eliminate trailing digits not required. The entry is finalized by
pressing the “Enter” key.
- An alternate edit mode is accomplished by first pressing the “Edit” key, then using the
left and right arrow keys to select the first digit to be changed. The digit is “scrolled”
using the up and down arrow key. Additional digits are pointed to using the left and
right arrows and also scrolled. Finish the edit by pressing the enter key. Overflow
when scrolling up through 9 will increment the next higher digit while underflow will
decrement the next higher digit.
- Direct entry can be accomplished if the <Unit: Keyboard – Entry Mode> is set to
“Quick”. In this mode the current parameter can be changed by simply entering new
information, which completely overwrites the existing parameter. For example when
viewing the Modulator Data Bit Rate of 256.000kbps entering the digits 47.243
(including the decimal point) and pressing “Enter” will change to that new data rate.
Note that a leading “0” did not have to be entered to overwrite the “2” of the existing
parameter.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-7
The current input can be canceled by pressing the “Clear” key at any time before pressing “Enter”.
Failure to press a key for approximately 60 seconds results in automatic canceling of the current
entry and return of the display to the current setting.
Selection entries may be accomplished by one of the following:
- When a selection entry parameter is displayed, simply press the “Edit” key followed
by a digit key 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4. In this scheme “0” represents disabled, OFF, NO or the
first possible choice. “1” represents enabled, ON, YES or the second possible choice.
“2”, “3” and “4” represents the third, fourth and fifth possible choices. Then press the
“Enter” key to finalize the entry.
- Alternately, when a selection parameter is displayed it can be changed by pressing
the “Edit” key, then using the up and down arrow keys to scroll through the possible
choices. When the desired option is displayed, pressing the “Enter” key selects the
displayed choice and finalizes the entry. When scrolling though the available options,
an arrow in the left column position denotes the current setting.
- Direct entry can be accomplished if the <Unit: Keyboard – Entry Mode> is set to
“Quick”. In this mode the current parameter can be changed by simply entering digit
key 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 … and pressing “Enter” to finalize the entry. Optional selections can
be viewed by successively pressing several keys to determine their value, then
pressing “Enter”.
Following a valid input, the modem will place the new setting into the nonvolatile EEPROM making
it available not only immediately, but also automatically the next time the unit is powered on.
3.1.3.4 Automatic Modem Parameter Sequences
Certain parameters are dependent on other parameter settings. New in the PSM-500 is automatic
presentation of those parameters that must be set to properly achieve the first setting entered. An
example of this is when entering an “IF Modulation” mode change, the modem will accept that but
next request entry of the “Data FEC” type, then the “Data Code Rate” finally returning to the
original IF Modulation screen. If only the Data FEC type were initially changed then only the
following item in the sequence would be requested. This insures that all of the necessary
parameters are entered to enable any mode dependent on other settings. Normal settings are
typically displayed during this sequence and it may be possible to simply press the “Enter” key at
each succeeding request.
3.1.3.5 Finding Modem Parameter Limits
During parameter setting you may not know what the maximum or minimum value is that may be
entered. The modem can help in some cases by taking the parameter to its maximum or
minimum value when you enter a value greater or less than possible. For example, when all other
parameters have been set, if you wish to go to the maximum transmit data rate possible in an
M505 modem simply enter a value like 10000 (for 10,000 kbps). The modem should beep, say
“Set at max” and enter a value of 5000 (for 5 Mbps).

3.2 Front Panel Monitor and Control Parameters
The following tables 3-1 through 3-4 list the parameter matrices available from the front panel.
Parameters that appear shaded are only accessible when the modem is configured to use those
parameters. For example, those parameters pertaining the to AUPC are only available when the
AUPC is enabled, and those pertaining to the Reed-Solomon Codec will appear only if the Reed-
Solomon Codec is installed and enabled. This list does not include optional parameters for some
interface options such as Ethernet or G.703 E1 interfaces.
Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-8 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90
The top gray row represents column headers, which are shown on the LCD display in the upper
left. Items below the header are row parameter names shown in the upper right of the LCD.
Columns are navigated using the left and right arrow keys while rows are navigated using the up
and down arrow keys.
The tables below are organized with general “Rules of Thumb” which aid navigation.
1. The “Status” columns are generally read only, providing status on specific areas of
modem operation.
2. The Modulator and Demodulator matrixes use common column designations. A current
parameter in one area can be immediately accessed in the other by pressing the
appropriate “Mod” or “Dem” button. For example when viewing the Mod Bit Rate, the
Demod Bit Rate is accessed by simply pressing the “Dem” button.
3. The “Alarm” columns existing in all four matrixes and represents the disposition of alarm
information from that source. Therefore the <Dem: Alarm – CXR Lock> sets the
disposition of the Demodulator Carrier Lock Alarm as either None, to Alarm Relay A, to
Alarm Relay B, or to Alarm Relay A & B.
4. The “Test” columns existing in all four matrixes and represents the control and display of
test information for that area. The top entries in the Test column contain tests which can
be enabled or disabled if available. The lower rows represent measurements of
parameters and are read only. Active tests enabled in these columns generate flashing
“Test” LED lamps in appropriate areas.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-9

Table 3-1
PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Unit Sheet
Status Redundcy Config Keybrd Remote USB Ref Monitor Alarm Test
Modem Mode Modem Mode Mode Mode Source Mode Reference Modem
Reference SW Rqst Recall Entry Protocol Activity Frequency Full OCXO Oven Cal Ref
Redundcy SW Hold Store LCD Actve Address Fine Tune Zero Tst Active Update ROM
Unit ID Backup Restore 1 LCD Idle Rate Hardware Ref AFC
Model Restore 2 LCD Cntst Format Beep SysClk AFC
Feature Restore 3 Activity Port +3.3V
Serial # Restore 4 Activity +5.0V
Version Restore 5 +12.0V
FEC A Restore 6 +21.0V
FEC A Ver Restore 7 -12.0V
FEC B Restore 8 Boot Code
FEC B Ver Power-Up
Mod Opt
Int’f Opt
Notes:
Parameters shown in gray are only available when the entry immediately above is enabled or set to a mode that requires those entries.
The gray Redundancy parameters are only shown when connected to another unit in redundancy mode.
Other columns may be added by options added to the modem or software.
Word spelling is purposely truncated to fit in available LCD display window.

PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-10
Table 3-2
PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Modulator Sheet
Status IF Data Mux BUC Alarm Test
CXR Frequency Bit Rate Mode Power CXR Modulation
Data Offset Fec ESC Overhead Voltage Out Data Symbol Rate
Clock Level FEC Options MCC Overhead Voltage Min Clock Clock Error
Test Output Code Rate OverHd Ratio Current Out AUPC CXR ALC
Modulation RS Mode ESC Port Current Max Tst Active LO AFC
Spectrum RS (n) ESC Rate Current Min Hardware Step AFC
Filter Mask RS (k) ESC Frmt 10 MHz Ref BUC Power
Mode RS Depth ESC CTS LO Frequency
Preamble Dif Encoder
AUPC Scrambler
AUPC Eb/No Clk Source
AUPC Max Lvl
AUPC Min Lvl
Mute
Impedance
BUC parameters are only available on PSM-500L.
AUPC settings are only visible if the AUPC is enabled.
Dif Encoder disabled and not visible with Turbo Product Codes Option installed and enabled.

Table 3-3
PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Demodulator Sheet
Status IF Data Mux LNB Alarm Test
CXR Frequency Bit Rate Mode Power CXR Lock IF Loopbck
Eb/No Sweep Range Fec ESC Overhead Current Out Data Symbol Rate
Offset Sweep Mode FEC Options MCC Overhead Current Max Low Eb/No Clock Error
Level Sweep Time Code Rate OverHd Ratio Current Min Low Level AGC
Est.BER Modulation RS Mode ESC Port 10 MHz Ref Tst Active LO AFC
SER Spectrum RS (n) ESC Rate LO Frequency Hardware Step AFC
Buffer Filter Mask RS (k) ESC Frmt Backward IDcOff
Test Eb/No Alm RS Depth ESC DTR LNB Power QDcOff
Low Level Alm Dif Decoder ESC DSR
Impedance Descrambler
Clk Source
Buffr Delay
Buffer Size
FEC Hold
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-11
LNB column is only available on Land LT models.
Sweep Time is only visible if Sweep Mode is set to “Search”.
Buffer Parameters are only visible if the Data Clock Source is not set to “Demod”, enabling the
buffer.
Dif Decoder is disabled and not visible with Turbo Product Codes Option installed and enabled.

Table 3-4
PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Interface Sheet
Status I/O SnIP or SDMS Alarm Test
I/O Mode IP Addr Tst Active Ter Loopbck
RTS Format Netwrk Mask BER Loss Sat Loopbck
CTS RTS MAC Addr SnIP or SDMS BER I/O
DCD CTS Options Mod BER
DTR DCD Version Demod BER
DSR DTR Serial#
Test DSR
Test BER Xmt Data
Sync Loss Xmt Clock
Errors Rcv Data
Bits Rcv Clock
EFS RTS Monitor
Erred Sec
Total Sec
Note: The seven shaded BERT Status column items are only visible when the Demod BER is
enabled in the Test column.
The center column is used for interface option expansion, and is only displayed with an option
installed. The entries shown are only representative of one type of option interface.
The RTS Monitor function is only available in firmware versions 0.47 and after.

Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-12 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90
Tables 3-5 through 3-8 describe the parameters available from the front panel and entry in more
detail. The grayed separators delineate column divisions in the area matrix. The “»”symbol
indicates that this parameter is not available unless a preceding parameter is enabled or set to
require those parameters, or optional hardware is installed that uses that particular parameter.
Parameters can also be added as new options are installed.

Table 3-5. Modem (Unit) Parameter Detail
Unit Parameter Detail
Representation Type Entry Description
Status Modem
Locked & Sending
Read Only Read Only Mod & Demod Status
Status Reference
Internal, OK
Read Only Not changeable Reference source and status
Status Redundcy
1:1 On Line
Read Only Used to force a transfer
away from this unit.
Redundancy Status
Status Unit ID
Rmt Santa Cruz
Alpha –
Numeric
Entered as ASCII for up to
16 characters
Station Name for user
Status Model
PSM-500
Read Only Read from software Modem Model #,
Status Feature
M523-8PSK-16QAM
Numeric 16 digit Feature Set upgrade
code inserted here.
Used to display features and
upgrade feature set.
Status Serial#
12923
Read Only Not changeable Modem Serial Number
Status Version
0.10
Read Only Read from software Version of software installed
Status FEC A
Viterbi/TCM/RS
Read Only Read from Installed Option Available FEC options in
Slot A.
Status FEC A Ver
01-004
Read Only Read from Installed Option FEC Type Number and
Firmware Revision
Status FEC B
TPC4K
Read Only Read from Installed Option Available FEC options in
Slot B.
Status FEC B Ver
03-004
Read Only Read from Installed Option FEC Type Number and
Firmware Revision
Status Mod Opt
Burst
Read Only Read from Installed Option Type of Installed Option
Status Int’f Opt
SDMS-Lite
Read Only Read from Installed Option Type of Installed Option


Redundcy Mode
Internal 1:1
Selection 0 = Disable, 1 = Internal 1:1,
2 = External
Select Redundancy mode.
Internal requires “Y” cable.
Redundcy Sw Rqst
on Alarm A & B
Selection 0 = On any Alarm
1= On Alarm A
2 = On Alarm B
3 = On Alarm A & B
What will request a switch to
backup modem.
Redundcy Sw Hold
.5 Sec
Numeric 0.0 to 600.0 seconds in 0.1
second increments.
Sets the minimum time that
a redundancy alarm must
last before switching occurs.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-13
Unit Parameter Detail
Representation Type Entry Description
Redundcy Backup
Idle
Selection Backup Status or Press “0”
or “Edit” then “Enter” to
transfer current configuration
to backup.
View status of or configure
backup. Only available when
on-line.


Config Modem
Mod & Demod
Selection 0 = Disable,
1 = Demod Only,
2 = Mod Only,
3 = Mod & Demod
Used to disable the Mod or
Demod and also the lamps
and indications when not
used.
Config Recall
Factory, 1 to 8
Selection/
Numeric
0 to 8, 0 = Factory Location to recover current
configuration from.
Config Store
Factory, 1 to 8
Selection/
Numeric
1 to 8, Factory configuration
not alterable
Location to store current
configuration to.
Config Restore 1
After 1 Sec
Selection/
Numeric
Disabled (0), 1 to 14,400
seconds
Time after loss of rcv carrier
to restore this configuration.
...Restore 2-7

Config Restore 8
Disabled
Selection/
Numeric
Disabled (0), 1 to 14,400
seconds
Time after loss of rcv carrier
to restore this configuration.
Config Power-Up
Last
Selection/
Numeric
Last (0), Recall 1 to 8 Behavior on power-up.
Either the last settings or try
to lock using one of the
stored configurations.


Keybrd Mode
Full Access
Selection 0 = Disable,
1 = Read Only,
2 = Full Access
Keyboard access control.
Keybrd Entry
Quick
Selection 0 = Quick,
1 = Edit Only
2 = Confirm
Keyboard Entry method.
Quick is the normal default
mode.
Keybrd LCD Active
Backlight Full
Selection 0 = off, 1 = 1/3, 2 = 2/3, 3 =
Full
Active level of LCD backlight
Keybrd LCD Idle
Backlight 1/3
Selection 0 = off, 1 = 1/3, 2 = 2/3, 3 =
Full
Idle level of LCD backlight
Keybrd LCD Cntst
10
Numeric 0 to 20 LCD Contrast setting
Keybrd Activity
Beep
Selection 0 = None,
1 = Beep,
2 = Blink,
3 = Beep & Blink
Audible “click” and/or “Local”
LED Blink on front panel key
press.


Remote Mode
Full Access
Selection 0 = Disable,
1 = Read Only,
2 = Full Access.
Remote control access
mode allowed
Remote Protocol
Binary Packet
Selection 0 = VT100,
1 = Quiet VT100,
2 = Binary Packet,
Remote control mode type
Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-14 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90
Unit Parameter Detail
Representation Type Entry Description
Remote Address
1
Numeric 0 to 255
0 = address disabled
255 = global
Address used to access this
unit via remote control and
USB packets.
Remote Rate
19200bps
Selection 0 to 7 selects 300 to 38,400
bits per second.
Remote port bit rate
Remote Format
N,8,1
Selection 0 = N,8,1
1 = E,8,1
2 = O,8,1
3 = M,8,1
4 = S,8,1
Remote control data/stop
bits and parity. Always 8
data bits and 1 stop bit. N=
No Parity, E = Even, M =
Mark, S = Space.
Remote Port
RS–485
Selection 0 = RS–232, 1 = RS–485 Remote control port used
Remote Activity
RS–485
Selection 0 =None,
1 =Beep,
2 =Blink,
3 =Beep & Blink
Audible “click” on/or and
“Remote” LED Blink on
Remote port activity.


USB Mode
Full Access
Selection 0 = Disable,
1 = Read Only,
2 = Full Access.
Remote control access
mode allowed from front
panel port.
USB Activity
Blink
Selection 0 = None,
1 = Beep,
2 = Blink,
3 = Beep & Blink
Audible “click” on/or and
“Remote” LED Blink on
Infrared port activity.


Ref Source
Internal
Selection 0 = Internal, 1 = External Rear panel external
reference.
Ref Frequency
10.000MHz
Selection 0 =1.0,
1 =5.0,
2 =9.0,
3 =10.0 MHz
Reference frequency at rear
panel. Only available if set to
external reference.
Ref Fine Tune
0
Numeric +127 to -127 Internal reference fine
adjustment. Only in Internal


Monitor Mode
AGC Level
Selection 0 =AGC Level,
1 =Eb/No,
2 =Mod CXR Level
Selects source of analog
output on rear panel alarm
connector pins 5 and 6
Monitor Full
+5.0V
Numeric +10.0 to –10.0 Full scale setting for
maximum output
Monitor Zero
0.0V
Numeric +10.0 to –10.0 Minimum scale setting for
minimum output.


Alarm Reference
To Alarm A
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A&B,
4 = Mute CXR,
5 = Mute & Alarm A,
6 = Mute & Alarm B,
7 = Mute & Alarm A & B
Selects destination and
action taken for reference
oscillator alarm types.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-15
Unit Parameter Detail
Representation Type Entry Description
Alarm OCXO Oven
Mute & Alarm A
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A&B,
4 = Mute CXR,
5 = Mute & Alarm A,
6 = Mute & Alarm B,
7 = Mute & Alarm A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm Tst Active
To Alarm A
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A & B Selects destination of alarm
Alarm Hardware
To Alarm A
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A & B Selects destination of alarm
Alarm Beep
On Alarm A & B
Selection 0=None,
1=On Alarm A,
2=On Alarm B,
3=On Alarm A & B
Selects if alarm causes a
unit audible “beep”.


Test Modem
Disabled
Selection 0 = Disabled,
1 = Lamp Test,
2 = Self Test
3 = Lamp & Self Test
Carrier output mode for test
purposes.
Test Cal Ref
Disabled
Selection 0 = Disabled,
1 = Enabled
Calibrates the internal
reference to an external
input.
Test Update ROM
Disabled
Numeric Normally Disabled,
Enter unit serial number and
“Enter” key to start.
Entering the serial number
and pressing “Enter” starts
the update process.
Test Ref AFC
+1.1V
Read Only N/A Internal Loop Voltage
Test SysClk AFC
+9.1V
Read Only N/A Internal Loop Voltage
Test +3.3V
+3.3V
Read Only N/A Internal Supply Voltage
Test +5.0V
+5.0V
Read Only N/A Internal Supply Voltage
Test +12.0V
+12.1V
Read Only N/A Internal Supply Voltage
Test +21.0V
+20.8
Read Only N/A Internal Supply Voltage
Test -12.0V
-12.1V
Read Only N/A Internal Supply Voltage
Test Boot Code
0000:0000:0000
Read Only N/A Factory Diagnostic Use
Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-16 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90
Table 3-6. Modulator Parameter Detail
Modulator Parameter Detail
Representation Type Entry Description
Status CXR
Sending, OK
Read Only Read Only Modulator Carrier Status
Status Data
NO DATA
Read Only Read Only Modulator Input Data Status
Status Clock
Internal, OK
Read Only Read Only Modulator Bit Rate Clock
Status
Status Test
Normal
Read Only Read Only Modulator Test Status


IF Frequency
70.000000MHz
Numeric 50.000 000 to 90.000 000
MHz
Carrier center frequency
IF Offset
–8.031kHz
Numeric –1,250.000 to +1,250.000
kHz
Carrier offset frequency
IF Level
–20.4dBm
Numeric +5.0 to –35.0 dBm
+3.0 max at 50Ω
Transmit output power level
IF Output
Enabled
Selection 0 = Disable, 1 = Enable Carrier output enable
IF Modulation
QPSK
Selection 0 = BPSK, 1 = QPSK,
2 = OQPSK, 3 = 8PSK,
6 = 16QAM
Modulation Mode. Some
values left available for new
options.
IF Spectrum
Normal
Selection 0 = Normal, 1 = Inverted Modulation Spectrum control
IF Filter Mask
Normal
Selection 0 = IESS, 1 = Legacy Modulation Spectrum Filter
Control. Legacy for PSM-4900
compatibility.
»IF Mode
Continuous
Selection 0 = Continuous, 1 = Burst Only available with burst
option installed.
»IF Preamble
64 Symbols
Selection 0 = 32, 1 = 64 Symbols Selects preamble length when
burst option installed.
IF AUPC
Disabled
Selection 0 = Disable, 1 = Enable Automatic Uplink Power
Control
»IF AUPC Eb/No
6.5dB
Numeric 3.0 to 20.0 dB AUPC remote receive Eb/No
level set point.
»IF AUPC Max Lvl
–10.0 dB
Numeric +5.0 dBm to Minimum level Max. Transmit level under
AUPC control
»IF AUPC Min Lvl
–20.0 dB
Numeric Maximum level to –35 dBm Min. Transmit Level under
AUPC control
IF Mute
Manual
Selection 0 = Automatic,
1 = Confirm,
2 = Manual
3 = Manual & Pwr Loss
Manual requires manual
Carrier enable after Mod
output change. Option 3
forces Cxr off after power fail.
IF Impedance
75 Ohm
Selection 0 = 50O, 1 = 75O Transmit IF impedance.


PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-17
Modulator Parameter Detail
Representation Type Entry Description
Data Bit Rate
2.100000Mbps
Numeric 1.200 to 20,000.000 kbps
in 1 bps resolution. Entered
in kbps to 1bps increments.
Modulator Bit Rate – The max
and min are determined by
settings and options.
Data FEC
Viterbi
Selection 0 – None
1 = Viterbi,
2 = TCM (8PSK only)
3 = TPC Short
4 = TPC (Legacy)
5 = TPC (CT)
TPC Encoder - Only available
if installed. Reed-Solomon is
enabled below.
Legacy in Rate ¾, 7/8 only.
CT compatibility Rate ¾ only.
Data FEC Option
Normal
Selection 0 = Normal,
1 = Swap C0/C1,
FEC Optional Modes. May
change depending on FEC
options installed.
Data Code Rate
Rate 1/2
Selection 0 = ½, 1 = ¾, 2 = 5/6
3 = 7/8.
0 = 2/3 in 8PSK TCM
FEC Code Rate. The options
may change depending on
FEC installed and selected
RS Mode
IESS-308
Selection 0 = Disabled,
1 = IESS-308
2 = IESS-309
4 = IESS Custom
Reed-Solomon column and
options only available if not
disabled. Entry is not shown
when TPC enabled.
»RS FEC (n)
126
Numeric In Custom Mode only:
Available n values
Read only in other modes
Block size
n = 22 to 255
»RS FEC (k)
112
Numeric In Custom Mode only:
Available k values
Read only in other modes
k = 20 to 253,
k must be 2 to 20 less than n
»RS FEC depth
4
Selection In Custom Mode only:
0 = 4, 1 = 8, 2 = 16
Read only in other modes
Interleave depth factor
Data Dif Encoder
Enabled
Not
Shown
0 = Disable, 1 = Enable Differential Encoder Not
shown or settable except in
special modes.
Data Scrambler
Auto
Selection 0 = Disable,
1 = Auto
2 = V.35,
3 = Intelsat, ,
4 = Alt V.35,
5 = Alt. Intelsat
6 = EFD
7 = TPC Sync
Scrambler types. Types are
added if optional hardware is
installed. The Auto mode uses
IESS 308 & 309 standards to
automatically switch to use
synchronous scramblers part
of R-S and TPC.
Data Clk Source
Internal
Selection 0 = Internal,
1 = TT Clock,
2 = External,
3 = RCV Clock
Transmit Data Clock Source.
Type 1, 2 or 3 will fall-back to
Internal if clock is not present
in these modes.


Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-18 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90
Modulator Parameter Detail
Representation Type Entry Description
Mux Mode
IBS Custom
Selection 0 = Disabled,
1 = IBS Standard,
2 = IBS Enhanced
3 = IBS Custom
Enables Multiplexer to
specified mode. Enable
makes other menu selection
below visible.
»Mux ESC Overhead
9600 bps
Selection 0 = Disable
1 to 7 selects standard
rates 300 bps – 38.4 kbps
Only in Custom Mode. Selects
framing resources committed
to ESC Comm.
»Mux MCC Overhead
1200 bps
Selection 0 = Disable
1 to 7 selects standard
rates 300 bps – 38.4 kbps
Only in Custom Mode. Selects
framing resources committed
to MCC Comm.
»Mux Ratio
15:16
Read Only Shows current data to
aggregate ratio for mux.
»Mux ESC Port
RS-485, 4 Wire
Selection 0 = RS-232,
1 = RS-485 2 wire,
2 = RS-485 4 wire,
3 = RS-485 Drvr On
Physical ESC port type. .
(coupled to receive)
»Mux ESC Rate
9600 bps
Selection 0 to 7 selects standard
rates 300 bps – 38.4 kbps
Physical ESC port rate at rear
panel. (coupled to receive)
»Mux ESC Frmt
N,8,1
Selection 0 = N/7/1,
1 = P/7/1,
2 = N/8/1,
3 = P/8/1
Physical ESC port format at
rear panel. (coupled to
receive)


BUC Power
Enabled
Selection 0 = Disabled
1 = Enabled
Selects Power and Voltage to
a BUC in the 500L
BUC Voltage Out
+23.8V
Numeric Read Only Displays Voltage output on
Transmit Cable.
BUC Voltage Min
+20.0V
Numeric 0 to 60.0 V Sets the minimum BUC
voltage before an alarm.
BUC Current Out
2.37A
Numeric Read Only Displays Current draw of BUC
BUC Current Max
5.00A
Numeric 0 to 6.00 A Sets the maximum BUC
current before an alarm.
BUC Current Min
1.25A
Numeric 0 to 4.00 A Sets the minimum BUC
current before an alarm.
BUC 10 MHz Ref
Enabled
Selection 0 = Disabled
1 = Enable
Selects if modem‟s current 10
MHz reference to be supplied
to a BUC in PSM-500L
BUC LO Frequency
7375.000000MHz
Numeric 0 to 49999.999996 MHz Selects BUC LO frequency in
PSM-500L. If set non-zero
then IF frequency setting is at
RF frequency.


PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-19
Modulator Parameter Detail
Representation Type Entry Description
Alarm Carrier
To Alarm A
Selection 0 = Mute CXR,
1 = Mute & Alarm A,
2 = Mute & Alarm B,
3 = Mute & Alarm A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm Data
To Alarm A
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm Clock
To Alarm A
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B, 4=Send All ones.
5 = All ones & A
6 = All ones & B
7 = All ones & A & B
8 = Mute Mod Cxr
9 = Mute & A
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm AUPC
To Alarm A
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm Tst Active
To Alarm A
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm Hardware
To Alarm A & B
Selection 0 = Mute CXR,
1 = Mute & Alarm A,
2 = Mute & Alarm B,
3 = Mute & Alarm A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm BUC Power
Mute & Alarm A
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A&B,
4 = Mute CXR,
5 = Mute & Alarm A,
6 = Mute & Alarm B,
7 = Mute & Alarm A & B
Selects destination of alarm


Test Modulation
Normal
Selection 0 = Normal,
1 = Pure Carrier,
2 = Alt 1/0
3 = Sideband
Carrier output mode for test
purposes.
Test Symbol Rate
256.000ksps
Read Only N/A Computed Transmit Symbol
Rate
Test Clock Error
251
Read Only N/A Bit Rate Clock error
Test CXR ALC
+3.0V
Read Only N/A Internal Loop Voltage
Test LO AFC
+9.1V
Read Only N/A Internal Loop Voltage
Test Step AFC
+9.5V
Read Only N/A Internal Loop Voltage
Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-20 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90
Table 3-7. Demodulator Parameter Detail
Demodulator Parameter Detail
Representation Type Entry Description
Status Carrier
Locked, OK
Read Only N/A Demodulator receive Carrier
Status
Status Eb/No
4.7dB
Read Only Measured by internal
circuitry.
Measured Eb/No
Status Offset
–8.031kHz
Numeric Within +/– Narrow
Acquisition Range
Receive carrier offset
frequency. An entry will reset
to 0 after search time has
elapsed.
Status Level
–52.4dBm
Read Only N/A Receive carrier level
Status Est. BER
2x10^–7
Read Only
Resettable
Press “0” or “Edit” and
“Enter” to restart.
Estimated Bit Error Rate
Status SER
3.37x10^–2
Read Only
Resettable
Press “0” or “Edit” and
“Enter” to restart.
Measured Symbol Error Rate
Status Buffer
100%
Read Only
Resettable
0 = Reset Slip (Flag)
1 = Re-center
FIFO Buffer status in percent
fill. Only visible when Demod
Data clock source is not set to
“RCV Clock”. The “slip” flag
tells when the FIFO
automatically re-centered.
Status Test
Normal
Read Only N/A Demodulator Test Status


IF Frequency
70.000000MHz
Numeric 50.000 000 to 90.000 000
MHz
950 000 000 to 1900 000
000 MHz for L-Band unit
Carrier center frequency.
L-Band frequency shown if
LNB LO is set to 0, else is set
to RF frequency.
IF Sweep Range
+/-30.000kHz
Numeric +/–0.1 to +1,250.000 kHz Carrier Acquisition Range in
kHz.
IF Sweep Mode
Fast
Selection 0 = Fast, 1 = Search Fast Acquisition mode is
standard method
»IF Sweep Time
10.0 Sec
Numeric
0.0 to 600.0 Seconds.
0 Disables Narrow Sweep
Narrow Sweep time applicable
to Search sweep mode only.
IF Modulation
QPSK
Selection 0 = BPSK, 1 = QPSK,
2 = OQPSK, 3 = 8PSK,
6 = 16QAM
Modulation Mode. Some
values left available for new
options.
IF Spectrum
Normal
Selection 0 = Normal, 1 = Inverted Modulation Spectrum control
IF Filter Mask
Normal
Selection 0 = IESS, 1 = Legacy Modulation Spectrum Filter
Control. Legacy for PSM-4900
compatibility.
IF Eb/No Alm
2.0dB
Numeric 1.0 to 20.0 dBm in 0.1 dB
increments
A receive Eb/No level at or
below this level will produce
an alarm.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-21
Demodulator Parameter Detail
Representation Type Entry Description
IF Low Level Alm
-65.5dBm
Numeric -26 to –85 dBm in 0.1 dB
increments. Dependent on
Bit Rate.
A receive carrier level at or
below this level will produce
an alarm.
IF Impedance
50 Ohm
Selection 0 = 50O, 1 = 75O Receive IF impedance.


Data Bit Rate
2.100000Mbps
Numeric 1.200 to 20,000.000 kbps
in 1 bps resolution. Entered
in kbps to 1bps increments.
Modulator Bit Rate – The max
and min are determined by
settings and options.
Data FEC
Viterbi
Selection 0 = Viterbi,
1 = TPC Full
2 = TPC Short
3 = TPC (Legacy)
4 = TPC (CT)
TPC Decoder - Only available
if installed. Reed-Solomon is
enabled in R-S column.
Legacy in Rate ¾, 7/8 only.
CT compatibility Rate ¾ only.
Data FEC Option
Normal
Selection 0 = Normal,
1 = Swap C0/C1,
2 = Invert C1,
3 = Swap and Invert C1
FEC Optional Modes. May
change depending on FEC
options installed.
Data Code Rate
Rate 1/2
Selection 0 = ½, 1 = ¾, 2 = 5/6
3 = 7/8.
0 = 2/3 in 8PSK TCM
FEC Code Rate. The options
may change depending on
FEC installed and selected
R-S Mode
IESS-308
Selection 0 = Disabled,
1 = IESS-308
2 = IESS-309
5 = IESS Custom
Reed-Solomon column and
options only available if not
disabled. Entry is not shown
when TPC enabled.
»RS FEC (n)
126
Numeric In Custom Mode only:
Available n values
Read only in other modes
Block size
n = 22 to 255
»RS FEC (k)
112
Numeric In Custom Mode only:
Available k values
Read only in other modes
k = 20 to 253,
k must be 2 to 20 less than n
»RS FEC depth
4
Selection In Custom Mode only:
0 = 4, 1 = 8, 2 = 16
Read only in other modes
Interleave depth factor
Data Dif Decoder
Enabled
Not
Shown
0 = Disable, 1 = Enable Differential Encoder Not
shown or settable except in
special modes.
Data Descrambler
Auto
Selection 0 = Disable,
1 = Auto
2 = V.35,
3 = Intelsat, ,
4 = Alt V.35,
5 = Alt. Intelsat
6 = EFD
7 = TPC Sync
Scrambler types. Types are
added if optional hardware is
installed. The Auto mode uses
IESS 308 & 309 standards to
automatically switch to use
synchronous scramblers part
of R-S and TPC.
Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-22 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90
Demodulator Parameter Detail
Representation Type Entry Description
Data Clk Source
RCV Clock
Selection 0 = RCV Clock
1 = Internal,
2 = External,
3 = Mod Clock
Receive Data Clock Source.
Selecting “0” disables FIFO
buffer, any other setting
enables it.
»Data Buffr Delay
2.00000ms
Numeric 0 to maximum calculated
by data rate.
Receive FIFO buffer delay in
milli-Seconds.
»Data Buffer Size
512 Bits
Numeric 0 to 131,070 bits in 1 bit
increments.
Receive FIFO buffer delay in
bits. Buffer has this many bits
filled and empty when
centered.
Data FEC Hold
1
Numeric 0 to 255
Normally set to 1
Number of FEC lock “cycles”
the FEC will accomplish
before declaring loss of lock.


Mux Mode
IBS Custom
Selection 0 = Disabled,
1 = IBS Standard,
2 = IBS Enhanced
3 = IBS Custom
Enables Multiplexer to
specified mode. Enable
makes other menu selection
below visible.
»Mux ESC Overhead
9600 bps
Selection 0 = Disable
1 to 7 selects standard
rates 300 bps – 38.4 kbps
Only in Custom Mode. Selects
framing resources committed
to ESC Comm.
»Mux MCC Overhead
1200 bps
Selection 0 = Disable
1 to 7 selects standard
rates 300 bps – 38.4 kbps
Only in Custom Mode. Selects
framing resources committed
to MCC Comm.
»Mux Ratio
15:16
Read Only Shows current data to
aggregate ratio for mux.
»Mux ESC Port
RS-485, 4 Wire
Selection 0 = RS-232,
1 = RS-485 2 wire,
2 = RS-485 4 wire,
3 = RS-485 Drvr On
Physical ESC port type.
(coupled to transmit)
»Mux ESC Rate
9600 bps
Selection 0 to 7 selects standard
rates 300 bps – 38.4 kbps
Physical ESC port rate at rear
panel. (coupled to transmit)
»Mux ESC Frmt
N,8,1
Selection 0 = N/7/1,
1 = P/7/1,
2 = N/8/1,
3 = P/8/1
Physical ESC port format at
rear panel. (coupled to
transmit)


LNB Power
+18V
Selection 0 = Disabled
1 = +13VDC
2 = +18VDC
Selects Power and Voltage to
an LNB in the 500L or LT
LNB Current Out
221mA
Numeric Read Only Displays Current draw of LNB
LNB Current Max
300mA
Numeric 0 to 500 mA Sets the maximum LNB
current before an alarm.
LNB Current Min
150mA A
Numeric 0 to 500 mA Sets the minimum LNB
current before an alarm.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-23
Demodulator Parameter Detail
Representation Type Entry Description
LNB 10 MHz Ref
Disabled
Selection 0 = Disabled
1 = Enable
Selects if modem‟s current 10
MHz reference to be supplied
to an LNB in or L
LNB LO Frequency
5150.000000MHz
Numeric 0 to 49999.999996 MHz
Selects LNB LO frequency in
or L. If set non-zero then IF
frequency setting is at RF
frequency.


Alarm CXR Lock
To Alarm A
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A&B,
4 = Mute Mod CXR,
5 = Mute & Alarm A,
6 = Mute & Alarm B,
7 = Mute & Alarm A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm Data
To Alarm A
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm Low Eb/No
To Alarm A
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm Low Level
To Alarm A
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm Tst Active
To Alarm A
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm Hardware
To Alarm A & B
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
»Alarm Backward
To Alarm A & B
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm –
Only available with mux.
»Alarm LNB Power
To Alarm A & B
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm –
Only shown in /L.


Test IF Loopbck
Disabled
Selection 0 = Disable, 1 = Enable IF Loop-back control.
Test Symbol Rate
256.000ksps
Read Only N/A Receive Symbol Rate
Test Clock Error
251
Read Only N/A Bit Rate Clock error
Test AGC
-1.9V
Read Only N/A Internal Loop Voltage
Test LO AFC
+8.8V
Read Only N/A Internal Loop Voltage
Test Step AFC
+9.4V
Read Only N/A Internal Loop Voltage
Test IDcOff
-0.1V
Read Only N/A Internal Loop Voltage. I
channel DC offset
Test QDcOff
-0.1V
Read Only N/A Internal Loop Voltage. Q
channel DC offset
Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-24 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90
Table 3-8. Interface Parameter Detail
Interface Parameter Detail
Representation Type Entry Description
Status I/O
Online
Read Only N/A Interface Status **
Status RTS
Off
Read Only N/A Interface RTS line status
Status CTS
On
Read Only N/A Interface CTS line status
Status DCD
On
Read Only N/A Interface DCD line status
Status DTR
Off
Read Only N/A Interface DTR line status
Status DSR
Off
Read Only N/A Interface DSR line status
Status Test
Mod BER
Read Only N/A Interface Test status
Status BER
0.0 E-7
Read Only N/A Interface Test status
Status Sync Loss
3
Read Only N/A Interface Test status
Status Errors
7
Read Only N/A Interface Test status
Status Bits
1.45 E7
Read Only N/A Interface Test status
Status EFS
99.95%
Read Only N/A Interface Test status
Status Erred Sec
1
Read Only N/A Interface Test status
Status Total Sec
2135
Read Only N/A Interface Test status


I/O Mode
RS-449
Selection 0 = Disable
1 = RS-232
2 = RS-449
3 = RS-449/Unterm
4 = V.35
5 = V.36
6 = EIA-530
7 = EIA-530A
8 = SnIP (Option)
9 = HSSI (Option)
Interface electrical mode.

Some option interfaces may
replace the SnIP or HSSI
interface.
Other options may include
G.703 (when released)
I/O RTS
Ignore
Selection 0 = Normal
1 = Control CXR
2 = Ignore
Interface RTS line control
I/O CTS
Normal
Selection 0 = Normal, 1 = Force Active Interface CTS line control
I/O DCD
Normal
Selection 0 = Normal, 1 = Force Active Interface DCD line control
I/O DTR
Normal
Selection 0 = Normal, 1 = Ignore Interface DTR line control
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-25
Interface Parameter Detail
Representation Type Entry Description
I/O DSR
Normal
Selection 0 = Normal, 1 = Force Active Interface DSR line control
I/O Xmt Data
Normal
Selection 0 = Normal, 1 = Inverted Transmit Data Inversion
I/O Xmt Clock
Normal
Selection 0 = Normal, 1 = Inverted, 2 =
Auto
Transmit Clock Phase. Auto
is now default standard.
I/O Rcv Data
Normal
Selection 0 = Normal, 1 = Inverted Receive Data Inversion
I/O Rcv Clock
Normal
Selection 0 = Normal, 1 = Inverted Receive Clock Phase
I/O RTS Monitor
Normal
Selection 0 = Disabled, 1 = to Alarm A,
2 = to Alarm B
Allows using Alarm relay
contacts to show RTS Status,
overriding other alarms.


SnIP IP Addr
192.168.100.1
Numeric IP Address for Ethernet
Interface.
SnIP Netwrk Mask
255.255.255.0
Numeric IP Mask Address for Ethernet
Interface.
SnIP MAC Addr
0080A800256C
Read Only Read Only Allows read of fixed Interface
MAC Address..
SnIP Options
00007f
Read Only Read Only Displays SnIP Options
enabled
SnIP Version
021771-001-50
Read Only Read Only Displays SnIP Software
Version Number
SnIP Serial#
1200047
Read Only Read Only Displays SnIP Serial Number


Alarm Tst Active
to Alarm A
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A & B Selects destination of alarm
Alarm BER Loss
to Alarm B
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A & B Selects destination of alarm
Alarm SnIP
to Alarm B
Selection 0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A & B Selects destination of alarm


Test Ter Loopbck
Disabled
Selection 0 = Disable, 1 = Enable Interface terrestrial loop-back
xmt input to receive output.
Test Sat Loopbck
Disabled
Selection 0 = Disable, 1 = Enable Interface satellite loop-back
receive output to xmt input.
Test BER I/O
Satellite
Selection 0 = Satellite, 1 = Terrestrial BERT Transmit output and
Receive input direction..
Test Mod BER
Disabled
Selection 0 = Disable, 1 = 2047,
2 = 2^23-1
3 = Insert 1 Error (if enabled)
BERT enable to modem
transmit input.
Test Demod BER
Disabled
Selection 0 = Disable, 1 = 2047,
2 = 2^23-1
BERT enable from modem
receive output.
** Interface Status when the SnIP option is installed and enabled can be:
Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-26 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90
- ”SnIP FAILURE”, Meaning no communications from SnIP card to modem processor.
- “SnIP HARD RESET”, Meaning that the SnIP is in process of resetting its parameters.
- “SnIP LIMIT ALARM”, Meaning that the SnIP is not able to process data.
The front panel controls for the SDMS are normally only used for basic initial setup. When more
sophisticated software is loaded into the SDMS control is usually via the Ethernet connection.
3.3 Terminal Mode Control
The PSM-500 Terminal Mode Control allows the use of an external terminal or computer to
monitor and control the modem from a full screen interactive presentation operated by the modem
itself. No external software is required other than VT100 terminal emulation software (e.g.
“Procomm” or “HyperTerminal”) for a computer when used as a terminal. The control port is
normally used as an RS–232 connection to the terminal device. The RS–232 operating
parameters can be set using the modem front panel and stored in EEPROM for future use.
The USB connection at J10 cannot be used for Terminal Mode Control. To connect to the modem
from a computer‟s USB port, use a USB to serial adaptor connected to the DB9 at J6.
3.3.1 Modem Setup for Terminal Mode
Terminal mode communications and protocol is set from the front panel control by setting the
<Unit: Remote – Protocol> parameter to “VT100” (Option 0), and then setting the <Unit:
Remote – Port>, <Unit: Remote – Rate> and <Unit: Remote – Format> parameters as desired.
Then a “VT100” protocol terminal is connected to connector J6. All operating software for the
terminal mode is contained within the PSM-500 modem internal control software.
A “break” signal on the communications line, pressing “Control R” on the terminal or power on of
the modem will initiate full screen terminal mode printing and redraw the full screen. The terminal
mode displays the present status of all user parameters controlled and read by the processor, and
offers a menu allowing change to any controlled parameter.
A single terminal mode screen displays one full column of information from any one of the four
matrixes, being Unit, Modulator, Demodulator and Interface. The number of terminal mode display
screens possible is equal to the total number of columns in the four matrixes (24 at current count).
Any possible screen can be accessed by 2 key presses from any other screen.
The 2 key presses are:
1. A first digit representing the functional area:
a) 0 = Unit
b) 1 = Modulator
c) 2 = Demodulator
d) 3 = Test
2. A second digit representing the column number. (0 to 9 for the Unit, 0 to 5 for Modulator
and Demodulator or 0 to 4 for the Interface).
The resulting screen display shows all items present in that column of the matrix.
For example the basic Unit Status screen shown below lists the status items from the Unit Status
column of the Unit Matrix. Notice that at the bottom of the screen is a prompt inviting you to select
from one of the 4 items as the first step to change to another screen.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-27
Figure 3-2a. Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Status Screen
Assuming that we wanted to view another of the Unit column screens. If we first press the “0” key
to indicate that we want to change to a “Unit” screen the following lower screen prompt will be
displayed:
Figure 3-2b. Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Status Screen Selection
PSM-500 VT100 Terminal Control

Unit Status
Modem Demod Tst Active
Reference Internal, Ok
C) Redundcy Internal 1:1
D) Unit ID
Model PSM-500
Serial# 13490
Version 0.10











Section ? 0)Unit, 1)Mod, 2)Demod, 3)Intf

Strike Number/Letter of Option to Select, TAB Key Aborts Selection.

PSM-500 VT100 Terminal Control

Unit Status
Modem Demod Tst Active
Reference Internal, Ok
C) Redundcy Internal 1:1
D) Unit ID
Model PSM-500
Serial# 13490
Version 0.10











Unit ? 0)Status, 1)Config, 2)Keybrd, 3)Remote, 4)USB, 5)Ref, 6)Redundcy,
7)Monitor, 8)Alarm, 9)Test
Strike Number/Letter of Option to Select, TAB Key Aborts Selection.

Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-28 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90
Notice now that we can select from the Status, Configuration, Keyboard, etc. columns of the Unit
Matrix. Selecting for example the “Test” item (selection 9), would display the following new screen.
Figure 3-3. Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Test Screen
Notice that some items have a preceding letter with parentheses. These items are programmable
via the communications interface. Items without a preceding letter in parentheses are “Read Only”
items.
Any available “screen” can be displayed with only two keystrokes. These are similar to designating
the functional area and column of a matrix as when using the front panel.
3.3.2 Programming Modem Operational Values From the Terminal Screens
The modem can be interactively monitored and controlled in the Terminal mode, with a full screen
presentation of current settings and status. Programming is accomplished by selecting first the
desired screen, then the item to be modified and pressing the terminal key of the option letter “A”
through “Z”. For example, to change the modulator's carrier frequency you must first go to the
modulator screen if not already there (Press “1, 1”) and press the terminal's “A” key (lower case is
fine!). The modem screen will respond by presenting the options, or input range, available and
waiting for input. The operator input is followed by pressing the “Enter” or carriage return key. An
input can be aborted at any time before completing by pressing the “TAB” key, restoring the
previous setting. Invalid input keys are signaled by a beep or bell signal from the terminal.
Following a valid input, the modem will place the new setting into the nonvolatile EEPROM making
it available not only immediately but also automatically the next time the unit is powered up.
3.4 Remote Command Interface Control
The PSM-500 Command Mode allows the use of an external controller or computer to monitor
and control the modem via a packet-based message protocol. This mode normally uses the RS–
PSM-500 VT100 Terminal Control

Unit Test
A) Modem BER Test
B) Cal Ref Disabled
Ref AFC +1.1V
SysClk AFC +9.3V
+3.3V Power +3.3V
+5.0V Power +5.0V
+12.0V Power +12.0V
+21.0V Power +20.8V
-12.0V Power -12.2V
J) Boot Code 0000:0000:0000








Mod ? 0)Status, 1)IF, 2)Data, 3)Alarm, 4)Test

Strike Number/Letter of Option to Select, TAB Key Aborts Selection.


PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-29
485 connections allowing multiple modems (and other devices) to share the command link under
control of a single or multiple entities. An RS–232 connection is also usable for this application,
but lacks the RS-485‟s ability to work on a “party line” and is therefore limited to a single controller
and single modem, for example a computer to a modem. The packets use a unique address for
each controlled device, which is set using the modem‟s front panel. The message packets
themselves use a binary format for efficiency. The complete protocol is shown in Appendix B.
The protocol consists of messages from the controller to the modem and response messages
from the modem back to the controller. The modem never initiates communications without
having first received a correctly addressed and formed message requiring a response.
Message packets to the modem can take two forms;
1. Messages requesting information in a response message or “Read”;
2. Messages commanding a change in operating parameters or “Write”.
Any write information is automatically saved to non-volatile memory and is still present on the next
power-up.
The packet of both incoming and outgoing messages take the same generic form. First are pad
and opening flag, then the destination and source addresses, followed by the command code (and
read or write mode), then necessary data. The message packet is closed with a closing flag and
check word to verify the packet integrity. The use of a source address allows multiple controllers
on a single control link.
3.4.1 System Unit Programming/Communications
The communications protocol is unique. This mode is termed “command mode” communications
in the following discussion and is normally accomplished via an RS–485 4-wire connection to the
modem at “Control” connector J6. Note that the transmit and receive pair of this interface are
separated to form a 4-wire basis. If a 2-wire connection is desired, the transmit A and B leads may
be connected to the Receive A and B leads respectively in the connector applied to J6.
This command mode communications protocol involves the sending of a standard message
packet from a controller requesting information or commanding a change. The PSM-500 modem
responds with a message packet containing the information or confirmation of change. The
Modem never initiates communications at any time except in response to a command or query
message from the station controlling devices.
The new features and capabilities of the PSM-500 modem over previous versions required
modification of the protocol such that older control programs would not work directly. The PSM-
500 however emulates the protocol used in the PSM-4900 and other M5 series modems within
the capabilities of those previous modems. Therefore, the PSM-500 may be placed into a system
with existing PSM-4900s and the control mechanisms do not have to be changed until newer
feature control is desired. This emulation capability also allows an SDMS type Ethernet interface
card designed for an M5 modem to be placed into an M500 series modem and still work. See
Appendix B for more information.
3.5 Modem Checkout
The following descriptions assume that the full system is in operation and that software is running
properly on the central processor.
3.5.1 Power-Up
On initial and every subsequent power-up, the modem microprocessor will test itself and several
of its components before beginning its main monitor/control program. These power-up diagnostics
Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-30 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90
show no results if successful. If a serious power on failure is detected, the ALARM LED is flashed
at an approximate 4 Hz rate. Other failure modes are displayed on the front panel LCD.
New modems from the factory have default values placed into the EEPROM for operating
parameters. If a Monitor/Control System does not configure the modem automatically via the
serial command channel, the modem can be easily configured from the front panel or can be
connected to a VT100 protocol terminal to set the modem's operating parameters. To restore the
default parameters the modem can be powered on while depressing the “Clear” key.
The most common default parameters placed into the EEPROM are as follows: A modem can be
returned to the factory default settings by using the front panel command <Unit: Config -
Recall>, then editing (or quick edit) and choosing the “Factory” or “0” selection option.

Modulator:
Carrier Frequency = 70.00 MHz
Data Rate = 256 kbps
Modulation = QPSK
Code Rate = Rate 1/2
Differential Encoder = Enabled
Scrambler = Auto
Clock phase = Normal
Data = Normal
Clock Source = Internal
RTS = Ignore
Carrier = Off.
All Mod Alarms to Relay A
Modem Unit:
Modem Reference: Internal, 10 MHz
Remote Port Address = 1
Remote Port = RS-232
Remote Mode = Binary Packet
Remote Rate = 9.6 kbps
Remote Data Format = 8 data bits, 1
stop, no parity
Demodulator:
Carrier Frequency = 70.00 MHz
Data Rate = 256 kbps
Modulation = QPSK
Code Rate = Rate 1/2
Differential Decoder = Enabled
Descrambler = Auto
Clock phase = Normal
Data = Normal
Clock Source = Receive
Sweep mode = Fast
Acquisition Range = +/- 30 kHz
All Demod Alarms to Relay B
Interface:
Mode = RS-449
All Tests Off
Data and Clocks in normal mode (not
inverted). The XMT Clock now uses a
default “Auto” mode that detects the
proper phasing and applies it.


In a properly operating system, with an incoming carrier available for the demodulator, the
modem‟s Alarm (red) and Warning (yellow) LEDs should all go out. Without an acceptable
incoming carrier the Demod “Major Alarm” and “Summary Alarm” will illuminate. When the
incoming carrier is acquired, the green “Signal Lock” LED should illuminate. The “Transmit On”
LED will also illuminate if the transmit output is enabled.
3.6 L-Band Feature Operation
Note: The following special L-Band features refer to the transmit and receive for the PSM-
500L and the PSM-500LT .
3.6.1 L-Band BUC Control
The PSM-500L offers 3 specific features related to the control and use of an outdoor Block Up
Converter or BUC: Frequency control, power control and reference control.
Transmit Frequency Control – When the BUC Local Oscillator or LO frequency is entered into
the <Mod: BUC – LO Frequency> parameter the <Mod: IF – Frequency> parameter entry
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-31
allows (and requires) entry of transmit frequency at the actual satellite uplink RF frequency. To
return to using L-Band IF frequencies set the BUC – LO Frequency parameter to “0”.
BUC Power Control – When a power supply is plugged into the rear panel DIN connector, J10,
the PSM-500L uses and internal power relay to control application of power to the BUC‟s transmit
input cable under front panel or remote control. The modem can also read the voltage and current
being applied to the transmit cable. The PSM-500LT has an integrated BUC power supply.
BUC Reference Control – The PSM-500L/LT contains a high stability 10 MHz OCXO reference
oscillator designed to provide a suitable reference signal to most BUCs. See the specifications in
Appendix A for the exact reference stability, aging, phase noise and level specifications. The
application of the reference to the transmit cable is under front panel or remote control, as
required by the BUC. Some BUCs use the 10 MHz signal to control application of power to the
final PA, removing it and going to a low power state when the 10 MHz is absent.
3.6.2 L-Band LNB Control
The PSM-500L and H offer 3 specific features related to the control and use of an outdoor Low
Noise Block Down Converter or LNB: Frequency control, power control and reference control.
Receive Frequency Control – When the LNB Local Oscillator or LO frequency is entered into the
<Dem: LNB – LO Frequency> parameter the <Dem: IF – Frequency> parameter entry allows
(and requires) entry of receive frequency at the actual satellite downlink RF frequency. To return
to using L-Band IF frequencies set the LNB – LO Frequency parameter to “0”.
LNB Power Control – The PSM-500L and PSM-500LT contain an internal LNB power supply and
internal power relay to control application of power to the LNB‟s receive output cable under front
panel or remote control. The voltage applied can be chosen for either 18VDC or 13 VDC. The
modem can also read the voltage and current being applied to the receive cable.
LNB Reference Control – The PSM-500L and PSM-500LT contain an internal 10 MHz reference
oscillator designed to provide a suitable signal to those LNBs requiring an external reference. See
the specifications in Appendix A for the exact reference stability, aging, phase noise and level
specifications. The application of the reference to the receive cable is under front panel or remote
control, as required by the LNB.
3.7 Data Interface Clock Options
The modem clocking and options for either VSAT or SCPC operation is discussed below:
3.7.1 VSAT Mode
A typical method of synchronization in a VSAT system is as follows. The master station reference
is used to synchronize the master station transmit data clock. The VSAT terminal receive data
clock maintains this synchronization. The VSAT terminal DTE equipment may use the receive
data clock to synchronize itself and generate the transmit data clock for input to the VSAT
modulator either directly via setting the Modulator clock source to “Receive Clock” or indirectly via
the Terminal Timing input. Alternately it may use an accurate clock to generate the transmit data
clock and input it via the Terminal Timing input.
3.7.2 SCPC Mode
Independent – Each station of two linked SCPC modems is considered independent. The
transmit data clock is either an input to or output from each station modulator. The other station
receive data clock maintains this synchronization. The clocking in each direction is independent
and follows the same transmit to receive synchronization.
Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-32 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90
Master/Slave – One station of two linked SCPC modems is considered the master and the other
station is considered the slave. The master transmit data clock is either an input to or output from
the master station modulator. The slave station receive data clock maintains this synchronization.
The receive data clock is used to generate a contra–directional transmit data clock (from
modulator to DTE) of the same frequency, but not necessarily phase, as the receive data clock.
3.7.3 Transmit Interface Clock Auto Mode
The PSM-500 Modem uses a transmit clock option called “Auto”, which is now the default setting.
The new clock mode appears in the "Interface I/O" menu column under “Xmt Clock” and is not
settable. The modem measures the phase relationship between the transmit clock and data and
automatically sets the clock phase correctly. This gives improved performance on slightly longer
data cables when operating at bit rates above approximately 1.5 Mbps.
3.8 Automatic Uplink Power Control (AUPC) Operation
The PSM-500 modem has built-in logic for Automatic Uplink Power Control (AUPC). AUPC
attempts to maintain a constant E
b
/N
o
at the receive end of an SCPC link. This is especially useful
when operating over a satellite at Ku-Band frequencies in locations with high rainfall periods.
The AUPC function requires a data channel at 300 baud in order to operate. This data
channel can either be external to the modem (that is provided by an external multiplexer or
telephone line modem) or provided by the internal IBS multiplexer when enabled.
Note: The “Enhanced” or “Custom” Multiplexer mode MUST be selected to provide a
channel for AUPC operation from the IBS multiplexer option.
The internal data multiplexer in “Enhanced” mode provides a 300 baud service channel between
the two sites of a link permitting the modem processors to send messages and get responses
over this channel. AUPC can be set to operate on either or both directions of a link but always
requires a bi–directional channel. The AUPC functions and their descriptions are shown in the
table below:

Function Description
AUPC ENABLE/DISABLE Enables/Disables the AUPC to function locally.
MOD AUPC E
b
/N
o
Desired E
b
/N
o
of remote modem.
MOD AUPC MIN LVL Sets minimum output power to be used.
MOD AUPC MAX LVL Sets maximum output power to be used.

The basic AUPC operation is described as follows: Assume that the two modems, one at each
end of the link, are set to AUPC operation. Only one direction is discussed, but the same functions
could be occurring in both directions simultaneously. Modem “A” is transmitting to modem “B”
under normal conditions and modem “B” has a receive Eb/No of 7.5 dB. Modem “A” has been set
to an AUPC Eb/No on the front panel of 7.5 dB, and is currently outputting –15 dBm. Next it
begins raining at location “B”, and the Eb/No drops to –7.0 then –6.8 dB. Modem “B” is constantly
sending update messages to “A” and reports the current Eb/No. When “A” sees the drop in
Eb/No, it slowly begins to raise the output power, and raises it again when it sees further drops.
As the rain increases in intensity, and the Eb/No decreases again, “A” continues to increase its
power level to compensate, and when the rain diminishes and quits, it also lowers its power level
to compensate. The operation is therefore a feedback control loop with the added complication of
a significant time delay.
There must be safeguards built into the AUPC system. First, the Modulator has two additional
parameters which allow control of the maximum and minimum power output level. The other
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PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-33
controls are built into the operating control software to limit response times and detect adverse
operating conditions.
3.9 Demodulator Receive Data FIFO Operation
The PSM-500 modem has a built-in First In First Out (FIFO) buffer on the receive data channel
that may be enabled to compensate for cyclical variations in the receive data rate or different
systems clocks at the two link ends. A receive buffer of this type is sometimes referred to as a
Plesiochronous buffer when the intent is to absorb different clocks on the transmit and receive
end. This type of clock difference is usually uni-directional and cumulative. Cyclical variations are
most often caused by the daily movement of the satellite in its position resulting in a varying
distance from earth station locations. This movement would cause the receive data rate to
increase during a portion of the day and decrease during other periods. This type of variation is
termed Doppler variation and the buffer to absorb the variation is a Doppler Buffer. If the daily or
weekly average rate is the same then this temporal variation can be absorbed by the receive FIFO
without ever losing data (assuming the FIFO is large enough). Other data rate variations between
the transmitting and receiving stations which are not periodic (that is average to zero) can still be
buffered by the FIFO, but will eventually result in lost data.
Operation of the FIFO requires two clock sources: one that clocks the data into the FIFO, which is
always the clock recovered from the received signal; and one that clocks the data out of the FIFO.
The “out” clock can come from one of four sources:
1. Receive Clock – (Option 0) Meaning that the input and output clocks are the same,
disabling the FIFO.
2. Internal Clock – (Option 1) Uses a dedicated modem internal NCO generated data
rate clock as the output clock. Use of this clock does not require that the modulator
and demodulator data rate be identical.
3. External FIFO Clock – (Option 2) This option allows a station-derived standard clock
rate to be used to clock data out of the FIFO. The externally supplied clock must be
equal to the average receive data rate.
4. Modulator Clock – (Option 3) Uses the modulator data rate clock as the output clock
and obviously requires that the modulator and demodulator data rate be identical.
The Receive FIFO operation can be set from the front panel or remote control, and consists of
selecting the output clock source, and either the delay time desired in milliseconds or the number
of bits of delay. The processor computes the other value based on the one entered and the
current data rate. The modem processor also keeps track of and can display the current FIFO fill
percentage status. The FIFO sets the delay or number of bits selected upon activation and this
center value represents 100% FIFO fill. At any time the FIFO may contain from 0% to 200% of the
set value. The percentage fill can also represent the percentage of delay with respect to the
setting. For example if the buffer was set to 2 mS of delay and the fill is 150% this represents 3
mS of delay.
When the data rate is changed the modem maintains delay time constant, automatically changing
the number of bits stored in the buffer to compensate.
NOTE: When the number of bits of delay are very small, one bit may represent a large
percentage change (e.g. if the delay is only 4 bits, each bit represents 25%). The delay
may be set from 4 bits to 131,070 bits at any data rate, resulting in a delay ranging from
0.00081mS (4 bits at 4.92 Mbps) to over 42,000 mS (131,070 bits at 2400 bps).
An overrun occurs when a bit is clocked into the FIFO causing the fill to reach a full 200% of the
selected value. This causes flushing the upper half of the FIFO, restoring the fill to 100%, re-
centering the FIFO. The data flushed is lost and cannot be recovered.
Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-34 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90
An under-run occurs when the last bit is clocked out of the FIFO, emptying it. This also causes re-
centering of the FIFO by resetting the buffer pointers to the mid or 100% level, resending all the
data in the buffer. Both conditions result in a potential serious disruption of traffic.
When an under or over-run occurs an internal modem flag is set indicating that a re-center has
occurred. The front panel display shows “Slip” and FIFO fill data percentages read from the
remote port are negative numbers. This latched flag may be reset at the front panel or by writing
to the remote port FIFO parameter.
The FIFO may also be re-centered at any time on command from either the front panel or via the
remote control. At the front panel the command is <Dem: Status - Buffer> and pressing the “1”
key, then "Enter" to confirm. Pressing the “0” key on this parameter will clear the “Slip Status”.
In “framed” communications the severity of the disruption can be minimized by setting the buffer
size in bits to multiples of the frame size. For example if the total frame size is 512 bits and the
buffer is set to a size of 1024 bits an under or over-run would result in the frame flags remaining in
the same location in the data stream. Note that frames will still be errored by the under or over-
run, but synchronization may not be lost. If a superframe structure is used it is likely that
synchronization will still be lost.
3.10 Built-in 1:1 Redundancy Mode Operation
The PSM-500 modem has a built-in 1:1 redundancy mode that allows two modems to be
connected together sharing connections, but with only one unit “on-line”. The built-in software
provides automatic back-up protection should the on-line unit indicate a failure by switching to a
functioning off-line unit.
A diagram of the connections is shown in Section 2.3.6.
This is a very low cost method of achieving redundancy and because of the design has both
advantages and disadvantages:
- Advantage – The second or current back-up unit can be sent its full configuration from the
on-line unit, making set-up extremely easy.
- Advantage – Since the units are fully programmable concerning alarm content that
determines the switching criteria, this method is more flexible than most redundancy
schemes.
- Advantage – The single point failure of the switch in a classic 1:1 redundancy scheme is
eliminated. Since these switches are often mechanical relays they actually have a poor
failure rate, reliability (with respect to a classic scheme) is not seriously compromised.
- Disadvantage – There is no separate physical switch which provides a positive lock-out of
a seriously failed unit that may not be able to turn its output signals off.
- Disadvantage – There is no single point control allowing forced switching away from one
unit. Forced switching is accomplished only “from” the currently on-line unit.
- Disadvantage – There is no mode forcing a priority unit. In a priority system one unit is
considered primary and the other secondary. If both units show good status the primary is
always on-line. But, the priority scheme would also create more switching and is not
normally used anyway.
Of course the major advantage to the built-in redundancy capability is its extreme low cost.
3.10.1 Setting Up 1:1 Redundancy Mode
Redundancy mode between a pair of modems is normally accomplished during installation. The
procedure outlined here provides that information again, but also additional information on options
and parameters used to determine operating modes. In overview the procedure is to:
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PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-35
Note: The two modems MUST be the same model number and type, and should be at the same
firmware revision for proper redundant operation.
1. Configure the first modem completely for the intended operating parameters,
including setting the redundancy parameter to “1:1”. This initial unit should not be in
alarm.
2. Physically install the second unit to be paired, but with its power off.
3. Connect the IF and data cables to both units. The special data “Y” cable is connected
between the redundant pair.
4. Turn the secondary unit on.
5. Go to the menu in the <Unit: Redundancy – Config> and press the “Edit” key. The
on-line unit will ask permission to transfer configuration to the second unit. Confirm by
pressing “Enter”. The primary unit should say “Sending Config” for approximately 1
second. If any packet transferred results in an error message a “Send Fail” message
will be displayed, but the remainder of the transfer will continue.
6. Verify that the units are functioning correctly in redundancy mode. Go to the <Unit:
Status – Redundancy> item in both units. The on-line unit will say “On-Line, Bckup
OK” while the off-line unit will say “Standby, OK”.
Tear-down or un-pairing of two units is accomplished by turning both units off before removing the
“Y” cable. Then turn the units back on and set the redundancy to “Disabled”
Two parameters are added to the unit redundancy menu when redundancy is enabled:
- <Unit: Redundncy – Sw Rqst> This parameter allows you to determine which alarm
indications result in a switch request. The possible selections are “On Any Alarm”, “On
Alarm A”, “On Alarm B”, or “On Alarm A & B”. Since the specific alarms which comprise
Alarm A and Alarm B are programmable themselves, then a switch request is highly
programmable itself. For most applications though the default “On Any Alarm” is a
preferred selection.
- <Unit: Redundncy – Sw Hold> This parameter determines how long an alarm must exist
on the on-line unit and not the off-line unit before switching will occur. Allowable values
are 0.0 to 600.0 seconds. The value could be set to zero, but this is not advised. A
nominal value of 0.5 seconds insures that intermittent cases do not cause undue
switching. A built in factor of 10 seconds is provided once a switch has occurred before a
switch back to the original unit is allowed (except in the case of a manual switch request
or loss of power in the on-line unit which requires 2 seconds).
The possible case can arise when both units go out of alarm at virtually the same time. This might
occur if both units are powered on simultaneously or the receive carrier appears after being off or
a necessary clock signal is applied to both units. In such tie cases, which unit will be placed on
line is determined by the unit serial numbers, where the highest serial number wins the tie.
3.10.2 Operating 1:1 Redundancy Mode
Operation of a redundant pair of modems consists mainly of determining the status of units and
forcing transfer of operation from one unit to the other.
A quick status to determine which modem is currently on ”On-Line” and the failure state of the
paired modems is done by viewing the LED indicators on the front panels. In a fully operating set-
up there will be no alarms on either unit, but one modem will have the green Modulator Transmit
LED illuminated and the other will have the transmit LED extinguished. The other LED indicators
still show the relevant condition of the Modulator, Demodulator and Unit.
Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-36 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90
A more thorough status condition is viewed by setting both modems to the <Unit: Status –
Redundcy> parameter. The unit currently On-Line will present its status on the lower line of the
LCD display as “Online – xxxxx” where xxxxx could be one of several messages:
- Bckup OK – This modem thinks that everything is fine.
- BCKUP ALM – The backup modem is in an alarm state.
- NO BCKUP – No backup modem was found via the aux communications channel.

- The unit currently Off-Line will present its status on the lower line of the LCD display as
“Standby OK” or “OFFLINE – ALARM”.
3.10.2.1 Forcing a Transfer Switch in 1:1 Redundancy Mode
The 1:1 “transfer” process of forcing the two paired modems to swap their on-line/off-line status is
a one step process. The procedure however can only be accomplished on the unit that is currently
“On-Line”.
- On the currently “On-Line” unit go to the<Unit: Status – Redundcy> parameter and
press the “Edit” key.
- The LCD display will present the message “Enter to Xsfer?”. Pressing the “enter key will
cause the unit to go off-line and the currently “Off-Line” backup unit to go “On-Line”.
If there is no backup unit or the backup unit is itself in alarm then the transfer will not be
completed and an error message is displayed.
3.10.3 Removal and Replacement of Units in Redundancy Mode
It may be necessary to remove a unit of a redundant pair and replace that unit with another. The
following method performs that function with the minimum disruption to the traffic status. In
overview the procedure is to:
1. Force a switch away from the unit to be removed (if it is currently on-line),
2. Disconnection of cables from the now off-line unit, and
3. Physical removal of the unit.
Replacement is the reverse of this procedure.
3.11 Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) Set Operation
The PSM-500 modem has a built-in BERT that can be individually enabled in the transmit and
receive direction. It is capable of operating with two standard patterns; “2047” and “2^23 –1” and
maintains even complex BER test results. BER test results include BER, Sync Loss, Errored Bits,
Total Bits, Error Free Seconds, Erred Seconds and Total Seconds. Tests can be re-started at will
and run via the remote control and from the front panel.
¬ CAUTION: Enabling the BER Test set will result in disruption of any traffic currently
through the PSM-500 in the direction that is enabled. BER Tests should not be performed
on a live traffic unit.
The PSM-500 BER Test set can be “pointed” in two possible directions. The normal mode as
available in the PSM-4900 involves the BER transmitting in the direction of the satellite and
receiving from the satellite direction. An alternate mode allows the BER set to transmit and
receive toward the terrestrial data interface or “line” side. The direction is controlled via the
Interface <Intf: Test – BER I/O> parameter and can be selected for either “Satellite” or
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-37
“Terrestrial”. The Satellite direction looks to the modem as if a DTE is sending and receiving data.
The Terrestrial direction appears to the line as if a DCE device is sending and receiving data.
The use of the BERT is more fully described in the Maintenance Section 4.1.2.
3.12 Analog Monitor Output Operation
The PSM-500 modem has a built-in function to output an analog voltage representing the current
value of one of three internal parameters. These are the receive Automatic Gain Control (AGC)
level, the receive Eb/No and the transmit output power level. Each of these is a digital value
accessible to the main processor, which can output the selected value continuously to the rear
panel Alarm connector via a 16 bit digital to analog converter.
Processor access and control of these signals allows a highly flexible output format tailored to the
user‟s requirements. In addition to selecting the parameter value to output the processor allows
control of the “full scale” and “zero scale” output voltage over a range of –10.0 Volts to +10.0
Volts. These two settings can control the output slope (gain and direction) and offset.
To illustrate consider the example of outputting the receive AGC (representative of received signal
level) to automatic antenna positioning equipment. The PSM-500 has a carrier input range of
approximately –20 to –60 dBm. The AGC over this range is a voltage varying from approximately
–5 Volts at the maximum input and +5 Volts at the minimum input. Note that these voltages can
vary with data rate and other factors. The slope of this response is negative relative to the receive
signal level. Next assume that the positioning equipment wants a positive slope between 0 and
+10 Volts, where +10 Volts represents the maximum received signal level. In this case we would
set the <Unit: Monitor - Full> to 0.0 Volts and the <Unit: Monitor - Zero> to +10.0 Volts. These
settings have the effect of inverting the slope of the AGC signal and applying an offset of +5 Volts
to the output.
The analog output presented at the rear panel Alarm connector J5 has a 1kΩ output impedance,
protecting the driver circuitry from shorts.
3.13 Storing and Recalling Configuration
The PSM-500 modem has a built-in function allowing the operator to store the current complete
configuration in one of 8 numbered locations.
Any stored configuration can then be recalled, including one permanent configuration called
“Factory” which is a set of default configurations.
3.14 Automatic Configuration Recovery - ACR
The PSM-500 modem has an additional feature related to the ability to store and recall
configurations. Any or all of the 8 configurations can be set to be automatically recalled in the
event of receive carrier loss for more than a specified number of seconds. This automatic recall is
termed “Restore” on the control options. Each configuration has an associated time parameter
that is normally set to a 0 (zero) value. When any other value up to 14,400 seconds is placed in
this parameter then that configuration is recalled if the current configuration results in a loss of
carrier for more than the specified number of seconds.
The automatic configuration recovery feature, or ACR is also commonly used with the ability to
turn the carrier off after loss of receive carrier.
A feature added in version 0.52 of the modem firmware allows the power up behavior of the
modem to be selected as either “Last” or recalling one of the 8 stored configurations. Last is the
normal previous mode where the modem powers up using the last settings. Recall 1..8 will recall
any stored configuration on power up. The default stored in each configuration is the factory
settings.
Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Page 3-38 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90
¬ Note: The ACR is not available when the modem is operating in a redundancy mode.
Several examples more clearly illustrate the use and operation of the automatic configuration
recovery (ACR).
Consider a demand access type system where modems not currently in use are intended to be
placed at a “home” location. This would consist of mainly a receive IF frequency and data rate
where the modem could receive assignment information. By storing the necessary parameters for
the home location in configuration #1, and setting the configuration #1 time to 10 seconds, the
modem will return to home whenever no carrier is received for 10 seconds. Then upon receiving
an assignment, going to the new assigned set-up, and passing data traffic the link “tear-down”
only requires removing the inbound carrier. 10 seconds later the modem will return to the home
location awaiting another assignment.
Consider a simpler system that uses the multiplexer option to remotely program a far end modem.
This ability is only available via remote control, not the front panel. If a remote unattended modem
is erroneously commanded to a location and does not find the carrier then it may be impossible to
“re-acquire” that modem, necessitating a technician to visit that site. By first storing the current
configuration in one available location, and then setting the time to perhaps 30 seconds (all over
the link itself) for that configuration then the remote modem can safely be sent a command to
change frequency (for example) knowing that if the modem does not lock up to a receive carrier in
30 seconds it will return to the current configuration.
Multiple configurations can have time settings associated with them. The result is that each
configuration will be tried in turn until a carrier is found and locked. Upon losing the receive carrier
again the modem will restart the configuration sequence beginning with the lowest numbered
configuration having an associated non-zero time. The sequence is repeating with the highest
configuration with a non-zero time “wrapping” around to the lowest.
Caution – What is not immediately obvious is that the time set is the time of the “current”
configuration with no carrier before switching to that configuration. Thus if configuration #1
is set to 12 seconds and #4 is set to 2 seconds (all others being set to zero) then when on #4 for
12 seconds with no receive carrier the modem will change to #1, and when on #1 for 2 seconds
with no receive carrier then the modem changes to configuration #4.
Note that all of the above examples would be “safer” if the <Dem: Alarm – CXR Lock> is set to
“Mute and …”. With this setting the transmit carrier is turned off when no receive carrier is
present, even if commanded on.
3.15 Special Control Mechanisms
The PSM-500 modem includes several special controls that were built in for specific customer
systems, but may be of use by other user. This are listed here since they are not considered
normal options and could be easily overlooked.
3.15.1 Power-Up Behavior
The PSM-500 modem has the capability to always revert to the transmit carrier disabled on
power-up. This might be useful for example in mobile environments where the antenna may not
be deployed or aligned on each power-up cycle. Setting this option in the <Modulator: IF Mute>
parameter allows such operation.
In other cases the user may require that the modem always revert to a specific configuration on
power-up. The normal behavior is for the modem to power-up with the last settings still in effect.
One of the options in the Unit Configuration column is “Power-Up” control (<Unit: Config – Pwr-
Up>). The default setting is to “Last” which performs as the normal described above. A user can
select any of the 8 stored configurations to be recalled on each power-up cycle. This could be
useful in a mobile environment or a DAMA system where a “home” channel is desired on each
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PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90 Page 3-39
power-up. In a large system units can be pre-set to a specific configuration for use in initially
bringing up a site and then easily changed to another configuration for normal operation.
3.15.2 Monitors and Outputs
The PSM-500 has always had the ability to send one of 3 measured parameters to an analog
monitor output on the rear panel Alarm connector at pin 5 of J5. A newer monitor output added in
Version 0.47 of the modem code allows putting the Data Interface RTS status onto either the A or
B Alarm relay output, also on the rear panel J5 connection. Since these relays are form C, either
logic direction can be chosen for the output to use in controlling other equipment. Control of this
feature is in the <Intf: I/O – RTS Monitor> parameter. Caution – Setting this to either Alarm A
or B relay will override an other settings going to that alarm relay. It is the responsibility of
the user to set alarms properly when using this unique feature. This relay control is also not de-
bounced with a time delay, therefore a fast changing or chattering RTS signal will cause the relay
to chatter. This feature is independent of the <Intf: I/O – RTS> parameter which can be used to
control the Carrier enable via the RTS status.
3.16 Burst Mode Operation
Note: As of the time of this manual the burst mode is a special factory request option and not
installed in standard modems. The following description is typical of burst operations.
The modulator burst mode is controlled by the interface RTS/CTS and data flag signals. The
sequence of events for the burst mode is as follows:
1. The RTS from the DTE device is normally active. The idle character from the DTE is
a continuous Mark condition. The modulator output carrier is off in this idle state.
2. The modulator responds to the DTE device when ready to transmit by activating the
CTS signal.
3. Any time after the CTS is received by the DTE, the DTE starts transmitting flags
and/or data. The first non–SDLC/HDLC flag character received by the modulator is
the start of transmission signal, causing the modem to generate a preamble and
initiate the “Carrier ON” command. Transmission continues with data bytes placed
after the preamble.
4. The next SDLC/HDLC flag received by the modulator is the end of transmission
signal.
5. When the closing flag is detected by the modulator, it drops the CTS indicating that a
new data message cannot be started. When the last data bit is sent, the modulator
will reassert the CTS signal, and turn the carrier OFF.
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Maintenance
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Page 4-1
Chapter 4 - Maintenance
4.0 Periodic Maintenance
The PSM-500 requires no mandatory periodic field maintenance procedures. The unit contains no
adjustments and most calibration is digital and held in EEPROM. Should a unit be suspected of a
defect in field operations after all interface signals are verified the proper procedure is to replace
the unit with another known working modem. If this does not cure the problem, other equipment in
the link, wiring or power should be suspect.
There are no batteries or parts requiring periodic service contained within the case. The only
moving part is the internal fan, which is designed for a service life in excess of 200,000 hours.
There is no external fuse on the PSM-500 Modem. The fuse is located on the power supply
assembly inside the case, and replacement is not intended in the field.
4.0.1 Internal Reference Calibration
If desired, or if it is suspected that the modem‟s internal reference requires calibration, this can be
performed on a unit “on-location”. A recommended interval for the reference calibration would be
after the first 6 months to a year in service and on a yearly basis thereafter. The external
reference should be of known accuracy before attempting calibration. The calibration of the
modem‟s internal reference from an externally applied reference is an automatic procedure
enabled from the unit‟s front panel. Go to <Unit: Test – Cal Ref> to enable the calibration
procedure.
¬ Caution: The Reference Calibration procedure may result in lost traffic during
performance of the calibration! The calibration should not be performed in
operating links without prior arrangements.
Before beginning an internal reference calibration an external reference must be applied and the
<Unit: Ref – Source> must be set to “External”.
4.1 Common Test Procedures
When a modem, link or system is first installed and placed in service it is common to run several
tests to verify proper performance of each of the equipment items in the link. The PSM-500 is
designed to aid in this process by providing built in test modes geared to verifying performance,
and isolating potential problems. These aids consist of the modem self test procedure, the
multiple “Loop-Back” modes available and the built-in BERT. These facilities are also useful when
troubleshooting system or link problems which involve the modem.
¬ Caution: All of the modem operating procedures described below will result in
loss of traffic. They should not be used in operating links without prior
arrangements.
The modem self test can be used to check out a modem within a system or stand alone on a
bench. It requires nothing more than power. The procedure is described in more detail in Section
4.2.3 below.
4.1.1 Loop-Back Testing
The Loop-Back modes are typically used in a wired link with DTE equipment that can transmit and
verify receipt or preferably a Bit Error Rate Test Set (BERT). The basic procedure used is to
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transmit a data signal at one end of the link and sequentially set each of the loop-back options.
Proper reception of the loop-back data verifies all components between the source and the loop.
The simplified diagram below shows the location of the PSM-500‟s built in loop-back functions
within the link from one end of a link to the other. The advantage to having these functions built-in
is that they are electronically programmable without having to disconnect existing cabling to
connect equipment that must be available for testing.
Each of these loop-back modes are individually programmable at the modem front panel or
remote control interface. More detail on each of the typical loop back uses is given below.
- Near End Terrestrial Data Loop-Back: This will be the closest loop-back to the DTE or
BERT. If data is returned and received properly it indicates that the DTE wiring and
connection to the modem are correct. Note from the position of the built-in BERT in the
diagram above that this test requires an external source of data. The PSM-500 can
individually set the data path terrestrial side loop-back and the data path satellite side loop-
back in <Int’f: Test - Ter Loopbck> and <Int’f: Test - Sat Loopbck> respectively.
- Near End IF Loop-Back: This second loop-back will verify the modem transmit data signal
processing, modulation, demodulation, receive signal processing, and connection to the
receive interface. The PSM-500 sets the IF loop-back in <Dem: Test - IF Loopbck>. Note in
this test that the near end satellite loop-back function should not be enabled whether using the
internal or an external BERT.
- Far End Satellite Data Loop-Back: This will test most of the satellite link as well as the
functions checked in test 2 above. The signal is sent over the satellite (or test setup) and is
looped back at the satellite side of the data interface on the far end. This tests both modems,
the satellite link and originating end wiring. The PSM-500 sets the satellite side loop-back in
<Int’f: Test - Sat Loopbck>. Note in this test that the near end satellite and IF loop-back
functions should not be enabled whether using the internal or an external BERT. Setting this
mode slaves the modulator timing to the demod timing and the FIFO buffer remains engaged
if enabled.
In this type of testing an external BERT is typically set to provide a terminal timing output, while
the connected modem is set to use the terminal timing signal as the transmit bit rate clock source.
This modem can alternatively be set to use its internal clock for the transmit clock timing and
provide that signal to the BERT for synchronization. More information on using the PSM-500‟s
internal BERT is given below.
DTE
Or
BERT
Near End Terrestrial.
Data Loop-Back
Near IF
Loop-Back
Far End Satellite
Data Loop-Back
Satellite
Link
Near Modem Far Modem
Built-in BERT is
located here.
Near End Satellite.
Data Loop-Back
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4.1.2 Using the Built-in BERT
The PSM-500 contains a complete transmit and receive Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) set. Each
direction is independent and can be used for either loop-back testing or uni-directional testing with
another PSM-500 on the other end of the link. Since the test sequences used are industry
standard it should also be possible to use the built in BERT with an external BERT and any brand
of modem at the other link end, although this has not been extensively tested.
The Modulator (Transmit) BERT is enabled at <Int’f: Test – Mod BER>, and the Demodulator
(Receive) BERT is enabled at < Int’f: Test – Dem BER >. With either transmit or receive being
enabled by choosing either the 2047 or 2^23-1 test pattern options. Both should be the same to
operate properly.
When the Demodulator receive BER Test is enabled the test results are available in the <Int’f:
Status - Test> parameter item and the 7 items below it in the Interface Status column. These 7
items are:
1. Test BER – The ratio of errored bits to un-errored bits since the test began or was last
reset. Expressed in bits per bit as x.yyy E-power where the mantissa (x.yyy) is always
between 0 and 10 and power is the power of 10. For example 1.200 E-6 is 1.2 errored bits
in 10^6 bits, or 1.2 errors per million bits. No errors are expressed as 0.000E-power.
Since Errored bits do not accumulate during a sync loss, it is possible to lose sync for
several seconds and not have the BER affected.
2. Sync Loss – The total number of sync losses that have occurred since the test began or
was last reset.
3. Errors – The total number of bit errors that have occurred since the test began or was last
reset. Errored bits do not accumulate during a sync loss.
4. Bits – The total number of bits that have been received since the test began or was last
reset.
5. EFS – Error Free Seconds. The percentage of the total number of seconds with no errors
occurring during that particular second. Compiled since the test began or was last reset.
No errors are shown as “100.00%”. Errored seconds accumulate during a sync loss.
6. Erred Sec – The total number of seconds with errors occurring during that particular
second, since the test began or was last reset. Errored seconds accumulate during a
synch loss
7. Total Sec – The total number of seconds since the test began or was last reset.
The test is reset or started over by viewing any of the 7 status items listed above and pressing the
“Edit” or “0” key, then responding to the prompt “Enter to Restart” by pressing “Enter”. A restart on
any items resets all items and values.
A single error may be inserted when the BER test is active to verify proper operation by using the
<Int’f: Test – Mod BER> parameter and pressing “3” and “Enter”. This could be useful since it is
sometimes difficult to see errors with the Turbo Product Codes FEC.
In the loop-back diagram shown above the BER test sets are physically between the satellite and
terrestrial loop-back functions. Thus data traversing through either of these loop-backs does not
involve the BER test sets, even if enabled. If the built-in BERT is being used the local “satellite
loop-back” function should not be enabled.
The transmit output from the built-in BERT always faces toward the modem‟s transmit or satellite
side, while the receive comes from the modem‟s receive side. It is not designed to transmit and
receive signals from the terrestrial side of the data connection.
All of these settings and test results are also available via the remote control interface, allowing for
automated and periodic testing of units not in service.
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4.2 Troubleshooting
The following is a list of possible problems that could be caused by failures of the modem or
improper setup and configuration for the type of service. The list is arranged by possible
symptoms exhibited by the modem. When simple solutions yield not results then test equipment
may be necessary to help isolate the trouble. A spectrum analyzer is invaluable. So is a Bit Error
Rate Test set (BERT). The PSM-500 has a built in BERT function.
In most cases the first attempt at isolating a problem suspected of being within the modem is to
place the modem in the Self-Test Mode. Since this the vast majority of internal circuitry then a
pass on this test means that the user should probably concentrate on parameter settings and
external equipment and connections.
One obvious and time-honored method of isolating problems is to substitute suspect equipment
with known good equipment. Assuming that the configuration setting of the equipment is not the
source of the problem, this method will quickly eliminate items from the potential source list. The
two drawbacks to this method are the availability of extra equipment and the possibility of
interaction between two or more equipment items.

Symptom: The Modem will not acquire the incoming carrier:
Possible Cause: Improper receive input to modem.
Action: Check that the receive cabling is correct.

Possible Cause: Receive carrier level too low.
Action: Check that the receive cabling is correct, that the downconverter is properly set
and that the LNA is turned on. If a spectrum analyzer is available, locate and measure the
receive level, which should not be below –60 dBm absolute. At lower data rates the input
level may be as low as –84 dBm.

Possible Cause: Receive carrier frequency outside of acquisition range.
Action: Check the receive acquisition range is adequate for the possible system offsets.
Setting the value to 30 kHz is a standard value encompassing all normal offsets. After
acquisition, the actual receive frequency can be read from the front panel.

Possible Cause: Transmit carrier incompatible.
Action: Check the receive parameter settings and ensure that they match those on the
modulator.

Possible Cause: Modem is in test mode.
Action: Check the modem front panel for yellow warning LEDs indicating a test mode is
enabled. Self Test or IF Loop-back disconnects the Demodulator from the IF receive input
connector.

Possible Cause: Interference on the satellite.
Action: The interference can take many forms. The most common are an adjacent large
carrier, antenna feed polarization off resulting in carrier interference in opposite
polarization, intermodulation products. Most of these cases can more easily be
determined with a spectrum analyzer. If possible move to another operating frequency to
see if that resolves the problem.
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Symptom: The Modem acquires a carrier but loses lock intermittently.
Possible Cause: Receive acquisition range set too narrow. When the carrier drifts
outside of the acquisition range the demodulator looses lock until the carrier returns inside
the acquisition range.
Action: Check the actual receive carrier frequency and the receive offset at the front
panel and set the acquisition range appropriately.

Possible Cause: Receive level varying out of AGC range.
Action: Check the actual receive input level at the front panel. Change the carrier input
level to within the correct range. In Ku–Band systems, rain fade can cause significant
receive level variance.

Possible Cause: Transmit or Receive Converter equipment noisy.
Action: The dependence up good phase noise in converter equipment is especially
noticeable at low data rates and when using QPSK modulation. Very low frequency phase
noise on the converter oscillators is very difficult to see or measure, but is detrimental to
proper low data rate performance. Substitution of another modem will verify the correct
modem functioning.
Symptom: The Modem output data is corrupted.
Possible Cause: Receive data or clock inverted.
Action: Check the current state of the Demod Clock and Data Phase. Try inverting the
phase.

Possible Cause: Receive Carrier signal Eb/No is too low resulting in poor BER
performance.
Action: Ensure that the transmit end is properly set and that the receive subsystems are
all operating correctly. In a small station ensure that the antenna is “peaked” on the
satellite. In a Ku-Band station, intense rain can cause poor receive performance.

Possible Cause: Transmit and Receive scrambler or differential encoder options do not
match or not enabled. Note – The differential encoder in the PSM-500 is under processor
control only, but this cause could apply to a mixed system linked to another modem.
Action: Check the current state of the Scrambler and differential encoder. In all operating
systems the differential encoder/decoder and one of the available scramblers must be
enabled.
Symptom: The Modem receive FIFO buffer indicates “Slip”.
Possible Cause: The FIFO automatically re-centers when an overrun or under-run
condition occurs.
Action: Check that the proper clocking options are used and the FIFO buffer is set large
enough to handle the expected satellite Doppler shift over a 24 hour period. No amount of
buffering will correct for different clocks on the input and output of the FIFO.
Symptom: Receive DTE equipment indicates “clock slip” or “sync lost”.
Possible Cause: The FIFO automatically re-centers when an overrun or under-run
condition occurs.
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Action: Check that the proper clocking options are used and the FIFO buffer is set large
enough to handle the expected satellite Doppler shift over a 24 hour period. No amount of
buffering will correct for different clocks on the input and output of the FIFO.

Possible Cause: Receive signal or clock inverted.
Action: Check the current state of the Demod Clock Phase. Try inverting the phase.
4.2.1 Onboard Diagnostic Indicators
There are 8 LEDs on the main PWB which provide diagnostic information about the status of
various functions:
1. DS1 - MBIT FAULT- (Red) – Indicates that the transmit bit timing is not
synchronized. The most common reason for this fault should be that the modem is
set for external Transmit Timing input and either none is present or the applied signal
is off frequency.
2. DS2 - MOD ENABLE- (Green) – Indicates that the modulator hardware has
enabled the transmit carrier.
3. DS3 - Modulator FPGA program fault- (Red) – Indicates that the modulator
FPGA failed to program correctly.
4. DS4 - MSTP FAULT- (Red) – Indicates that the transmit step synthesizer is
unlocked. Normally this would result only from an onboard fault.
5. DS5 - REF FAULT- (Red) – Indicates that the onboard TCXO reference oscillator is
not phase locked when set to an external reference input.
6. DS6 - System Clock Alarm- (Red) – Indicates that the 80 MHz clock hardware has
failed.
7. DS7 - DEM LOCK- (Green) – Indicates that the demod hardware has locked to an
incoming carrier.
8. DS8 - DSTP FAULT- (Red) – Indicates that the receive step synthesizer is unlocked.
Normally this would result only from an onboard fault.
9. DS9 - Demodulator FPGA program fault- (Red) – Indicates that the demodulator
FPGA failed to program correctly.
10. DS10 - I channel FPGA program fault- (Red) – Indicates that the I channel filter
failed to program correctly.
11. DS11 - Q channel FPGA program fault- (Red) – Indicates that the Q channel
filter failed to program correctly.
12. DS12 - MLO FAULT- (Red) – Indicates that the transmit Local Oscillator synthesizer
is unlocked. Normally this would result only from an onboard fault.
13. DS13 - DLO FAULT- (Red) – Indicates that the receive Local Oscillator synthesizer
is unlocked. Normally this would result only from an onboard fault.
14. DS14 - Front Panel FPGA program fault- (Red) – Indicates that the front panel
FPGA failed to program correctly.
4.2.2 Onboard Processor Power-On Sequence and Diagnostics
The processor goes through the following sequence every time the modem is powered up.
1. Sets up the stack pointer and initializes the register bank;
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2. Disables all interrupts;
3. All internal RAM and all external RAM is tested by writing to it and reading from it. If
any value does not work correctly, the initialization is halted and an endless loop is
entered putting out a square wave on ALARM LED;
4. The front panel is checked for presence.
5. Checks the Flash memory contents and calculates its checksum value. If the
checksum does not correspond to that in the ROM, the initialization is halted and an
endless loop is entered putting out a square wave on the ALARM LED;
6. The EEPROM is tested for specific flag bytes in its contents. If the flags are incorrect,
the EEPROM is assumed to be corrupted and is re-initialized with the factory defaults,
removing the current. A message is displayed on the front panel LCD.
7. Initializes all variables and internal components;
8. The standard or optional interfaces are interrogated for type and installed options.
9. Initializes the serial UARTs, A/D converter and internal timers, enabling these
interrupts in the process;
10. Begins operating its main loop program which responds to control inputs, monitors
and displays terminal and LED status, controls the modulator output, FEC, operating
modes, etc.
4.2.3 Built-in Lamp Test
4.2.3.1 Lamp Test
The Front Panel LEDs and LCD display backlight are tested. This is meant to be viewed by an
operator. During the 4 seconds of this test both alarm relays are forced off.
Eb/No, input level and offset frequency are all within limits. The internal BERT is used to verify no
errors or loss of sync.
4.3 Updating Modem Software
The PSM-500 modem software and firmware are held in flash memory and can be field upgraded
by several methods. The most common is to download newer software revisions via the Internet
and install from a Window‟s type USB capable PC using the modem‟s USB control port. If a USB
capable computer is not available software and firmware can be updated via the serial control
port, but this method is not recommended because of the large amount of firmware and the slow
serial connection.
We do occasionally add new features or correct operating procedures within the modem software
that might lead to problems. When the operating software changes the Revision number is
updated. Some changes may involve modification of the information or structure in the non-
volatile EEPROM storage.
The latest versions of firmware, instructions and PC compatible update programs are available on
the www.datumsystems.com web site, and should be checked for the latest instructions before
attempting the procedures below
The complete software update “package” consists of two or three ZIP compressed files – One
holding the Update program with a Window‟s Installer and the other two holding the firmware
images that the Update program writes to the modem. There are separate firmware files for the
main unit and the FEC card The following are typical of the file types and ZIP contents, but they
may change as to provide easier operation – check the web site for the latest:
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A. - M500UpdateFullVxxx.zip where xxx is the current version number of the M500Update
program. Besides the Loader program itself this zip file also contains the full set of Visual Basic
DLL and OCX associated files. The USB drivers needed for installation on a computer are
typically separately packaged.
Once installed the latest version of the program itself without the other drivers and DLL files is
available as M500UpdateVxxx.zip (note the “Full” is not in this version‟s name).
- M500Flash.EXE PC based program to load software to the modem.
- Various DLL, OCX Visual Basic runtime routines necessary to run the M500Flash.exe
program.
B. M500ModemUSBDriver.zip This program is only needed once on any computer to provide the
USB driver.
- USB drivers for the FTDI USB interface – currently named FTD2XX.lib, sys, dll, ini, etc.
- Windows installer used to install the driver program and its associated files.
C. M500Ux.xx.yyy.zip where x.xx is the current version number and yyy is the applicable unit
type as explained below.
- M500Ux.xx.yyy.fbf Binary image of the modem‟s main Unit software/firmware.
M500U is for the Unit where currently exists yyy values of:
o 000 for a 70 MHz modem
o 001 for a 140 MHz Modem
o 040 for the L-Band Modems
D. M500Fx.xx.yyy.zip where x.xx is the current version number and yyy is the applicable FEC
card type as explained below.
- M500Fx.xx.yyy.fbf Binary image of the FEC cards firmware. M500F is for the FEC
where currently exist yyy card types of
o 001 for the standard FEC card containing Viterbi, Trellis Code Modulation (TCM)
and Reed-Solomon
o 002 for the enhanced standard FEC card containing Viterbi, Trellis Code
Modulation (TCM) and Reed-Solomon, plus the TPC4K type Turbo chip.
o 003 for the enhanced standard FEC card containing Viterbi, Trellis Code
Modulation (TCM) and Reed-Solomon, plus the TPC16K type Turbo chip.
o 004 Not defined yet.
In addition the user must supply a “PC” type computer running Windows and a USB A to B type
cable to connect the PC to the modem. The USB type A connection goes to the computer and the
type B connection to J10 on the rear of the modem. This is a normal serial cable available from
many common sources and also used with many computer peripherals such as printers. Do not
connect this USB cable until the software drivers are installed.
Although not recommended, if using a serial RS-232 connection to perform modem
updates, the serial cable has a male DB9 connector on the modem end and normally a
female DB9 connector on the computer end. Older computers may require a DB25 to DB9
adaptor on the computer end. The 9 pin cable is wired 1:1 with no crossovers (as in “null
modem” type cables). This is a standard serial extension cable available at computer
outlets.
Any software upgrade requires a “Control Program” hosted on the computer which transmits or
“Loads” the new software to the modem. The Control Program is available with the newer
software revision. Currently the name of the control program is “M500 Update.exe”. This Loader is
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an IBM PC Visual Basic based program that can be run under Windows 98, 2000 and XP. We
now have a newer self contained M500 Update program capable of running under Windows Vista
available on the web site. This version can also check a special web site on demand for newer
firmware for the connected modem, making the process as painless as possible.
The Installation program must be run first to install the update program in the PC used for
updating modem firmware. The M500Update program is specifically designed to stand alone if it
is located in a directory with its VB DLL and OCX files plus the flash binary format files for the
modem. It does not change the registry or appear in the “Start Programs” menu. The advantage
of this is that it can even be run from the CD that comes with the modem (although that probably
does not have newer flash files), or from a central networked computer location.
4.3.1 Update Software Installation –
There are two M500 software/firmware update programs available. The main one is the
recommended M500 Update program that is very easy to use. The alternate is the
M500FlashLoader program that may be required in special cases only. Both are briefly described
below. More complete installation and usage information is available on the web and with the
programs.
4.3.1.1 M500 Update Program
The M500Update program is designed to be very simple to install and use. It looks at the modem
and the .fbf files in its own directory and determines if an update is available. You only need to
push one button and the program will load the main unit and any FEC files needed by the modem.
The program is normally installed in a folder/directory of your choosing, for example one named
C:\My Documents\M500Tools. It is described above and on the “download” page of our web site.
Beginning with version 2.0 the M500Update program was renamed to M500 Up_date for
programming reasons. These versions are needed to operate in Windows Vista operating
systems. Newer versions of this update program are even easier to use. As of this writing version
2.10 is available. In this release a computer with web access can determine the Unit and FEC
versions in the USB connected modem and then check the web for availability of later firmware.
On command it can download the new firmware, unpack it and install it into the modem. It can
even check for newer versions of the Update program itself. To use the latest implementation the
user only needs the M500 Up_date.exe program and the USB driver to get new firmware and
update modems.

4.3.1.2 M500 Flash Loader Program
This is an older, but more flexible program that operates in a slightly different manner than the
normal M500 Update program: It is not recommended unless specifically required.
The M500 Flash Loader program can be “installed” and will appear in the Start Programs menu.
The Flash Binary Format files do not have to be in the same directory as the program.
It does not analyze the modem to determine if an update is needed based on those .fbf files.
It allows installing down rev software if required.
The installation program handles this location by default. The recommended method for installing
the Update Software program is as follows:
1. Download the Full version of the update program which includes the program, associated
files and USB drivers. Also download the latest firmware for your modem from the web
site.
2. Unzip or extract the program files into the directory where you saved the download in step
one. An alternative is to leave the downloaded program files compressed - either WinZip
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or Windows XP compressed folders will allow you to run the install program directly from
within the compressed file.
3. Run the “Install.exe” file by double clicking on it. This will create the C:\Program
Files\M500 FLASH Loader directory and place the program and associated files there.
The USB drivers will be in a sub-directory named. C:\Program Files\M500 FLASH
Loader\UsbDriver.
4. Unzip or extract the binary files into a suitable folder. You could use the C:\Program
Files\M500 FLASH Loader directory, or chose one within My Documents such as “M500
Binaries”.
5. Connect the computer to the modem via a USB cable. If the modem is turned off then
turn it on. The computer will recognize and advise you that new hardware has been found
and run the new hardware wizard.
6. If the wizard asks if you would like to connect to the Internet to search for drivers, select
“No, not this time” and click “Next”.
7. When asked if you want to “Install Automatically” or “Locate the drivers myself” or “Have
Disk”, select the self locate or have disk option and navigate to the C:\Program
Files\M500 FLASH Loader\UsbDriver folder and there select the ftd2xx.inf file. Then let
windows do the rest. If notified that the driver is not certified select “Continue Anyway”.
The supplied drivers are from a reputable source that manufactures the USB interface
chip.

The modem has a complementary program which talks to the loader and controls re-writing of the
flash memory. No actions to the modem are normally necessary before beginning update with the
exception of removing it from service, and the M500 Flash Update program can take care of all
tasks directly including finding the modem, determining if it has newer software/firmware versions
available and preventing loading of incorrect firmware to the modem The modem is specifically
designed to not accept firmware that is not made for it. For example the standard 70 MHz modem
would reject firmware for a 140 MHz or L-Band Modem.
It is a good idea to see if a later version of the update program or the update instructions are
available on the web. Those could be newer than the basic information given here.
4.3.2 Performing the Software/Firmware Update –
Once the PC program which does the actual update and communications with the modem is
installed the process for accomplishing the actual update using the original “M500 Flash Loader”
is as shown below.
¬ Note: For virtually all users the recommended program is the newer “M500
Up_date.exe” program available on our web site at www.datumsystems.com. This newer
program in version 2.06 and later is significantly easier to use, works with any version of
Windows including Vista, and can check a special web site for available modem and
program updates on user command. This relieves the user from having to know about
numbering schemes, modem types, etc. Use instructions are also on the web site.

The M500 Flash Update program gives feedback to the user during the update process. If you
suspect that something is not going correctly with the update process then wait until the current
process is completed and contact Datum Systems via email with details of what is observed. We
have tried very hard to make the program as robust as possible.
There are two types of software/firmware files that may be uploaded to the modem. One is for the
main modem itself and its binary file name begins with “M500U”. The other is update firmware for
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the particular FEC card that may be installed and its binary file name begins with “M500F”. The
update program is intended to determine which one of these may be required and which one
should be loaded first.
All user settings and calibration data are maintained when newer software revisions are installed.
¬ CAUTION: The process of updating software will result in disruption of any traffic
currently through the PSM-500. Upgrade should not be performed on a live traffic unit.
¬ CAUTION: The process of updating software must not be interrupted once started. In
the rare occasions when a new bootloader is installed in flash, failure to complete this
portion of the loading process may result in complete loss of the modem programming. In
this eventuality the modem must be returned to Datum Systems for software initialization
and calibration..
Complete update of the modem normally requires approximately 4 to 6 minutes. The process
cannot be accomplished on multiple modems simultaneously.
Before performing an update check the web site first to determine if there is a later firmware
revision and if there is any advantage to performing the update. The firmware revision on the web
is compared to that in the modem.
To determine the modem‟s current Unit firmware revision go to the front panel and navigate to the
<Unit: Status - Version> parameter. It will display a number including two decimal points, for
example 0.09.000 where the 0.09 represents the firmware revision “0.09” of modem type “000”. In
this case the 000 type is a 70 MHz modem. Then if on the web site there is found for example a
firmware updated version number 0.12.000 that indicates that the latest revision available for the
70 MHz M500 modem is 0.12. The file can be downloaded, unzipped and placed in the
C:\Program Files\M500 FLASH Loader directory where the program can find it. It may alternately
be placed in another directory or folder and you will have to browse to locate the binary file.
And finally the procedure:
1. Insure that the modem is connected to the PC via a USB type A to B cable, and the
modem is powered on. The USB drivers for the modem should have already been
installed.
2. Start the update program via “Start – Programs – M500 FLASH Loader” menu, and the
M500 Flash Loader program should start and recognize the attached modem. In a few
seconds the modem‟s serial number and other information will be shown in the left panel
displaying a window similar to that below.

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3. Click on the entry box below “M500 FLASH Program File” in the right pane. This will bring
up a file open dialog box. Browse to the location of the flash binary format (.fbf) files
downloaded with the newer firmware version, and select the M500F or M500U file
desired.
4. The program window should now show that file selected, and if it is the same as the
current file loaded into the modem it will display as below:


Not the “** Current Version **” after the File Firmware Version = 0.08.000 indicating the
selected file is the same as that loaded.
5. If the binary file versions available in this directory are newer than those in the modem,
then select the “Update M500 FLASH” button and the update process will begin.
6. When completed the modem will reset itself and the revised information will be displayed
in the left pane. If you need to also load an FEC firmware binary file, then repeat the
process by selecting that file and updating again. When finished simply end the M500
FLASH Update program and disconnect the modem from the computers USB port.

NOTE: The IF version of the 70 MHz, 140 MHz and L-Band modem is determined by
hardware only, and has nothing to do with the software. The modem will refuse to accept
attempts to load the wrong software intended for another version.

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4.4 Upgrading the Modem Feature Set
Each of the modems in the PSM-500 series is available currently with 3 different “Feature Sets”,
M505, M511 and M523, representing basic capabilities that suit it to certain tasks. They are
currently given a feature set code representing the elements of those features. Refer to Section
1.1.2. which shows the capabilities of each standard feature set.
Upgrading from one feature set to another is accomplished in the following manner.
Contact your local reseller or Datum Systems directly requesting an upgrade and noting the Unit
Serial Number, current version and the version to which you would like to upgrade to. There are
only 3 upgrades possible at this writing, from the M505 to the M511, from the M511 to the M523
and from the M505 to the M523.
Upon purchasing an upgrade you will be provided with a special 16 digit code which is used to
enable the upgraded features. The code is unique to this unit‟s serial number and will not work in
any other modem.
To insert the code go to the <Unit: Status - Feature> parameter using the front panel keypad.
Then enter the 16 digits of the given code directly using the digits on the keypad, then press the
“Enter” key. If correctly entered the modem will now display the new feature set and list the
available modulation modes above the standard set in the M505. For example when the M523
feature set is enabled the <Unit: Status - Feature> parameter will display “M523-8PSK-16QAM”.
Feature sets can only be upgraded. There is no code to downgrade a feature set to a lower one.
4.4.1 Future Software Options –
In the future we may have additional options which can be enabled via an “unlock code”. For
example, newer FEC options based on Intellectual Property (IP) which we must license and
charge for, may fit into this category. The procedure for these options will be similar to that
described above and explained in the transmittal that accompanies the unlock code.

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4.5 Frequently Asked Questions - FAQ
OR How Do I?,
Why Doesn’t It?,
and Where Is?
This Section is intended to form a smart index pointing to proper sections of the manual with
information on performing common actions or answering common questions. The presentation
here is divided into 5 common areas – Link Setup, Front Panel, Remote Control, Data Interface
and Manual.

A. Link Set Up and Installation.
A.1 Compatibility with other Modems.
How do I make the PSM-500 talk to a xxxx brand modem on the other end of a link?
The PSM-500 has several new programmable features which should make this easier than ever.
First, where possible if both modems adhere to Intelsat IESS standards then those defined
parameters should be set the same. Still all modem manufacturers have their own conventions for
setting parameters with no specified standard, so for example some modems may have a
different modulation sense for data bits than others. This would make no difference between two
modems of the same type, but would invert data between modems of different types on each end
of a link. Most items of this type are programmable in the PSM-500 modem.
The PSM-500 also has a significant number of FEC compatibility modes for aid in achieving
compatibility with some competitive modems, especially in Turbo FEC modes. These modes are
denoted by the FEC Option type “CT” on the front panel selection.
Is Datum Systems' Turbo Product Codes compatible with that made by other modem
manufacturers?
The PSM-500 also has a significant number of FEC compatibility modes for aid in achieving
compatibility with some competitive modems, especially in Turbo FEC modes. These modes are
denoted by the FEC Option “CT” on the front panel selection. These modes are typified by the
modes used in the CDM5xx and CDM6xx series of competitive modems.
There are several modes that are probably not compatible for several reasons. First is
that there is no standard for implementation of TPC. Second, Datum Systems spent a lot
of time and development in implementing a full set of TPC parameters (i.e. Rates 1/2, 3/4
and 7/8), and insuring the absolute best performance with no compromises. We have
seen no other TPC implementation that even comes close to ours. Third, because we
have many customers that use our modems in systems requiring low latency we
implemented an alternate "Short Block" mode that reduces the typical TPC delay by
approximately 1/3. The techniques used in this TPC achieve the best performance of any
modem currently produced. Our latest TPC “Advanced” modes are also proprietary to
Datum Systems, simply because we know of no one else using the specific parameters.
Is the PSM-500 Remote Control Protocol Compatible with the PSM-4900?
The PSM-500 has significant new capabilities and features that cannot fit into the structure of the
PSM-4900 protocol. However, the PSM-500 will respond to properly formatted PSM-4900 binary
control packets within the capabilities of the PSM-4900. This allows mixed systems of 4900 and
500 series modems without initially changing control software. The compatibility does not currently
extend to operation over the link on the MCC channel.
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My PSM-500 and PSM-2100 do not agree on the Eb/No parameter with Reed-Solomon
Codec installed?
The PSM-2100 was designed before Intelsat IESS 309 added the section defining how the Eb/No
was measured with Reed-Solomon concatenated coding, and uses a different method. The
method is encapsulated in ASIC and not changeable. Unfortunately the IESS lists two possible
methods of computing the Eb/No with Reed-Solomon. The PSM-500, being of more recent
design, adheres to both IESS definitions by allowing the reference point to be varied. The two
therefore may read differently, but actually achieve the same performance. Refer to Appendix RS
for more information on setting the calculation parameter.
Does the PSM-500 have AUPC and AUFC and are they compatible with the PSM-2100?
The PSM-500 does not have AUFC, but retains the AUPC from the PSM-2100 type modems. Like
the PSM-2100 the built in AUPC (Automatic Uplink Power Control) can be enabled only if the
multiplexer option is installed or if an external communications channel is provided.
The PSM-500 AUPC is compatible with that in the 2100 when the PSM-500 modem IBS
Multiplexer is placed in the “Enhanced” mode. It is not compatible in the “Custom” mode.
How do I set up the IBS Multiplexer and AUPC Option in the PSM-500 to be compatible with
the PSM-2100 Modem?
The PSM-500 Modem is capable of varying the parameters for the IBS Multiplexer beyond the
capabilities of the PSM-2100. To maintain compatibility with the PSM-2100 specific similarly
named options are available in the PSM-500. These modes are the “Standard” and "Enhanced”
multiplexer operating modes. The 500‟s “Custom” mode is not compatible with the PSM-2100.
For the AUPC to function and to be compatible with a PSM-2100 it must be set in the “Enhanced”
mode.
How do I set up the Reed-Solomon Option in the PSM-500 to be compatible with the PSM-
2100 Modem?
The PSM-500 Modem is capable of varying the parameters for the Reed-Solomon Codec beyond
the capabilities of the PSM-2100. To maintain compatibility with the PSM-2100 specific similarly
named options are available in the PSM-500. When enabled the RS FEC Mode should be set to
“IESS-308”. This will automatically set the “n”, “k” and “Depth” options to 126, 112 and 4
respectively. The 500‟s “IESS-309” and “Custom” modes are not compatible with the PSM-2100.

A.2 Operating and Performance Questions.
There are so many options and parameter settings! Where do I start?
The PSM-500 is highly programmable. This can make the set-up daunting at first. If you are
unfamiliar with the common terms and modes used in satellite communications you should first
refer to Chapter 2 of this manual “Installation and Setup”. As a starting point the modem can also
be taken to a default basic set of operating parameters by using the front panel <Unit:
Configuration - Recall> parameter and select option “0” or “Factory”. From that point you make
necessary changes to set the desired configuration. Once all parameters are set as required the
configuration can be saved using the <Unit: Configuration - Store> control. From there you can
always go back to this configuration by recalling it.
Why doesn’t my PSM-500 talk to another PSM-500 over the satellite? I have set all the
parameters the same.
Any satellite modem has a significant number of parameters, which are settable in order to
achieve the maximum performance at the least cost. Because there are so many parameters it is
possible to have one unit with a slightly different parameter set than that at the other end of the
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link. If after insuring that all parameters are set the same and that the acquisition range is correct
and that there are no interfering carriers; one other method is to take both modems back to the
factory default condition and rebuild the configuration from “scratch”. Use the front panel <Unit:
Configuration - Recall> and select option “0” or “Factory”. You may want to save your current
configuration before resetting to the default.
What is the delay from end to end using the PSM-500?
The satellite link itself represents a fixed and very slightly variable delay due to the distance of the
satellite from the two stations linked. This delay is approximately 250 milli-seconds. In addition
Appendix A lists the specified fixed and rate dependent delays incurred in the modem‟s transmit
and receive processing, including those in the IBS Multiplexer and Reed-Solomon if equipped and
enabled.
Can I use the PSM-500 to help align the station antenna?
Is an AGC output provided to feed to automatic antenna positioning equipment?
Yes - The PSM-500 has a single analog output that is produced by the main processor and
converted to analog by a D/A converter. The parameter selected for this output can be either the
AGC, Eb/No or Mod CXR Level selected in the <Unit: Monitor - Mode>. The slope and polarity
are selected using the “Zero” and “Full” parameters below this. The signal is available at the rear
panel on the J5 Alarm Connector, pin 5 with the Ground return on pin 6. See Installation Section
2.3.3, “Alarm Connection”, and Operations Section 3.11 for more information on connection and
use of the monitor function.
The AGC has been the classic parameter used for this type of function, but the PSM-500 provides
an output that may be better in most situations. That is the Eb/No, which is a function without the
slope changes and negative signal sense of the AGC signal.
Where is the “Eye Pattern” test points for the I and Q channel receive signals?
The PSM-500 does not have an analog test point to view the eye pattern. All information at this
point in the receive chain is digital and measured by the modem processor. The result of this
measurement is presented as the Eb/No. If it is absolutely essential to view the eye pattern as
analog test information, contact the factory for availability of a special test fixture for conversion.
What happened to the Burst Modulator mode in the PSM-500?
The PSM-500 has the basic circuitry necessary to implement burst modulation. The burst
demodulation scheme compatible with the modulation used in the PSM-2100 is no longer
manufactured, and there is no clear standard for implementing this capability. Modifying the PSM-
500 to work with a specific burst demodulator scheme is an option which requires contacting the
factory for availability.
How do I use the modulator and demodulator functions to invert the spectrum?
These options were added into the PSM-500 to aid in building specialized systems which may
invert the spectrum sense of the received carrier. The main cause of this would be an up or down
converter which performs a spectrum inversion.
How do I use the modulator and demodulator functions to vary the FEC C0 and C1 values?
These options were added into the PSM-500 to help achieve compatibility with other brands of
modems at the other end of a link. These parameter settings also allow changing the modulation
of adjacent carriers on the satellite so that a demodulator will not lock to them. This has value if
the carriers are placed closer than the required receive acquisition range. Using this scheme
requires the use of the demodulator search mode.
Intelsat in the latest IESS 308/309 has changed the definition of the C0 and C1 values. This option
allows compatibility with any definition.
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How do I determine the transmitted "Symbol Rate" of the modem?
This particular parameter used to be a lot simpler to define. With the introduction of Turbo
Product Codes coupled with all the other modem modes and options like programmable
IBS multiplexer data load it is now extremely hard to define. The modem knows though,
and it is available at the front panel parameter showing the current transmit/receive
symbol rate. It is in the <Mod: Test – Symbol Rate> and the <Dem: Test – Symbol
Rate> parameters.

A.3 Why does It do that?
The modem is operating fine and then suddenly will not lock!
You probably have the differential encoder/decoder turned off. It is only provided as a control for
very special cases and should normally be set to “Enabled”.
The modem changed its operating parameters without me doing anything!
The ACR or Automatic Configuration Recovery feature is possibly enabled by setting one of the
<Unit: Config – Recall X> parameters set to a non-zero value. This will change the modem
configuration if the receive carrier is lost longer than the number of seconds entered.
The <Unit: Config – Power-Up> parameter may be set to change to a specified configuration on
power-up. The normal setting for this is “Last” (0).

B. Front Panel Control
What happened to the “Differential Encoder/Decoder parameter?
In normal operation there is no need to disable the Differential encoder or decoder. We only found
that occasionally someone disabled it and then had problems locking up to carriers, so this
capability was initially removed from front panel control. All of the latest firmware however now
allows this control, so you may need to update your firmware.
How do I enter a number with a minus sign?
At any time during the “Edit” process the “+/-“ key will change the sign of the current entry (if the
change is possible). In the quick edit mode this can be the first key pressed, so for instance, if the
current setting for modulator transmit output level is –10 dBm then pressing “+/-, 12” will enter a
value of –12 dBm. You could also press “1+/-2” or “12+/-” with the same result.
Why doesn’t the PSM-500 front panel act like the PSM-2100 or PSM-4900? [and] How do I
make it act like the PSM-2100?
The PSM-500 has many more features and programmable options than the PSM-2100 modems.
A close match is achieved by disabling the “quick” entry mode and remembering to press the
“Edit” key first instead of the “Enter” key. Once you become accustomed to the “Quick” entry
mode and using the change sign (+/-) and decimal point keys you will find it more convenient than
any entry on the PSM-2100.
Why does the transmit carrier turn off whenever I make a change?
First the transmit carrier can be set to a mode which will turn the carrier off if any change is made
that would result in a possible interference with other carriers on the satellite. This mode can be
set to one of three states: Automatic, Confirm or Manual. Automatic will turn the carrier off during
the parameter change and return the carrier on (if currently enabled) after the change is
completed, Confirm will ask if the carrier should be left on (requiring a “yes” or “no” answer), while
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Manual will always turn the carrier off after a change. This option is set in <Mod: IF – Mute>.
More directly the setting described is probably set to “Manual” mute mode.
Why can’t I find or see a certain option parameter that is shown in the tables?
Many parameters are only available when another option has been enabled which requires that
parameter. For example, the <Demod: IF – Sweep Time> parameter is only visible if the
<Demod: IF – Sweep Mode> is set to “Search”. These options are shown in the tables as gray to
indicate this status.
Can I control the far end modem from the front panel of a local modem?
The PSM-500 has the ability to control the far end modem (when linked and locked) from a local
modem, but only using the remote control port. This ability requires enabling the Multiplexer
option. Control from the front panel is prone to possible mistakes that would lead to accidentally
setting the remote modem in a state that could not be recovered without going to the remote site.
The far right “Remote” LED is blinking. What does it mean?
The Unit Remote Activity parameters allow setting this lamp to blink when activity is detected on
the USB or serial remote control ports. The same is possible for the “Local” LED using the Unit
Keyboard Activity control.
I seem to have no modulator or demodulator functions available?
There are two reasons that could explain this. First, there are some units sold with only one
function installed for special purposes. These units would have a model number indicating this
such as PST for a Modulator transmit only or PSD indicating a Demodulator receive only.
The other reason could be that the Modulator or Demodulator is disabled. To check and enable if
desired, go to the <Unit: Config – Modem>.parameter which shows what is enabled and allows
changing.
What do the abbreviations on the front panel and in the manual mean?
See the abbreviations in FAQ Section E below.

C. Remote Control
Where is the ASCII Control packet structure in the PSM-500?
The PSM-500 and the PSM-4900 modems do not have an ASCII control packet protocol, only the
binary packet protocol. The SnIP however does have a fairly complete command line driven
control method via the “m500ctl” program. In addition the SnIP can potentially control multiple
modems connected via its external RS-485 control port.
Can I use the USB connector at J10 to remotely control the PSM-500?
The USB connector is mainly intended for firmware updates requiring a faster speed than the RS-
232/449 connection can supply. It is possible to control the modem in binary packet mode via the
USB connection. However, this connection does not use or accept addresses in the packet
structure, so it will likely require re-writing your packet routines.
You cannot currently use the USB connection for “Terminal Mode” control.
Is there a “compatibility” mode for the remote control binary packet protocol that looks
like that in the PSM-4900?
Yes. The new PSM-500 design dictated a new structure to implement the significantly greater
number of commands available in the PSM-500. Many items such as the interface structure, data
rates and available options are so different that creating a compatible command set was
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impossible. However the PSM-500 actually contains both its own and a copy of the PSM-4900
protocol, allowing the PSM-500 to accept and respond to PSM-4900 packets within the limitations
of the PSM-4900 capabilities. This allows mixed systems of 4900 and 500 series modems without
initially changing control software. The compatibility does not currently extend to operation over
the link on the MCC channel.
Is there a “compatibility” mode for the remote control binary packet protocol that looks
like that in the PSM-2100?
No. The new commands dictated a new structure to implement the significantly greater number of
commands available in the PSM-500. Many items such as the interface structure, data rates and
available options are so different that creating a compatible command set was impossible. The
packet structure itself is virtually identical though and in most cases the new command set can be
accommodated by a “driver” tailored to the PSM-500.

D. Data Interface
How do I make a cable to connect to my V.35 (or EIA-530) device?
See the “Installation” Chapter 2 and Appendix C on “Cabling Specifications” which shows how to
make cables to interface between the modem‟s DB37 connector and other types of common
connectors used.
Where do I get a “Y” cable to implement 1:1 redundancy?
These may be purchased from Datum Systems or it is possible to build your own. The
connections are discussed in Chapter 2 “Installation” and shown in Appendix C, “Cabling
Specifications”.
Why do I keep getting “sync losses” on my link? Or why does a BERT test show “sync
losses”?
This is usually a sign that some section of the link has a clock or data inversion. See Chapter 4 of
the manual for “Loop” testing to try to determine where the problem is and correct either the wiring
or change the modem data or clock sense.
Why does the modem occasionally fail to operate with my DTE equipment, and to correct it
I have to invert the data or clock?
The only cause in an otherwise functioning modem for this symptom is that the differential
encoder/decoder is turned off. Modems use the differential encoding to determine the proper
relationship between the clock and data. If the encoder is turned off the modem has a possibility
of locking to a signal with the wrong phase. For all normal operation of the modem the Modulator
differential encoder and the Demodulator differential decoder must be “Enabled”.
The Turbo Product Codes (TPC) option does not use the differential encoder, and when it is
enabled the differential encoder and/or decoder is turned off and the option is removed from the
parameter matrix. Other modes also automatically control the differential encoder and decoder in
the PSM-500, but a linked modem may have the ability to turn it on or off.
How do I use the built-in Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) set?
See Maintenance Section 4.1.2 for information on using the built-in BERT. The PSM-500 BERT
now has the ability to be switched to look at the data line side.
Can I use the built-in Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) set to test the line or DTE side equipment?
Yes with reservations. The BERT is designed to normally transmit and receive to the modem side.
New in the PSM-500 is the ability to electrically switch the direction that the BERT “looks” toward
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the line side. However, because of the hard wiring of the interface the pinout is fixed as a DCE
device. See Maintenance Section 4.1.2 for information on using the built-in BERT.
Why doesn’t my 1:1 redundant switch on certain alarms?
The 1:1 redundancy logic is programmable on two levels. First is the <Unit: Redundcy – SW
Rqst> parameter which selects whether a switch is requested on all alarms, alarm A and/or alarm
B. If it is set to any options but “On All Alarms” then the particular alarms that are summed into the
A and B alarms are themselves programmable, creating the second level. See the discussion in
section for more information.

E. Manual
What do the abbreviations on the front panel and in the manual mean?
A good example is the display and manual representation "Redundcy SW Rqst". Unfortunately
the display does not hold enough characters to display the full text of "Redundancy Switch
Request". Following is a list of abbreviations used.
Abbreviation Full Text
1:1, 1:N, M:N One for One, One for N and M for N. All
redundancy switch types.
ACR Automatic Configuration Recovery
AFC Automatic Frequency Control
AGC Automatic Gain Control
ALC Automatic Level Control
Alm Alarm
Alt Alternate
AUPC Automatic Uplink Power Control
AUFC Automatic Uplink Frequency Control
BER, BERT Bit Error Rate, Bit Error Rate Test
BUC Block Up-Converter
Cal Calibrate
Clk Clock
Config Configuration
Cntst Contrast
CXR Carrier
Dem Demodulator
Dif Differential
ESC Engineering Service Channel
Erred Errored
FEC Forward Error Correction
Freq, Frq Frequency
Frmt Format
HSSI High Speed Serial Interface (used with routers)
IDcOff, QDcOff I and Q channel DC Offset
I/O Input/Output
Int'f Interface
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Abbreviation Full Text
Keybrd Keyboard
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LDPC & FLDPC (Flexible) Low Density Parity Check FEC
LNB Low Noise Block downconverter
LO Local Oscillator
Loopbck Loop-back
Lvl Level
Max Maximum
MCC Modem Control Channel
Min Minimum
Mod Modulator
Mux Multiplexer
Opt Option
OverHd Overhead
RCV, Rcv Receive, into the Demodulator
Redundcy Redundancy
Ref Reference
Rqst Request
RS, R-S Reed-Solomon – Type of FEC
Sat Satellite
SCPC Single Channel Per Carrier
SER Symbol Error Rate
SnIP Satellite network Interface Processor, our name
for an Ethernet Interface running Linux.
SW, Sw Switch
Sync Synchronous or Synchronization
SysClk System Clock
Ter, Terr Terrestrial – Line side of modem
TPC Turbo Product Codes – Type of FEC
Tst Test
USB Universal Serial Bus
VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal
XMT, Xmt Transmit, from the Modulator

PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem

Table of Contents

Table of Contents Safety Notice .............................................................................................................. vii EMC Notice ................................................................................................................. vii
Revision History................................................................................................................................viii Pen and Ink Changes Made to this Manual ...............................................................................viii Chapter 1 - PSM-500 Modem Description .........................................................................................1-1 1.0 Introduction ..............................................................................................................................1-1 1.0.1 How to Use This Manual ................................................................................................1-1 1.0.2 Quick Start for Experienced Modem Users ...................................................................1-2 1.0.3 What‟s New – This Modem and This Manual ................................................................1-2 1.1 Modem Capabilities .................................................................................................................1-2 1.1.1 Modem IF Variations ......................................................................................................1-2 1.1.2 Modem Feature Set Variations ......................................................................................1-3 1.1.3 Applications....................................................................................................................1-4 1.1.3.1 SCPC Point-to-Point Links ...................................................................................1-4 1.1.3.2 SCPC Point to Multi–Point Links in a Broadcast Application................................1-4 1.1.3.3 DAMA (Demand Assigned Multiple Access) ........................................................1-5 1.1.3.4 TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Remote Site Application .........................1-5 1.2 Modem Functional Assemblies ...............................................................................................1-6 Figure 1-2 Modem Block Diagram .........................................................................1-7

1.2.1 Modulator .......................................................................................................................1-8 1.2.2 Demodulator ..................................................................................................................1-9 1.2.3 Modem Bit Rate Timing ...............................................................................................1-10 Figure 1-3 Clock Source Options ........................................................................1-11 1.2.4 Control Processor ........................................................................................................1-12 1.2.5 Acquisition Processor ..................................................................................................1-12 1.2.6 Standard Data Interface ...............................................................................................1-12 1.2.6.1 Data Interface Loop-Back Function ....................................................................1-13 1.2.6.2 Data Interface BERT Function ...........................................................................1-13 1.2.6.3 Data Interface 1:1 Redundancy Function ...........................................................1-13 1.2.7 Standard Framing and IBS Multiplexer ........................................................................1-14 1.2.7.1 Modem Control Channel (MCC) ......................................................................1-14

PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90

i

........8.....8 Standard and Optional Modem FEC Cards ........................7.............1 Unpacking ........................4 LDPC FEC Capability .......................5 L-Band BUC Power Connection .............................................................................2-1 2.................Installation ........................................1.................................8.....................................................................Modem Connections for 1:1 Redundancy .......................................3......2-11 2..............1.........2-6 Table 2–1 Data Interface Connector J3 Pin Assignment by Signal......1-18 1............2-2 Figure 2-1 Modem Rear Panel ........................................................................................................... Alarm Connector J5 Pin Assignment . BUC Power Connector J11 Pin Assignment ...................................2-8 2.................................1-18 1................................................................................................2 1...3 AUPC Control Channel (AUPC) ...2-5 2.................90 ............1.................2-12 2......................................1 Connecting the Data Interface to Other Equipment .............1-21 1........... 0.......................3...................1 Removal and Assembly ....2-8 2..................................2...........................................1 1.5 Modem Control from the Front Panel ..........2......................3..............1 Set-Up Procedure for 1:1 Redundancy...1-15 1..2.....10 Modem Circuit Implementation ..........................................................PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Table of Contents 1..1-18 1.......0 Installation Requirements .......................................2 Reed-Solomon Codec Capability ............................2-9 2..........................5...........................................2..........................................................2..........1 Viterbi..............9 Optional Interface Capability ...4....................3.2..2-1 2..........1-20 1....................1-15 1..............................................................................................................1....................................................................................3..2-13 ii PSM-500/500L/500LT ..................7..4 Modem Checkout .....................2-8 Table 2–3...........3..............................................2-7 Table 2–2....................2................................................................2-7 2.................................................................................................................................8..................................................................3..............................................3 Modem Connections ...........8........................3 Alarm Connection ...........6.....................................2...2.............................................................1-15 Auxiliary Bit Control Channels (RFC) ........1 Initial Power-Up................................7...2 Mounting Considerations ............................ Remote Control Connector J6 Pin Assignment ...2-6 2.......3.............. Trellis Code Modulation Codec ...............2 Remote Control Connection .....................2-10 2.......................................0 Special Codec CT Modes ..................................................................................2-9 Table 2–4......................................2-1 2.................................1 Data Interface Pin Connections .....1-20 1....................................................2-1 2.............2-12 2.....6 Redundancy Connection............................................................1-15 Remote Modem Control Channel (RMC) .....................................1............................2-9 Figure 2-2 .....4 Auxiliary (AUX) Connection ....8.1-21 Chapter 2 .....................................................................2-1 2.......................................2................2-12 2.................2............2-9 2.....1 Parameter Setup .......Rev...................................................3 Turbo Product Codes FEC Capability ...........................................

.........................7 Setting the Modem Address for Command Mode Operation........2-20 2..........2............................2............................................9...................................1 Reference Calibration .2-18 2................................9..................................................................................2-24 2.............4....................2 Using The Proper Scrambler .......................2-21 2............................1..................................3 Sample Configuration Setting .........................................................Rev.........8.............................................................................................................0 Configuring the Modem for Operation ...............................9....................................................2-18 2.........9....................9.....................4 Setting Additional Parameters ......................................2-27 PSM-500/500L/500LT .............................................................................90 iii ................2-20 Figure 2-3 ...9.....................................1 IBS Multiplexer and Reed-Solomon Selection...4..2-22 2..............2-15 Modulator and Demodulator ...........................................8 IF Loop-back Test Mode .................................................11..5 Using the Internal or an External Reference .........1 Data Interface Compatibility.......1...............2-13 2..................................2-16 2........................................................................................................................................................................2-16 2.10..........................................2-15 2.........9..........9.4 Using The L-Band & L Receive RF Frequency Feature ...........6 Setting the Modem Station ID Name ..................................................................PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Table of Contents 2...2 Carrier Acquisition Parameters ...9........................................................................................2-25 Figure 2-5 FEC Option Card Installation ................................5................1 Adding or Changing the Optional Interface Type ..............2-13 2..............................................................................................................2-17 2.....2 Automatic Correction ..................1 Turbo Product Codes Option Installation ...............3 Alarm configuration ...............2-16 2...................................2-19 2..............................2-16 IESS-309 Scrambler Mode Operation ...........................................9....................................4.....................9 Modem Configuration ......................1 Initial Acquisition ...........10 Interface Type Configuration ..............2-15 2...........................................2-15 Demodulator ......................................................11 Option FEC Card Installation ...................2-15 2............................9.........................3 Using The L-Band PSM-500L Transmit RF Frequency Feature ..............................................................2-16 IESS-308 Scrambler Mode Operation ............................9.......1...............................................2-16 Alternate Scrambler Mode Operation .....................................1 Built-in BERT ......7 Self-Test Mode ........9.......................9...........2-20 2.....................1.......................................................................................................9.......................................................................................................................................2 Carrier Re-acquisition........2-17 2...........2-25 2..............................................................9...........................................2-14 2..........2-18 2........2-23 2.............................6 Modem Terminal Mode Control .2-15 Modulator ......2-14 2.................9...............................................................................2-22 2........................2-16 Fixed Scrambler Mode Operation ......9..... 0......1 Setting Essential Parameters ...................................2-20 2...................................Alarm Processing .........................2-23 2...................

.....................3-29 3................................................................................3-20 Table 3-8................1 Modem Setup for Terminal Mode ............... Modulator Parameter Detail ......3-28 3.............................................................................................................................. Modem (Unit) Parameter Detail .....................................................1 Power-Up ...............2 Front Panel Monitor and Control Parameters.......1 Front Panel LCD Display ............3-6 3.3-29 3....6.3-28 3......3-12 Table 3-6.........................2 Monitoring Modem Parameters ..................1 System Unit Programming/Communications .........................................................................1................... Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Status Screen Selection ....... 0.........1............................3-30 3..........................................................1....3-26 Figure 3-2a.......................3 Changing Modem Parameters .....................Operation .................. Demodulator Parameter Detail...................PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Table of Contents Chapter 3 ..............................6 L-Band Feature Operation.........................................................................................................................................................5 Modem Checkout ...........................................3-27 Figure 3-3...................3-4 Modem LED Indicators ......................................................1................................................3-4 Modulator LED Indicators .........................3-7 3....................3-11 Table 3-5...................1.................................................5 Finding Modem Parameter Limits ..............................1 Navigating Modem Parameters .......................3-9 Table 3-4 PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Interface Sheet.............................................................................................2................ Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Status Screen ...........................3.2...................... Interface Parameter Detail ........................3-28 3.....................................3-2 3...........................................3.....................................3-26 3....1......................................4....3-29 3............3-1 3...........................................................................................................................................................................................................3-30 iv PSM-500/500L/500LT .........3-16 Table 3-7.3-6 3.....3...................................1...............................Rev............................................................................3-1 3.....1..............................3-24 3...........................4 Remote Command Interface Control .....3-5 3..........................................................3-1 3.3...3-4 3.................................................................................................3.................................3-1 3....................................3..........................5..............................................................1 L-Band BUC Control ...............................1............... Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Test Screen ...............................3-7 Table 3-1 PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Unit Sheet .....1..................................3-4 Demodulator LED Indicators.........................................2 Front Panel Keypad......................3-5 3.....................1...3-27 Figure 3-2b......3....................2 Front Panel Layout and Features ................3 Guide to Front Panel Monitor and Control ................3-7 3...............3-1 3...................................................1 Front Panel Control ...........3 Terminal Mode Control .......1 Operating Procedures .................2.....3 Front Panel LED Indicators ...4 Automatic Modem Parameter Sequences ..................90 .............2 Programming Modem Operational Values From the Terminal Screens ..............................

......................................................90 v ......................................1 Common Test Procedures ....................................3-39 3........3-37 3.........................................11 Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) Set Operation .....3 Updating Modem Software ..........................2 Performing the Software/Firmware Update – ......................................................................................4-3 4....................................15 Special Control Mechanisms .....................3-35 3.................10...................4-9 4....................4-1 4....3-38 3.......................................................................................................1 Loop-Back Testing ...3 Transmit Interface Clock Auto Mode ........................... 0.................................................................................4-1 4...............................................3-31 3..1 Setting Up 1:1 Redundancy Mode ................................................3...4-1 4....4-7 4.......................................................................................................10.....................3-31 3.10 Built-in 1:1 Redundancy Mode Operation.....4-6 4.........10.............................................1 VSAT Mode...............4-7 4............................................................................................................................................................................................................7............................................................................................................4-1 4............................15...................................................................................7...........1 Power-Up Behavior ...........................................2 Operating 1:1 Redundancy Mode ......1 Onboard Diagnostic Indicators ........................3-37 3.........................4-6 4..2 Onboard Processor Power-On Sequence and Diagnostics.....FAQ........15...............4-14 PSM-500/500L/500LT .................................................3-38 3......3-34 3................................2 L-Band LNB Control ...........................................................................................16 Burst Mode Operation ............3 Removal and Replacement of Units in Redundancy Mode ........................4-4 4.................8 Automatic Uplink Power Control (AUPC) Operation ......3...ACR .....................................................3-31 3............2....................2..................................................................3-32 3..........................2.............2 Troubleshooting.......................................................................................12 Analog Monitor Output Operation ..........1........................2 Monitors and Outputs ...............3 Built-in Lamp Test ..........................3-34 3.................................................................................................................................13 Storing and Recalling Configuration ......10.............3-33 3.................................7 Data Interface Clock Options ............................................7.......................................................................4-1 4....................................................2 Using the Built-in BERT ..........................................................4-13 4.........4 Upgrading the Modem Feature Set ..3-36 3..3-32 3...............0....................1 Forcing a Transfer Switch in 1:1 Redundancy Mode .....4-10 4...............................................0 Periodic Maintenance ...........................3-31 3.1 Update Software Installation – ..Maintenance .............2..9 Demodulator Receive Data FIFO Operation ............1...6............................2 SCPC Mode ............5 Frequently Asked Questions .....................................................................PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Table of Contents 3.............................................................................................................3-39 Chapter 4 .................3-36 3........................................14 Automatic Configuration Recovery ...........................Rev.........................................................1 Internal Reference Calibration .............................................................................................3-37 3............3-36 3....

............................................................................................... LDPC–1 Note: All appendices may not be present in manual.................. Front Panel Control . HSSI–1 Appendix SNIP – SnIP Ethernet Interface Addendum ............................................................................................... vi PSM-500/500L/500LT ....3 Why does It do that? ....4-19 E.......................... .............. A–1 Appendix B – Remote Control Command Protocol ...90 . ...............................................................4-17 B...................................................................................... Link Set Up and Installation...................................................4-17 C.............. TPC–1 Appendix HSSI – High Speed Serial Interface Addendum ........... Manual ........ C–1 Appendix MUX – Framing/Multiplexer Addendum ................................................. MUX–1 Appendix TPC – Turbo Product Codes FEC Addendum ........................................... B–1 Appendix C – Cabling Specifications.............................................................................................4-20 Appendices Appendix A – PSM-500 Technical Specifications ................................2 Operating and Performance Questions........................ Data Interface .......... 0................................PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Table of Contents A...........................................................................................................4-14 A..........................................................................................................................Rev.......... Remote Control ..........4-18 D................................................................... Some Appendixes may be shipped with the option.............................................................................................................1 Compatibility with other Modems...............................4-15 A...................... SNIP–1 Appendix LDPC – LDPC FEC Addendum .........................4-14 A............................

EN 61000-3-2 Class A. The grounding lug on the rear of the modem should be connected to a good earth ground with low impedance cable in rack installations. Do not operate this equipment in a wet environment or outdoors. EN 61000-3-3 CE Immunity: EN 55024 ICES-003. Do not operate the modem in an unsafe environment near explosive or flammable gases or liquids Insure good grounding practices. The PSM-500 Modem contains potentially lethal voltages inside the case. The mating power cord should have a line cord and plug suitable for the country of operation. All rear connections are designed to have integral shielding on the cable and connector assembly. Class A To maintain compliance with these standards the following the precautions must be observed. PSM-500/500L/500L .PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Notices Safety Notice This equipment has been designed in accordance with UL and CSA standards for Safety of Information Technology Equipment. Never remove the cover with power applied. Do not remove the rear panel option plate without replacing it with one designed for a specific option assembly. FCC: Part 15.90 vii . Extreme caution should be exercised when the cover is removed by following the precautions listed below Never operate the equipment with the cover removed. This modem is designed for indoor use. Class A CE Emissions: EN 55022 Class A. The equipment must be operated with the cover and all cover screws in place. neutral and line conductors. As a safety measure the power cord should be disconnected from the unit when preparing to remove the cover. The modem is supplied with an IEC filtered power inlet module designed to accept a 3-wire mains connection consisting of an earth ground.Rev. EMC Notice This equipment has been designed in accordance with FCC and CE standards. “D” type signal connectors must have grounding fingers on the connector shell. 0. Subpart B.

26. revised M500 Update procedures and corrections. They include the main body of the manual and several “Appendices”. Revision History Revision 0. Removes references to PSM-500H modem which is not available in the PSM-500 Series. or via download from the web at www.datumsystems. Revision 0. HSSI references. The electronic format is produced as a universal Adobe Acrobat readable file.88 1/10/2008 4/10/2008 Revision 0. ** Preliminary ** Requires minimum Modem Software Revision 0.86 3/17/2006 12/4/2006 12/14/2006 8/12/2007 Initial Public Release.1. Includes additional FEC modes and corrections. The electronic format on the web is always the latest revision.87 Revision 0.85 Revision 0.Notices PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem About This Manual This manual is composed of several separable documents. ** Preliminary ** Includes additional FEC modes.2 is a numbered section within Chapter 4. Requires minimum Modem Software Revision 0.com. Includes added 8QAM modulation. corrections and new menu features for Unit Configuration.21. Page numbers include the Chapter. as in page 3-14. Requires minimum Modem Software Revision 0.. 0. Still. Requires minimum Modem Software Revision 0.72. Inc.63. and can be requested directly from Datum Systems. Requires minimum Modem Software Revision 0. Requires minimum Modem Software Revision 0. such as Section 4.Rev. Includes additional FEC modes. A “Section is considered a sub-section of a Chapter.83 Revision 0.90 10/20/2010 Pen and Ink Changes Made to this Manual ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ viii PSM-500/500L/500LT .52. The main body itself is separated into several “Chapters” and “Sections”.12.90 . Includes added Advanced TPC modes and corrections.PDF file. This manual is available in a printed form and as an electronic “Portable Document Format” or . RTS Monitor and Transmit Mute.8 Revision 0.

A highly integrated design allows the PSM-500 to be built into a one rack unit (1 RU. Either SCPC systems where two modems are set for continuous operation with each other.2 on the next page shows the feature sets available. The modem is designed to be easily integrated into either a master or remote station via rack mounting. it creates the ability to build extremely simple and low cost high performance VSATs All M500 class products encompass significant performance improvement over previous modems at reduced cost. 0. This manual is an integral part of the modem and is used to explain the installation and operating procedures for the PSM-500 and present its capabilities and specifications. providing an integrated BUC power supply. Operation and Maintenance. Interface Versions IF Transmit IF Receive PSM-500S 50 ~ 90 MHz 50 ~ 90 MHz PSM-500N 100 ~ 180 MHz 100 ~ 180 MHz PSM-500L 950 ~ 1750 MHz 950 ~ 1900 MHz PSM-500LT 950 ~ 1750 MHz 950 ~ 1900 MHz The PSM-500 with a standard 70 (or 140) MHz IF is the first member of Datum Systems‟ M500 Class Modem products. The manual is divided into 4 Chapters with Appendices. OQPSK. Note that the terms PSM-500S and N are not normally used except to differentiate between different IF versions. The modem is designed for service in varied types of satellite systems. The Appendices include the Specifications. PSM-500 Series IF Interface Versions. Installation. using minimal power for dense applications. The matrix below shows the current IF versions available or planned.Rev. The PSM-500 series uses the latest Digital Signal Processing (DSP) technology and proprietary techniques to provide unsurpassed performance at a low cost. such as DAMA networks. They are capable of BPSK. Operating and Maintenance procedures for the PSM-500 Satellite Modem and available options at the time of printing.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description Chapter 1 .0 Introduction The Datum Systems‟ PSM-500 Series are multi modulation mode VSAT/SCPC Satellite Modems.PSM-500 Modem Description 1.1. 8QAM and 16QAM modulation modes on transmit and receive independently Their main use is as part of the transmitting and receiving ground equipment in a satellite communications system. or shared resource systems where modem carriers are not continuous in nature. where outgoing signals from the modem can be operated in an extremely fast acquisition mode. The divisions of the manual are intended for use by personnel to answer questions in general areas. The modem is an integral part of a satellite earth station‟s equipment operating between the Data Terminal Equipment and the station Up and Downconverter equipment. The PSM-500LT is the third. 1. Installers should read the Installation Chapter and the PSM-500/500L/500LT .1 How to Use This Manual This manual provides Installation. Remote Control Protocol and gives further information on Options. The PSM-500 series is available in 4 IF versions with 3 upgradeable “feature sets” in each. The PSM-500L is the second. utilizing LBand frequencies for both the Transmit and Receive IF. The 4 Chapters are the Modem Description.75”) high mounting case. QPSK. 8PSK. 1. representing a major extension to our fifth generation of innovative design concepts proven and refined over ten years of production.90 Page 1-1 . Planners and potential purchasers may read the Introduction and Specifications to determine the suitability of the modem to its intended use. and the matrix in Section 1.0. Cabling and information related to placing the Modem in service.

Description

PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem

Cabling Specification Appendix; Operating Personnel would use the Operations Chapter to become familiar with the Modem; while System Programmers would use the Remote Control Protocol to determine control requirements. The PSM-500, 500L and 500LT modems are fully interchangeable with the single exception of the IF input frequency range. In addition all options available for the PSM-500 are usable with the L or LT version. The term PSM-500 is used throughout this manual where references apply to either the PSM-500, 500L or 500LT modems. Where a subject is specific to one modem the “L” or “LT” suffix is used or the specific differences in operation between the three modem versions are detailed.

1.0.2 Quick Start for Experienced Modem Users
If you are experienced with modems, but not this particular one, you may want to skip some of the introductory material and learn how to operate the front panel to set up the modem immediately. Go directly to Section 3.1 – “Operating Procedures” and get a feel for how the front panel operates. Then scan Tables 3-1 through 3-4 listing the parameters that can be changed, and set up the modem for your application. We strongly recommend that you go back to learn more, as these modems have extensive capabilities and features that are unique. A list of abbreviations is located at the end of the “Frequently Asked Questions” (FAQ) in Chapter 4.

1.0.3 What’s New – This Modem and This Manual
If you are familiar with Datum Systems modems, especially the PSM-4900, then you should feel comfortable with both this modem‟s operation and this manual. There are some significant differences you should review in the list below. New in This Modem:   The PSM-500 series is the first to include 8PSK, 8QAM and 16QAM modulation modes, requiring new procedures and remote control interaction. The PSM-500 now includes remote control and firmware update via USB interface on the rear panel. This was especially necessary since the 10 fold increase in firmware requires a faster method to load new firmware configurations. Each PSM-500 IF version is capable of 3 standard value software upgradeable “Feature Sets”, as described in section 1.1.2. Many features of the modem are field upgradeable without adding new hardware. Subsets of these Feature Sets are available. There are two option slots on the main PCB used for FEC/processing options. One is always used for the standard FEC set as a minimum. They are wired in parallel like the PCI slots on a computer, but use an SO-DIMM form factor. Please don‟t plug memory in! The IBS multiplexer with AUPC is now standard and built into the main board FPGA logic. The Reed-Solomon concatenated FEC is now standard and built into the standard FEC card.

  

New in This Manual: A new “How-To” Appendix is added in Appendix H. It gives quick instructions on setting up common features and capabilities.

1.1 Modem Capabilities 1.1.1 Modem IF Variations
The PSM-500 series is currently offered with 3 main Intermediate Frequency (IF) variations designed to meet the needs of various station types. The standard PSM-500 modem has a 70 MHz (or optional 140 MHz) transmit and receive IF which is typical for use in large stations with indoor or outdoor up and down converters. The PSM-500L and PSM-500LT units feature an L-Band transmit and receive making it ideal for low cost Vsat remote earth stations.

Page 1-2

PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90

PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem

Description

1.1.2 Modem Feature Set Variations
Feature sets are specific capabilities that suit a modem for a particular purpose. The PSM-500 series is the first modem Datum Systems has offered with variable feature sets. The advantage is that a customer does not have to pay for features he does not use, but later features can be upgraded in the field electronically by adding new firmware Intellectual property to the modem. The user has the best of both worlds. Feature sets are purposely kept to a minimum to make their control easy and therefore reduce the cost. There are currently only 3 feature sets offered for the PSM-500 series, and they apply to any of the IF variations. For comparison, the features available in the PSM-4900 modem are also shown.

PSM-500 Series Feature and Option Matrix.
Original M5 Feature Modulation BPSK QPSK OQPSK 8PSK/QAM 16QAM/APSK Max Data Rate BPSK QPSK/OQPSK 8PSK/TCM 16QAM/APSK FEC Modes Disabled Viterbi Reed-Solomon TPC – 4K (2) TPC – 16K LDPC-16k (2k) IBS Mux/AUPC SnIP Ethernet Int. Option Option N/A N/A Option Option N/A    Option Option Option  Option    Option Option Option  Option    Option Option Option  Option   N/A N/A N/A    Upgrade Upgrade     Upgrade      PSM-4900 M505 PSM-500S/N/L/LT Series M511 M523

M523 rates slightly higher at higher FEC rates. See Notes below. 2.46 Mbps 4.92 Mbps N/A N/A 2.5 Mbps 5 Mbps N/A N/A 5 Mbps 10 Mbps 10 Mbps N/A 7.38 Mbps 14.76 Mbps 20 Mbps 20 Mbps

There are multiple items lists as “Options”. Options are specifically hardware items that are installed in the modem, while a “feature” is a software installation listed as an “upgrade”. To upgrade the modem from one feature set to another refer to the instructions in Section 4.4.

PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90

Page 1-3

Description

PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem

Maximum data rates are dependent on many factors besides the basic capabilities of the interface, including cabling, interface type, features and options installed. The TPC4K hardware codec is limited to 5Mbps.

1.1.3 Applications
Following are just a few representative forms of satellite communications links and networks in which the PSM-500 modem series may be used.

1.1.3.1 SCPC Point-to-Point Links
The most straightforward application for a satellite modem is to serve as the Data Communications Equipment (DCE) for a point-to-point data link. When used in this mode, two modems located at two different sites are tuned to complementary transmit and receive frequencies. Each direction of the communications link may have the same or entirely different transmission parameters. In this application it is typical that the link is established and maintained on a continuous basis, although a special “on demand” case is described later. In SCPC point-to-point links the power required from the satellite or the size of the receive antenna is dependent upon the modem receive performance. The PSM-500 modem uses the most rigorous methods to maintain performance as close to the theoretical “waterfall” curves as possible. In most cases the modem will perform at 0.1 to 0.2 dB from the curve (although we say “typically” 0.3 dB). This consistent performance, plus advanced technology such as TPC results in the absolute minimum power requirements, which equates to the minimum operating. Ku Band satellite systems are subject to changing performance due to rain at one or more sites. The PSM-500 contains built in software to perform Automatic Uplink Power Control (AUPC). If the modems at each link end are provided with an external asynchronous channel of 300 bps they can be set to automatically maintain a constant Eb/No within programmable limits. This can result in significantly lower satellite power requirements in a large system in addition to maintaining proper performance in any system. The optional Multiplexer/interface card can provide this low rate channel in addition to an Earth Station to Earth Station overhead service channel.

1.1.3.2 SCPC Point to Multi–Point Links in a Broadcast Application
A broadcast application might involve the necessity of sending continuous or intermittent data from one source and “broadcasting” the information to many remote locations. For instance, constant Satellite pricing information and updates may be sent by a central location to many store locations. Remote C There may be minor Remote A return information from the remotes acknowledging receipt. Another broadcast application could be transmitting background music from a central location to many store sites. In this case there would be no return path.

Remote D

Remote B

Hub Station

Figure 1-1

Simple Star Network

The topology of the network in both of these broadcast examples would typically be called a “Star” network. As shown in Figure 1-1, the shape of the configuration is drawn with the central “Hub” as the center of the star
Page 1-4 PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90

and are multiplied by the number of stations.90 Page 1-5 . The TDMA network usually looks like the Star network described above. The L-Band version modems can even supply power and reference to the LNB if needed. Multiple Access”. 1. This acquisition mode can reduce the receive rd acquisition time to approximately 1/3 of a second at 9. One important characteristic of a DAMA system used for voice information is the lock-up time of the modem. A “Star” network configuration is also commonly used with multiple point-to-point links where the hub is common to every link. Many systems of this type use “Star” network topology. In both cases the transmit frequency and other parameters may be shared by the receive of all the remotes. concentrating costs at the hub. The station costs can go up significantly. Now there must be sufficient antenna size and power at each remote to link to every other remote. An example might be where each remote represents a house or building with voice or data traffic all destined for a common switch located near the hub. The resulting delay through 2 satellite hops is just at the limit of what is tolerable for voice traffic. or DAMA. It then “homes in” and locks to the most probable carrier. In Broadcast type systems where the remotes only require a receiver. The PSM-500L and LT are ideally suited for use at remote or small stations.Rev. Since the receive downconverter requirement is significantly reduced in this version.4 TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Remote Site Application In a TDMA network the central Hub continually transmits a stream of outbound data containing information for multiple remote sites. That loss is partially offset by being able to use smaller antennas and power at each of the remotes. PSM-500/500L/500LT .1. while the remotes transmit back to the Hub on a timed basis. 0. The resulting link diagram looks like a mesh of interconnects. At the low data rates used to digitize voice today (4. That is a “Mesh” network where any of the voice modems at any site can be programmed to link with any other modem directly at any other site. while the inbound data rate may be low to allow use of a small antenna and power amplifier at the many remote sites. requiring only that a data grade LNB (Low Noise Block down-converter) be connected to the modem. but this has the disadvantage that for a person at Remote A to talk to someone at Remote D the traffic must go through the hub. Each link is then usually dedicated to that customer and the link resources are wasted when no traffic is carried. 1. the L or LT is very low cost and the transmit modulator section can be simply turned off. Each of the remotes is responsible for accessing its own information from the outbound data stream by reading the address assigned to specific parts of the data.4 to 32 kbps) the modem receive acquisition method of sweeping results in lock-up times of tens of seconds to minutes. In addition the PSM-500L and PSM-500LT modems are designed for use with a Block Up Converter or “BUC” and can supply power and reference signals on the transmit cable. Since the frequencies can be assigned on demand. The PSM-500 modem is uniquely designed to significantly reduce this time: The fast acquisition digital signal processor used in the PSM-500 looks at the receive signals within its acquisition range much like a person might view the same region using a spectrum analyzer. and less in BPSK mode.6 kbps in QPSK mode over +/. In this application a new network configuration is usable. Most BUCs today are designed to receive these signals on the cable.3. This may be the same inbound frequency for all sites. The outbound (from the Hub) data rate may be quite high to accommodate many remotes with low latency.1.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description and the remotes as points of the star.30 kHz. Each of these remotes is said to “burst” its information back on a specific frequency. the network is then called “Demand Assigned.3.3 DAMA (Demand Assigned Multiple Access) Suppose that we wanted to simulate a telephone network with a virtual switch between modems carrying digitized voice information. We might use a central computer to assign a pair of frequencies for any conversation and send this connection information to the proper sites to set up the connection.

1. Note also that there are no typical superhetrodyne mixing and filtering blocks.90 . The first subassembly normally contains either the standard Viterbi and Reed-Solomon FEC set or a combination card containing Viterbi/TCM. The Main Modem Circuit Assembly consists of the following major assemblies: 1. 3. Again the PSM-500 modem is ideally suited for both modem applications at both low and high speeds. Another variation could use both the DAMA (star or mesh configuration) with a concurrent TDMA system as the monitor/control network for the DAMA. The Modem digital PSK/QAM demodulator accepting signals in the 50 to 90 MHz range for the standard modem and 950 to 1900 MHz in the L-Band versions. sometimes referred to as Zero IF. The IBS Multiplexer circuitry that was on another daughter card in previous modems is now part on the main board‟s FPGAs. The Modem microprocessor monitor/control subsystem. Page 1-6 PSM-500/500L/500LT . The following sections described more detail on the design of the modulator and demodulator. The second location could also be one of a number of FECs that are be available for the M500. The Modem Digital Signal Processor Acquisition subsystem. or 950 to 1750 MHz in the L-Band versions. 2. as shown in Figure 1-2. Reed-Solomon and either a 4k block size Turbo Product Codes (TPC) or a 16k block size TPC.Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem The PSM-500L is specifically designed to be usable as the remote site modem of a TDMA network when coupled with a proper “Burst” demodulator at the hub site. That is because there are none used in the direct modulation and demodulation scheme used in the PSM-500. The other two printed circuit assemblies are the Front Panel Control Assembly. and the Power Supply Assembly. In addition the main PWB can accept two plug-in sub-assemblies for Forward Error Correction (FEC). Note in the functional block diagram below that.Rev.2 Modem Functional Assemblies The PSM-500 VSAT/SCPC Modem consists of seven main functional elements arranged on three electronic printed circuit assemblies. The Modem digital PSK/QAM modulator with carrier generation in the 50 to 90 MHz range for standard modem. Seven standard data interfaces are built onto the main modem assembly. such as FlexLDPC. with the exception of the receive FIFO buffer. The Programmable Data Interface. 4. Note: As of the time of this manual the “TDMA burst” mode is a special factory request option and not installed in standard modems. 5. The unit can also accept special interfaces via an optional interface card. there are complementary signal processing blocks in the transmit and receive paths. 0. The TPC could also be installed alone on a card placed in the second plug in location.

35/Intelsat and Differential Decoder FEC Decoder Baseband Signal Processing RData Receive Synthesizer RCV In 70 MHz (or L-Band) RClk Program mable Receive Interface DB37 Female at J3 Option Interface Connector Ext FIFO Clk Ready RS-449 or V. A/D Conversion Demodulator Front end AGC/Amp Page 1-7 Description Figure .TData FEC Encoder Modulator Baseband Signal Processing Programmabl e Attenuator V.35 or RS-232 etc.35/Intelsat and Differential Encoder Low Pass Filter XMT Out 70 MHz or L-Band TClk P1 Program mable Transmit Interface DB37 Female at J3 Term Option Interface Connector Term PSM-500/500L/500LT . 0.Rev. Interface & LoopBack Circuits Modem Block Diagram Clock Control V.90 Aux.M500 Modem Block Diagram .35 or RS-232 etc. Connection at J4 Processor Control Transmit Synthesizer 25 dB Loopback Attenuator Ext. Reference In Modem Reference Oscillator MODULATOR DEMODULATOR Term DSP Aquisition Processor Doppler FIFO Buffer In Clk Out Clk RTS CTS PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Figure 1-2 P1 TT Clk RS-449 or V.

1 Modulator The PSK/QAM modulator in the modem employs a unique digital modulation scheme requiring no heterodyne operations (mixing and filtering to an IF) to arrive at the transmit RF frequency. The modulator is capable of operating in two different modes: Continuous mode for SCPC use and “Burst” mode for use at a VSAT location. The modulator can be set by the processor to operate at a number of data rates between 1. No physical adjustments are present in the modulator.Rev. Transmit Local Oscillator generation is accomplished in two parts. The lookup table represents a digitally preprocessed function required to produce the proper RF signal output when mixed with the desired carrier frequency. 3/4. In BPSK mode. The differential encoder output is then sent to the transmit baseband signal processor whose main function is to convert the data stream into analog baseband I and Q channels for modulating the carrier.35/Intelsat scrambler and differential encoder. Refer to the specification in Appendix A for exact rate capabilities. The resultant RF signal is then low pass filtered and amplified to produce a signal at approximately over 5 dBm into 75. The desired carrier frequency is synthesized and directly modulated with the baseband signal. The FEC is followed by an optional differential encoder. then processed by the V. The processed baseband signal is then mixed with the transmit synthesizer's LO carrier signal to generate an output modulated carrier in the 50 to 90 MHz range (or 950 to 1750 MHz in the L-Band modem). is used to generate an approximate 2 MHz signal with fine step size of approximately 1 Hz and a range of 1. RF output level/frequency in non-volatile memory. which only operates in a Trellis Code Modulation (TCM) mode at rate 2/3. An output attenuator controlled by the onboard processor is used to set the modulator output level over a range of +5 to –35 dBm. synchronous transmit data and clock signals are accepted by the modulator. The digital signal processing of the transmit signal includes the equivalent of a 144 tap FIR filter function. The modulated baseband signal can take two forms at this point depending on whether BPSK or QPSK modulation is used. The actual attenuator is a set of pin diodes whose voltage is derived from the processor via a 12-bit D/A converter. A special case is 8PSK. When set to VSAT operating mode. the baseband signal fed to the two mixers is identical. 0. unless a non-Viterbi FEC is added such as TPC or FlexLDPC. When the DDS is subtracted from the step synthesizer output in a second PLL.Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem 1. A low-pass filter is applied to the D/A output to reduce the level of sampling components. 5/6 or 7/8 resulting in an encoded signal at between 2.760 ksps (kilo symbols per second). Page 1-8 PSM-500/500L/500LT . The actual conversion process is accomplished in a lookup table.2 kbps (BPSK. The baseband signal is itself digitally derived and generated using a digital to analog (D/A) converter. 3/4.25 MHz. A Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS). The Viterbi convolutional encoder can be programmed for rate 1/2. 5/6 or 7/8 and is set for a constraint factor (K) of 7 for use by a (receiving end) Viterbi convolutional decoder with the same rate and K factor. A PLL step synthesizer is used to generate a basic LO in the 52 to 92 (or 104 to 184 or 952 to 1752) MHz range with 500 kHz step size. latch and D/A converter. A classic IQ modulator with two mixers is used and the LO is fed into the second mixer shifted 90 degrees from the first. consisting of an NCO and D/A conversion. the transmit signal is turned off and on according to the status of the data interface control lines and framing information in the data stream as described in the “Operation” Chapter of this document. the two signals represent the baseband I and Q channels of the baseband. In QPSK mode. M520 feature set).4 and 14. The processor also holds a calibration table of DAC input vs. All necessary adjustments are electronically performed during calibration and are intended to last the life of the unit without requiring resetting. A Reed-Solomon FEC is available for concatenated operation with the Viterbi Codec and two types of “Turbo Codes” Codecs are also available to replace the Viterbi Codec. The data is then encoded for Forward Error Correction (FEC) at rate 1/2. the available LO can be tuned in 1 Hz steps over the full range of 50 to 90 MHz (100 to 180 MHz if built for that version).90 . The burst mode allows multiple station modulators to link up consecutively with a single master station “burst demodulator”. Note: As of the time of this manual the burst mode is a special factory request option and not installed in standard modems.2. As previously shown in Figure 1-2. rate 1/2) and 20 Mbps (8PSK +.

The synthesizer is tunable over the range of 50 to 90 MHz (or 950 to 1900 MHz in the L-Band modems) and has two tuning components. the I channel carries the data information and the Q channel represents the noise and carrier phase information in the Costas loop. 2. 4. A receive synthesizer generates the demodulator local oscillator which is at the desired receive carrier frequency.2. Generates the soft decision symbol information for input to the FEC. For QPSK operation.90 Page 1-9 . A differential decoder and INTELSAT / V. The AGC amplifier has a range of greater than 40 dB at any data rate. and therefore like the modulator does not use heterodyning. Referring to Figure 1-2. 3. The processor controls the acquisition search over a programmable range from 100 Hz to 1. which is under control of the onboard processor. the LO step synthesizer used to tune in steps of 500 kHz. This configuration is held in the nonvolatile EEPROM and does not have to be reconfigured on power-up. In BPSK mode. The A/D output is also available to a special Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The I and Q channel baseband outputs of the Costas Loop demodulator are converted to digital data streams by parallel 12 bit D/A converters.2 Demodulator The Modem Demodulator uses direct conversion techniques for recovery of data from an incoming carrier. providing an improvement in performance over hard decision decoding. and has no internal IF signal or processing. Generates the receive AGC signal to set the input stage gain. The loop-back path provides a 25 dB attenuator to avoid overloading the receive input. The resulting received data and clock signals are sent to the interface assembly. The digital information is then filtered via a Datum Systems‟ proprietary programmable digital filter. concatenated Reed-Solomon. The proper AGC gain is digitally determined as that which produces an optimal output from the A/D converters and is thus derived after the A/D converters.35 descrambler for the received data signal can be individually enabled or disabled by the processor based on the current FEC and other settings. It is no longer under control of the front panel or command interface. The filtered sample output is sent to the input of the Forward Error Correction (FEC) process (either Viterbi convolutional. PSM-500/500L/500LT . The FEC decoders are contained on one or two adaptor cards plugged into the main board (all except the TPC are contained with the adaptors FPGA). The RF input is then demodulated using a “Costas Loop”. The receive signal processing shown in Figure 1-2 serves the following multiple functions: 1. 8PSK TCM rate 2/3. 0. Recovers the bit rate clock from the incoming signal.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description The Modulator IF output can be routed to the Demodulator input using a built-in “IF Loop-back” function. The DDS control has two tuning sources. and a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) component used to acquire and track the received carrier. This DSP controlled acquisition is especially useful at low data rates and can improve over a typical sweep by more than 2 orders of magnitude. which is used to examine the incoming signals for known energy patterns and acquire carriers significantly faster than conventional sweep acquisition. Multiple bits of the filtered A/D converter are used for “soft decision” decoding in the FEC. the I and Q channels each carry data information. Receive interface clocking can take several forms as explained below. the input RF signal is first input to the receive AGC amplifier.25 MHz. 1. allowing inputs over that range while still meeting performance criteria. The I and Q channel “eye” signals are not available as in many other modems because the signal/data representation at this point is still strictly digital for direct signal processing.Rev. The range is controlled in several steps depending on the data rate extending over the range of –20 dBm at high data rates to –84 dBm at low data rates. phase locked loop demodulator where the signal is split using a 90 degree hybrid into I and Q channels. Measures the Es/No of the received signal. (1) the digital Costas demodulation loop phase detector used to track an already “locked” signal and (2) the processor control used to set the carrier frequency and acquire new signals. Turbo Codes or LDPC decoder) circuit.

The internally generated bit rate NCO locked to the Internal Reference oscillator is settable to 40 bit accuracy. The demodulator receive clock is always used to clock the data into the FIFO. An External FIFO Clock applied on the interface connector. The Demodulator always outputs the Receive Timing signal.2. Page 1-10 PSM-500/500L/500LT . The Modulator Clock 3. 2. The clock output can be either: 1. That is 1 part in 10 to the 12 or 1 part per trillion. An External input at the data rate or 4. or 4.0 parts per million clock oscillator. The Demodulator Receive Clock. The Modulator always outputs the Send Timing signal. First.3 Modem Bit Rate Timing The Modulator and the Demodulator each have 4 possible sources for their bit rate timing. which is sufficiently accurate for most applications. 3. The receive demodulator clock derived from the receive signal is synchronous with the Receive Data and is the normal source of the receive timing. A block diagram simplified representation of the Transmit and Receive clock sources are shown in Figure 1-3. 2. If the demodulator receive clock is selected then the FIFO itself is physically bypassed by switching circuitry. An external input on the Interface Terminal Timing input.90 . the modem detects if no data is present on the input by a lack of transitions for approximately 5 seconds and will produce a programmable alarm after that time. due to the higher data rates the PSM-500 input circuitry automatically fine tunes the clocks to attempt to place the data period at the optimal point with respect to the clocks. the internal oscillator may be phase locked to an external reference applied at the rear panel. Second. An internally generated bit rate NCO locked to the Internal Reference. An Internally generated bit rate NCO locked to the Internal Reference. If the system requires a different clock (which still must be the same average rate as the demodulator‟s receive clock) then provisions are made to buffer the data in a programmable FIFO. 0. The Demodulator Receive Clock. If system timing requirements dictate a better reference. This also helps tremendously when using the TT clock to create the transmit timing.Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem 1. The PSM-500 series includes two changes to previous modems to insure proper operation. but the source of this timing may be either: 1.Rev. The modem‟s internal reference is a 2.

Selection of "RCV Clock" bypasses the FIFO buffer.Rev. The Send Timing is always an output from the modem. "External" or "Mod Clock". Each of the clock sources can be set either from the front panel or from an external monitor and control system. From Receive Clock Transmit Clock Sources Optional Reed-Solomon Decoder & IBS Multiplexer Receive Data To Interface DATA OUT IN DATA Receive Timing To Interface Receive FIFO Buffer OUT IN CLOCK Demodulator External FIFO Clock From Interface Demodulator RCV CLOCK From Modulator bit timing Demod output clock is phase locked to receive bit timing Bit Rate NCO "Internal" FIFO output clock selected from "RCV Clock". "Internal".PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description Send Data From Interface DATA Send Timing To Interface CLOCK Modulator Terminal Timing From Interface Terminal Timing External Send Timing Input (Rear Panel) External Reference Input (Rear Panel) External Reference PLL Internal Reference Oscillator Bit Rate NCO Modulator bit clock source is selected from "Internal". 0.90 Page 1-11 . PSM-500/500L/500LT . "Terminal Timing". "External" or "RCV Clock". Receive Clock Sources Figure 1-3 Clock Source Options These Clock sources may be used in various ways in a system implementation to provide correct timing at a destination.

The control processor uses a full-duplex Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) for communications with either the RS–232 / RS–485 remote command port or with a separate VT100 type “console” terminal device connected to the modem. The processor uses both internal and external RAM for all operations and maintains configuration and permanent parameters in parallel EEPROM. Five of these standards are common interfaces used in the communications industry:  RS-449. manages the receive signal acquisition and lock functions to achieve fast acquisition performance at low data rates.  V. the DSP processor.2. This DSP is controlled by the control processor via a communications protocol managed through a special bi-directional parallel interface to the main processor. Digital I/O used to monitor and control the modem is handled mainly through the DSP circuits and their interface to the processor. 1. The modem control processor uses external address and data buses to connect to external Flash PROM containing the instruction code. identification EEPROMs on option and interface cards and step synthesizers. the front panel. The processor also connects to the FEC. a Texas Instruments 320C5xxx Digital Signal Processor.5 Acquisition Processor The acquisition processor.Rev. The processor continuously monitors all onboard status signals. over 20 seconds using a standard sweep.6 Standard Data Interface The standard Interface in the PSM-500 is built onto the main PWB and contains the drivers and receivers for one of five possible data interface standards (seven including minor variations of each). The control processor also maintains a serial peripheral interface to connect to several onboard peripherals. The channel for this communications is normally provided by equipping the unit with the optional IBS multiplexer interface card. All interface standards are selected under program control via the front panel or remote control. The control processor has provisions for communicating with another PSM-500 modem for implementation of Automatic Uplink Power Control (AUPC).)  EIA-530 and EIA-530A  Asynchronous RS-232 (Limited to 115 kbps by various protocols). 1. Such parameters as the current Eb/No and receive offset frequency information are read by the processor from the DSPs while most configuration information is written to the DSPs. At data rates below 16 kbps this process is more than an order of magnitude faster than a standard sweep method. The signal acquisition DSP accepts sampled data from the receive chain A/D Converters and mathematically determines the location of the incoming carrier. In addition a USB control interface is provided.35.4 Control Processor A single microprocessor manages all monitor.2. terminated and un-terminated  V. the custom ASICs. The control processor also contains an internal 12-Channel 10-bit A/D converter for gathering analog information from various onboard monitored points including the phase locked loop tuning voltages. control and communications functions on the modem board.Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem 1.36  Synchronous RS-232 (Limited to 128 kbps by drivers and receivers.90 .2 seconds using the acquisition processor vs. This is accomplished in a multi–step process which continues to narrow down the exact frequency until it is known within the lock range of the PLL demodulator. Page 1-12 PSM-500/500L/500LT .2. 0. These include external D/A converters holding calibration and current analog settings. and various onboard peripheral functions via the address and data bus. Typical signal acquisition times at 16 kbps QPSK are 0.

The data loop-back can be controlled from the front panel or via remote control command. A single 37 pin “D” type female connector is available on the rear panel at J3 providing the terrestrial data interface. The data towards both the terrestrial and satellite sides can be looped back individually by enabling this function via the front panel or remote control  Caution: Enabling the “Data Loop-Back” functions will result in loss of traffic.3 Data Interface 1:1 Redundancy Function The standard interfaces are also capable of operating in a special 1:1 redundancy mode. The two modems communicate with each other to determine the alarm status of each and force the “off-line” unit‟s data interface into an un-terminated condition. In this mode the data interfaces are tied directly in parallel using a special “Y” cable. It is located between the modem‟s satellite and terrestrial data loop-back functions. Optional interfaces are provided by a separate option interface card which is mounted inside the modem chassis. 1.Rev. The BERT can be controlled from the front panel or via remote control command and provides extensive test result data. It should not be used in operating links without prior arrangements.5 “1:1 Redundancy Connection” and 3.2.2 Data Interface BERT Function The standard interfaces also include a programmable Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) set.1 Data Interface Loop-Back Function The standard and most optional interfaces also provide the data loop-back function.2.6.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description The un-terminated versions of these standard interfaces and are used to implement one for one (1:1) redundancy between two PSM-500 units. The alarms that are used to determine switching criteria are programmable. An interface field kit of parts to add an option interface is available from the manufacturer for installation by qualified technical field service personnel. This allows both interfaces to receive incoming data and clock signals.6. More on use of the BERT functions and modes is given in Section 4. Since both terrestrial and satellite sides of the signal path can be looped. It should not be used in operating links without prior arrangements.1 Common Test Procedures. The data loop-back allows testing of the signal path connection up to the loop-back and back to the source.2 “Using the Built-in BERT”. New in this modem is the ability to set the BERT set to point toward the “Line” side external cabling. Ethernet interfaces do not have this function. The interface standard is electronically selectable via front panel or remote control. acting as a DCE device. 1.3.90 Page 1-13 . Ethernet interfaces do not have this function. which are necessary to ascertain correct functioning. When an optional interface is installed the main processor automatically queries and installs the necessary software controls for accessing the interface.  Caution: Enabling the “BERT” function will result in loss of traffic. Software control built into the modem can then be set to indicate that the two connected modems are operating in a redundant mode. PSM-500/500L/500LT .10 “Built-in 1:1 Redundancy Mode Operation”. The provision of an optional interface “adds” to the available interfaces which can be selected under program control. the connection from a local DTE can be checked on the terrestrial side while the connection from the far end DTE over the satellite and through the modem can be checked on the satellite side. 1. At the same time the transmit and receive IF ports are also connected together through the stations (or separately supplied) transmit and receive IF combiner/splitter assemblies. and the first modem set up for this mode automatically loads its configuration information to the second or “back-up” unit.1.2. 0.6. More information on use of the loop-back modes is given in Section 4. More information on the set-up and use of the 1:1 redundancy functions and modes is given in Sections 2. These features create a very low cost redundancy system that is both flexible and easily set up.

This added channel is termed variously an overhead channel. In 4 wire mode the receive is always enabled. In the standard IBS mode only the 4 wire mode is available. In the Enhanced mode the MCC provides for an AUPC channel.90 . In this mode the receive input is muted while the transmit data output is active. an ES to ES data channel. The overhead channel is recovered at the far end. The multiplexer is also capable of expanded operating modes which include custom setting of the ratio of data to framing bytes. 0.1 Modem Control Channel (MCC) The MCC is available in both the Enhanced and Custom Multiplexer modes.7.Rev. Remote Modem Control. Full ESC and MCC including AUPC. No MCC M4 compatible ESC and AUPC (limited MCC). The user sets only the desired through data rate while the modem computes the aggregate rate required. The processor on the main board performs software/hardware assignment of bits to specific purposes in the Custom mode and buffers the ESC Data Channel to standard asynchronous data rates. Also variable data load per frame. In the Custom mode the MCC provides for the AUPC plus the Remote Modem Control (RMC) Channel and the Auxiliary control bits (RFC). The pin assignments for both modes are shown in Section 2. The modem then computes the proper relationship between the framing and terrestrial data rates to achieve the proper operation.Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem 1. 2 one=bit control channels.2. The user does not have to compute data framing variables to use the Custom Multiplexer Mode. In the standard IBS mode only the “RS-485 ON” mode is available. Notes The ESC Data Channel can be set under software-control to either RS-232 or RS-485 mode. service channel. Figure 10. No AUPC.7 Standard Framing and IBS Multiplexer The framing/multiplexer is capable of multiplexing a relatively low speed overhead channel onto the terrestrial data stream resulting in a slightly higher combined or “aggregate” data rate through the modem. These pin assignments appear on the rear panel “AUX” (Auxiliary) connector J4 only when the Multiplexer function is enabled. resulting in a 16/15 aggregate to through data ratio. Page 60.400 bps). Page 1-14 PSM-500/500L/500LT . Mode Disabled Standard Enhanced Custom Standard/ Compatibility N/A IESS-309 Modified IESS-309 Modified IESS-309 Overhead Ratio 1/1 16/15 16/15 Variable Fixed synchronous ESC. A simplified block diagram of the data multiplexer is shown in Appendix RS. 1. They are described more fully in The IBS Multiplexer/Reed-Solomon Appendix RS. The RS-485 Transmit Data Drivers can set to “RS-485” or “RS-485 ON” when in “Enhanced” mode. The Multiplexer provides the following modes of operation. In Enhanced or Custom mode a 2 wire receive operating mode can be selected for the receive data into the ESC channel. ESC. The basic frame structure used by the multiplexer is that specified in the IESS-309 standard. “asynch” channel or. The “ON” setting forces the driver continuously on while the “RS-485” setting controls the output into tri-state when the modem is not transmitting data. Note that the transmit and receive pairs are physically separate wires and must be connected together if true RS-485 2 wire connectivity is desired.3 and Appendix RS. allowing multiple modem outputs to be connected together. in IESS terminology. The modem also displays the terrestrial data to aggregate ratio. This means that when the multiplexer is enabled the modem aggregate operating data rate is computed as the terrestrial connection (through) data rate multiplied by 16/15. When placed in this mode the entry parameters are the ESC and MCC channel rates selected from standard asynchronous data rates (300 to 38.2.

7. This control is not however allowed from the near end front panel. PSM-500/500L/500LT . Note that the Automatic Configuration Recovery or ACR is partially designed as a safety feature to be used with the remote programming of modems. “Remote Control Protocol”. The low input logic level is 0 to 0. Refer to the ACR section of the main manual in 3.8 titled “Automatic Uplink Power Control (AUPC)” Operation.2. The command protocol for remote unit control is explained in Appendix B. for example the FlexLDPC FEC featuring exceptional performance at very low Eb/No. 1. FECs are normally specified by “Rate”.2. such as the latency (processing time) required. time to recover from a synch loss. The extra bits required for a given rate are redundancy processing bits needed to perform forward error correction. and in rate 5/6.2. which also relates to power and performance.4 to approximately 20 VDC. The AUPC operation itself is under control of the modem while the AUPC facility in the MCC provides the channel for the information.7. 1. There are always other factors to consider. For example. 0.1.Rev. In most cases the tradeoff is between bandwidth and performance. This channel provides a minimum 300 baud control channel in each direction to allow the modems at two ends of a link to interactively maintain the receive Eb/No by controlling the power output at the transmit site. The input is current limited to accept this wide voltage range without damage.3 Auxiliary Bit Control Channels (RFC) When the Multiplexer is placed into the “Custom” mode the auxiliary bit control RFC channels becomes available. The input signals on these channels can be either a contact closure or a logic type signals while the output is a form C relay contract set whose state depends on the state of the input signal.90 Page 1-15 .2 Remote Modem Control Channel (RMC) When the modem is placed in the “Custom” mode the Remote Modem Control Channel becomes available. 1.1 AUPC Control Channel (AUPC) When the modem is placed into either the “Enhanced” or “Custom” modes the AUPC control channel becomes available. signal acquisition time. which is the ratio of data information bits to transmitted bits. Refer also to the AUPC operation description of the main manual in Section 3. etc. It can help prevent “losing” the modem at an unattended site.14 “Automatic Configuration Recovery”. These two FEC slots are wired in parallel and the control processor on the main board searches for a requested FEC on the first card containing that capability. The second slot can be used for optional FECs as desired. Better performance is commonly considered higher coding gain at a given rate. 6 bits are transmitted for every 5 data bits. Pin connections for these one bit channels are shown in the RS Appendix. This channel allows the control of a far end modem from the near end site. while the logic high level can be from 2. These consist of two single line or “one-bit” control channels that can be used to send control information independently in both directions over the link. The same FEC functions can exist on both cards.4 VDC.1.7. but only the first card will be used in that case. and coding gain.2. Higher voltages may damage the inputs however and caution should be exercised. which is the Eb/No reduction able to achieve a specified BER as compared to an unencoded signal. etc. FEC technology is in many ways a matter of tradeoffs. One board is normally installed containing the standard Forward Error Correction set including Viterbi (with Trellis Code Modulation mode when in 8PSK mode only) and Reed-Solomon concatenated codecs.8 Standard and Optional Modem FEC Cards All of the M500 class modems have two card slots on the main PCB for two FEC function boards. The same standard card has several variations which includes either a 4k or 16k block size TPC or both on the same board if ordered that way initially.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description 1. but only via the remote control interface port. the common rate ½ means that for every data bit two bits are transmitted.1.

Viterbi has been the standard high performance FEC used in satellite communications for approximately 10 years. Option. it is common to use special forms of Reed-Solomon. Page 1-16 PSM-500/500L/500LT . Option and Code Rate selection numbers are listed in the column to the right of each item. The table below shows the currently available modes depending on modulation.Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem FECs technology is often specifically adapted to a particular use. These type signals and FECs typically have a fairly high performance floor that are of little consequence for a wideband video signal. Note in Table A that the front panel selection number for each of the options is listed as the “Sel #”. These numbers can be referred to for front panel operation but are even more applicable to the SnIP Telnet command line program named “m500ctl”. TCM and Reed-Solomon Codec providing the PSM-500 with basic functional capability for all standard operating parameters including 8PSK TCM and 16QAM. It has only been in the past few years that new technologies have emerged which provide more coding gain with reasonable implementations. The standard PSM-500 FEC card includes the circuitry for a Viterbi. FEC Type.Rev. TPC and LDPC for video signals. but would be entirely unacceptable for most data information especially at low data rates. For example The Modulation modes show the selection numbers 0 through 6. Code rate and ReedSolomon mode (MTOCR) in a single entry.90 . 0. For example. Refer to the SnIP documentation for more information. and the FEC Type. This program has specific commands that allow entering either just the 3 digit FEC options or the full Modulation. The following are general descriptions of the characteristics of each of these functions.

R-S is auto-enabled 6.90 Page 1-17 . They offer superior performance to CT modes PSM-500/500L/500LT . TPC16k operates up to 20 Mbps depending on Feature Set and modulation 5. Rate 3/4 & 7/8. 200. * TPC 4k/16k restrictions apply to that line and Code Rate only 3.Rev. TPC4k Max data rate limits see below 4. TPC Advanced modes are Datum Systems proprietary implementations that require the TPC16k option only for the colored lines. 16QAM CT modes are only for Comtech modem compatibility as they only operate in this mode with R-S at 220.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description 1. 0. The TPC M5 Full. depth of 4. Short and Legacy modes are intended for PSM-4900 Compatibility only 2. The Viterbi.

90 .2. The two FECs are thus considered "Concatenated". Take note of the special CT modes available for Viterbi. 200. A simplified block diagram of the Reed-Solomon Codec is shown in the Figure below. So. 1. basically meaning folded as in the redundancy bits are folded into the data bit stream. Reed-Solomon is a block oriented code.Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem 1. The CT mode at this setting defaults to selecting Reed-Solomon CT mode at n. For example. Eb/No performance of concatenated Viterbi rate 3/4 coding with R-S is better than Viterbi rate 1/2 alone and it uses less bandwidth than the Viterbi rate 1/2 alone. 1. the PSM-500 series offers special “CT” modes. This is a closed circuit mode that does not meet normal IESS standards. standing for “Competing Technology”. k and depth values of 220. The performance improvement achieved by this combination is significant.1 Viterbi. Viterbi still maintains the advantage of fairly high coding gain with very low latency.0 Special Codec CT Modes The wide range of FECs available today and the possibility of many different operating modes and parameters for each can make compatibility with other brands of modems extremely difficult. for voice circuits or DAMA links requiring fast acquisition times Viterbi may be the FEC of choice. In addition. The PSM-500 type R-S Codec is capable of operating in multiple standard and custom modes as shown in the table below. thus adding to the latency.2. These modes use the same parameter settings as popular modems by other manufacturers. the BER vs. The Viterbi CT option mode follows that of competitive modems for 16QAM operation at rates ¾ and 7/8. the data between the two FECs is "interleaved" which effectively reduces the possibility of multiple consecutive errored block symbols.2 Reed-Solomon Codec Capability Reed-Solomon Codec places a second Forward Error Correction (FEC) process outside of and in series with the existing Viterbi FEC. meaning that data is framed into fixed size blocks and processed in a specific way. but is necessary in order to link to those modems. Page 1-18 PSM-500/500L/500LT .2.8. Reed-Solomon and TPC modes below. Trellis Code Modulation or “TCM” is a standard part of the M500 used with 8PSK at rate 2/3. A full block must be received before processing can begin. To aid in FEC compatibility with other brands of modems. depth of 4 and inverts the data. 0. Viterbi is part of a class of FECs considered “convolutional”.8. It is therefore the responsibility of the FEC decoder to determine which are the proper data bits.Rev.8. It has only been in the past few years that new technologies have emerged which provide more coding gain with reasonable implementations. The important issue here is that it is not block oriented and not framed. Reed-Solomon uses framing which allows the use of a synchronous scrambler resulting in slightly improved performance relative to the self-Synchronized scrambler normally used. thus improving the Reed-Solomon Codec performance. Trellis Code Modulation Codec Viterbi has been the standard high performance FEC used in satellite communications for approximately 10 years.

It can be overridden by choice from the Reed-Solomon parameter. Rate ¾ is selected when in 16QAM mode.90 Page 1-19 . 0.Rev.200 mode is a special compatibility mode and is automatically set by certain CT FEC modes. for example when Viterbi.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description Transmit Terrestrial Data Channel Transmit Data Channel Transmit Reed-Solomon Block Encoder & Synchronous Scrambler Transmit Reed-Solomon Block Interleaver Control IBS Multiplex Option Processor Clock and Frame Generation RCV Clock XMT Clocks Main Modem Assembly Control Receive Terrestrial Data Channel FIFO From Main Modem Receive Reed-Solomon Block Decoder & Synchronous Descrambler Receive Reed-Solomon Block De-Interleaver Clock Receive Data Channel Reed-Solomon Codec Simplified Block Diagram The Reed-Solomon modes shown available below can be selected from the front panel or remote control. The CT220. PSM-500/500L/500LT .

048 Mbps All All All 9/8 45/41 73/67 73/67 11/10 Variable 126. 1.4 FlexLDPC FEC Capability The addition of the FlexLDPC FEC option allows replacement of the standard Viterbi FEC selectively for the transmit and receive paths.Description PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Mode Disabled IESS-308 Compatibility Terrestrial Data Rate Overhead Ratio 1/1 n.2. The Reed-Solomon Codec function can be turned on and off under software control.544 Mbps 1. Eb/No performance of TPC Rate ¾ is approximately equal to Rate ½ Viterbi and uses over 40% less bandwidth. The Datum Systems‟ proprietary TPC “Advanced” mode has been optimized to provide the highest performance available in any TPC on the market. The PSM-500 series offers extensive TPC capabilities including both first generation 4k block TPC with both PSM-4900 compatibility (M5) and Competitive Technology (CT) operating modes plus a newer second generation 16k block TPC. It is defined as n/k. 1. IESS-309 CT220. The “Overhead” ratio is the ratio of the data rate at the R-S encoder output to the data rate at the input. 201. 200. 4 219. The modem automatically adjusts to accommodate the new rate. These modes not only outperform other manufacturer‟s TPC. outperforming TPC in across all modes. 205. TPC also provides better bandwidth/power utilization than either Reed-Solomon concatenated on Viterbi or 8PSK/TCM with Reed-Solomon. FlexLDPC at rate ½ are capable of operating at a sustained Eb/No of only 1. but also LDPC in many cases. 4 Allows setting the “n”. 201. The performance improvement achieved by the TPC is significant. 4 219.8.8.2. The Turbo Product Codes FEC is more fully explained in Appendix TPC.544 Mbps to <2. Page 1-20 PSM-500/500L/500LT . k and depth Values N/A IESS-308 IESS-308 IESS-308 1.Rev.200 Custom IESS-309 Comtech Modified IESS-309 The IESS 308 mode automatically adjusts the n and k factors dependent on the data rate. 0. The performance improvement achieved by FlexLDPC is the highest and most flexible of any specialized FEC technology to date. 4 (M4 modem compatible) 225. “k” and “depth” values for special requirements.3 Turbo Product Codes FEC Capability The addition of the Turbo Product Codes (TPC) option allows replacement of the standard Viterbi FEC selectively for the transmit and receive paths independently.90 . Can also be set for M4 compatibility to max M4 data rate.2 kbps to <1. This second TPC offers superior performance at the expense of more delay due to larger processing blocks.5 dB with an -9 error rate less than 10 . For example. 4 220.048 Mbps >2. the BER vs. 112. and is independent of the IBS ESC Data Channel enabling.

both cards can be installed in a “stacked configuration.90 Page 1-21 . PSM-500/500L/500LT . The logic can be augmented and changed as requirements change. A second specialized interface card available is a High Speed Serial Interface or HSSI that is commonly used for connection to some routers. or “SnIP”. 1. The first of these cards is the Ethernet interface embodied in the Datum Systems‟ Satellite Network Interface Processor. The HSSI interface is more fully explained in Appendix HSSI. The modems unique direct modulation and demodulation scheme also completely eliminates all IF mixing and filtering circuitry.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Description 1. making them a selectable option on the front panel or remote control protocols.2.9 Optional Interface Capability The M500 modems are also capable of accepting optional interface cards to replace the standard synchronous serial interfaces. 0. Installed option interfaces are automatically recognized by the modem.10 Modem Circuit Implementation Much of the functionality in this modem has been achieved by incorporation of extensive circuitry into Digital Signal Processing parts and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA).2. Depending on features and options installed there are between 1. For users that require the option to select either SnIP or HSSI interfaces in addition to the standard synchronous serial interfaces. a 10 fold increase over the last generation modem.Rev. The SnIP is more fully explained in Appendix SNIP.2 and over 2 Million gates of logic encapsulated in the FPGAs.

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The ambient temperature in the rack should preferably be between 10 and 35 C.  CAUTION: Before initially applying power to the modem. PSM-500 Modem Unit. adequate ventilation must be provided. The air available to the rack should be clean and relatively dry.75 inches) vertically and 12 inches of depth.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation Chapter 2 .1 Unpacking The PSM-500 Modem was carefully packed to avoid damage and should arrive complete with the following items for proper installation: 1. 2. There is a shock hazard internally at the power supply module. 0. Installation and Operation Manual plus other information on CD. All normal hardware configuration.10%). DO NOT open the modem case unless power is removed for option installation. Including cabling.0 Installation Requirements The PSM-500 VSAT/SCPC Modem is designed for installation in any standard 19-inch equipment cabinet or rack. If the Prime AC power available at the installation site requires a different power cord/AC connector.90 Page 2-1 . and requires 1 RU mounting space (1.1 Removal and Assembly If using a knife or cutting blade to open the carton.Installation 2. it is a good idea to disconnect the transmit output from the operating satellite ground station equipment.1. 2. 2.Rev. including setting the data interface type and IF impedance is under software control. but only cuts the tape holding the carton closed. Should the power cable AC connector be of the wrong type for the installation. L-Band Units may include an external BUC power supply. The modem units may be stacked one on top of the other to a maximum of 10 consecutive units before PSM-500/500L/500LT . Carefully unpack the unit and ensure that all of the above items are in the carton. where incorrect setting could disrupt existing communications traffic. FEC Options and Interface Options installed can be read from the LCD display on the front panel under <Unit: Status – > column by scrolling down after initial application of power. 2.2 Mounting Considerations When mounted in an equipment rack. The type of Feature Sets. a minimum of 15-inches of rack depth is required. This is especially true if the current modem configuration settings are unknown.  CAUTION: There are no user-serviceable parts or configuration settings located inside the PSM-500 modem case. Power Cord. The rear panel of the PSM-500 is designed to have power enter from the left and IF cabling enter from the right when viewed from the rear. Data and control cabling can enter from either side although they are closer to the left. 3. The power supply itself is designed for world-wide application using from 90 to 264 VAC (100 to 240 VAC +/. The PSM-500 Modem unit is shipped fully assembled and does not require removal of the covers for any purpose in normal installation. 6 foot with applicable AC connector. either the cable or the power connector end should be replaced. then arrangements to receive the proper device will be necessary before proceeding with the installation. and held constant for best equipment operation. exercise caution to ensure that the blade does not extend into the carton. The unit may be placed on a table or suitable surface as required.

47 – 63 Hz. RS–485 Control Port connection at 9-pin female “D” sub connector J6: Shield ground on pin 15 Transmit A on pin 6 (output from modem) Transmit B on pin 1. 2. Rack mount brackets are an integral part of the front panel plate of the unit and are not removable. Data Interface Connection at Data Connector J3: Standard RS–449 Connector (37-pin female “D” sub connector).703 or Ethernet 10 Base T).Rev. A Terrestrial data interface cable to mate with the modem or installed option. Maximum unit power consumption is 50 Watts (Typical < 30 Watts). Chassis ground connection at #8 stud location J2. snow. “Cabling Specifications”. Page 2-2 PSM-500/500L/500L T. A 75 Transmit IF cable with BNC male connector. Prime AC power. (50 optional) or a 75 Receive IF cable with type F male connector for the L-Band versions. EIA 530. Any connection interfacing to the modem must be the appropriate mating connector. The only tools required for rack mounting the PSM-500 is a set of four rack mounting screws and an appropriate screwdriver. Alarm Connection at 9-pin male “D” connector J5. either a 37-pin male “D” sub connector for all standard or appropriate connector for an optional interface (such as G. 2. Other optional connections are shown below. A 75 Receive IF cable with BNC male connector. The modem is designed for indoor applications only. (output from modem) Receive A on pin 9 (input to modem) Receive B on pin 8. (input to modem) OR RS–232 Control port connection at 9-pin female “D” sub connector J6: Transmit on pin 3 (input to modem) Receive on pin 2 (output from modem) Common on pin 5. (50 optional) or a 50 Transmit IF cable with type N male connector for the L-Band version. Refer to Figure 2-1 to locate the following connectors: Prime AC power to the far left IEC male input at J1: 90 to 260 VAC. The following interface connections should be available at the mounting location as a minimum: 1. Modem units should not be placed immediately above a high heat or EMF generator to ensure the output signal integrity and proper receive operation. 4.3 Modem Connections All modem connections are made to labeled connectors located on the rear of the unit: The connector definitions below are those on the modem unit. DB25 adaptor cable supplied with modem for V. wind or sun. RS-232. Cabling and Connections are detailed in Appendix C. 3.35. Integral switch provided as part of power entry connector.90 . 0. Do not mount the PSM-500 in an unprotected outdoor location where there is direct contact with rain.Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem providing a 1 RU space for airflow.

 CAUTION!: Extreme Care should be exercised when handling the transmit cable as it is possible to have hazardous voltages on the transmit line. 13VDC or 18VDC @ <500mA to be output on this connector Programmable 10 MHz Reference signal to be output on this connector. A DC Block device is highly recommended for test equipment connection. 5. When higher voltages are used to supply BUCs that require 48VDC the transmit line can seriously injure personnel. The voltage present to power the LNB can cause severe damage to the input of test equipment like spectrum analyzers. BUC Power Source (normally 24VDC @ <4A) to be output on this connector. Programmable enable and disable onto the transmit cable at J7 The BUC Power Status LED next to J7 shows the status as follows Red – No voltage sensed on DIN input connector or power is input and the enabled but the cable to the BUC is shorted. 9 or 10 MHz input +10 to –15 dBm input level at 50 (normally a sine wave). The Modem External Reference Input at female BNC J8 1. (to –100 dBm at lower bit rates) Programmable 0. A DC Block device is highly recommended for test equipment connection.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation The Modulator 70 MHz IF Output at female BNC J7 50 – 90 MHz Programmable +5 to –35 dBm output at 75 Programmable +3 to –35 dBm output at 50.  CAUTION!: Extreme Care should be exercised when connecting test equipment in the transmit line either directly to the modem output or within the line to the BUC. (to –84 dBm at lower bit rates) The L-Band Demodulator (/L) L-Band IF Input at female Type F J9 950 – 1900 MHz –20 to –60 dBm input at 75. To avoid injury or equipment damage unplug the L-Band modem and BUC power supply whenever the transmit cable is disconnected! The L-Band Modulator (PSM-500L) Block Up Converter Power Supply at J10 12 to 56 Volts DC. Various supplies are available and all are connected to the 5 pin DIN connector at J10.  CAUTION: Extreme Care should be exercised when connecting test equipment in the receive line to the LNB. The L-Band Modulator (PSM-500L) L-Band IF Output at female Type N J7 950 – 1750 MHz Programmable +3 to –35 dBm output at 50. 50 – 90 MHz –20 to –60 dBm input at 75 or 50. PSM-500/500L/500LT . Programmable 10 MHz Reference signal to be output on this connector. The Demodulator 70 MHz IF Input at female BNC J9. Green – Power sensed and enabled (connected) to transmit cable Off – Power sensed but disabled (disconnected) from transmit cable. 0.90 Page 2-3 . up to 6 Amp capability. The voltage present to power the BUC can cause severe damage to the input of test equipment like spectrum analyzers.Rev.

“Cabling Specifications” for the pins used for each of the following interfaces available on the “AUX” connector. (When the optional IBS multiplexer is enabled). 20.RFC channel B Form-C N.C.O.RFC channel B Form-C Common Pin 18 .RFC channel A Form-C Common Pin 35 . Pin 36 .Rev.RFC channel B Input (TTL. See Appendix C. 32.RFC channel A Form-C N.RFC channel A Input (TTL. User Remote Facility Control channel B Pin 15 . Internal 1mA Pull-Up) Pin 17 .Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem The ESC channel connection at 37-pin male “D” sub connector J4 (AUX). 37 Page 2-4 PSM-500/500L/500L T. sampled on rising clock edge) RS-232 Transmit Clock on pin 13 (output from modem) RS-232 Receive on pin 6 (output from modem.90 . 19. Grounds Pins 14. RS-232 Standard Mode Connection (synchronous) RS-232 Transmit on pin 4 (input to modem. (input to modem) User Remote Facility Control channel A Pin 33 .RFC channel B Form-C N. Internal 1mA Pull-Up) Pin 34 . (output from modem) RS-485 Transmit A on pin 12 (input to modem) RS-485 Transmit B on pin 4. Pin 16 . 0.RFC channel A Form-C N.C. changes on falling clock edge) RS-232 Receive Clock on pin 7 (output from modem) RS-232 Enhanced/Custom Mode Connection: RS-232 Transmit on pin 4 (input to modem) RS-232 Receive on pin 6 (output from modem) RS-232 CTS on pin 7 (output from modem) RS-232 RTS on pin 9 (input to modem) RS-232 DSR on pin 11 (output from modem) RS-232 DTR on pin 12 (input to modem) RS-232 DCD on pin 13 (output from modem) RS-485 Connection: RS-485 Receive A on pin 11 (output from modem) RS-485 Receive B on pin 6.O.

PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Normally Blank. 37 Pin "D" Connector 70 / 140 MHz and Hybrid IF Modem S1 J3 Data Interface AC Line AUX J4 J5 Alarm Control J6 USB J10 EXT. 0. 90 . 50 W.260 VAC.Rev. REF IN BUC PWR IN J7 J11 J8 XMT IF OUT BUC PWR Status RCV IF IN J9 Figure 2-1 Modem Rear Panel J2 ! DC Only.90 MADE IN U.S.S. 50 W. REF IN J7 XMT IF OUT J8 RCV IF IN J9 J2 J1 PSM-500/500L/500LT . Used with Option Interface. 6A Max J1 CAUTION! Hazardous Voltage May Be Present on J8/J9 90 .260 VAC. 60V.A. Normally Blank.A. MADE IN U. Used with Option Interface. 37 Pin "D" Connector L-Band IF Modem Installation Page 2-5 .S1 J3 Data Interface USB J10 AC Line AUX J4 J5 Alarm Control J6 EXT.

35 “Winchester” type connector standard pin-outs or RS-232 type DB25 connector is presented in Appendix C “Cabling Specifications”.36 Signal Name Shield (GND) SD A (SD-) SD B (SD+) SCT A (ST-) SCT B (ST+) RD A (RD-) RD B (RD+) SCR A (RT-) SCR B (RT+) RTS RTS RT RD ST RS-232 Signal Name *(5) Shield (GND) SD Eia-530 Signal Name SHD (GND) TD A TD B TTSETC A TSETC B RD A RD B RSETC A RSETC B RTS A RTS B CTS A CTS B DCR A DCR B DTR A DTR B RLSD A RLSD B TSETT A TSETT B Ext Data/FIFO Clock A (-)*(3) Direction GND (4) Input Input Output Output Output Output Output Output Input Input Output Output Output Output Input Input Output Output Input Input Input 21 Ext Data/FIFO Clock B (+)*(3) Ext Data/FIFO Clock B (+)*(3) Ext Data/FIFO Clock B (+)*(3) Input 19 20 10 SIG GND Chassis Mod Fault Alarm *(2) GND SGND GND GND Mod Fault Alarm *(2) Mod Fault Alarm *(2) OC TTL output Page 2-6 PSM-500/500L/500L T. Table 2-1 shows the pin assignments for the possible standard interfaces. Additional information aiding the creation of “adaptor” cables from the unit‟s 37-pin female “D” sub connector to other types of interface connections such as V.Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem 2. Table 2–1 Data Interface Connector J3 Pin Assignment by Signal Modem Pin # 1 4 22 5 23 6 24 8 26 7 25 9 27 11 29 12 30 13 31 17 35 3 RS–449 Signal Name Shield (GND) Transmit Data (A) – Transmit Data (B) + Transmit Clock (A) – Transmit Clock (B) + Receive Data (A) – Receive Data (B) + Receive Clock (A) – Receive Clock (B) + RTS (A) – RTS (B) + CTS (A) – CTS (B) + Data Mode (A) – Data Mode (B) + TR (A) – TR (B) + Receive Ready (A) – Receive Ready (B) + Terminal Timing (A) – Terminal Timing (B) + External data Clock (transmit data clock or receive FIFO Buffer output Clock (A) – *(3) External data Clock (transmit data clock or receive FIFO Buffer output Clock (B) + *(3) Signal GND Common Mod Fault Alarm *(2) SCTE A (TT-) SCTE B (TT+) Ext Data/FIFO Clock A (-)*(3) Ext Data/FIFO Clock A (-)*(3) TSETT RLSD RLSD DTR DTR DSR DCR CTS CTS V.90 . V. 0.Rev.3.1 Data Interface Pin Connections The unit is supplied with an electronically programmable data interface assembly.35.

This driver makes the control port appear similar to a serial port.Rev. An input at the transmit data rate can be used to provide a transmit send timing clock which the modem will phase locked to (if within acceptable range). PSM-500/500L/500LT . The Shield is normally connected to the cables shield at one end of the cable only. Connecting the Data Interface to other types of equipment involves building cables between the PSM-500 and that other equipment‟s physical interface.3. V. Connection to either the RS–232 or RS–485 is selected by connecting to the proper set of pins as shown in table 2-4. Both are located on the rear panel 9-pin female “D” sub connector J6. The synchronous RS-232 connection is limited to 128 kbps. An input at the receive data rate can be used to clock data out of the demodulator FIFO buffer. The modulator and demodulator fault alarms are Open Collector TTL outputs used to interface to redundancy control equipment. 3.36 Signal Name Demod Fault Alarm *(2) Aux RS-232 Receive *(1) Aux RS-232 Transmit *(1) RS-232 Signal Name *(5) Demod Fault Alarm *(2) Aux RS-232 Receive *(1) Aux RS-232 Transmit *(1) Eia-530 Signal Name Demod Fault Alarm *(2) Aux RS-232 Receive *(1) Aux RS-232 Transmit *(1) Direction OC TTL output Input Output GND Notes on Data Interface Connections: 1.90 Page 2-7 .1. but in this case will be at the input signal rate. 0. These lines are however dedicated when the 1:1 redundancy mode is enabled for inter-modem communications. 5. The External Data/FIFO clock pins are an input to the modem. 4. Both functions can be used simultaneously if the transmit and receive data rates are the same. “Cabling Specifications” for more information on building and connecting these cables. but it requires that a special USB device driver be loaded into the computer to access the modem via this port.35. Connecting at the DCE end only prevents ground loop currents being carried on the shield. 2. The send timing signal is still an output from the modem. The USB type B connection is also available for use as a remote control connection.2 Remote Control Connection The modem has a command interface serial control port which can be configured for either of two electrical interface modes of operation. The electrical interface however can be changed under front panel or remote program control to include the types of interfaces shown above. Refer to Appendix C.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation Table 2–1 Data Interface Connector J3 Pin Assignment by Signal Modem Pin # 28 32 34 37 RS–449 Signal Name Demod Fault Alarm *(2) Aux RS-232 Receive *(1) Aux RS-232 Transmit *(1) Send Common V. and setting the remote mode as applicable via the front panel control. although its primary purpose is loading new firmware.3. 2. Computers that do not have an available RS-232 port could use of this port for control. The latest driver is available on our web site. 2.1 Connecting the Data Interface to Other Equipment The PSM-500 physical connector is that of an RS-449 interface. If the user desires a 2 wire RS-485 bus then the transmit and receive 485 lines should be externally connected together (1 to 8 and 6 to 9). If Automatic Uplink Power Control is provided by an external multiplexer the control channel may use the Aux RS-232 signal lines.

90 . Table 2–3. Alarm Connector J5 Pin Assignment J5 Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Connection Relay A . Both conditions are the non-powered.Rev.NC on Alarm No Connection Analog Monitor Output (1kOhm) GND for analog monitor Relay B .Common Relay A . 0. The analog monitor output is programmable from the front panel to select either receive Eb/No. the 9-pin male “D” sub connector J5. Remote Control Connector J6 Pin Assignment P2 Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Receive B Receive A Common Transmit A Signal Name Transmit B Transmit Receive Use RS–485 Transmit Data (B) + RS–232 Transmit Signal RS–232 Receive Signal Not Used RS-232 Signal Common RS-485 Transmit Data (A) Not Used RS-485 Receive Data (B) + RS-485 Receive Data (A) Input Input I/O Output Direction Output Output Input Refer to Appendix C. Alarm State. and “NC” means Normally Closed.NO on Alarm Relay A . Connection to the A and B relays is via the proper set of pins as shown in Table 2-5 below and programming the applicable alarm entries via the front panel control or remote control. Non-Alarm is defined as the powered state of the relay resulting in an alarm when power is lost.3 Alarm Connection The modem has two form-C dry contact alarm relays on board and an alarm connector located on the rear panel. receive AGC voltage or transmit output power.Common Relay B .NC on Alarm Note: By convention “NO” means Normally Open. 2.NO on Alarm Relay B . “Cabling Specifications” for information on making a remote control cable.3.Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Table 2–2. The two relays are designated “A” and “B” and the particular alarms that are summarized on each relay are programmable from the front panel of the unit or via remote control. Page 2-8 PSM-500/500L/500L T.

This connector is used to connect an auxiliary DC supply to power Block Up Converters that accept DC power via the transmit line. 0. Specifics of this cable wiring are shown in Appendix C. The pin definitions are defined in the addendum related to installed options. a splitter at the receive IF and a “Y” cable at the terrestrial data connection. BUC Power Connector J11 Pin Assignment J11 Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 4 1 2 5 3 Only. “Cabling Specifications”.4 Auxiliary (AUX) Connection The modem has an auxiliary connector located on the rear panel.5 L-Band BUC Power Connection/PSM-500L The PSM-500L modem has a 5 pin circular DIN connector at the rear panel J11. With this connection scheme the switching is only performed on the outputs from the modem.3. Rear Panel BUC Status Indicator Red – No voltage sensed on DIN input connector or power is input and enabled but the cable to the BUC is shorted. The modem IF and data inputs are always available at the modem allowing internal circuitry to determine if one modem is correctly accepting and “locking” to the input signals while the other is unable to if in a failed state. PSM-500/500L/500LT . This is accomplished under control of the modem‟s internal software. 2. This connector applies the input voltage to the transmit cable via a relay internal to the modem and a “Bias-T” circuit.3. The pin-out of this connector is determined by option board(s) installed in the modem. The two modems communicate with each other over the data “Y” cable. 6 Amps maximum. for example a multiplexer option would present overhead channel and analog channel inputs at this connector.  Caution: The BUC power input is DC Table 2–4. 60 VDC maximum.90 Page 2-9 . It does require specific minimal facilities at the transmit and receive IF signal connections and at the terrestrial data connection.Rev.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation 2. Connection Ground Ground V+ Ground V+ 2. In this cable all connections are 1 to 1 except the auxiliary RS-232 transmit and receive lines. Off – Power sensed but disabled (disconnected) from transmit cable. These are a combiner at the transmit IF.3. The relay is under processor control and can be enabled or disabled using the front panel or remote control. Green – Power sensed and enabled (connected) to transmit cable. The power input is only intended for positive voltages with respect to ground.6 Redundancy Connection The modem is capable of operating in a limited 1:1 redundancy protection mode without the use of a separate redundancy switch. Operation of the data interface connected in parallel depends upon the programmable interface drivers to be tri-stated and the receivers to be set in an un-terminated mode. These two lines are swapped between the two modems allowing them to talk over an auxiliary serial link. The processor also reads the voltage and current applied to the BUC and can create alarms in addition to reading voltage and current at the front panel. for example when the IBS Multiplexer/Reed-Solomon option card is installed the I/O on connector J4 is defined in Appendix RS. the 37-pin male “D” sub connector J4. The power connector pin-out and rear panel LED (labeled “BUC Power Status”) meanings are shown below.

One type of these is termed “Wilkinson” combiners. Page 2-10 PSM-500/500L/500L T. If that modem is currently on line. Thus a back-up modem can obtain and save the configurations from 8 other modems and switch immediately to the necessary parameters to replace any of those units by simply recalling that unit‟s stored configuration.Rev. The modem is also capable of operating in 1:N and M:N redundancy switching schemes.Modem Connections for 1:1 Redundancy It is important in L-Band systems to use special splitters and combiners that have the ability to pass DC used to power the BUC and LNB with sufficient current capacity.Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Note: The two modems should be at the same firmware revision for proper redundant operation. that is. The other facility provided to aid in these redundancy schemes is the ability to save and recall configuration information. 0. The first modem turned on assumes a non-redundancy mode until the second connected unit is powered up.90 . For the lower power receive LNB connection there are low cost DC pass combiners that may be suitable. In addition. Visit our web site for recommendations. A diagram of the connections required for installing 1:1 redundancy is shown in the figure below. no modem is specified as “primary”. the programmable interface and common physical data connector allows different interface protocols between the primary modems. The necessary connections to monitor and control switching are available on the data connector itself in the form of the modulator and demodulator fault outputs and the auxiliary RS-232 control port. The modems will remain in this state. The two modems operate in a “non-priority” redundancy mode. The on-line unit can be set to send its configuration information to a second unit via the front panel. constantly sending status information back and forth until one unit indicates a failure. The alarm outputs are also available. Data "Y" Cable Paired Modems Station IF Equipment Xmt IF Modem A Aux Xmt Rcv IF Aux Rcv Transmit IF Combiner Aux Xmt Aux Rcv Modem B Xmt IF Receive IF Splitter Rcv IF Figure 2-2 . or having preference when both modems are operational. it is switched off-line and the alternate unit is switch on.

A unique case can arise when both units are off-line and powered up at the same time.90 Page 2-11 . Since the specific alarms which comprise Alarm A and Alarm B are programmable themselves. The value could be set to zero. but they may require specific configuration. especially if the unit had been configured for another unique application. The special data “Y” cable is connected between the redundant pair.0 to 600. If the transfer of any packet results in an error. Turn the power on the secondary unit on. where the highest serial number wins the tie.6. Physically install both units to be paired and connect the IF transmit and receive coaxial cables and data cables to both units.Rev. The on-line unit will say “On-Line.5 seconds insures that intermittent cases do not cause undue switching. 2. The default values for these parameters are probably good in most installations. This initial unit should not be in alarm. Then power on and set the <Unit: Redundancy – Mode> to “Disabled”. Physical installation of the two units is best accomplished with one unit directly above the other in the rack.Config> parameter of step 4 above there will also be parameters that allow the alarms and timing to be configured for the application. Care should be taken that both units are not turned on in a non-redundant configuration with the “Y” data cable installed. 3.3. In addition to the <Unit: Redundcy . Go to the primary unit menu item <Unit: Redundancy – Config> and press the “Edit” key.  Teardown or un-pairing of two redundant units is accomplished by turning both units off before removing the “Y” cable. or “On Alarm A & B”. Go to the <Unit: Status – Redundancy> item in both units. but this is not advised. <Unit: Redundncy – Sw Hold> This parameter determines how long an alarm must exist on the on-line unit and not the off-line unit before switching will occur. including setting the <Unit: Redundancy – Mode> parameter to “1:1”. “On Alarm A”. This will result in the two unit‟s data output drivers possibly conflicting and causing damage. For convenience we will arbitrarily call one modem “Primary” and the other “Secondary”.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation 2. In overview the procedure is: 1. For most applications though the default “On Any Alarm” is a preferred selection. The possible selections are “On Any Alarm”. In such tie cases. PSM-500/500L/500LT . but transfer will continue. A nominal value of 0. a “Send Fail” message will be displayed. “On Alarm B”.1 Set-Up Procedure for 1:1 Redundancy If redundancy mode is to be set up between a pair of modems then the following procedure is followed during installation. OK”. then a switch request is highly programmable itself. Allowable values are 0. Power-up and configure the primary modem completely for the intended operating parameters. 0. The on-line unit will ask permission to transfer configuration to the second unit with the prompt “Config Backup?” Confirm by pressing “Enter”. They will probably go out of alarm at virtually the same time. The second unit should still be turned off. Bckup OK” while the off-line unit will say “Standby. Verify that the units are functioning correctly in redundancy mode. which unit will be placed on line is determined by the unit serial numbers.0 seconds. The primary unit should say “Sending Config” for approximately 1 second. These new parameters are:  <Unit: Redundncy – Sw Rqst> This parameter allows you to determine which alarm indications result in a switch request. 5. A built in factor of 10 seconds is provided once a switch has occurred before a switch back to the original unit is allowed (except in the case of a manual switch request or loss of power in the on-line unit which requires 2 seconds). During configuration of the primary unit several new parameters will become available after the mode is set to 1:1. 4. This allows the status of the two modems to be seen together and avoids confusion. other wise this section can be skipped.

2. Demodulator and Interface.Rev. Most potential failures will result in the modem giving a verbal indication of the problem on the front panel LCD display. The <Unit: Remote – Bit Rate> and Format also require setting to match the terminal settings. The particular parameter within a column is shown in the upper right hand of the LCD display and is selected using the up and down arrow keys. Columns common to all matrices are “Status”. A serious failure will result in the front panel Alarm LEDs flashing at a rate of approximately 4 times a second. ().1 Initial Power-Up  CAUTION: Before initial power-up of the modem. 2. In response the modem will highlight the particular button text selected. Turn the unit “ON” by placing the rear panel switch (above the power entry connector) to the “ON” position. while the four arrow keys (). it is a good idea to disconnect the transmit output from the operating satellite ground station equipment. First set the <Unit: Remote – Protocol> parameter to “VT100” (option 0). The modem parameters are arranged in four matrices. while others vary by the parameters required. to get to the Modulator IF Level the method is to press the “Mod” key then use the left and right arrow keys to access the “IF” column and the up and down arrow keys to arrive at the “Level” parameter. and the unit beeper sounding. one each for “Unit”.Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem 2. then set the <Unit: Remote – Port> parameter to “RS–232” (option 0). but a quick introduction to the front panel operations is given here to allow initial setup.5 Modem Control from the Front Panel The front panel can be used to completely control the modem setup and operating parameters. These power-up diagnostics take approximately 1 second and show no results if successful. For example. where incorrect setting could disrupt existing communications traffic. New modems from the factory are normally shipped in a default configuration which includes setting the transmit carrier off. Each matrix is 4 to 10 columns wide and up to 20 rows long as shown in the parameter matrix tables. the indications vary by the type of fault detected. The LCD display allows viewing only one of the many parameters at one time. See below for a quick introduction on the use of the front panel and steps for entering parameters.1. At every power-up. “Demod” and “Int‟f”.4 Modem Checkout The following descriptions assume that the modem is installed in a suitable location with prime AC power and supporting equipment available. The particular functional matrix is selected by pressing one of the four buttons to the immediate right of the LCD display. The Terminal Mode has the advantage of providing full screen access to all of the modem‟s parameters. Modulator. 0. This is shown by convention in this manual as <Mod: IF – Level> Page 2-12 PSM-500/500L/500L T. “Operation” of this manual. The complete matrix is shown as Tables 3-1 through 3-4 in Chapter 3. The Navigation figure in Section 3. Front panel control of the modem is more thoroughly discussed in the Operations Section. The <Unit: Remote – Address> serves no function in the Terminal mode. allow scrolling through the rows and columns of the parameter matrix. The initial field checkout of the modem can be accomplished from the front panel or in the Terminal Mode. (). If a failure is detected. representing Unit. “Mod”. the modem processor tests itself and several of its components before beginning its main monitor/control program. 3. (). Within each matrix the columns designation is shown in the upper left hand corner of the LCD Display and is selected using the left and right arrow keys.3 is especially useful.90 . In this manual operation of the keypad to access a certain parameter is shown in the format <Function: Column – Row>. Status indications are shown highest priority first.3 “Guide to Front Panel Monitor and Control”.4.1. The modem unit is placed into terminal mode by setting two options via the front panel. This is especially true if the current modem configuration settings are unknown. “Alarm” and “Test”. but requires a separate VT100 terminal or computer running a terminal program in VT100 or ANSI mode.

all options that can be enabled or disabled use “1” to enable and “0” to disable. 2.1 Parameter Setup Each individual item that may be read or set is referred to as a “parameter”. Following a valid input. and 5. Following a valid input. Programming is accomplished by selecting the item to be modified and pressing the terminal key of the option letter “A” through “Z”. The other possible input type requires a numerical input (such as entering a frequency or data rate). The Left and right arrow keys control the column of the matrix and is shown in the upper left position of the LCD display. or 2. The modem will respond by presenting the options available and requesting input. For instance. next 4. this is accomplished by either: 1.Rev. to change the transmit data rate. Set the parameter via the numeric keypad. with a full screen presentation of current settings and status. press the terminal's “A” key (upper case is not necessary for letters). The up and down arrow keys control the row of the matrix and is shown in the upper right of the LCD display. Use the up and down arrow keys to scroll though the available options. pressing “Enter” when the desired option is displayed. This input type does not require pressing the “Enter” or carriage return key. 2. where max. This type of input is followed by pressing the “Enter” or carriage return key. If the input is multiple choice. When scrolling though the available options the current setting is denoted by an arrow in the left column position. Dem and Int‟f. the modem will place the new setting into the nonvolatile EEPROM making it available not only immediately but also automatically the next time the unit is powered up. Note that the “ESC” key is not used to escape or cancel an input because the common ANSI and VT100 terminal control sequences use the escape character to flag start of sequence. An input can be aborted at any time by pressing the “TAB” key. Finalize the data entry using the “Enter” key.7 Self-Test Mode  CAUTION: The Self-Test Mode will disconnect the transmit and receive IF from the ground station equipment and will therefore disrupt any traffic currently through the PSM500 under test. Then 3. the desired choice is selected by pressing the indicated number key.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation 2.6 Modem Terminal Mode Control The modem can be interactively monitored and controlled in the VT100 Terminal mode. This Test Mode should not be used on a live traffic unit. 0. Pressing an option number selection (0 to max. Select the parameter to be set using the four arrow keys to the right of the LCD display. Mod. Unit. Press the “Edit” key to indicate that a new entry is desired (If the “Quick” keyboard entry is enabled this step may be skipped). then pressing the “Enter” key. 2. Invalid input keys are signaled by a beep or bell signal from the terminal. Parameters are arranged in a matrix of rows and columns. Select the functional matrix by choosing one of the four function keys. Two types of input may be requested. This method is faster when the option scheme becomes more familiar. To set any parameter: 1.5. the modem will place the new setting into the nonvolatile EEPROM making it available immediately and also automatically the next time the unit is powered on.90 Page 2-13 . The current input can be canceled by pressing the “Clear” key at any time before pressing “Enter”. When the entry involves selection of one of several choices. PSM-500/500L/500LT . may be 1 to 8). For example. Note that the “yes” and “no” below the 1 and 0 key aid this convention.

Since there is no noise added in the IF Loop-back mode the BER results should show no errors. before going up on the satellite.8. The user is responsible for all other compatible settings in order for the modulator and demodulator to operate properly. To access the IF Loop-back Mode using the front panel. the “1” key for enable and then “Enter” to enable the IF Loop-back. The “0” key will disable the BER test mode. Page 2-14 PSM-500/500L/500L T. The IF Loop-back Test Mode uses the current modulator carrier frequency (plus offset setting) only and sets the demodulator to the same carrier frequency setting when in loop-back. the “3” key then “Enter” to start the test.8 IF Loop-back Test Mode  CAUTION: The IF Loop-back Mode will disconnect the receive IF from the ground station equipment and will therefore disrupt any traffic currently through the PSM-500 under test. To access the Self-Test Mode from the front panel.BER> parameter and the 6 items below it. This test is more useful once the modem is configured and a Loop-back over the satellite is performed by setting the receive frequency to that output by the modulator. This Test Mode should not be used on a live traffic unit.Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem The PSM-500 provides a built–in self-test mode which uses the IF Loop-back and a predefined sequence of actions to test the basic modem operation. Just the lamp test is performed by selecting “1” above or the Loop tests by selecting “2” above. It means press the “Int‟f” key (if not already set) and scroll left or right to the Test column and then up or down until the LCD displays ”Test – Mod BER” on the upper line. Then press “Edit”.IF Loop” position and press the “0” option key to disable. The transmit output is still active if it was enabled before initiating an IF Loopback. The PSM-500 provides a built–in IF loop-back mode which couples the transmit output to the receive input via physical relays at the modem IF and an internal attenuator to achieve proper input levels. the modem will halt on the failed test and enter a loop with 4 short “beeps” then pause for several seconds and repeat the 4 short beeps. and returns to these parameters after the test is completed. This tests both the lamp and unit functioning. This mode can be used to test modem operation with data. 2. The BER test is enabled by pressing “Edit” and then pressing either “1” for a “2047” pattern or “2” for a “2^23-1” pattern. If any portion of the self-test fails. The modem is placed into self-test mode by using the front panel controls to initiate the test mode sequence. select the “Demod” and use the arrow keys to scroll to the “Test” column of the configuration matrix and then scroll down until “IF Loopbck” is displayed. the demodulator carrier frequency is returned to that stored in EEPROM (present before Loop-back was initiated).Rev. return to the “Test . select “Unit” and use the right arrow key to scroll to the “Test” column of the configuration matrix and then scroll down until “Test Modem” is displayed.90 . The transmit and receive BERTs are independent and are enabled in the <Int’f: Test – Mod BER> and <Int’f: Test – Dem BER> parameters. The modem self-test only requires approximately one minute. Then press “Edit”. 0. When finished using this mode. The Self-Test Mode state is not stored in EEPROM. therefore if the unit is powered off during Self-Test Mode it will be configured for Self-Test Mode disabled when powered up again 2. The Self-Test Mode does not use or change the current configuration parameters.1 Built-in BERT When in IF Loop-back mode a Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) can also be performed using the modem‟s built in BER test capabilities. This test mode can be used to verify correct functioning of the modem before placing it into service. BERT test readings are displayed in the <Int’f: Status . for instance using a BER test set. Note this convention for accessing a parameter. When the IF Loop-back Test Mode is disabled.

2 “Using the Built-in BERT”. More information on the BERT functions is given in Section 4. External reference set properly 10.) 2.0 Configuring the Modem for Operation The following description assumes that the modem setup is to be done manually at a depot location or in the field via the front panel. Demodulator 1. Improper setting of any of these parameters will probably result in failure to communicate with the far end of the link.9 Modem Configuration Configuring the PSM-500 Modem operating parameters is essential before placing the unit into service.9. 2. 2. These basic parameters are listed here to serve as a minimum checklist for installation. the modem could be automatically set up using a controller and the command interface. 7. the USB or the terminal command mode. PSM-500/500L/500LT . No software is provided for such an external control application and therefore this task is the responsibility of the using organization.9.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation The IF Loop-back state and the BERT state are both stored in EEPROM. Reed-Solomon Codec settings if enabled 8. The PSM-500 Modem operating parameters may be set up using the front panel. Scrambler (Normally Enabled in IESS 308/309 mode – See “Using The Proper Scramble” below) 6. Modulation Mode (BPSK or QPSK) 3. The L-Band modems with L-Band Receive can be set to supply power at either 13 or 18 VDC and/or a 10 MHz reference signal on the receive input connector for coupling to the LNB via the receive cable. IBS Multiplexer settings if enabled 9.90 Page 2-15 . The binary remote control input may also be used if the remote interface parameters are already known and set. Alternately. The L-Band modem can also supply power and reference to a BUC. therefore if the unit is powered off during IF loop-back and/or BERT test it will return to this state when powered up again. FEC Code Rate 5. Carrier Acquisition Mode and Acquisition Range 2. 0.1 Setting Essential Parameters The setting of several basic parameters is essential to achieve proper operation and carrier lock with the modem.1. Bit Rate 4. Modulator and Demodulator functions enabled Modulator 1.Rev. 2. Carrier Frequency (Note special procedures below available for L-Band interfaces. Carrier Enable 3. Modulator and Demodulator 1. Output Level 2. Clock sources set per system requirements.

9. The IBS Multiplexer and Reed-Solomon functions are independent and each can be enabled and disabled as required.1 IBS Multiplexer and Reed-Solomon Selection The PSM-500 Modem contains on-board circuitry implementing either an IBS Multiplexer or a Reed-Solomon concatenated FEC capability independently. 0.9. Alternate Scrambler Mode Operation The alternate V. 2. IESS-308 Scrambler Mode Operation    With no mux or RS then the self-synchronizing Intelsat scrambler is enabled. This output can be tuned to any frequency on 1 Hz increments in the 950 to 1750 MHz range.3 Using The L-Band PSM-500L Transmit RF Frequency Feature The PSM-500L can cover the entire satellite‟s receive range from it‟s transmit output. Page 2-16 PSM-500/500L/500L T.35 and alternate Intelsat scrambler mode performs a data inversion required by some “Comstream” modems. IESS-309 Scrambler Mode Operation The operation is the same as the IESS-308 option with the exception that  With just R-S enabled then the self-synchronizing Intelsat scrambler is used. See below for the difference. Following is the setting chosen by the modem when in Auto Scrambler mode:   When TPC is either not installed or not enabled the preferred scrambler and descrambler is automatically selected to “IESS 308” or “IESS 309”. For additional information on the configuration of the IBS Multiplexer/Reed-Solomon capabilities refer to Appendix RS.35 and Intelsat scrambler modes use the V. To enable this feature simply supply the <Mod: BUC – LO Frequency> parameter with a value other than “0”.9. Fixed Scrambler Mode Operation The V. With just the IBS mux enabled then the IBS synchronous scrambler is used With just the R-S enabled then the R-S synchronous scrambler is used  With both IBS Mux and R-S enabled then the IBS synchronous scrambler is used.  Remember that the scrambler and descrambler may be set independently in each link direction. The Modulator (Transmit) and Demodulator (Receive) functions of each option are also independent and can be enabled and disabled as required.1.2 Using the Proper Scrambler The PSM-500 modems now have had an “Auto” mode used to automatically select the preferred scrambler setting in any FEC or other dependent mode. When TPC is enabled but the IBS multiplexer option is not installed or not enabled “Auto” uses the new Scrambler and Descrambler option #7 “TPC Sync” this uses a synchronous scrambler specific to the TPC Codec. There is no IESS Standard covering the Turbo Product Codes FEC. The coverage can be “projected” to the actual satellite RF frequency being transmitted at the BUC output. The Auto mode is highly recommended.Rev. This replaces the previous “IESS 308” or “IESS-309” auto modes used in the PSM-4900. 2.Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem 2. When the value set here is equal to the BUC‟s LO frequency then the modem can automatically compute the RF frequency at the BUC output.1.35 and Intelsat self-synchronizing scramblers respectively in all modes. When both TPC and IBS multiplexer are installed and enabled Auto uses the “IESS 308” option.1.90 .

425 GHz Range is 4900 MHz (low side LO).0 to 14. This mode initially goes for the largest carrier power within the acquisition range. To enable this feature simply supply the <Dem: LNB – LO Frequency> parameter with a value other than “0”. Note: After entering a new LNB LO frequency the modem requires a new Receive IF frequency input to recalculate the proper input frequency setting.7 to 12. 2.7 to 4. These parameters control the initial acquisition of a carrier and reacquisition of a carrier when it has been removed and reapplied. To our knowledge no one has ever had a problem using the standard Fast mode over several years with many thousands of units. not inverted. Setting the “Search” mode also enables a new menu item for “Sweep Time”.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation The PSM-500L modem will also determine if the LO is high or low side and sets the spectrum so that it is always “Normal”.e. i. while a low side LO for the Ku Band 14. A new acquisition attempt will always repeat the same process and go to the same carrier. To return to using the L-Band IF frequency setting. 0.2 GHz Range is 5150 MHz (high side LO). The hybrid “Auto Narrow” and “Auto Track” modes available in previous generations of this modem are no longer available as separate entries.1.90 Page 2-17 .Rev. while a common LO for the Ku Band 11. If the modem cannot lock to the first carrier it detects it will attempt to find another carrier in the next step of frequency. There are two main acquisition methods used by the PSM-500.2 GHz range is 10750 MHz (low side LO).9. The “Auto Narrow” function of initially searching in a smaller acquisition range is incorporated into the latest version of the “Search” mode. When the value set here is equal to the LNB‟s LO frequency then the modem can automatically compute the RF frequency at the LNB input. but the “Search” mode is still supplied just in case.925 to 6.e. Note: After entering a new BUC LO frequency the modem requires a new Transmit IF frequency input to recalculate the proper output frequency setting. The coverage can be “projected” to the actual satellite RF frequency being received at the LNB input. wrapping around to the low end when the top is reached.9. A common BUC LO frequency for the C-Band 5. not inverted. This input can be tuned to any frequency on 1 Hz increments in the 950 to 1900 MHz range.2 Carrier Acquisition Parameters The PSM-500 Modem has two main modes and several programmable receive carrier acquisition parameters available. To be enabled the <Dem: IF – Sweep Time> is set to a value other than 0 Seconds. You do not have to change the IF spectrum setting from “Normal” to achieve this. and is set as the default acquisition mode for the modem. The Search mode is optimized for crowded spectrum applications where nearby high power carriers may interfere with the standard “Fast” acquisition mode. simply enter a value of “0” into the LNB LO parameter. To return to using the L-Band IF frequency setting. i. Then. The sweep always starts at the low end of the acquisition range and moves upward. simply enter a value of “0” into the BUC LO parameter. A common LO frequency for the C-Band 3. 2. A second mode called “Search” also uses the DSP but performs a piece-wise sweep of the programmable acquisition range to locate the carrier and lock to it. The normal mode for fastest possible acquisition (especially at low data rates) is the “Fast” mode which utilizes an onboard digital signal processor (DSP) to mathematically determine the location of the carrier and lock as fast as possible. The “fast” acquisition mode is optimized for the fastest possible acquisition speed.5 GHz range is 13150 MHz. You do not have to change the IF spectrum setting from “Normal” to achieve this. when a PSM-500/500L/500LT . The L/LT modems will also determine if the LO is high or low side and sets the spectrum so that it is always “Normal”.4 Using The L-Band & L Receive RF Frequency Feature The L or LT models can cover the entire satellite‟s transmit range on it‟s receive input.

If all of the system offsets are known and stable for a given installation. the following sample configuration is representative of the required procedures: Page 2-18 PSM-500/500L/500L T. the initial acquisition range can be set very wide to allow locking to a carrier well outside the range of standard modems. Several cautions are in order here. NOTE: The Narrow sweep range is relative to the receive frequency offset that is commanded via the remote control or front panel. 2. This parameter can be set from  100 Hz  1. where  30 kHz is common for standard demodulators. the modem will search in a reduced acquisition range (equal to the symbol rate in Hertz) for the specified Sweep Time. then the wrong carrier may be locked. (Note that in the standard fast acquisition mode the Demod Offset is read only) This mode is intended for possible DAMA use where the offset can be maintained to insure the fastest lock time. This pseudo-sweep always progresses more positive in frequency until it reaches the upper limit of the set acquisition range. If the acquisition range is set too wide and other compatible carriers are within the acquisition range. the Demodulator carrier frequency setting plus the offset setting is used as the start point for attempting to acquire a signal.90 .25 MHz. This allows a user to “search” through all of the available carriers within the acquisition range by viewing the <Dem: Lock – Status> and pressing the “Edit” or “Enter” key. The reduced sweep range is equal to the symbol rate in Hertz. In this mode the Demod Offset may be set by any command method and the demodulator will search at that point in the narrow DSP mode.3 Sample Configuration Setting The following procedures are used to set each of the modem‟s parameters using the front panel. where it will start searching again beginning at the lower limit of the set acquisition range. for example. then a carrier may be locked out of acquisition or lost during operation.Rev. The “Search” acquisition mode also allows a modified version of the previous “Auto Track” function. or the last lock offset. 2. the initial acquisition range can be set to a low value which will slightly reduce acquisition time. If a sweep time has been set in the “Search” mode the modem uses the last carrier lock offset as the initial setting. Conversely if a very “loose” downconverter is in use such as a block down converter.9. Once the “Search” acquisition mode is set.9. Assuming the modem is to be used in the SCPC mode for a point-to-point link with another PSM500.2. Pressing “Enter” will cause the modem to unlock and find the next higher frequency carrier within the acquisition range. If the acquisition range is set too small and the system offsets drift. a single setting allows programming the acquisition sweep range that the modem will search to find an available carrier.Sweep Mode> option parameter to either “Fast” (0). or “Search” (1). the Demodulator will attempt to acquire another signal immediately higher in frequency than the aborted signal. especially at low data rates.9. 2. If the demodulator lock to a signal is forcibly aborted in “Search” mode. At this keypress the modem will prompt with “Enter to unlock”.2 Carrier Re-acquisition For the “Search” acquisition modes the PSM-500 attempts to find a carrier in a reduced or “narrow” search range for a specified period of time before reverting to the standard search range.1 Initial Acquisition For initial acquisition.Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem carrier lock is lost. When in this mode the modem can be commanded to an offset from the set receive IF frequency and the modem will begin its narrow search about that offset for the specified Sweep Time. the “Sweep Time” Demod parameter setting controls the acquisition search time in the reduced range. The acquisition mode is set by setting the <Demod: IF . The “Fast” mode is the standard setting. If a Demodulator Offset frequency parameter is entered in “Search” mode. 0.2.

press the “Mod” function button. If the Unit keyboard Entry had been set to “Quick” then all of the parameters shown above could have been set directly without pressing the “Edit” key first. Note that if digits other than “0” had been set in positions after the last “6” of the valid entry. set all modem parameters as necessary for the type of service intended.55 MHz and press “Enter”. Rate 1/2 FEC.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation For easier entry we can first set the entry mode to “Quick”. These include setting those parameters which fall into PSM-500/500L/500LT . Scroll right to the “Data” column and down to the “Bit Rate” parameter and press “56” and “Enter”. There are many other parameters. Late you might try returning to the frequency setting and enter the frequency directly using quick entry and the decimal point. which will display the current setting with the cursor set on the first available digit.) Last.9. press the left or right arrow keys until the “IF” identifier is in the upper left line of the LCD display indicating that we are in the Modulator IF column of the parameter matrix. This is the default setting. The other end of the link would naturally have the opposite transmit and receive parameter settings. set the modem address properly as described in the next section. then press the “Enter” key to apply this new parameter value. then they must be overwritten with “0”s. the basic parameter settings are essential to achieve modem operation and carrier lock. Rate 1/2 FEC. 128 kbps. A new frequency can now be directly entered by using the numeric keypad. Now scroll down (or up) until the upper right of the LCD display indicates “Frequency”. “0” and “Enter”. The transmit parameters will be set first. and press the “Edit” key. “6” and “Enter”. 56 kbps. The modem should now be ready for service in an operating satellite system. The desired transmit operating mode is 81. “8” and “Enter”. which must be set on the PSM-500 to configure the unit to operate within your own system. but the following will use that mode.4 Setting Additional Parameters As stated before. Once all parameters have been set and verified. If the modem is to be controlled by an external command controller. “0”. then press the “Enter” key to apply this new parameter value. and receive at 81. Using the front panel or terminal command mode. scroll down to the “Code Rate” parameter and press “Edit”. This configuration example has illustrated how to “navigate” through the available parameter matrix and has shown two modes of entry for numerical and list selected values. This should prepare the unit for operation. “0”. With the unit powered on. “2”. Enter a frequency in MHz not including the decimal point. then they must be overwritten with “0”s. (Without Quick entry we would have to press “Edit”. Scroll right to the “Data” column and down to the “Bit Rate” parameter and press “Edit”. Verify that the alarms are extinguished and that the demodulator has locked.90 Page 2-19 . In this first setting we did not use the quick entry mode. the “0” key to request BPSK and press the “Enter”. press the “Demod” button and the right arrow key until the “IF” identifier is in the upper left line of the LCD display indicating that we are in the Demodulator IF column of the parameter matrix. BPSK. 2. This example uses different transmit and receive parameters to illustrate several points. QPSK. “5”. Now scroll down (or up) until the upper right of the LCD display indicates “Frequency”. First indicate that a new entry is desired by pressing the “Edit” key. “0”. Next scroll down to the “Modulation” entry and press the “1” key to request QPSK. Next. Then edit the displayed frequency to 81. To set the receive parameters. 0.Rev. This mode also does not require that existing characters be overwritten when entering new data. Go to <Unit: Keybrd – Entry> and set the “Quick” mode. The value displayed in the lower line is the current setting for the transmit frequency.550 MHz. Next scroll left and down in the IF list to the “Sweep Range” parameter and set the value to 30 kHz. Last scroll down to the “Code Rate” parameter and press “Edit”. Note that when not using quick entry the frequency edit function skipped over the decimal point. the transmit output can be connected to the ground station equipment for transmission to the satellite. Note that if digits other than “0” had been set in positions after the last “5” of the valid entry. “1”. “0” and “Enter”.275 MHz. Scroll down to the “Modulation” entry and press the “Edit”. entering all digits required to specify the shown frequency.

2 Automatic Correction Automatic Uplink Power Control (if equipped) Demod FIFO Operation 2. Data Interface compatibility.90 . and Alarm configuration. Each of the individual alarm inputs has a configuration selection parameter under the “Alarm” Page 2-20 PSM-500/500L/500L T.3 Alarm configuration The PSM-500 Alarm system represents a sophisticated method of controlling visual. Individual Alarms Processing Matrix Outputs Unit Alarms Reference Test Active Hardware Modulator Alarms Carrier Bit Clock Test Active Hardware No Data Demodulator Alarms Carrier Lock Low Level Low Eb/No Test Active Hardware No Data Interface Alarms BER Loss Test Active Option Fail Selection Logic Summary Alarm Alarm Relay A NC NO C NC NO C Alarm Relay B Modulator Alarm Front Panel Data Interface Demodulato r Alarm Front Panel Data Interface Redundancy Switch Request Figure 2-3 .4. 2. 0.9.Alarm Processing There are also other possible alarm inputs depending on the modem options and configuration. relay and logical alarm outputs which can be used for multiple purposes including redundancy.Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem three major categories. Automatic Correction for link properties. Modulator RTS Enable 2.9.Rev.4.9. A basic representation of the alarm system functioning is shown in the figure below.1 Data Interface Compatibility Mod and Demod Data Sense Mod and Demod Clock Source Mod and Demod Clock Phase (Default Mod Clock is now “Auto”).4.

The modem‟s built-in redundancy switch logic uses either all alarms or combinations of the A and B alarms to activate a switch request. 14.0 X 10 X 70 MHz X 10 or 140 Hz (176 Hz at 88 MHz). 2. 0. Interface BER Test Sync Loss. and exhibits aging less than 1 ppm per year. 12. 10.0 ppm stability over normal operating temperature. Demodulator Hardware Fault. Some modems only present alarms based upon a hardware fault in either the modulator or demodulator.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation column of its matrix. The general options available are to set the alarm to either be ignored or to form one of the “OR” inputs to the A or B alarm relay or both. Receive Low Eb/No below threshold. 6.2 and Tables 3-5 through 3-8 later in this manual. 9. an external reference can be used. or the network operating mode dictates. produces –6 6 a worst case transmit center output frequency accuracy of 2.Rev. 8. PSM-500/500L/500LT . Demodulator Signal Lock. or one could be a summary alarm while the other is a dry contact input to a redundancy control unit. 16. This is accurate for most applications. one Modulator . A description of each of these settings is contained in Operations. The default set-up for these alarms is to have all the modulator related alarms assigned to Alarm A and all demodulator alarms assigned to Alarm B.9. Demod Test Active. 2. Transmit Carrier Off. 15. Possible alarm sources include the following items: 1. Backward Alarm from IBS multiplexer (if equipped).5 Using the Internal or an External Reference The PSM-500 contains an internal Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO) reference which determines the basic accuracy of all modem frequency and rate settings. and a modulator and demodulator redundancy open collector alarms on the interface card. 13. 5. one Demodulator and one Summary alarm LED on the front panel. The summary Alarm LED is the OR function of either of the alarm relays. 7. Section 3. The A and B alarm relays could represent a minor and major alarm. A brief description of alarm configuration is also given here. Unit Reference missing. Modulator Test Active. This internal reference is a nominal 2. Unit Hardware Fault. The two alarm relays could be changed to represent “Major” and “Minor” alarms. Receive Input Level below AGC range. The front panel or remote control can be used to select which of the possible alarm sources are assigned to each of the relays or can individually ignore any of the sources.90 Page 2-21 . plus the redundancy switch request. Modulator Hardware Fault. Modulator AUPC Alarm. By providing two relays and the configuration options. Modulator Bit Rate Lock. and for example. The inputs are read by the processor and eight outputs are produced including two alarm relays. Unit Test Active. 11. 4. or they could be separated into modulator and demodulator functions. 3. several alternative alarm scenarios can be used. Interface Test mode Active. The PSM-500 allows the user to select such items as a low input level or Eb/No to activate an alarm. If this accuracy is not sufficient. The open collector outputs for the modulator and demodulator alarms are available on the data interface connector and are used by some types of redundancy switches for determining alarm status.

The increased stability is necessary because the oscillator can be used as the reference for a BUC. J7. Each character position is selected using the right and left arrow keys.6 Setting the Modem Station ID Name Each PSM-500 contains two unique identification entries available at the front panel or remotely. at a frequency of 1. The external reference frequency is applied at the rear panel BNC connector. The external reference input does not perform any clean-up of an input other than band-pass filtering with a pass-band from approximately 1 to 12 MHz.1 Reference Calibration During factory testing and calibration the modem unit is compared to a known in-house reference and calibrated. but the Unit ID can be set and changed whenever necessary. A default value is permanently stored representing this factory calibration. The reference input should therefore been a low noise source. and the character at that position is set using the up and down arrow keys. 0. 9 or 10 MHz.90 . 2.9. The first character is the “Space” followed by the characters below.9. This field allows identification of the modem with up to 16 characters. use the front panel arrow keys to scroll to the <Unit: Status – Unit ID> parameter and pressing “Edit” to begin entry. Use of the external reference and the reference frequency are selected at the front panel from the <Unit: Ref – Source>.5. uses an Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillator (OCXO) and the -7 -7 standard unit has a 1 x 10 stability and 2 to 3 x 10 aging rate per year.Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem The L-Band modem. The serial number is set at the factory and cannot be changed. ASCII Characters Available for Unit Station ID Char ! “ # $ % & „ ( ) * Char / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Char . Manual tuning of the modem‟s reference is accomplished using the <Unit: Ref – Fine Tune> parameter and entering a value from –127 to +127 Automatic calibration of the modem‟s internal reference is accomplished by inserting a known high accuracy reference at the rear panel “External Reference” input and enabling the <Unit: Test – Cal Ref> item. The Unit ID can be set easily from the VT100 terminal mode. To set the Unit ID. PSM-500L. ? @ A B C D E F G Char M N O P Q R S T U V Char ] ^ _ „ a b c d e f Char l m n o p q r s t u Char { | }   & Page 2-22 PSM-500/500L/500L T. setting to external which then enables the entry for <Unit: Ref – Frequency>. The unit may be offset from this factory value by using the manual tuning or automatic recalibration. 2. and with slightly more effort from the unit front panel. When the proper entry is achieved press the “Enter” key to finalize the input. The factory calibration may be restored by setting the <Unit: Ref – Fine Tune> value to “0”. They are the unit serial number and the Unit Name or “Unit ID”.Rev. If the calibration fails then the external reference was out of range in either level or frequency. The calibration should take several seconds and will indicate a successful completion. 5.

10 Interface Type Configuration The PSM-500 Modem contains on-board circuitry to implement several different interface types: 0 Disabled 1 RS-232 (Synchronous only.9. but no unit will return a response message. It is suggested that you do not use addresses 1 or 255 (1 is the factory setting. The connector pin-out is shown in Chapter 2.90 Page 2-23 . Then press the “Enter” key to enable the change. 9 : . a High Speed Serial Interface (HSSI). The address “0” is also unique. This address causes the modem to accept commands and send responses without the address fields normally required in the command packets. The Unit ID can also be entered via remote control at the rear panel DB9 or USB control ports.36 6 EIA-530 7 EIA-530A 8 SnIP (Option) 9 HSSI (Option) A single 37 pin female “D” type connector on the rear panel at J3 is used for all interface types. The modem is also capable of accepting one of several existing and to be implemented additional option interfaces.35 5 V.7 Setting the Modem Address for Command Mode Operation If Command Mode Binary Packet Operation is desired the modem packet “address” must be set via the front panel before the modem will recognize packets. To set the address use the arrow keys to go to the <Unit: Remote – Address> parameter and press “Edit”. 0. These include a 10 Base T Ethernet interface.35 (P/N DSF00-083).Rev. and any new unit added to a system will have address 1). Adding an optional interface card or changing an already installed interface should only be attempted by experienced personnel familiar with electronic communications equipment. . then use the numeric keypad to enter the address from 0 to 255. a G. See Appendix C for more cabling information. Either of these operations requires removing PSM-500/500L/500LT . limited to 128 kbps by drivers and receivers) 2 RS-449 3 RS-449/Unterminated (used in redundancy) 4 V.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation + . The main processor automatically determines the presence and type of interface and options by querying the interface card. After any entry mode the processor will center the input characters on the lower line of the LCD display 2. The address 255 is “global” and all units will respond to a message packet with this address regardless of its setting. Installation. < = H I J K L W X Y Z [ g h I j k v w x y z When entering this parameter via a terminal connected to the remote port the Unit ID Name is entered directly as text from the terminal keyboard. Adaptor cables are available for other physical connector types.703 interface and others. The two we make are the DB25 (P/N DSF00-080) and Winchester M34 style V. 2.

First the interface option card rear panel plate is released from the chassis by removing the two screws on either side of this plate at the rear panel. Finally the required ribbon cables are (re-)attached to the new card and the main PWB at P5 (and also P7 if used). allowing the optional interface to represent one or more added interface types available. Finally the unit top cover is To replaced using the 8 P5 screws removed above. When the unit is poweredup again the main modem processor will automatically query the new interface card and determine the type and options installed. Page 2-24 PSM-500/500L/500L T. In the latter case the two interfaces are “stacked” and a special ribbon cable is available for this configuration to connect to the internal modem interface. These designations are those on the main modem PWB. 2. Once installed the main data interface for the SnIP option is its standard RJ-45 10/100 base T Ethernet interface connector located on the rear panel.1 Adding or Changing the Optional Interface Type An optional interface card may be installed or exchanged in a modem unit by removing the modem‟s top cover. The interface card to be removed is disconnected from the main board by releasing the one or two ribbon cables from the IDC connectors at P5 and P7 (or P5 only if so configured). This connection is designed to interface directly with a Cisco or compatible HSSI router interface module via a commercially available HSSI cable.10.Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem the modem from service. More information on this installation is provided with the HSSI interface option. 0. then the three #6 screws are used to mount the board to the chassis (some boards have 4 mounting screws).90 . See Appendix C for more cable information. and removal and replacement of the modem top cover to gain access to the interface PCB assembly. Figure 2-4 Typical Interface Card Layout The SnIP Ethernet interface and the HSSI interface may be installed alone or together. The three #6 screws and lock washers are then removed if in an existing board and saved for placing Rear Connector Plate the new interface card into the chassis. Once the new interface card is installed on the standoffs the two External Connector Area rear panel screws are installed first.Rev. Most option interface cards completely co-exist with the on-board interface types. Once installed the main data interface for the HSSI option is its standard High Density SCSI-2 type connector located on the rear panel. Only one interface type is however allowed to be enabled at one time.

If these options are ordered later a new board is supplied that has all of the necessary FEC capabilities and the original standard FEC may be removed. The modem automatically recognizes the presence of the option card(s) and capabilities and provides additional front panel and remote control parameter settings to control the option. Only one of these four versions can be installed on the standard FEC card. Trellis Code Modulation and Reed-Solomon FECs with the manufacturing option to add either the TPC4k or TPC16k chips when ordered. The same PWB is used for the standard Viterbi. 2. and a TPC16K which uses a newer 16K block size to improve performance. and the type cannot be changed. The physical arrangement of the two FEC slots is shown in Figure 2-x below. The other possibility is to add a card which has one of these two TPC chips into the Slot B of a modem which already has Slot A occupied by the standard FEC card. These plug into either the A or B slots on the main modem assembly. The Datum Systems‟ M500 Update program will also recognize and install software for FEC cards present in the modem. but comes standard with Viterbi. The modem automatically recognizes the presence of the option card and provides additional front panel and remote control parameter settings allowing control of the option.11. and should be installed only by a qualified technician. and will then normally be supplied as added components on the standard FEC card already containing the Viterbi.90 Page 2-25 . 144 pin socket. Turbo Product Codes or TPC is available in multiple mechanical forms and also versions depending on the link requirements. and is configurable to add either the TPC4k or TPC16k chips when ordered.2 Optional Interface Configuration Installed interface cards are automatically recognized by the modem and an entry is added to the Interface Option selection menu. 0. Installation of these cards is not difficult. The three versions are a TPC4K which uses the same TPC chip as in the PSM-4900 series of modems.3 “Updating Modem Software”. FlexLDPC has a unique PWB.11 Option FEC Card Installation The PSM-500 Modem contains on-board circuitry and two “slot” connectors for adding several available and planned FEC option “daughter” boards.Rev. This card can co-exist with the IBS Multiplexer (and the Reed-Solomon function also. It is also more expensive. 2. Installation of these cards is into a common SO-DIMM. but both cannot be used simultaneously). The modem can be ordered with any of these TPC options from the factory. Refer to Section 4. Selection of the option interface then becomes identical to selection of any of the standard interfaces.1 Turbo Product Codes Option Installation The PSM-500 Modem contains on-board circuitry and connectors for adding a Turbo Product Codes Option Card.10. Both the SnIP and HSSI automatically use the modem‟s transmit and receive data rate parameter as their clock signal just like the standard interfaces. Because of the larger processed block size. PSM-500/500L/500LT . The modem‟s two FEC slots are identical. and should be accomplished only by a qualified technician. and if similar functions exist on two cards the modem will select a requested FEC option from the first slot which has that capability In some cases when options are first introduced a software update to the modems internal program is necessary to allow use of the option. TCM and Reed-Solomon FECs. but requires removal of the modem from service and removal of the unit‟s cover. the TPC16K device has much higher delay or latency than the 4K block device. Trellis Code Modulation and Reed-Solomon FECs. and a TPC-20K board with both the TPC4k and TPC16k chips installed.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation 2.

replaces the convolutional encoder/Viterbi decoder functions. Top and side views of the FEC cards are shown in Figure 2-5 below.Rev. Page 2-26 PSM-500/500L/500L T.Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem The Turbo Product Codes option. 0. when enabled. For additional information on the installation and configuration of the Turbo Product Codes option refer to Appendix TPC.90 . The Modulator (Transmit) and Demodulator (Receive) functions of each option are also independent and can be enabled and disabled as required.

0.Rev.90 FEC Slot B FEC Slot A Flash TPC4k FPGA TPC16k Page 2-27 .PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Installation J3 and J4 Connectors Rear Panel Interface Option Connector Top View M500 Series Main PCB Latches FEC Card DRA05-002 Side View Showing Insertion Slot B must be empty to install in Slot A Main PCB Figure 2-5 FEC Option Card Installation PSM-500/500L/500LT .

.

redundancy and automatic recovery. storing and recalling configuration information. while the idle state occurs after approximately 60 seconds of inactivity. 3.1. Front Panel Keypad Control.90 Page 3-1 .1.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation Chapter 3 . the Keypad and the LED Indicators. 0. Command Interface Binary Control via rear panel 232/485 or USB control ports. with the different “sheets” selected by the buttons for Unit. “Alarm” or “Test” (for the Mod and Demod).1) 2. It is augmented by the four LED highlighted legends to the display‟s right. such as “Status”. 3. PSM-500/500L/500LT .4) Any of these methods may be used separately or together to monitor and control the modem unit. automatically dimming with inactivity.1.3) 3. The display and legends are lighted and the brightness can be set to increase when the front panel is currently in use. The upper right shows the current parameter being monitored. LCD display and status LEDs. down. such as “Frequency”. The upper left of the LCD shows the current area of use.1 Operating Procedures Operation of the PSM-500 Modem consists of controlling the unit‟s operating parameters and monitoring status and responses via one of the control interfaces. each described below. “Mod”.2 Front Panel Layout and Features The front panel layout shown in Figure 3–1. These include such items as the FIFO buffer. AUPC. left and right arrow keys. (Section 3. The display has four distinct areas showing current information.Operation 3. The default setting is full in the active state and 1/3 in the idle state.1 Front Panel LCD Display The front panel display is a 2 line by 16 character LCD display. the analog monitor output. The lower line shows the current value of that parameter. 3. while navigation on a given sheet is accomplished using the up. 1/3 brightness. The LCD display is a single entry window into the large matrix of parameters which can be monitored and set from the front panel. The front panel is divided into three functional areas: the LCD display. “IF”. “Data”. Demod and Interface. It is convenient to imagine the matrix as 3 dimensional spreadsheet just like a multi-sheet Excel workbook. Each of these three interfaces and their respective methods are discussed separately below in the sections noted above.Rev. 2/3 brightness and full brightness. “Offset” or “Bit Rate”. The backlight brightness can be set for two states: Active and Idle. Each state may be set to “Off”. The active state is entered whenever a key on the front panel is pressed. “Demod” and “Interface”. identifies the location and labeling of items on the front panel.1. (Section 3. The four legends indicate the Modem‟s functional area that is currently being monitored or controlled. Additional operating procedures are also presented later in this section on using some of the unique features of the PSM-500 that would not normally be set-up during installation. built-in BERT. Terminal Mode Control via rear panel 232/485 or USB control ports. Mod. There are three possible control methods for the modem: 1. including “Unit”. To change the settings for either state go to the “Modem LCD Active” or “Modem LCD Idle” brightness parameter and adjust to the desired values.1 Front Panel Control The front panel of the PSM-500 allows complete control and monitor of all modem parameters and functions via a keypad. (Section 3.2.

The “Enter” key on the lower right is normally blue while the rest of the numeric keypad keys are gray. The second area is a set of “Arrow” or “Cursor” keys used to navigate the parameter currently being monitored or controlled. Two keys provide for a “+/-” (change sign) and “. Modulator. the cursor keys allow moving a cursor to individual digits of a numerical entry or scrolling through the available options of a selection entry. The arrow keys are also in blue. is a 10-key numeric entry with 5 additional keys.Rev. The third area is the four selection keys previously discussed with the LCD display. During entry. “Clear” and “Enter”. They allow selecting which functional area or “sheet” of the display matrix is currently in use.2 Front Panel Keypad The front panel keypad consists of three areas: First. This allows easy identification of the Enter key.1. while three more on the far right provide “Edit”. Demodulator and Interface. 0.2.Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem 3. The four functional buttons represent the Unit.90 . Page 3-2 PSM-500/500L/500LT .” (decimal point) function.

PSM-500/500L/500LT .125613MHz .Rev. 0.90 +/7 4 1 yes 2 3 5 6 8 9 Unit Mod Dem 0 no Int'f Edit Clear Enter Modulator Transmit Major Alm Minor Alm Test Demodulator Lock Major Alm Minor Alm Test Power Sum Alarm Local Remote PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem DATUM Frequency IF 70. SYSTEMS PSM500 Satellite Modem Figure 3-1 PSM-500 Front Panel Controls and Indicators Page 3-3 Operation .

Green – Indicates that the unit is set to respond to the front panel. either an incoming carrier with a low input level or a low Eb/No (programmable threshold). Test Mode: Page 3-4 PSM-500/500L/500LT . 4. Red – if summary fault condition exists from either Alarm A or Alarm B. 0. Yellow Flashing – Indicates the modulator is involved in a current test mode activity. Yellow Flashing – Indicates the receiver is involved in a current test mode activity.90 . Yellow – Indicates a receive warning condition exists. They are separated into three columns representing (from left to right) the Modulator status.1. or a backward alarm received from the far end. Red – Indicates that the transmit direction has failed.Rev. Green Flashing when an IF Looback test is active and the carrier is configured to the “disabled” state. losing traffic. losing traffic. Lock: 2. Alarm: 3.3 Front Panel LED Indicators There are 12 LEDs on the modem front panel to indicate current status of the modem‟s operation. Remote: Green – Indicates the modem unit is currently under power. Power: 2. Green – Indicates that the unit is set to respond to the remote control input. Test Mode: Demodulator LED Indicators 1. the highest priority alarm condition is displayed in the LCD window. Yellow – Indicates a transmit warning condition exists. Modem LED Indicators 1. Red indicates a fault condition which will result in lost communications When one of the Alarm lamps below is illuminated. Minor Alarm: 4. Red – Indicates that the receive direction has failed. Transmit: Green – Indicates that the transmit output is currently active. Minor Alarm: Green – Indicates receiver lock to an incoming CXR and data including FEC sync. Local: 4. Major Alarm: 3. Major Alarm: 3.Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem 3. The LED colors maintain a consistent meaning. the Demodulator status and the Modem (Unit) status.2. Green signifies that the indication is appropriate for normal operation. Yellow means that there is a condition not proper for normal operation. 2. Modulator LED Indicators 1.

IF. 0. and the same for columns. In this manual operation of the keypad to access a certain parameter is shown in the format <Function: Column – Row>. At any time the LCD display shows the monitored parameter value on the lower line of the two-line display.3 Guide to Front Panel Monitor and Control The front panel can be used to perform complete monitor and control of the modem setup and operating parameters. Alarm and Test) while the upper right shows the parameter (row) name. For example. 3.Rev. Each matrix sheet represents a major functional area of modem operation (i. Modulator. Both the columns and rows “wrap around” such that scrolling past the last item in a row starts with the first item in the same row again. The left and right arrow keys scroll through the columns and the up and down arrow keys scroll through the available parameters in each column.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation 3. Alarm and Test areas.90 Page 3-5 .1.1. This matrix is shown in Tables 3-1 through 3-4.e. each one having 4 to 10 columns and up to 32 rows. Demodulator and Interface) while the columns represent groupings within those functional areas and the rows represent individual parameters associated with that function. Matrix Column Matrix Row Data Bit Rate 256. This is shown by convention in this PSM-500/500L/500LT . The LCD display allows viewing only one of the many parameters at one time. Unit.3. they are organized into a 3 dimensional table or matrix form with 4 layers or “sheets”. Data. to get to the Modulator IF Level the method is to press the “Mod” key then use the left and right arrow keys to access the “IF” column and the up and down arrow keys to arrive at the “Level” parameter. The upper left line of the display shows the column name (such as Status.000kbps Unit Mod Dem Int'f Parameter Matrix Sheet Front Panel Parameter Matrix Navigation The four arrow keys located to the right of the LCD display are used to scroll through the rows and columns of each parameter matrix layer or sheet. To simplify locating any desired parameter. The operation of the front panel should be intuitive after very little use to familiarize the user with basic concepts and operations. Parameter entry operations have two methods of accomplishing the same goal and the method used is up to the user although in most cases one method will have potential advantages. The columns include such divisions as Status.1 Navigating Modem Parameters Consider that there are over 180 programmable or monitored parameters on the PSM-500 and that the LCD display can only show one parameter at a time.

In any entry mode pressing the “Edit” key to indicate a new entry. The priority of items is fixed within the modem software. Direct entry can be accomplished if the <Unit: Keyboard – Entry Mode> is set to “Quick”. Mod. The “Quick” entry mode allows direct entry of a new value without first pressing the “Edit” key. which completely overwrites the existing parameter. then using the left and right arrow keys to select the first digit to be changed and entering a new digit. the 4 functional area keys and the 4 arrow keys to the right of the LCD display are first used to select the parameter to be set. 3. Note that a leading “0” did not have to be entered to overwrite the “2” of the existing parameter.90 . For example when viewing the Modulator Data Bit Rate of 256.3. if applicable.3. then using the left and right arrow keys to select the first digit to be changed. left and right arrow keys. When that item is no longer valid the next highest priority is displayed. and trailing zeroes are used to eliminate trailing digits not required.243 (including the decimal point) and pressing “Enter” will change to that new data rate. The value is descriptive and the # in parenthesis is the selection number key to press for optional parameters. it can be changed by pressing the “Edit” key. Overflow when scrolling up through 9 will increment the next higher digit while underflow will decrement the next higher digit. Finish the edit by pressing the enter key.000kbps entering the digits 47. When multiple parameters could be displayed (such as when multiple test modes are currently running or multiple alarms are present) only the highest priority item is displayed. We may also show selection of a specific value for the parameter using the notation <Function: Column – Row> = value(#). The entry is finalized by pressing the “Enter” key. Leading zeros must be used to enter smaller numbers than are currently displayed. The digit is “scrolled” using the up and down arrow key.   Page 3-6 PSM-500/500L/500LT . in the direct entry mode explained below. 0. skipping over the decimal point which is in a fixed location. Until you become familiar with the location of parameters using the front panel. In this mode the current parameter can be changed by simply entering new information. 3. then editing the parameter via the arrow keys and the numeric keypad and finalizing the data entry using the “Enter” key will work.Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem manual as <Mod: IF – Level>. An alternate edit mode is accomplished by first pressing the “Edit” key. The display is “Live”. therefore when a currently displayed parameter changes the display will change without operator intervention. and 2. All entry items take one of two forms: 1. then one of several “entry” modes is used to change the parameter.2 Monitoring Modem Parameters Any available modem parameter is monitored by simply using the function and arrow keys to display the desired parameter in the LCD display. Additional digits are pointed to using the left and right arrows and also scrolled. 3/4 or 7/8.1. while navigation on a given sheet is accomplished using the up. Numeric entries may be entered by performing one of the following:  When a numeric parameter is displayed.Rev. with the different “sheets” selected by the buttons for Unit. it is convenient to use the Matrix Tables 3-1 through 3-4 as a quick reference. It is convenient to imagine the matrix as 3 dimensional spreadsheet just like a multi-sheet Excel workbook. Numeric entry such as frequency or bit rate. Successive digit entries go to successive characters on the display.3 Changing Modem Parameters To set any parameter. Demod and Interface. down. Selection from a list such as selecting FEC rates 1/2.1. The item displayed will remain until changed or power is removed from the modem unit.

if you wish to go to the maximum transmit data rate possible in an M505 modem simply enter a value like 10000 (for 10. then pressing “Enter”. say “Set at max” and enter a value of 5000 (for 5 Mbps). The modem can help in some cases by taking the parameter to its maximum or minimum value when you enter a value greater or less than possible.5 Finding Modem Parameter Limits During parameter setting you may not know what the maximum or minimum value is that may be entered. Normal settings are typically displayed during this sequence and it may be possible to simply press the “Enter” key at each succeeding request. 1. OFF. This insures that all of the necessary parameters are entered to enable any mode dependent on other settings. 2. Selection entries may be accomplished by one of the following:  When a selection entry parameter is displayed. 3. Optional selections can be viewed by successively pressing several keys to determine their value. Then press the “Enter” key to finalize the entry.1. For example. then using the up and down arrow keys to scroll through the possible choices. and those pertaining to the Reed-Solomon Codec will appear only if the ReedSolomon Codec is installed and enabled. 0.703 E1 interfaces. In this mode the current parameter can be changed by simply entering digit key 0.000 kbps). NO or the first possible choice.2 Front Panel Monitor and Control Parameters The following tables 3-1 through 3-4 list the parameter matrices available from the front panel. 3 or 4. 1. “3” and “4” represents the third. If only the Data FEC type were initially changed then only the following item in the sequence would be requested. When scrolling though the available options. The modem should beep. 3 or 4 … and pressing “Enter” to finalize the entry. when a selection parameter is displayed it can be changed by pressing the “Edit” key. the modem will accept that but next request entry of the “Data FEC” type.90 Page 3-7 . Failure to press a key for approximately 60 seconds results in automatic canceling of the current entry and return of the display to the current setting. For example. Parameters that appear shaded are only accessible when the modem is configured to use those parameters. YES or the second possible choice. when all other parameters have been set.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation The current input can be canceled by pressing the “Clear” key at any time before pressing “Enter”. 3. ON. In this scheme “0” represents disabled. This list does not include optional parameters for some interface options such as Ethernet or G. fourth and fifth possible choices. New in the PSM-500 is automatic presentation of those parameters that must be set to properly achieve the first setting entered. pressing the “Enter” key selects the displayed choice and finalizes the entry. Direct entry can be accomplished if the <Unit: Keyboard – Entry Mode> is set to “Quick”.1.3.3. When the desired option is displayed.   Following a valid input. PSM-500/500L/500LT . “1” represents enabled.Rev. an arrow in the left column position denotes the current setting.4 Automatic Modem Parameter Sequences Certain parameters are dependent on other parameter settings. those parameters pertaining the to AUPC are only available when the AUPC is enabled. but also automatically the next time the unit is powered on. then the “Data Code Rate” finally returning to the original IF Modulation screen. “2”. 3. 2. the modem will place the new setting into the nonvolatile EEPROM making it available not only immediately. An example of this is when entering an “IF Modulation” mode change. simply press the “Edit” key followed by a digit key 0. Alternately.

The “Status” columns are generally read only.Rev. Page 3-8 PSM-500/500L/500LT . to Alarm Relay B. 4. The “Test” columns existing in all four matrixes and represents the control and display of test information for that area. The “Alarm” columns existing in all four matrixes and represents the disposition of alarm information from that source. 2.90 . the Demod Bit Rate is accessed by simply pressing the “Dem” button. The Modulator and Demodulator matrixes use common column designations. providing status on specific areas of modem operation. 3. For example when viewing the Mod Bit Rate. The lower rows represent measurements of parameters and are read only. which are shown on the LCD display in the upper left. Columns are navigated using the left and right arrow keys while rows are navigated using the up and down arrow keys.Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem The top gray row represents column headers. Therefore the <Dem: Alarm – CXR Lock> sets the disposition of the Demodulator Carrier Lock Alarm as either None. A current parameter in one area can be immediately accessed in the other by pressing the appropriate “Mod” or “Dem” button. or to Alarm Relay A & B. The top entries in the Test column contain tests which can be enabled or disabled if available. Active tests enabled in these columns generate flashing “Test” LED lamps in appropriate areas. 1. to Alarm Relay A. The tables below are organized with general “Rules of Thumb” which aid navigation. Items below the header are row parameter names shown in the upper right of the LCD. 0.

0. The gray Redundancy parameters are only shown when connected to another unit in redundancy mode.3V +5. Other columns may be added by options added to the modem or software.0V -12.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation Table 3-1 PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Unit Sheet Status Modem Redundcy Unit ID Model Feature Serial # Version FEC A FEC A Ver FEC B FEC B Ver Mod Opt Int’f Opt Notes: Parameters shown in gray are only available when the entry immediately above is enabled or set to a mode that requires those entries.0V +12.Rev. Redundcy Mode SW Hold Backup Config Modem Recall Store Keybrd Mode Entry Remote Mode Protocol Rate Port Activity USB Mode Activity Ref Source Monitor Mode Alarm Test Reference Modem OCXO Oven Cal Ref Tst Active Update ROM Hardware Beep Ref AFC SysClk AFC +3. Word spelling is purposely truncated to fit in available LCD display window.90 Page 3-9 .0V +21.0V Boot Code Reference SW Rqst Frequency Full Fine Tune Zero LCD Actve Address Restore 1 LCD Idle Restore 3 Activity Restore 4 Restore 5 Restore 6 Restore 7 Restore 8 Power-Up Restore 2 LCD Cntst Format PSM-500/500L/500LT .

PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem

Operation

Table 3-2 PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Modulator Sheet
Status CXR Data Clock Test IF Frequency Offset Level Output Modulation Spectrum Filter Mask Mode Preamble AUPC AUPC Eb/No AUPC Max Lvl AUPC Min Lvl Mute Impedance Data Bit Rate Fec Mode Mux BUC Power Alarm CXR Test Modulation Symbol Rate Clock Error CXR ALC

ESC Overhead Voltage Out Data

FEC Options MCC Overhead Voltage Min Clock Code Rate RS Mode RS (n) RS (k) RS Depth Dif Encoder Scrambler Clk Source OverHd Ratio Current Out AUPC ESC Port ESC Rate ESC Frmt ESC CTS

Current Max Tst Active LO AFC Current Min Hardware 10 MHz Ref
LO Frequency

Step AFC

BUC Power

BUC parameters are only available on PSM-500L. AUPC settings are only visible if the AUPC is enabled. Dif Encoder disabled and not visible with Turbo Product Codes Option installed and enabled. Table 3-3 PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Demodulator Sheet
Status CXR Eb/No Offset Level IF Frequency Sweep Range Sweep Mode Sweep Time Data Bit Rate Fec Mode Mux LNB Power Alarm CXR Lock Test IF Loopbck Symbol Rate Clock Error AGC

ESC Overhead Current Out Data

FEC Options MCC Overhead Current Max Low Eb/No Code Rate RS Mode RS (n) RS (k) RS Depth OverHd Ratio Current Min Low Level ESC Port ESC Rate ESC Frmt ESC DTR 10 MHz Ref

Est.BER Modulation SER Buffer Test Spectrum
Filter Mask

Tst Active LO AFC Step AFC IDcOff QDcOff

LO Frequency Hardware

Backward LNB Power

Eb/No Alm
Low Level Alm

Dif Decoder ESC DSR Descrambler Clk Source Buffr Delay Buffer Size FEC Hold

Impedance

PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90

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PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem

Operation

LNB column is only available on Land LT models. Sweep Time is only visible if Sweep Mode is set to “Search”. Buffer Parameters are only visible if the Data Clock Source is not set to “Demod”, enabling the buffer. Dif Decoder is disabled and not visible with Turbo Product Codes Option installed and enabled.

Table 3-4 PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Interface Sheet Status I/O RTS CTS DCD DTR DSR Test Test BER Sync Loss Errors Bits EFS Erred Sec Total Sec Note: The seven shaded BERT Status column items are only visible when the Demod BER is enabled in the Test column. The center column is used for interface option expansion, and is only displayed with an option installed. The entries shown are only representative of one type of option interface. The RTS Monitor function is only available in firmware versions 0.47 and after. Mode Format RTS CTS DCD DTR DSR Xmt Data Xmt Clock Rcv Data Rcv Clock RTS Monitor I/O SnIP or SDMS IP Addr Netwrk Mask MAC Addr Options Version Serial# Alarm Tst Active BER Loss SnIP or SDMS Test Ter Loopbck Sat Loopbck BER I/O Mod BER Demod BER

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Operation

PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem

Tables 3-5 through 3-8 describe the parameters available from the front panel and entry in more detail. The grayed separators delineate column divisions in the area matrix. The “»”symbol indicates that this parameter is not available unless a preceding parameter is enabled or set to require those parameters, or optional hardware is installed that uses that particular parameter. Parameters can also be added as new options are installed.

Table 3-5. Modem (Unit) Parameter Detail
Unit Parameter Detail Representation Status Modem Locked & Sending Status Reference Internal, OK Status Redundcy 1:1 On Line Status Unit ID Rmt Santa Cruz Status Model PSM-500 Status Feature M523-8PSK-16QAM Status Serial# 12923 Status Version 0.10 Status FEC A Viterbi/TCM/RS Status FEC A Ver 01-004 Status TPC4K Status FEC B Ver 03-004 Status Mod Opt Burst Status Int’f Opt SDMS-Lite Redundcy Mode Internal 1:1 Redundcy Sw Rqst on Alarm A & B FEC B Type Read Only Read Only Read Only Alpha – Numeric Read Only Numeric Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Selection Selection Entry Read Only Not changeable Used to force a transfer away from this unit. Entered as ASCII for up to 16 characters Read from software 16 digit Feature Set upgrade code inserted here. Not changeable Read from software Read from Installed Option Read from Installed Option Read from Installed Option Read from Installed Option Read from Installed Option Read from Installed Option 0 = Disable, 1 = Internal 1:1, 2 = External 0 = On any Alarm 1= On Alarm A 2 = On Alarm B 3 = On Alarm A & B 0.0 to 600.0 seconds in 0.1 second increments. Description Mod & Demod Status Reference source and status Redundancy Status Station Name for user Modem Model #, Used to display features and upgrade feature set. Modem Serial Number Version of software installed Available FEC options in Slot A. FEC Type Number and Firmware Revision Available FEC options in Slot B. FEC Type Number and Firmware Revision Type of Installed Option Type of Installed Option Select Redundancy mode. Internal requires “Y” cable. What will request a switch to backup modem.

Redundcy Sw Hold .5 Sec

Numeric

Sets the minimum time that a redundancy alarm must last before switching occurs.

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PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.90

1 = Demod Only.400 seconds … Selection/ Numeric Selection/ Numeric Disabled (0).Rev. Factory configuration not alterable Disabled (0). Config Recall Factory.. Recall 1 to 8 Time after loss of rcv carrier to restore this configuration. Location to recover current configuration from. 1 to 14. Description View status of or configure backup. Behavior on power-up. Either the last settings or try to lock using one of the stored configurations. 1 to 14.400 seconds Last (0). 2 = Blink. 3 = Mod & Demod 0 to 8. 1 = 1/3. 0. 1 = Quiet VT100. 1 to 8 Config Store Factory. 1 = 1/3. 2 = 2/3. 2 = Full Access 0 = Quick. 1 = Read Only. Time after loss of rcv carrier to restore this configuration. Selection Keyboard Entry method. Only available when on-line. 0 = Factory 1 to 8. 3 = Full 0 to 20 0 = None. 3 = Beep & Blink 0 = Disable. 1 to 8 Config Restore 1 After 1 Sec . Active level of LCD backlight Idle level of LCD backlight LCD Contrast setting Audible “click” and/or “Local” LED Blink on front panel key press. 1 = Read Only. Config Modem Mod & Demod Selection Used to disable the Mod or Demod and also the lamps and indications when not used.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation Unit Parameter Detail Representation Redundcy Backup Idle Type Selection Entry Backup Status or Press “0” or “Edit” then “Enter” to transfer current configuration to backup. Keyboard access control. 1 = Beep. Selection Selection Numeric Selection Remote Mode Full Access Remote Protocol Binary Packet Selection Remote control access mode allowed Remote control mode type Selection PSM-500/500L/500LT .90 Page 3-13 .. 0 = Disable. 0 = VT100. 2 = Mod Only. 1 = Edit Only 2 = Confirm 0 = off. 2 = Binary Packet. Location to store current configuration to. Quick is the normal default mode. 2 = 2/3. 3 = Full 0 = off.Restore 2-7 Config Restore 8 Disabled Config Power-Up Last Selection/ Numeric Selection/ Numeric Selection/ Numeric Keybrd Mode Full Access Keybrd Entry Quick Keybrd LCD Active Backlight Full Keybrd LCD Idle Backlight 1/3 Keybrd LCD Cntst 10 Keybrd Activity Beep Selection 0 = Disable. 2 = Full Access.

0 to –10. Audible “click” on/or and “Remote” LED Blink on Infrared port activity. 0.0V Monitor 0. 3 =Beep & Blink 0 = Disable. 5 = Mute & Alarm A. Selects destination and action taken for reference oscillator alarm types. 0 = None.8. 2 = Blink.8. 2 =Mod CXR Level +10.Rev. E = Even. 1 = External 0 =1. 3 = Beep & Blink 0 = Internal.0 to –10. Only available if set to external reference.1 0 = RS–232.1 4 = S.8. 1 =Beep. 6 = Mute & Alarm B.0V Full Zero Selection 0 =AGC Level. 1 =5.0 MHz +127 to -127 Description Address used to access this unit via remote control and USB packets.1 3 = M.8. Selection Ref Ref Source Internal Frequency 10.1 2 = O. Remote port bit rate Remote control data/stop bits and parity. 0 = N.000MHz Selection Selection Rear panel external reference.0 +10.90 . 4 = Mute CXR.0.0. Reference frequency at rear panel. 7 = Mute & Alarm A & B Page 3-14 PSM-500/500L/500LT . S = Space. 3=A&B. 2 =Blink. 1 = Read Only. 3 =10. Selection Selection Remote Port RS–485 Remote Activity RS–485 Selection Selection USB Mode Full Access USB Activity Blink Selection Remote control access mode allowed from front panel port.Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Unit Parameter Detail Representation Remote Address 1 Remote Rate 19200bps Remote Format N. 2 =9.1 1 = E. 2=B. 1=A.1 Type Numeric Entry 0 to 255 0 = address disabled 255 = global 0 to 7 selects 300 to 38.8. Always 8 data bits and 1 stop bit.0 Numeric Numeric Alarm Reference To Alarm A Selection 0=None. 1 =Eb/No. 2 = Full Access. N= No Parity. Only in Internal Selects source of analog output on rear panel alarm connector pins 5 and 6 Full scale setting for maximum output Minimum scale setting for minimum output. Internal reference fine adjustment.8. 1 = Beep. Remote control port used Audible “click” on/or and “Remote” LED Blink on Remote port activity. 1 = RS–485 0 =None. Ref Fine Tune 0 Numeric Monitor Mode AGC Level Monitor +5.0. M = Mark.400 bits per second.

3V Test +5. 2=B. 1=A. 1=A. 1 = Enabled Normally Disabled.8 Test -12. 1=A. 1 = Lamp Test.1V Test +21. 2 = Self Test 3 = Lamp & Self Test 0 = Disabled.1V Test Boot Code 0000:0000:0000 Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only PSM-500/500L/500LT .0V +20. 2=B. Enter unit serial number and “Enter” key to start. N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Description Selects destination of alarm Alarm Tst Active To Alarm A Alarm Hardware To Alarm A Alarm Beep On Alarm A & B Selection Selection Selection Selects destination of alarm Selects destination of alarm Selects if alarm causes a unit audible “beep”. 4 = Mute CXR. 2=On Alarm B. Test Cal Ref Disabled Update ROM Disabled Selection Calibrates the internal reference to an external input. 3=A & B 0=None. 3=A&B. Test Modem Disabled Selection Carrier output mode for test purposes. 3=On Alarm A & B 0 = Disabled.3V +3.0V +5.0V +12. 2=B. Entering the serial number and pressing “Enter” starts the update process. 3=A & B 0=None.90 Page 3-15 . 6 = Mute & Alarm B. 7 = Mute & Alarm A & B 0=None.0V -12. 1=On Alarm A. 5 = Mute & Alarm A. 0.1V Test SysClk AFC +9.0V Test +12.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation Unit Parameter Detail Representation Alarm OCXO Oven Mute & Alarm A Type Selection Entry 0=None.Rev.1V Test +3. Internal Loop Voltage Internal Loop Voltage Internal Supply Voltage Internal Supply Voltage Internal Supply Voltage Internal Supply Voltage Internal Supply Voltage Factory Diagnostic Use Test Numeric Test Ref AFC +1.

Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Table 3-6. Transmit IF impedance. 1 = Inverted 0 = IESS. 1 = QPSK.Rev.0 dB +5.5dB AUPC Max Lvl –10.000 000 to 90. Only available with burst option installed.0 max at 50Ω 0 = Disable.4dBm Output Enabled Modulation QPSK Spectrum Normal Filter Mask Normal Mode Continuous Preamble 64 Symbols AUPC Disabled »IF »IF »IF IF Manual AUPC Eb/No 6. 1 = 75 IF Impedance 75 Ohm Selection Page 3-16 PSM-500/500L/500LT . 3 = 8PSK. 1 = 64 Symbols 0 = Disable.0 to 20.0 dB Mute Type Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Numeric Numeric Numeric Selection Selection Entry Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only 50. 6 = 16QAM 0 = Normal.0 dB AUPC Min Lvl –20. Transmit Level under AUPC control Manual requires manual Carrier enable after Mod output change.90 . 1 = Legacy Description Modulator Carrier Status Modulator Input Data Status Modulator Bit Rate Clock Status Modulator Test Status Carrier center frequency Carrier offset frequency Transmit output power level Carrier output enable Modulation Mode. 1 = Enable 0 = BPSK.250. Selects preamble length when burst option installed. 1 = Enable 3.000000MHz Offset –8. 1 = Confirm.031kHz Level –20. Option 3 forces Cxr off after power fail. OK Status Data NO DATA Status Clock Internal.000 to +1.0 dBm to Minimum level Maximum level to –35 dBm 0 = Automatic. Transmit level under AUPC control Min. 2 = Manual 3 = Manual & Pwr Loss 0 = 50.0 dBm +3. OK Status Test Normal IF IF IF IF IF Frequency 70. Modulator Parameter Detail Modulator Parameter Detail Representation Status CXR Sending. IF IF Selection Selection »IF »IF IF Selection Selection Selection Numeric Numeric Numeric Selection 0 = Continuous. Max. 1 = Burst 0 = 32.000 000 MHz –1.0 to –35.250.000 kHz +5. 0. Some values left available for new options. Modulation Spectrum control Modulation Spectrum Filter Control. 2 = OQPSK. Automatic Uplink Power Control AUPC remote receive Eb/No level set point. Legacy for PSM-4900 compatibility.

Transmit Data Clock Source. 0. CT compatibility Rate ¾ only. Legacy in Rate ¾.35. TPC Encoder . Intelsat 6 = EFD 7 = TPC Sync 0 = Internal. 0 = 2/3 in 8PSK TCM 0 = Disabled. 3 = Intelsat. Entry is not shown when TPC enabled. 2 = External. 3 = RCV Clock Data Clk Source Internal Selection PSM-500/500L/500LT . FEC Optional Modes.000 kbps in 1 bps resolution. 0 – None 1 = Viterbi.35. May change depending on FEC options installed.Only available if installed. 2 = 16 Read only in other modes 0 = Disable.100000Mbps Data Viterbi FEC Type Numeric Entry 1. The options may change depending on FEC installed and selected Reed-Solomon column and options only available if not disabled. 5 = Alt. Block size n = 22 to 255 k = 20 to 253.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation Modulator Parameter Detail Representation Data Bit Rate 2. Types are added if optional hardware is installed. 1 = Swap C0/C1. Entered in kbps to 1bps increments. Reed-Solomon is enabled below.Rev.000. 4 = Alt V. 1 = Auto 2 = V. 2 = TCM (8PSK only) 3 = TPC Short 4 = TPC (Legacy) 5 = TPC (CT) 0 = Normal. Scrambler types. . 2 or 3 will fall-back to Internal if clock is not present in these modes. 2 = 5/6 3 = 7/8. k must be 2 to 20 less than n Interleave depth factor Selection Data FEC Option Normal Code Rate Rate 1/2 Mode IESS-308 Selection Data Selection RS Selection »RS FEC 126 »RS FEC 112 »RS FEC 4 Data (n) Numeric (k) Numeric depth Selection Dif Encoder Enabled Scrambler Auto Not Shown Selection Differential Encoder Not shown or settable except in special modes. The Auto mode uses IESS 308 & 309 standards to automatically switch to use synchronous scramblers part of R-S and TPC. 1 = TT Clock. 1 = Enable Description Modulator Bit Rate – The max and min are determined by settings and options.90 Page 3-17 . 1 = IESS-308 2 = IESS-309 4 = IESS Custom In Custom Mode only: Available n values Read only in other modes In Custom Mode only: Available k values Read only in other modes In Custom Mode only: 0 = 4. 7/8 only. 1 = 8. 0 = ½. 1 = ¾. Data 0 = Disable. FEC Code Rate. Type 1.200 to 20.

25A 10 MHz Ref Enabled Selection Numeric Numeric Numeric Numeric Numeric Selection Selects Power and Voltage to a BUC in the 500L Displays Voltage output on Transmit Cable. Only in Custom Mode. 3 = RS-485 Drvr On 0 to 7 selects standard rates 300 bps – 38.0 V Read Only 0 to 6. Shows current data to aggregate ratio for mux.00 A 0 to 4. 0 = RS-232. Selects framing resources committed to MCC Comm.4 kbps Description Enables Multiplexer to specified mode.Rev. (coupled to receive) BUC BUC BUC BUC BUC BUC BUC Power Enabled Voltage Out +23. 0. If set non-zero then IF frequency setting is at RF frequency. Selects framing resources committed to ESC Comm. 2 = IBS Enhanced 3 = IBS Custom 0 = Disable 1 to 7 selects standard rates 300 bps – 38.1 Selection Selection Physical ESC port rate at rear panel.0V Current Out 2. Displays Current draw of BUC Sets the maximum BUC current before an alarm.8. BUC LO Frequency 7375.Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Modulator Parameter Detail Representation Mux Mode IBS Custom Type Selection Entry 0 = Disabled.00 A 0 = Disabled 1 = Enable 0 to 49999. 2 = RS-485 4 wire. 3 = P/8/1 0 = Disabled 1 = Enabled Read Only 0 to 60. Only in Custom Mode.37A Current Max 5. Enable makes other menu selection below visible.4 kbps 0 = Disable 1 to 7 selects standard rates 300 bps – 38.00A Current Min 1. .999996 MHz Physical ESC port type. (coupled to receive) Physical ESC port format at rear panel. Sets the minimum BUC current before an alarm.8V Voltage Min +20.000000MHz Numeric Page 3-18 PSM-500/500L/500LT . (coupled to receive) »Mux ESC Overhead 9600 bps »Mux MCC Overhead 1200 bps »Mux 15:16 »Mux ESC Port RS-485. 1 = P/7/1. 4 Wire Ratio Selection Selection Read Only Selection »Mux ESC Rate 9600 bps »Mux ESC Frmt N. Sets the minimum BUC voltage before an alarm.4 kbps 0 = N/7/1.90 . 1 = RS-485 2 wire. Selects if modem‟s current 10 MHz reference to be supplied to a BUC in PSM-500L Selects BUC LO frequency in PSM-500L. 2 = N/8/1. 1 = IBS Standard.

3=A & B 0=None. 5 = All ones & A 6 = All ones & B 7 = All ones & A & B 8 = Mute Mod Cxr 9 = Mute & A 0=None. 6 = Mute & Alarm B. 2 = Alt 1/0 3 = Sideband N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Description Selects destination of alarm Alarm Data To Alarm A Alarm Clock To Alarm A Selection Selection Selects destination of alarm Selects destination of alarm Alarm AUPC To Alarm A Alarm Tst Active To Alarm A Alarm Hardware To Alarm A & B Selection Selection Selection Selects destination of alarm Selects destination of alarm Selects destination of alarm Alarm BUC Power Mute & Alarm A Selection Selects destination of alarm Test Modulation Normal Selection Carrier output mode for test purposes. 0. 4=Send All ones. 1 = Pure Carrier. 1=A. 7 = Mute & Alarm A & B 0 = Normal. 2=B. 4 = Mute CXR. 3=A & B. 2=B. 2 = Mute & Alarm B. 3=A & B 0 = Mute CXR. 2=B. 1=A. 5 = Mute & Alarm A. 2 = Mute & Alarm B. Test Symbol Rate 256.Rev. 3=A&B. 3 = Mute & Alarm A & B 0=None. 2=B. 1 = Mute & Alarm A. 1=A.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation Modulator Parameter Detail Representation Alarm Carrier To Alarm A Type Selection Entry 0 = Mute CXR.1V Test Step AFC +9.000ksps Test Clock Error 251 Test CXR ALC +3. 2=B. 1=A.0V Test LO AFC +9. 3=A & B 0=None.90 Page 3-19 . 1=A. 1 = Mute & Alarm A.5V Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Computed Transmit Symbol Rate Bit Rate Clock error Internal Loop Voltage Internal Loop Voltage Internal Loop Voltage PSM-500/500L/500LT . 3 = Mute & Alarm A & B 0=None.

An entry will reset to 0 after search time has elapsed. Some values left available for new options. Carrier Acquisition Range in kHz.0 to 600. Demodulator Parameter Detail Demodulator Parameter Detail Representation Status Carrier Locked. 2 = OQPSK.000 000 to 90.1 dB increments Page 3-20 PSM-500/500L/500LT . 0 Disables Narrow Sweep 0 = BPSK.1 to +1. A receive Eb/No level at or below this level will produce an alarm.4dBm Status Est. 1 = Search 0. 1 = QPSK. Status Level –52.000 000 MHz 950 000 000 to 1900 000 000 MHz for L-Band unit +/–0. Modulation Mode. L-Band frequency shown if LNB LO is set to 0.0 Sec Modulation QPSK Spectrum Normal Filter Mask Normal Eb/No Alm 2. Only visible when Demod Data clock source is not set to “RCV Clock”.Rev.0 Seconds. 1 = Inverted 0 = IESS.031kHz Eb/No Type Read Only Read Only Numeric Entry N/A Measured by internal circuitry.37x10^–2 Status 100% Buffer Read Only Read Only Resettable Read Only Resettable Read Only Resettable N/A Press “0” or “Edit” and “Enter” to restart. Modulation Spectrum control Modulation Spectrum Filter Control. 0 = Reset Slip (Flag) 1 = Re-center Status Test Normal IF Frequency 70. Press “0” or “Edit” and “Enter” to restart. Legacy for PSM-4900 compatibility.250. 0. Demodulator Test Status Carrier center frequency.0 dBm in 0. The “slip” flag tells when the FIFO automatically re-centered.7dB Status Offset –8.000 kHz 0 = Fast.0dB Numeric Selection Numeric Selection IF IF Selection Selection IF Numeric 1.000kHz IF Sweep Mode Fast »IF IF Sweep Time 10. Within +/– Narrow Acquisition Range Description Demodulator receive Carrier Status Measured Eb/No Receive carrier offset frequency. 6 = 16QAM 0 = Normal.0 to 20.000000MHz Read Only Numeric N/A 50. else is set to RF frequency. Fast Acquisition mode is standard method Narrow Sweep time applicable to Search sweep mode only. Receive carrier level Estimated Bit Error Rate Measured Symbol Error Rate FIFO Buffer status in percent fill. BER 2x10^–7 Status SER 3. 3 = 8PSK.90 . 1 = Legacy IF Sweep Range +/-30. OK Status 4.Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Table 3-7.

1 = IESS-308 2 = IESS-309 5 = IESS Custom In Custom Mode only: Available n values Read only in other modes In Custom Mode only: Available k values Read only in other modes In Custom Mode only: 0 = 4. Reed-Solomon is enabled in R-S column.Rev. Receive IF impedance. 1 = Swap C0/C1. Entered in kbps to 1bps increments. 3 = Swap and Invert C1 0 = ½.000. 2 = 5/6 3 = 7/8. FEC Optional Modes.200 to 20.35. 1 = Enable Description A receive carrier level at or below this level will produce an alarm. Dependent on Bit Rate. FEC Code Rate. The options may change depending on FEC installed and selected Reed-Solomon column and options only available if not disabled. CT compatibility Rate ¾ only. Modulator Bit Rate – The max and min are determined by settings and options. TPC Decoder . 0 = Viterbi. 7/8 only. 5 = Alt. 1 = TPC Full 2 = TPC Short 3 = TPC (Legacy) 4 = TPC (CT) 0 = Normal. Block size n = 22 to 255 k = 20 to 253.100000Mbps Data Viterbi FEC Selection Data FEC Option Normal Selection Data Code Rate Rate 1/2 Mode IESS-308 Selection R-S Selection »RS FEC 126 »RS FEC 112 »RS FEC 4 Data (n) Numeric (k) Numeric depth Selection Dif Decoder Enabled Descrambler Auto Not Shown Selection Differential Encoder Not shown or settable except in special modes. 0. 3 = Intelsat. Legacy in Rate ¾. Types are added if optional hardware is installed. 1 = 8. Intelsat 6 = EFD 7 = TPC Sync PSM-500/500L/500LT . 1 = 75 1. . 1 = ¾. Entry is not shown when TPC enabled.5dBm Impedance 50 Ohm Type Numeric Entry -26 to –85 dBm in 0. May change depending on FEC options installed.90 Page 3-21 . Data 0 = Disable.000 kbps in 1 bps resolution. The Auto mode uses IESS 308 & 309 standards to automatically switch to use synchronous scramblers part of R-S and TPC. 1 = Auto 2 = V. Scrambler types.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation Demodulator Parameter Detail IF Representation Low Level Alm -65. 0 = 50. 2 = 16 Read only in other modes 0 = Disable. k must be 2 to 20 less than n Interleave depth factor IF Selection Numeric Data Bit Rate 2.35. 2 = Invert C1. 0 = 2/3 in 8PSK TCM 0 = Disabled.Only available if installed. 4 = Alt V.1 dB increments.

Number of FEC lock “cycles” the FEC will accomplish before declaring loss of lock.070 bits in 1 bit increments. Selects framing resources committed to MCC Comm.4 kbps 0 = N/7/1. 2 = RS-485 4 wire. 0 = RS-232. 2 = N/8/1. Only in Custom Mode. 1 = P/7/1. Sets the minimum LNB current before an alarm. Receive FIFO buffer delay in milli-Seconds. 1 = IBS Standard. any other setting enables it.Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Demodulator Parameter Detail Representation Data Clk Source RCV Clock Type Selection Entry 0 = RCV Clock 1 = Internal. 2 = External. 1 = RS-485 2 wire.00000ms »Data Buffer Size 512 Bits Numeric Numeric Data 1 FEC Hold Numeric 0 to 255 Normally set to 1 Mux Mode IBS Custom Selection 0 = Disabled. Selects framing resources committed to ESC Comm. Selecting “0” disables FIFO buffer. Shows current data to aggregate ratio for mux. 4 Wire Ratio Selection Selection Read Only Selection »Mux »Mux ESC Rate 9600 bps ESC Frmt N. 3 = RS-485 Drvr On 0 to 7 selects standard rates 300 bps – 38. 0 to 131.8. (coupled to transmit) Physical ESC port format at rear panel. Description Receive Data Clock Source. 2 = IBS Enhanced 3 = IBS Custom 0 = Disable 1 to 7 selects standard rates 300 bps – 38. 0. (coupled to transmit) LNB +18V LNB LNB LNB Power Selection Selects Power and Voltage to an LNB in the 500L or LT Displays Current draw of LNB Sets the maximum LNB current before an alarm. Buffer has this many bits filled and empty when centered.90 . Enable makes other menu selection below visible. (coupled to transmit) »Data Buffr Delay 2.1 Selection Selection Physical ESC port rate at rear panel. 3 = P/8/1 0 = Disabled 1 = +13VDC 2 = +18VDC Read Only 0 to 500 mA 0 to 500 mA Physical ESC port type.4 kbps »Mux ESC Overhead 9600 bps »Mux MCC Overhead 1200 bps »Mux 15:16 »Mux ESC Port RS-485. Current Out 221mA Current Max 300mA Current Min 150mA A Numeric Numeric Numeric Page 3-22 PSM-500/500L/500LT . Receive FIFO buffer delay in bits. Enables Multiplexer to specified mode.Rev. Only in Custom Mode.4 kbps 0 = Disable 1 to 7 selects standard rates 300 bps – 38. 3 = Mod Clock 0 to maximum calculated by data rate.

1V Selection Selection Selection Selection Selection Selection Selection Selects destination of alarm Selects destination of alarm Selects destination of alarm Selects destination of alarm Selects destination of alarm Selects destination of alarm – Only available with mux. 3=A & B 0=None. 1=A. 0.000ksps Test Clock Error 251 Test AGC -1. 3=A & B 0=None. 3=A & B 0=None.000000MHz Type Selection Entry 0 = Disabled 1 = Enable 0 to 49999. 3=A & B 0=None.1V Test QDcOff -0. 1=A. 5 = Mute & Alarm A. 1=A. 1=A. 1 = Enable N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Alarm Data To Alarm A Alarm Low Eb/No To Alarm A Alarm Low Level To Alarm A Alarm Tst Active To Alarm A Alarm Hardware To Alarm A & B »Alarm Backward To Alarm A & B »Alarm LNB Power To Alarm A & B Test IF Loopbck Disabled Test Symbol Rate 256. 2=B.90 Page 3-23 .Rev. 2=B. 2=B. 2=B. 1=A. 2=B. 2=B. 1=A. 7 = Mute & Alarm A & B 0=None.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation Demodulator Parameter Detail Representation LNB 10 MHz Ref Disabled LNB LO Frequency 5150.999996 MHz Description Selects if modem‟s current 10 MHz reference to be supplied to an LNB in or L Selects LNB LO frequency in or L. If set non-zero then IF frequency setting is at RF frequency. 4 = Mute Mod CXR. Selects destination of alarm Numeric Alarm CXR Lock To Alarm A Selection 0=None.9V Test LO AFC +8. IF Loop-back control. Q channel DC offset Selection Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only PSM-500/500L/500LT .8V Test Step AFC +9. 6 = Mute & Alarm B. 3=A & B 0 = Disable. 3=A&B. 1=A. 3=A & B 0=None. 1=A. I channel DC offset Internal Loop Voltage.4V Test IDcOff -0. 2=B. 2=B. Selects destination of alarm – Only shown in /L. Receive Symbol Rate Bit Rate Clock error Internal Loop Voltage Internal Loop Voltage Internal Loop Voltage Internal Loop Voltage. 3=A & B 0=None.

Some option interfaces may replace the SnIP or HSSI interface. Interface Parameter Detail Interface Parameter Detail Representation Status I/O Online Status RTS Off Status CTS On Status DCD On Status DTR Off Status DSR Off Status Test Mod BER Status BER 0.95% Status Erred Sec 1 Status Total Sec 2135 I/O RS-449 Mode Type Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Selection Entry N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0 = Disable 1 = RS-232 2 = RS-449 3 = RS-449/Unterm 4 = V.Rev.Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Table 3-8. 0.36 6 = EIA-530 7 = EIA-530A 8 = SnIP (Option) 9 = HSSI (Option) 0 = Normal 1 = Control CXR 2 = Ignore 0 = Normal. 1 = Ignore Description Interface Status ** Interface RTS line status Interface CTS line status Interface DCD line status Interface DTR line status Interface DSR line status Interface Test status Interface Test status Interface Test status Interface Test status Interface Test status Interface Test status Interface Test status Interface Test status Interface electrical mode. 1 = Force Active 0 = Normal.90 . 1 = Force Active 0 = Normal. Other options may include G.0 E-7 Status Sync Loss 3 Status Errors 7 Status Bits 1.703 (when released) I/O Ignore I/O Normal I/O Normal I/O Normal RTS Selection Interface RTS line control CTS DCD DTR Selection Selection Selection Interface CTS line control Interface DCD line control Interface DTR line control Page 3-24 PSM-500/500L/500LT .45 E7 Status EFS 99.35 5 = V.

1=A. 2 = to Alarm B Description Interface DSR line control Transmit Data Inversion Transmit Clock Phase. 1 = Inverted 0 = Disabled. 0. 1 = Force Active 0 = Normal. 1 = Enable 0 = Disable. Interface satellite loop-back receive output to xmt input. 1 = to Alarm A.255. 1 = Terrestrial 0 = Disable. 2 = 2^23-1 Allows read of fixed Interface MAC Address. 1 = Inverted 0 = Normal. 3=A & B 0 = Disable. BERT enable from modem receive output.1 SnIP Netwrk Mask 255.Rev. 3=A & B 0=None. 2 = Auto 0 = Normal. BERT enable to modem transmit input.100. 2=B. 1=A. 2 = 2^23-1 3 = Insert 1 Error (if enabled) 0 = Disable. 2=B. BERT Transmit output and Receive input direction. IP Address for Ethernet Interface. Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only 0=None.0 SnIP MAC Addr 0080A800256C SnIP Options 00007f Numeric Numeric Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only Selection Selection Selection Selection Selection Selection Selection SnIP Version 021771-001-50 SnIP Serial# 1200047 Tst Active Alarm A BER Loss Alarm B SnIP Alarm B Alarm to Alarm to Alarm to Test Ter Loopbck Disabled Test Sat Loopbck Disabled Test BER I/O Satellite Test Mod BER Disabled Demod BER Disabled Test Selection ** Interface Status when the SnIP option is installed and enabled can be: PSM-500/500L/500LT .90 Page 3-25 . Receive Data Inversion Receive Clock Phase Allows using Alarm relay contacts to show RTS Status. Auto is now default standard. Displays SnIP Options enabled Displays SnIP Software Version Number Displays SnIP Serial Number Selects destination of alarm Selects destination of alarm Selects destination of alarm Interface terrestrial loop-back xmt input to receive output.. overriding other alarms.168. 1 = Enable 0 = Satellite. SnIP IP Addr 192. 1 = Inverted. 1 = Inverted 0 = Normal.. 1 = 2047.255. 1 = 2047.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation Interface Parameter Detail Representation I/O DSR Normal I/O Xmt Data Normal I/O Xmt Clock Normal Rcv Data Normal I/O Rcv Clock Normal I/O RTS Monitor Normal I/O Type Selection Selection Selection Selection Selection Selection Entry 0 = Normal. 2=B. IP Mask Address for Ethernet Interface. 1=A. 3=A & B 0=None.

Meaning no communications from SnIP card to modem processor. A “break” signal on the communications line.3 Terminal Mode Control The PSM-500 Terminal Mode Control allows the use of an external terminal or computer to monitor and control the modem from a full screen interactive presentation operated by the modem itself.Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem    ”SnIP FAILURE”. A first digit representing the functional area: a) 0 = Unit b) 1 = Modulator c) 2 = Demodulator d) 3 = Test 2. Modulator.g. “SnIP LIMIT ALARM”. No external software is required other than VT100 terminal emulation software (e. The resulting screen display shows all items present in that column of the matrix. The front panel controls for the SDMS are normally only used for basic initial setup. Notice that at the bottom of the screen is a prompt inviting you to select from one of the 4 items as the first step to change to another screen. Any possible screen can be accessed by 2 key presses from any other screen. A single terminal mode screen displays one full column of information from any one of the four matrixes. 3. and then setting the <Unit: Remote – Port>.1 Modem Setup for Terminal Mode Terminal mode communications and protocol is set from the front panel control by setting the <Unit: Remote – Protocol> parameter to “VT100” (Option 0). <Unit: Remote – Rate> and <Unit: Remote – Format> parameters as desired. Demodulator and Interface. The USB connection at J10 cannot be used for Terminal Mode Control. being Unit. When more sophisticated software is loaded into the SDMS control is usually via the Ethernet connection. 0 to 5 for Modulator and Demodulator or 0 to 4 for the Interface). A second digit representing the column number.3. Page 3-26 PSM-500/500L/500LT . For example the basic Unit Status screen shown below lists the status items from the Unit Status column of the Unit Matrix. “SnIP HARD RESET”.90 . Meaning that the SnIP is in process of resetting its parameters. Then a “VT100” protocol terminal is connected to connector J6. To connect to the modem from a computer‟s USB port. All operating software for the terminal mode is contained within the PSM-500 modem internal control software. The number of terminal mode display screens possible is equal to the total number of columns in the four matrixes (24 at current count).Rev. 0. The 2 key presses are: 1. The control port is normally used as an RS–232 connection to the terminal device. and offers a menu allowing change to any controlled parameter. pressing “Control R” on the terminal or power on of the modem will initiate full screen terminal mode printing and redraw the full screen. (0 to 9 for the Unit. The RS–232 operating parameters can be set using the modem front panel and stored in EEPROM for future use. The terminal mode displays the present status of all user parameters controlled and read by the processor. Meaning that the SnIP is not able to process data. use a USB to serial adaptor connected to the DB9 at J6. 3. “Procomm” or “HyperTerminal”) for a computer when used as a terminal.

3)Intf Strike Number/Letter of Option to Select. 1)Mod. 5)Ref.10 Unit ? 0)Status.10 Section ? 0)Unit. 2)Keybrd. 1)Config. 2)Demod. 9)Test Strike Number/Letter of Option to Select. Ok C) Redundcy Internal 1:1 D) Unit ID Model PSM-500 Serial# 13490 Version 0. Figure 3-2a. 6)Redundcy. 4)USB. 7)Monitor. 0. TAB Key Aborts Selection.90 Page 3-27 . 3)Remote. Figure 3-2b. Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Status Screen Selection PSM-500/500L/500LT . TAB Key Aborts Selection.Rev. If we first press the “0” key to indicate that we want to change to a “Unit” screen the following lower screen prompt will be displayed: PSM-500 VT100 Terminal Control Unit Status Modem Demod Tst Active Reference Internal. 8)Alarm. Ok C) Redundcy Internal 1:1 D) Unit ID Model PSM-500 Serial# 13490 Version 0. Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Status Screen Assuming that we wanted to view another of the Unit column screens.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation PSM-500 VT100 Terminal Control Unit Status Modem Demod Tst Active Reference Internal.

This mode normally uses the RS– Page 3-28 PSM-500/500L/500LT .Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Notice now that we can select from the Status. 1)IF. Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Test Screen Notice that some items have a preceding letter with parentheses.3V Power +3. 3. The modem screen will respond by presenting the options. For example. to change the modulator's carrier frequency you must first go to the modulator screen if not already there (Press “1. Selecting for example the “Test” item (selection 9). Items without a preceding letter in parentheses are “Read Only” items.0V Power +5.2V J) Boot Code 0000:0000:0000 Mod ? 0)Status. then the item to be modified and pressing the terminal key of the option letter “A” through “Z”. 0.1V SysClk AFC +9. the modem will place the new setting into the nonvolatile EEPROM making it available not only immediately but also automatically the next time the unit is powered up. The operator input is followed by pressing the “Enter” or carriage return key. Figure 3-3. These are similar to designating the functional area and column of a matrix as when using the front panel.0V +12.0V Power +12. 3.3V +3.0V Power -12. would display the following new screen. Programming is accomplished by selecting first the desired screen.90 .8V -12. Invalid input keys are signaled by a beep or bell signal from the terminal. An input can be aborted at any time before completing by pressing the “TAB” key.3. PSM-500 VT100 Terminal Control Unit Test A) Modem BER Test B) Cal Ref Disabled Ref AFC +1.0V +21. etc. or input range. 1”) and press the terminal's “A” key (lower case is fine!). Keyboard. 2)Data. Following a valid input. These items are programmable via the communications interface. Configuration. columns of the Unit Matrix.0V Power +20. available and waiting for input. Any available “screen” can be displayed with only two keystrokes. TAB Key Aborts Selection.2 Programming Modem Operational Values From the Terminal Screens The modem can be interactively monitored and controlled in the Terminal mode.Rev.4 Remote Command Interface Control The PSM-500 Command Mode allows the use of an external controller or computer to monitor and control the modem via a packet-based message protocol. restoring the previous setting. with a full screen presentation of current settings and status.3V +5. 3)Alarm. 4)Test Strike Number/Letter of Option to Select.

PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem

Operation

485 connections allowing multiple modems (and other devices) to share the command link under control of a single or multiple entities. An RS–232 connection is also usable for this application, but lacks the RS-485‟s ability to work on a “party line” and is therefore limited to a single controller and single modem, for example a computer to a modem. The packets use a unique address for each controlled device, which is set using the modem‟s front panel. The message packets themselves use a binary format for efficiency. The complete protocol is shown in Appendix B. The protocol consists of messages from the controller to the modem and response messages from the modem back to the controller. The modem never initiates communications without having first received a correctly addressed and formed message requiring a response. Message packets to the modem can take two forms; 1. Messages requesting information in a response message or “Read”; 2. Messages commanding a change in operating parameters or “Write”. Any write information is automatically saved to non-volatile memory and is still present on the next power-up. The packet of both incoming and outgoing messages take the same generic form. First are pad and opening flag, then the destination and source addresses, followed by the command code (and read or write mode), then necessary data. The message packet is closed with a closing flag and check word to verify the packet integrity. The use of a source address allows multiple controllers on a single control link.

3.4.1 System Unit Programming/Communications
The communications protocol is unique. This mode is termed “command mode” communications in the following discussion and is normally accomplished via an RS–485 4-wire connection to the modem at “Control” connector J6. Note that the transmit and receive pair of this interface are separated to form a 4-wire basis. If a 2-wire connection is desired, the transmit A and B leads may be connected to the Receive A and B leads respectively in the connector applied to J6. This command mode communications protocol involves the sending of a standard message packet from a controller requesting information or commanding a change. The PSM-500 modem responds with a message packet containing the information or confirmation of change. The Modem never initiates communications at any time except in response to a command or query message from the station controlling devices. The new features and capabilities of the PSM-500 modem over previous versions required modification of the protocol such that older control programs would not work directly. The PSM500 however emulates the protocol used in the PSM-4900 and other M5 series modems within the capabilities of those previous modems. Therefore, the PSM-500 may be placed into a system with existing PSM-4900s and the control mechanisms do not have to be changed until newer feature control is desired. This emulation capability also allows an SDMS type Ethernet interface card designed for an M5 modem to be placed into an M500 series modem and still work. See Appendix B for more information.

3.5 Modem Checkout
The following descriptions assume that the full system is in operation and that software is running properly on the central processor.

3.5.1 Power-Up
On initial and every subsequent power-up, the modem microprocessor will test itself and several of its components before beginning its main monitor/control program. These power-up diagnostics

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Operation

PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem

show no results if successful. If a serious power on failure is detected, the ALARM LED is flashed at an approximate 4 Hz rate. Other failure modes are displayed on the front panel LCD. New modems from the factory have default values placed into the EEPROM for operating parameters. If a Monitor/Control System does not configure the modem automatically via the serial command channel, the modem can be easily configured from the front panel or can be connected to a VT100 protocol terminal to set the modem's operating parameters. To restore the default parameters the modem can be powered on while depressing the “Clear” key. The most common default parameters placed into the EEPROM are as follows: A modem can be returned to the factory default settings by using the front panel command <Unit: Config Recall>, then editing (or quick edit) and choosing the “Factory” or “0” selection option.

Modulator: Carrier Frequency = 70.00 MHz Data Rate = 256 kbps Modulation = QPSK Code Rate = Rate 1/2 Differential Encoder = Enabled Scrambler = Auto Clock phase = Normal Data = Normal Clock Source = Internal RTS = Ignore Carrier = Off. All Mod Alarms to Relay A Modem Unit: Modem Reference: Internal, 10 MHz Remote Port Address = 1 Remote Port = RS-232 Remote Mode = Binary Packet Remote Rate = 9.6 kbps Remote Data Format = 8 data bits, 1 stop, no parity

Demodulator: Carrier Frequency = 70.00 MHz Data Rate = 256 kbps Modulation = QPSK Code Rate = Rate 1/2 Differential Decoder = Enabled Descrambler = Auto Clock phase = Normal Data = Normal Clock Source = Receive Sweep mode = Fast Acquisition Range = +/- 30 kHz All Demod Alarms to Relay B Interface: Mode = RS-449 All Tests Off Data and Clocks in normal mode (not inverted). The XMT Clock now uses a default “Auto” mode that detects the proper phasing and applies it.

In a properly operating system, with an incoming carrier available for the demodulator, the modem‟s Alarm (red) and Warning (yellow) LEDs should all go out. Without an acceptable incoming carrier the Demod “Major Alarm” and “Summary Alarm” will illuminate. When the incoming carrier is acquired, the green “Signal Lock” LED should illuminate. The “Transmit On” LED will also illuminate if the transmit output is enabled.

3.6 L-Band Feature Operation
Note: The following special L-Band features refer to the transmit and receive for the PSM500L and the PSM-500LT .

3.6.1 L-Band BUC Control
The PSM-500L offers 3 specific features related to the control and use of an outdoor Block Up Converter or BUC: Frequency control, power control and reference control. Transmit Frequency Control – When the BUC Local Oscillator or LO frequency is entered into the <Mod: BUC – LO Frequency> parameter the <Mod: IF – Frequency> parameter entry

Page 3-30

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PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem

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allows (and requires) entry of transmit frequency at the actual satellite uplink RF frequency. To return to using L-Band IF frequencies set the BUC – LO Frequency parameter to “0”. BUC Power Control – When a power supply is plugged into the rear panel DIN connector, J10, the PSM-500L uses and internal power relay to control application of power to the BUC‟s transmit input cable under front panel or remote control. The modem can also read the voltage and current being applied to the transmit cable. The PSM-500LT has an integrated BUC power supply. BUC Reference Control – The PSM-500L/LT contains a high stability 10 MHz OCXO reference oscillator designed to provide a suitable reference signal to most BUCs. See the specifications in Appendix A for the exact reference stability, aging, phase noise and level specifications. The application of the reference to the transmit cable is under front panel or remote control, as required by the BUC. Some BUCs use the 10 MHz signal to control application of power to the final PA, removing it and going to a low power state when the 10 MHz is absent.

3.6.2 L-Band LNB Control
The PSM-500L and H offer 3 specific features related to the control and use of an outdoor Low Noise Block Down Converter or LNB: Frequency control, power control and reference control. Receive Frequency Control – When the LNB Local Oscillator or LO frequency is entered into the <Dem: LNB – LO Frequency> parameter the <Dem: IF – Frequency> parameter entry allows (and requires) entry of receive frequency at the actual satellite downlink RF frequency. To return to using L-Band IF frequencies set the LNB – LO Frequency parameter to “0”. LNB Power Control – The PSM-500L and PSM-500LT contain an internal LNB power supply and internal power relay to control application of power to the LNB‟s receive output cable under front panel or remote control. The voltage applied can be chosen for either 18VDC or 13 VDC. The modem can also read the voltage and current being applied to the receive cable. LNB Reference Control – The PSM-500L and PSM-500LT contain an internal 10 MHz reference oscillator designed to provide a suitable signal to those LNBs requiring an external reference. See the specifications in Appendix A for the exact reference stability, aging, phase noise and level specifications. The application of the reference to the receive cable is under front panel or remote control, as required by the LNB.

3.7 Data Interface Clock Options
The modem clocking and options for either VSAT or SCPC operation is discussed below:

3.7.1 VSAT Mode
A typical method of synchronization in a VSAT system is as follows. The master station reference is used to synchronize the master station transmit data clock. The VSAT terminal receive data clock maintains this synchronization. The VSAT terminal DTE equipment may use the receive data clock to synchronize itself and generate the transmit data clock for input to the VSAT modulator either directly via setting the Modulator clock source to “Receive Clock” or indirectly via the Terminal Timing input. Alternately it may use an accurate clock to generate the transmit data clock and input it via the Terminal Timing input.

3.7.2 SCPC Mode
Independent – Each station of two linked SCPC modems is considered independent. The transmit data clock is either an input to or output from each station modulator. The other station receive data clock maintains this synchronization. The clocking in each direction is independent and follows the same transmit to receive synchronization.

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AUPC can be set to operate on either or both directions of a link but always requires a bi–directional channel. “A” continues to increase its power level to compensate. Only one direction is discussed.0 then –6.5 Mbps. Modem “A” is transmitting to modem “B” under normal conditions and modem “B” has a receive Eb/No of 7. Modem “B” is constantly sending update messages to “A” and reports the current Eb/No. The other Page 3-32 PSM-500/500L/500LT . are set to AUPC operation. but not necessarily phase.Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Master/Slave – One station of two linked SCPC modems is considered the master and the other station is considered the slave. 0. the Modulator has two additional parameters which allow control of the maximum and minimum power output level.8 Automatic Uplink Power Control (AUPC) Operation The PSM-500 modem has built-in logic for Automatic Uplink Power Control (AUPC).7. The master transmit data clock is either an input to or output from the master station modulator. As the rain increases in intensity. as the receive data clock. This is especially useful when operating over a satellite at Ku-Band frequencies in locations with high rainfall periods. The modem measures the phase relationship between the transmit clock and data and automatically sets the clock phase correctly. and when the rain diminishes and quits.8 dB. which is now the default setting.3 Transmit Interface Clock Auto Mode The PSM-500 Modem uses a transmit clock option called “Auto”.5 dB. it also lowers its power level to compensate. and is currently outputting –15 dBm. and the Eb/No decreases again. Sets minimum output power to be used. The receive data clock is used to generate a contra–directional transmit data clock (from modulator to DTE) of the same frequency. When “A” sees the drop in Eb/No. 3. The AUPC function requires a data channel at 300 baud in order to operate. one at each end of the link. it slowly begins to raise the output power. Modem “A” has been set to an AUPC Eb/No on the front panel of 7. This data channel can either be external to the modem (that is provided by an external multiplexer or telephone line modem) or provided by the internal IBS multiplexer when enabled.Rev. There must be safeguards built into the AUPC system. and the Eb/No drops to –7.5 dB. and raises it again when it sees further drops. Sets maximum output power to be used. AUPC attempts to maintain a constant Eb/No at the receive end of an SCPC link. The new clock mode appears in the "Interface I/O" menu column under “Xmt Clock” and is not settable. Desired Eb/No of remote modem. but the same functions could be occurring in both directions simultaneously. The internal data multiplexer in “Enhanced” mode provides a 300 baud service channel between the two sites of a link permitting the modem processors to send messages and get responses over this channel. The basic AUPC operation is described as follows: Assume that the two modems. Note: The “Enhanced” or “Custom” Multiplexer mode MUST be selected to provide a channel for AUPC operation from the IBS multiplexer option.90 . Next it begins raining at location “B”. 3. First. The operation is therefore a feedback control loop with the added complication of a significant time delay. The AUPC functions and their descriptions are shown in the table below: Function AUPC ENABLE/DISABLE MOD AUPC Eb/No MOD AUPC MIN LVL MOD AUPC MAX LVL Description Enables/Disables the AUPC to function locally. The slave station receive data clock maintains this synchronization. This gives improved performance on slightly longer data cables when operating at bit rates above approximately 1.

2. External FIFO Clock – (Option 2) This option allows a station-derived standard clock rate to be used to clock data out of the FIFO.070 bits at any data rate. For example if the buffer was set to 2 mS of delay and the fill is 150% this represents 3 mS of delay.92 Mbps) to over 42. An overrun occurs when a bit is clocked into the FIFO causing the fill to reach a full 200% of the selected value. resulting in a delay ranging from 0. each bit represents 25%).PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation controls are built into the operating control software to limit response times and detect adverse operating conditions. disabling the FIFO. The modem processor also keeps track of and can display the current FIFO fill percentage status. NOTE: When the number of bits of delay are very small. The “out” clock can come from one of four sources: 1. Modulator Clock – (Option 3) Uses the modulator data rate clock as the output clock and obviously requires that the modulator and demodulator data rate be identical.070 bits at 2400 bps). Internal Clock – (Option 1) Uses a dedicated modem internal NCO generated data rate clock as the output clock.00081mS (4 bits at 4. If the daily or weekly average rate is the same then this temporal variation can be absorbed by the receive FIFO without ever losing data (assuming the FIFO is large enough). The processor computes the other value based on the one entered and the current data rate. and consists of selecting the output clock source. restoring the fill to 100%. recentering the FIFO. one bit may represent a large percentage change (e.90 Page 3-33 .9 Demodulator Receive Data FIFO Operation The PSM-500 modem has a built-in First In First Out (FIFO) buffer on the receive data channel that may be enabled to compensate for cyclical variations in the receive data rate or different systems clocks at the two link ends. This type of variation is termed Doppler variation and the buffer to absorb the variation is a Doppler Buffer. The FIFO sets the delay or number of bits selected upon activation and this center value represents 100% FIFO fill. The delay may be set from 4 bits to 131. The Receive FIFO operation can be set from the front panel or remote control. 0. The percentage fill can also represent the percentage of delay with respect to the setting. Other data rate variations between the transmitting and receiving stations which are not periodic (that is average to zero) can still be buffered by the FIFO. This type of clock difference is usually uni-directional and cumulative. automatically changing the number of bits stored in the buffer to compensate. Use of this clock does not require that the modulator and demodulator data rate be identical. Receive Clock – (Option 0) Meaning that the input and output clocks are the same.000 mS (131. 4. Cyclical variations are most often caused by the daily movement of the satellite in its position resulting in a varying distance from earth station locations. but will eventually result in lost data. and one that clocks the data out of the FIFO. and either the delay time desired in milliseconds or the number of bits of delay. 3. This movement would cause the receive data rate to increase during a portion of the day and decrease during other periods. 3. The data flushed is lost and cannot be recovered. Operation of the FIFO requires two clock sources: one that clocks the data into the FIFO.Rev. The externally supplied clock must be equal to the average receive data rate. if the delay is only 4 bits. A receive buffer of this type is sometimes referred to as a Plesiochronous buffer when the intent is to absorb different clocks on the transmit and receive end. which is always the clock recovered from the received signal. When the data rate is changed the modem maintains delay time constant. At any time the FIFO may contain from 0% to 200% of the set value. This causes flushing the upper half of the FIFO.g. PSM-500/500L/500LT .

Note that frames will still be errored by the under or overrun.3.10. Since these switches are often mechanical relays they actually have a poor failure rate. resending all the data in the buffer. In a priority system one unit is considered primary and the other secondary. When an under or over-run occurs an internal modem flag is set indicating that a re-center has occurred. In overview the procedure is to: Page 3-34 PSM-500/500L/500LT . the priority scheme would also create more switching and is not normally used anyway. This is a very low cost method of achieving redundancy and because of the design has both advantages and disadvantages:   Advantage – The second or current back-up unit can be sent its full configuration from the on-line unit. but also additional information on options and parameters used to determine operating modes. but with only one unit “on-line”.1 Setting Up 1:1 Redundancy Mode Redundancy mode between a pair of modems is normally accomplished during installation.Rev. A diagram of the connections is shown in Section 2. For example if the total frame size is 512 bits and the buffer is set to a size of 1024 bits an under or over-run would result in the frame flags remaining in the same location in the data stream.10 Built-in 1:1 Redundancy Mode Operation The PSM-500 modem has a built-in 1:1 redundancy mode that allows two modems to be connected together sharing connections. 0. Advantage – Since the units are fully programmable concerning alarm content that determines the switching criteria. Pressing the “0” key on this parameter will clear the “Slip Status”. 3.90 . Both conditions result in a potential serious disruption of traffic. This also causes recentering of the FIFO by resetting the buffer pointers to the mid or 100% level.Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem An under-run occurs when the last bit is clocked out of the FIFO. The built-in software provides automatic back-up protection should the on-line unit indicate a failure by switching to a functioning off-line unit. Disadvantage – There is no single point control allowing forced switching away from one unit.     Of course the major advantage to the built-in redundancy capability is its extreme low cost. If both units show good status the primary is always on-line. reliability (with respect to a classic scheme) is not seriously compromised. In “framed” communications the severity of the disruption can be minimized by setting the buffer size in bits to multiples of the frame size. Disadvantage – There is no separate physical switch which provides a positive lock-out of a seriously failed unit that may not be able to turn its output signals off. At the front panel the command is <Dem: Status . The front panel display shows “Slip” and FIFO fill data percentages read from the remote port are negative numbers.Buffer> and pressing the “1” key. Advantage – The single point failure of the switch in a classic 1:1 redundancy scheme is eliminated. but synchronization may not be lost. making set-up extremely easy. emptying it. Forced switching is accomplished only “from” the currently on-line unit. If a superframe structure is used it is likely that synchronization will still be lost. then "Enter" to confirm.6. The FIFO may also be re-centered at any time on command from either the front panel or via the remote control. The procedure outlined here provides that information again. this method is more flexible than most redundancy schemes. This latched flag may be reset at the front panel or by writing to the remote port FIFO parameter. Disadvantage – There is no mode forcing a priority unit. But. 3.

Turn the secondary unit on. where the highest serial number wins the tie. <Unit: Redundncy – Sw Hold> This parameter determines how long an alarm must exist on the on-line unit and not the off-line unit before switching will occur. Connect the IF and data cables to both units. Demodulator and Unit. and should be at the same firmware revision for proper redundant operation. including setting the redundancy parameter to “1:1”. Verify that the units are functioning correctly in redundancy mode. This initial unit should not be in alarm. The special data “Y” cable is connected between the redundant pair. The primary unit should say “Sending Config” for approximately 1 second. Go to the menu in the <Unit: Redundancy – Config> and press the “Edit” key. 3. 1. This might occur if both units are powered on simultaneously or the receive carrier appears after being off or a necessary clock signal is applied to both units. A quick status to determine which modem is currently on ”On-Line” and the failure state of the paired modems is done by viewing the LED indicators on the front panels. but with its power off. 3. 5. Go to the <Unit: Status – Redundancy> item in both units. Allowable values are 0. The on-line unit will say “On-Line. Since the specific alarms which comprise Alarm A and Alarm B are programmable themselves.  The possible case can arise when both units go out of alarm at virtually the same time. The possible selections are “On Any Alarm”. If any packet transferred results in an error message a “Send Fail” message will be displayed. OK”.0 seconds. but one modem will have the green Modulator Transmit LED illuminated and the other will have the transmit LED extinguished. then a switch request is highly programmable itself. A nominal value of 0. “On Alarm A”. 2. 0. which unit will be placed on line is determined by the unit serial numbers. or “On Alarm A & B”. Configure the first modem completely for the intended operating parameters.5 seconds insures that intermittent cases do not cause undue switching. “On Alarm B”. Physically install the second unit to be paired. A built in factor of 10 seconds is provided once a switch has occurred before a switch back to the original unit is allowed (except in the case of a manual switch request or loss of power in the on-line unit which requires 2 seconds). but this is not advised. The value could be set to zero.2 Operating 1:1 Redundancy Mode Operation of a redundant pair of modems consists mainly of determining the status of units and forcing transfer of operation from one unit to the other.Rev. PSM-500/500L/500LT .0 to 600. 6. Tear-down or un-pairing of two units is accomplished by turning both units off before removing the “Y” cable. In a fully operating setup there will be no alarms on either unit.10. For most applications though the default “On Any Alarm” is a preferred selection. Then turn the units back on and set the redundancy to “Disabled” Two parameters are added to the unit redundancy menu when redundancy is enabled:  <Unit: Redundncy – Sw Rqst> This parameter allows you to determine which alarm indications result in a switch request. but the remainder of the transfer will continue. Confirm by pressing “Enter”.90 Page 3-35 .PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation Note: The two modems MUST be the same model number and type. The other LED indicators still show the relevant condition of the Modulator. In such tie cases. The on-line unit will ask permission to transfer configuration to the second unit. 4. Bckup OK” while the off-line unit will say “Standby.

  On the currently “On-Line” unit go to the<Unit: Status – Redundcy> parameter and press the “Edit” key. Errored Bits. Total Bits. 3.3 Removal and Replacement of Units in Redundancy Mode It may be necessary to remove a unit of a redundant pair and replace that unit with another. In overview the procedure is to: 1. 3. Erred Seconds and Total Seconds. BER test results include BER.10. and 3. Error Free Seconds. Replacement is the reverse of this procedure. The procedure however can only be accomplished on the unit that is currently “On-Line”. If there is no backup unit or the backup unit is itself in alarm then the transfer will not be completed and an error message is displayed. 3.90 . “2047” and “2^23 –1” and maintains even complex BER test results. 2. The following method performs that function with the minimum disruption to the traffic status. BER Tests should not be performed on a live traffic unit. The unit currently Off-Line will present its status on the lower line of the LCD display as “Standby OK” or “OFFLINE – ALARM”.1 Forcing a Transfer Switch in 1:1 Redundancy Mode The 1:1 “transfer” process of forcing the two paired modems to swap their on-line/off-line status is a one step process. BCKUP ALM – The backup modem is in an alarm state. Tests can be re-started at will and run via the remote control and from the front panel.Rev. The direction is controlled via the Interface <Intf: Test – BER I/O> parameter and can be selected for either “Satellite” or Page 3-36 PSM-500/500L/500LT . Physical removal of the unit. 0. The unit currently On-Line will present its status on the lower line of the LCD display as “Online – xxxxx” where xxxxx could be one of several messages:     Bckup OK – This modem thinks that everything is fine.11 Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) Set Operation The PSM-500 modem has a built-in BERT that can be individually enabled in the transmit and receive direction.10. Pressing the “enter key will cause the unit to go off-line and the currently “Off-Line” backup unit to go “On-Line”. The normal mode as available in the PSM-4900 involves the BER transmitting in the direction of the satellite and receiving from the satellite direction.2. Disconnection of cables from the now off-line unit. Force a switch away from the unit to be removed (if it is currently on-line).Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem A more thorough status condition is viewed by setting both modems to the <Unit: Status – Redundcy> parameter.  CAUTION: Enabling the BER Test set will result in disruption of any traffic currently through the PSM-500 in the direction that is enabled. It is capable of operating with two standard patterns. The PSM-500 BER Test set can be “pointed” in two possible directions. NO BCKUP – No backup modem was found via the aux communications channel. Sync Loss. An alternate mode allows the BER set to transmit and receive toward the terrestrial data interface or “line” side. The LCD display will present the message “Enter to Xsfer?”.

52 of the modem firmware allows the power up behavior of the modem to be selected as either “Last” or recalling one of the 8 stored configurations.0 Volts.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation “Terrestrial”. The default stored in each configuration is the factory settings. protecting the driver circuitry from shorts. When any other value up to 14. These two settings can control the output slope (gain and direction) and offset. including one permanent configuration called “Factory” which is a set of default configurations. Processor access and control of these signals allows a highly flexible output format tailored to the user‟s requirements. The automatic configuration recovery feature. or ACR is also commonly used with the ability to turn the carrier off after loss of receive carrier. The slope of this response is negative relative to the receive signal level.. Each configuration has an associated time parameter that is normally set to a 0 (zero) value. This automatic recall is termed “Restore” on the control options. the receive Eb/No and the transmit output power level. Any stored configuration can then be recalled. A feature added in version 0. These are the receive Automatic Gain Control (AGC) level. 3. PSM-500/500L/500LT .0 Volts and the <Unit: Monitor . In this case we would set the <Unit: Monitor . Last is the normal previous mode where the modem powers up using the last settings. The analog output presented at the rear panel Alarm connector J5 has a 1kΩ output impedance. which can output the selected value continuously to the rear panel Alarm connector via a 16 bit digital to analog converter. 0.2.0 Volts to +10. 3.Full> to 0.8 will recall any stored configuration on power up. 3. The use of the BERT is more fully described in the Maintenance Section 4.1. Note that these voltages can vary with data rate and other factors. Recall 1. Each of these is a digital value accessible to the main processor.400 seconds is placed in this parameter then that configuration is recalled if the current configuration results in a loss of carrier for more than the specified number of seconds. In addition to selecting the parameter value to output the processor allows control of the “full scale” and “zero scale” output voltage over a range of –10. The PSM-500 has a carrier input range of approximately –20 to –60 dBm. The Satellite direction looks to the modem as if a DTE is sending and receiving data.13 Storing and Recalling Configuration The PSM-500 modem has a built-in function allowing the operator to store the current complete configuration in one of 8 numbered locations.14 Automatic Configuration Recovery .12 Analog Monitor Output Operation The PSM-500 modem has a built-in function to output an analog voltage representing the current value of one of three internal parameters. The AGC over this range is a voltage varying from approximately –5 Volts at the maximum input and +5 Volts at the minimum input. These settings have the effect of inverting the slope of the AGC signal and applying an offset of +5 Volts to the output. To illustrate consider the example of outputting the receive AGC (representative of received signal level) to automatic antenna positioning equipment.ACR The PSM-500 modem has an additional feature related to the ability to store and recall configurations.Zero> to +10.0 Volts.Rev. Any or all of the 8 configurations can be set to be automatically recalled in the event of receive carrier loss for more than a specified number of seconds. Next assume that the positioning equipment wants a positive slope between 0 and +10 Volts. The Terrestrial direction appears to the line as if a DCE device is sending and receiving data.90 Page 3-37 . where +10 Volts represents the maximum received signal level.

By first storing the current configuration in one available location. 3. Upon losing the receive carrier again the modem will restart the configuration sequence beginning with the lowest numbered configuration having an associated non-zero time. A user can select any of the 8 stored configurations to be recalled on each power-up cycle. With this setting the transmit carrier is turned off when no receive carrier is present. This ability is only available via remote control. 10 seconds later the modem will return to the home location awaiting another assignment. Consider a demand access type system where modems not currently in use are intended to be placed at a “home” location. Several examples more clearly illustrate the use and operation of the automatic configuration recovery (ACR). but may be of use by other user. and then setting the time to perhaps 30 seconds (all over the link itself) for that configuration then the remote modem can safely be sent a command to change frequency (for example) knowing that if the modem does not lock up to a receive carrier in 30 seconds it will return to the current configuration.15 Special Control Mechanisms The PSM-500 modem includes several special controls that were built in for specific customer systems. By storing the necessary parameters for the home location in configuration #1.1 Power-Up Behavior The PSM-500 modem has the capability to always revert to the transmit carrier disabled on power-up. Setting this option in the <Modulator: IF Mute> parameter allows such operation. The sequence is repeating with the highest configuration with a non-zero time “wrapping” around to the lowest. and when on #1 for 2 seconds with no receive carrier then the modem changes to configuration #4. Then upon receiving an assignment.90 .Rev. Consider a simpler system that uses the multiplexer option to remotely program a far end modem. 3.Operation PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem  Note: The ACR is not available when the modem is operating in a redundancy mode.15. The normal behavior is for the modem to power-up with the last settings still in effect. not the front panel. This are listed here since they are not considered normal options and could be easily overlooked. 0. Multiple configurations can have time settings associated with them. One of the options in the Unit Configuration column is “Power-Up” control (<Unit: Config – PwrUp>). and setting the configuration #1 time to 10 seconds. This might be useful for example in mobile environments where the antenna may not be deployed or aligned on each power-up cycle. In other cases the user may require that the modem always revert to a specific configuration on power-up. even if commanded on. Note that all of the above examples would be “safer” if the <Dem: Alarm – CXR Lock> is set to “Mute and …”. the modem will return to home whenever no carrier is received for 10 seconds. Caution – What is not immediately obvious is that the time set is the time of the “current” configuration with no carrier before switching to that configuration. This could be useful in a mobile environment or a DAMA system where a “home” channel is desired on each Page 3-38 PSM-500/500L/500LT . The result is that each configuration will be tried in turn until a carrier is found and locked. If a remote unattended modem is erroneously commanded to a location and does not find the carrier then it may be impossible to “re-acquire” that modem. Thus if configuration #1 is set to 12 seconds and #4 is set to 2 seconds (all others being set to zero) then when on #4 for 12 seconds with no receive carrier the modem will change to #1. This would consist of mainly a receive IF frequency and data rate where the modem could receive assignment information. necessitating a technician to visit that site. and passing data traffic the link “tear-down” only requires removing the inbound carrier. going to the new assigned set-up. The default setting is to “Last” which performs as the normal described above.

Rev. 2. The modulator burst mode is controlled by the interface RTS/CTS and data flag signals. The RTS from the DTE device is normally active. causing the modem to generate a preamble and initiate the “Carrier ON” command. also on the rear panel J5 connection. The modulator responds to the DTE device when ready to transmit by activating the CTS signal. it drops the CTS indicating that a new data message cannot be started. It is the responsibility of the user to set alarms properly when using this unique feature. 4. 3.2 Monitors and Outputs The PSM-500 has always had the ability to send one of 3 measured parameters to an analog monitor output on the rear panel Alarm connector at pin 5 of J5. The idle character from the DTE is a continuous Mark condition. When the last data bit is sent. either logic direction can be chosen for the output to use in controlling other equipment. PSM-500/500L/500LT . 0.15. 3. 3. This relay control is also not debounced with a time delay.16 Burst Mode Operation Note: As of the time of this manual the burst mode is a special factory request option and not installed in standard modems. In a large system units can be pre-set to a specific configuration for use in initially bringing up a site and then easily changed to another configuration for normal operation.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Operation power-up. and turn the carrier OFF. Since these relays are form C. The first non–SDLC/HDLC flag character received by the modulator is the start of transmission signal. Transmission continues with data bytes placed after the preamble.90 Page 3-39 . the modulator will reassert the CTS signal. Any time after the CTS is received by the DTE. Caution – Setting this to either Alarm A or B relay will override an other settings going to that alarm relay. Control of this feature is in the <Intf: I/O – RTS Monitor> parameter. The modulator output carrier is off in this idle state. The sequence of events for the burst mode is as follows: 1. A newer monitor output added in Version 0. the DTE starts transmitting flags and/or data. When the closing flag is detected by the modulator. This feature is independent of the <Intf: I/O – RTS> parameter which can be used to control the Carrier enable via the RTS status. 5. The next SDLC/HDLC flag received by the modulator is the end of transmission signal. The following description is typical of burst operations. therefore a fast changing or chattering RTS signal will cause the relay to chatter.47 of the modem code allows putting the Data Interface RTS status onto either the A or B Alarm relay output.

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this can be performed on a unit “on-location”.  Caution: The Reference Calibration procedure may result in lost traffic during performance of the calibration! The calibration should not be performed in operating links without prior arrangements. The modem self test can be used to check out a modem within a system or stand alone on a bench. They should not be used in operating links without prior arrangements. link or system is first installed and placed in service it is common to run several tests to verify proper performance of each of the equipment items in the link. Go to <Unit: Test – Cal Ref> to enable the calibration procedure. The basic procedure used is to PSM-500/500L/500LT . If this does not cure the problem. These aids consist of the modem self test procedure. the multiple “Loop-Back” modes available and the built-in BERT.1 Internal Reference Calibration If desired. 4. A recommended interval for the reference calibration would be after the first 6 months to a year in service and on a yearly basis thereafter.000 hours. 4. 4. The unit contains no adjustments and most calibration is digital and held in EEPROM. or if it is suspected that the modem‟s internal reference requires calibration. The procedure is described in more detail in Section 4. It requires nothing more than power. wiring or power should be suspect. 0. There is no external fuse on the PSM-500 Modem. The only moving part is the internal fan. The calibration of the modem‟s internal reference from an externally applied reference is an automatic procedure enabled from the unit‟s front panel. Should a unit be suspected of a defect in field operations after all interface signals are verified the proper procedure is to replace the unit with another known working modem.Rev.0.1 Common Test Procedures When a modem.3 below. and isolating potential problems. The fuse is located on the power supply assembly inside the case. The PSM-500 is designed to aid in this process by providing built in test modes geared to verifying performance.1 Loop-Back Testing The Loop-Back modes are typically used in a wired link with DTE equipment that can transmit and verify receipt or preferably a Bit Error Rate Test Set (BERT).2. and replacement is not intended in the field. Before beginning an internal reference calibration an external reference must be applied and the <Unit: Ref – Source> must be set to “External”. These facilities are also useful when troubleshooting system or link problems which involve the modem. which is designed for a service life in excess of 200. other equipment in the link.0 Periodic Maintenance The PSM-500 requires no mandatory periodic field maintenance procedures.90 Page 4-1 . There are no batteries or parts requiring periodic service contained within the case.Maintenance 4.1.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Maintenance Chapter 4 . The external reference should be of known accuracy before attempting calibration.  Caution: All of the modem operating procedures described below will result in loss of traffic.

More detail on each of the typical loop back uses is given below.  Near End Terrestrial Data Loop-Back: This will be the closest loop-back to the DTE or BERT. The simplified diagram below shows the location of the PSM-500‟s built in loop-back functions within the link from one end of a link to the other. modulation. More information on using the PSM-500‟s internal BERT is given below. Page 4-2 PSM-500/500L/500LT . Satellite Link Far Modem Near Modem Built-in BERT is located here. DTE Or BERT Far End Satellite Data Loop-Back Near IF Loop-Back Near End Terrestrial.Sat Loopbck> respectively.Sat Loopbck>.Ter Loopbck> and <Int’f: Test . Data Loop-Back Each of these loop-back modes are individually programmable at the modem front panel or remote control interface. Far End Satellite Data Loop-Back: This will test most of the satellite link as well as the functions checked in test 2 above. the satellite link and originating end wiring. Note in this test that the near end satellite and IF loop-back functions should not be enabled whether using the internal or an external BERT. Note from the position of the built-in BERT in the diagram above that this test requires an external source of data. This tests both modems.Maintenance PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem transmit a data signal at one end of the link and sequentially set each of the loop-back options. demodulation. Data Loop-Back Near End Satellite. This modem can alternatively be set to use its internal clock for the transmit clock timing and provide that signal to the BERT for synchronization. receive signal processing.IF Loopbck>. If data is returned and received properly it indicates that the DTE wiring and connection to the modem are correct. 0. Near End IF Loop-Back: This second loop-back will verify the modem transmit data signal processing. The PSM-500 sets the IF loop-back in <Dem: Test . The advantage to having these functions built-in is that they are electronically programmable without having to disconnect existing cabling to connect equipment that must be available for testing. Note in this test that the near end satellite loop-back function should not be enabled whether using the internal or an external BERT. Proper reception of the loop-back data verifies all components between the source and the loop. The PSM-500 sets the satellite side loop-back in <Int’f: Test . The signal is sent over the satellite (or test setup) and is looped back at the satellite side of the data interface on the far end. while the connected modem is set to use the terminal timing signal as the transmit bit rate clock source.90 .   In this type of testing an external BERT is typically set to provide a terminal timing output. and connection to the receive interface.Rev. Setting this mode slaves the modulator timing to the demod timing and the FIFO buffer remains engaged if enabled. The PSM-500 can individually set the data path terrestrial side loop-back and the data path satellite side loopback in <Int’f: Test .

even if enabled. Test BER – The ratio of errored bits to un-errored bits since the test began or was last reset. When the Demodulator receive BER Test is enabled the test results are available in the <Int’f: Status . Erred Sec – The total number of seconds with errors occurring during that particular second. although this has not been extensively tested.2 errors per million bits. Errored seconds accumulate during a synch loss 7. 2. Total Sec – The total number of seconds since the test began or was last reset.200 E-6 is 1. allowing for automated and periodic testing of units not in service.2 Using the Built-in BERT The PSM-500 contains a complete transmit and receive Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) set.yyy) is always between 0 and 10 and power is the power of 10. A single error may be inserted when the BER test is active to verify proper operation by using the <Int’f: Test – Mod BER> parameter and pressing “3” and “Enter”. EFS – Error Free Seconds.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Maintenance 4.00%”. No errors are expressed as 0. A restart on any items resets all items and values. Compiled since the test began or was last reset. Since Errored bits do not accumulate during a sync loss. or 1. Bits – The total number of bits that have been received since the test began or was last reset. With either transmit or receive being enabled by choosing either the 2047 or 2^23-1 test pattern options. PSM-500/500L/500LT . Both should be the same to operate properly.2 errored bits in 10^6 bits. 3. 6. while the receive comes from the modem‟s receive side.Rev. No errors are shown as “100. Errored bits do not accumulate during a sync loss. Errors – The total number of bit errors that have occurred since the test began or was last reset.90 Page 4-3 . This could be useful since it is sometimes difficult to see errors with the Turbo Product Codes FEC.000E-power.yyy E-power where the mantissa (x. 5. It is not designed to transmit and receive signals from the terrestrial side of the data connection. If the built-in BERT is being used the local “satellite loop-back” function should not be enabled. Each direction is independent and can be used for either loop-back testing or uni-directional testing with another PSM-500 on the other end of the link. For example 1. 0. Thus data traversing through either of these loop-backs does not involve the BER test sets. The percentage of the total number of seconds with no errors occurring during that particular second. These 7 items are: 1. The transmit output from the built-in BERT always faces toward the modem‟s transmit or satellite side. Errored seconds accumulate during a sync loss. 4. All of these settings and test results are also available via the remote control interface. The test is reset or started over by viewing any of the 7 status items listed above and pressing the “Edit” or “0” key. In the loop-back diagram shown above the BER test sets are physically between the satellite and terrestrial loop-back functions. The Modulator (Transmit) BERT is enabled at <Int’f: Test – Mod BER>. then responding to the prompt “Enter to Restart” by pressing “Enter”.Test> parameter item and the 7 items below it in the Interface Status column. it is possible to lose sync for several seconds and not have the BER affected. and the Demodulator (Receive) BERT is enabled at < Int’f: Test – Dem BER >. Sync Loss – The total number of sync losses that have occurred since the test began or was last reset. Expressed in bits per bit as x.1. since the test began or was last reset. Since the test sequences used are industry standard it should also be possible to use the built in BERT with an external BERT and any brand of modem at the other link end.

0. The most common are an adjacent large carrier.90 . Action: Check that the receive cabling is correct. Most of these cases can more easily be determined with a spectrum analyzer. Setting the value to 30 kHz is a standard value encompassing all normal offsets. After acquisition. Self Test or IF Loop-back disconnects the Demodulator from the IF receive input connector. Possible Cause: Receive carrier level too low. locate and measure the receive level. that the downconverter is properly set and that the LNA is turned on. When simple solutions yield not results then test equipment may be necessary to help isolate the trouble. this method will quickly eliminate items from the potential source list. One obvious and time-honored method of isolating problems is to substitute suspect equipment with known good equipment. The two drawbacks to this method are the availability of extra equipment and the possibility of interaction between two or more equipment items. A spectrum analyzer is invaluable. antenna feed polarization off resulting in carrier interference in opposite polarization. So is a Bit Error Rate Test set (BERT). Action: Check the receive acquisition range is adequate for the possible system offsets. Action: The interference can take many forms.2 Troubleshooting The following is a list of possible problems that could be caused by failures of the modem or improper setup and configuration for the type of service. Symptom: The Modem will not acquire the incoming carrier: Possible Cause: Improper receive input to modem.Maintenance PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem 4. which should not be below –60 dBm absolute. Page 4-4 PSM-500/500L/500LT . Possible Cause: Receive carrier frequency outside of acquisition range. Since this the vast majority of internal circuitry then a pass on this test means that the user should probably concentrate on parameter settings and external equipment and connections. The PSM-500 has a built in BERT function. intermodulation products. The list is arranged by possible symptoms exhibited by the modem. Possible Cause: Modem is in test mode. Action: Check the receive parameter settings and ensure that they match those on the modulator. Possible Cause: Interference on the satellite. Possible Cause: Transmit carrier incompatible. At lower data rates the input level may be as low as –84 dBm. In most cases the first attempt at isolating a problem suspected of being within the modem is to place the modem in the Self-Test Mode.Rev. If a spectrum analyzer is available. Assuming that the configuration setting of the equipment is not the source of the problem. Action: Check the modem front panel for yellow warning LEDs indicating a test mode is enabled. the actual receive frequency can be read from the front panel. Action: Check that the receive cabling is correct. If possible move to another operating frequency to see if that resolves the problem.

Substitution of another modem will verify the correct modem functioning. intense rain can cause poor receive performance. Action: Check the actual receive carrier frequency and the receive offset at the front panel and set the acquisition range appropriately. Action: The dependence up good phase noise in converter equipment is especially noticeable at low data rates and when using QPSK modulation. but this cause could apply to a mixed system linked to another modem. Action: Check the current state of the Demod Clock and Data Phase.90 Page 4-5 . Possible Cause: Transmit and Receive scrambler or differential encoder options do not match or not enabled. In Ku–Band systems. 0. In a small station ensure that the antenna is “peaked” on the satellite.Rev. rain fade can cause significant receive level variance. Change the carrier input level to within the correct range. In a Ku-Band station. Possible Cause: Transmit or Receive Converter equipment noisy. Possible Cause: Receive acquisition range set too narrow. Note – The differential encoder in the PSM-500 is under processor control only. Symptom: The Modem receive FIFO buffer indicates “Slip”. Possible Cause: Receive data or clock inverted. Possible Cause: Receive Carrier signal Eb/No is too low resulting in poor BER performance. Possible Cause: Receive level varying out of AGC range. When the carrier drifts outside of the acquisition range the demodulator looses lock until the carrier returns inside the acquisition range. Action: Check the actual receive input level at the front panel. but is detrimental to proper low data rate performance. Action: Check the current state of the Scrambler and differential encoder. PSM-500/500L/500LT . Very low frequency phase noise on the converter oscillators is very difficult to see or measure. Possible Cause: The FIFO automatically re-centers when an overrun or under-run condition occurs. Symptom: The Modem output data is corrupted. Possible Cause: The FIFO automatically re-centers when an overrun or under-run condition occurs.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Maintenance Symptom: The Modem acquires a carrier but loses lock intermittently. Try inverting the phase. No amount of buffering will correct for different clocks on the input and output of the FIFO. Action: Ensure that the transmit end is properly set and that the receive subsystems are all operating correctly. In all operating systems the differential encoder/decoder and one of the available scramblers must be enabled. Action: Check that the proper clocking options are used and the FIFO buffer is set large enough to handle the expected satellite Doppler shift over a 24 hour period. Symptom: Receive DTE equipment indicates “clock slip” or “sync lost”.

DEM LOCKincoming carrier.Q channel FPGA program faultfilter failed to program correctly. Normally this would result only from an onboard fault. (Red) – Indicates that the demodulator (Red) – Indicates that the I channel filter (Red) – Indicates that the Q channel 12. Page 4-6 PSM-500/500L/500LT . DS3 .(Red) – Indicates that the 80 MHz clock hardware has failed.DSTP FAULT. DS11 .I channel FPGA program faultfailed to program correctly.MSTP FAULT.MLO FAULT. DS10 .(Red) – Indicates that the receive step synthesizer is unlocked. No amount of buffering will correct for different clocks on the input and output of the FIFO. 0. DS13 . (Red) – Indicates that the modulator 4. DS5 .(Red) – Indicates that the onboard TCXO reference oscillator is not phase locked when set to an external reference input. DS9 . Normally this would result only from an onboard fault.(Red) – Indicates that the transmit bit timing is not synchronized.REF FAULT. DS7 . DS2 .90 .Rev.2. 14. DS1 .DLO FAULT. 6. DS8 . 1.2 Onboard Processor Power-On Sequence and Diagnostics The processor goes through the following sequence every time the modem is powered up. 4. DS4 . (Red) – Indicates that the front panel 4. 2. Sets up the stack pointer and initializes the register bank.System Clock Alarm. 7.1 Onboard Diagnostic Indicators There are 8 LEDs on the main PWB which provide diagnostic information about the status of various functions: 1.(Red) – Indicates that the transmit step synthesizer is unlocked.MBIT FAULT. DS12 . 3. 9. 11. 5.(Red) – Indicates that the receive Local Oscillator synthesizer is unlocked. Normally this would result only from an onboard fault. (Green) – Indicates that the demod hardware has locked to an 8.2.Demodulator FPGA program faultFPGA failed to program correctly. The most common reason for this fault should be that the modem is set for external Transmit Timing input and either none is present or the applied signal is off frequency. Normally this would result only from an onboard fault. Action: Check the current state of the Demod Clock Phase. 10.MOD ENABLE(Green) – Indicates that the modulator hardware has enabled the transmit carrier. DS14 .Front Panel FPGA program faultFPGA failed to program correctly. DS6 . Try inverting the phase.Modulator FPGA program faultFPGA failed to program correctly. Possible Cause: Receive signal or clock inverted.(Red) – Indicates that the transmit Local Oscillator synthesizer is unlocked. 13.Maintenance PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Action: Check that the proper clocking options are used and the FIFO buffer is set large enough to handle the expected satellite Doppler shift over a 24 hour period.

When the operating software changes the Revision number is updated. If any value does not work correctly. The standard or optional interfaces are interrogated for type and installed options. the initialization is halted and an endless loop is entered putting out a square wave on ALARM LED. the initialization is halted and an endless loop is entered putting out a square wave on the ALARM LED. 7. Initializes the serial UARTs. The most common is to download newer software revisions via the Internet and install from a Window‟s type USB capable PC using the modem‟s USB control port. 6. A message is displayed on the front panel LCD.2. 3. 0. 4. 10. Some changes may involve modification of the information or structure in the nonvolatile EEPROM storage. but they may change as to provide easier operation – check the web site for the latest: PSM-500/500L/500LT .2. 8. This is meant to be viewed by an operator. There are separate firmware files for the main unit and the FEC card The following are typical of the file types and ZIP contents. During the 4 seconds of this test both alarm relays are forced off. If the checksum does not correspond to that in the ROM. The latest versions of firmware.90 Page 4-7 . but this method is not recommended because of the large amount of firmware and the slow serial connection. Initializes all variables and internal components. 9. and should be checked for the latest instructions before attempting the procedures below The complete software update “package” consists of two or three ZIP compressed files – One holding the Update program with a Window‟s Installer and the other two holding the firmware images that the Update program writes to the modem.3 Built-in Lamp Test 4. A/D converter and internal timers. 4.datumsystems.3. Eb/No. enabling these interrupts in the process. the EEPROM is assumed to be corrupted and is re-initialized with the factory defaults. removing the current. The internal BERT is used to verify no errors or loss of sync.Rev. controls the modulator output. If a USB capable computer is not available software and firmware can be updated via the serial control port. Checks the Flash memory contents and calculates its checksum value.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Maintenance 2. If the flags are incorrect. Begins operating its main loop program which responds to control inputs.3 Updating Modem Software The PSM-500 modem software and firmware are held in flash memory and can be field upgraded by several methods. The EEPROM is tested for specific flag bytes in its contents. etc. The front panel is checked for presence. FEC. operating modes. All internal RAM and all external RAM is tested by writing to it and reading from it. We do occasionally add new features or correct operating procedures within the modem software that might lead to problems. input level and offset frequency are all within limits. 5.1 Lamp Test The Front Panel LEDs and LCD display backlight are tested. Disables all interrupts.com web site. instructions and PC compatible update programs are available on the www. monitors and displays terminal and LED status. 4.

Older computers may require a DB25 to DB9 adaptor on the computer end.EXE PC based program to load software to the modem. This Loader is Page 4-8 PSM-500/500L/500LT . This is a normal serial cable available from many common sources and also used with many computer peripherals such as printers. 0.xx. the serial cable has a male DB9 connector on the modem end and normally a female DB9 connector on the computer end. etc. The Control Program is available with the newer software revision.xx. Trellis Code Modulation (TCM) and Reed-Solomon. Do not connect this USB cable until the software drivers are installed.yyy.zip (note the “Full” is not in this version‟s name). M500ModemUSBDriver.xx. 003 for the enhanced standard FEC card containing Viterbi. . M500Fx. Trellis Code Modulation (TCM) and Reed-Solomon 002 for the enhanced standard FEC card containing Viterbi.fbf Binary image of the modem‟s main Unit software/firmware. if using a serial RS-232 connection to perform modem updates. Trellis Code Modulation (TCM) and Reed-Solomon. Once installed the latest version of the program itself without the other drivers and DLL files is available as M500UpdateVxxx.xx is the current version number and yyy is the applicable FEC card type as explained below.zip where xxx is the current version number of the M500Update program.fbf Binary image of the FEC cards firmware. plus the TPC16K type Turbo chip. Besides the Loader program itself this zip file also contains the full set of Visual Basic DLL and OCX associated files. sys. Currently the name of the control program is “M500 Update.  M500Fx.   M500Flash.xx is the current version number and yyy is the applicable unit type as explained below. Windows installer used to install the driver program and its associated files.zip This program is only needed once on any computer to provide the USB driver.Maintenance PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem A. M500Ux. plus the TPC4K type Turbo chip.yyy. M500F is for the FEC where currently exist yyy card types of o o o o 001 for the standard FEC card containing Viterbi.   USB drivers for the FTDI USB interface – currently named FTD2XX.M500UpdateFullVxxx.  M500Ux. This is a standard serial extension cable available at computer outlets. The 9 pin cable is wired 1:1 with no crossovers (as in “null modem” type cables). M500U is for the Unit where currently exists yyy values of: o o o 000 for a 70 MHz modem 001 for a 140 MHz Modem 040 for the L-Band Modems D.xx. dll. Any software upgrade requires a “Control Program” hosted on the computer which transmits or “Loads” the new software to the modem. Various DLL. Although not recommended. B.zip where x.exe”. 004 Not defined yet.yyy.zip where x.exe program. The USB type A connection goes to the computer and the type B connection to J10 on the rear of the modem. In addition the user must supply a “PC” type computer running Windows and a USB A to B type cable to connect the PC to the modem.Rev. The USB drivers needed for installation on a computer are typically separately packaged. OCX Visual Basic runtime routines necessary to run the M500Flash.90 . C. ini.lib.yyy.

90 Page 4-9 . On command it can download the new firmware. It looks at the modem and the . 4. In this release a computer with web access can determine the Unit and FEC versions in the USB connected modem and then check the web for availability of later firmware.exe program and the USB driver to get new firmware and update modems.Rev. 4. The main one is the recommended M500 Update program that is very easy to use. It is described above and on the “download” page of our web site. or from a central networked computer location.fbf files in its own directory and determines if an update is available. More complete installation and usage information is available on the web and with the programs. As of this writing version 2. 4. It can even check for newer versions of the Update program itself. The Flash Binary Format files do not have to be in the same directory as the program.10 is available. These versions are needed to operate in Windows Vista operating systems. making the process as painless as possible.1. It does not change the registry or appear in the “Start Programs” menu. 0. The M500Update program is specifically designed to stand alone if it is located in a directory with its VB DLL and OCX files plus the flash binary format files for the modem. The recommended method for installing the Update Software program is as follows: 1. The installation program handles this location by default. for example one named C:\My Documents\M500Tools.3. An alternative is to leave the downloaded program files compressed . It does not analyze the modem to determine if an update is needed based on those .2 M500 Flash Loader Program This is an older. unpack it and install it into the modem. associated files and USB drivers. Newer versions of this update program are even easier to use. Also download the latest firmware for your modem from the web site. You only need to push one button and the program will load the main unit and any FEC files needed by the modem.fbf files. 2. Download the Full version of the update program which includes the program. The alternate is the M500FlashLoader program that may be required in special cases only. It allows installing down rev software if required. 2000 and XP.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Maintenance an IBM PC Visual Basic based program that can be run under Windows 98. The Installation program must be run first to install the update program in the PC used for updating modem firmware. To use the latest implementation the user only needs the M500 Up_date. The advantage of this is that it can even be run from the CD that comes with the modem (although that probably does not have newer flash files). The program is normally installed in a folder/directory of your choosing.3.0 the M500Update program was renamed to M500 Up_date for programming reasons.3.either WinZip PSM-500/500L/500LT . but more flexible program that operates in a slightly different manner than the normal M500 Update program: It is not recommended unless specifically required.1. We now have a newer self contained M500 Update program capable of running under Windows Vista available on the web site. Both are briefly described below. This version can also check a special web site on demand for newer firmware for the connected modem. The M500 Flash Loader program can be “installed” and will appear in the Start Programs menu. Unzip or extract the program files into the directory where you saved the download in step one.1 M500 Update Program The M500Update program is designed to be very simple to install and use. Beginning with version 2.1 Update Software Installation – There are two M500 software/firmware update programs available.

06 and later is significantly easier to use. select “No. etc. select the self locate or have disk option and navigate to the C:\Program Files\M500 FLASH Loader\UsbDriver folder and there select the ftd2xx. This newer program in version 2.  Note: For virtually all users the recommended program is the newer “M500 Up_date.Maintenance PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem or Windows XP compressed folders will allow you to run the install program directly from within the compressed file. The M500 Flash Update program gives feedback to the user during the update process.exe” file by double clicking on it. If the wizard asks if you would like to connect to the Internet to search for drivers. This relieves the user from having to know about numbering schemes. 0.com. Then let windows do the rest. If notified that the driver is not certified select “Continue Anyway”. 3. 4. If you suspect that something is not going correctly with the update process then wait until the current process is completed and contact Datum Systems via email with details of what is observed. This will create the C:\Program Files\M500 FLASH Loader directory and place the program and associated files there. There are two types of software/firmware files that may be uploaded to the modem. One is for the main modem itself and its binary file name begins with “M500U”. No actions to the modem are normally necessary before beginning update with the exception of removing it from service.2 Performing the Software/Firmware Update – Once the PC program which does the actual update and communications with the modem is installed the process for accomplishing the actual update using the original “M500 Flash Loader” is as shown below. The modem has a complementary program which talks to the loader and controls re-writing of the flash memory. or chose one within My Documents such as “M500 Binaries”. and the M500 Flash Update program can take care of all tasks directly including finding the modem. 4. Run the “Install. The USB drivers will be in a sub-directory named. For example the standard 70 MHz modem would reject firmware for a 140 MHz or L-Band Modem.datumsystems. determining if it has newer software/firmware versions available and preventing loading of incorrect firmware to the modem The modem is specifically designed to not accept firmware that is not made for it. not this time” and click “Next”. Unzip or extract the binary files into a suitable folder. Those could be newer than the basic information given here. Connect the computer to the modem via a USB cable. Use instructions are also on the web site. You could use the C:\Program Files\M500 FLASH Loader directory. 6.inf file. C:\Program Files\M500 FLASH Loader\UsbDriver. and can check a special web site for available modem and program updates on user command. When asked if you want to “Install Automatically” or “Locate the drivers myself” or “Have Disk”. The computer will recognize and advise you that new hardware has been found and run the new hardware wizard.Rev. modem types. The other is update firmware for Page 4-10 PSM-500/500L/500LT . It is a good idea to see if a later version of the update program or the update instructions are available on the web. We have tried very hard to make the program as robust as possible. 7.90 .3. The supplied drivers are from a reputable source that manufactures the USB interface chip. 5. If the modem is turned off then turn it on.exe” program available on our web site at www. works with any version of Windows including Vista.

09. The update program is intended to determine which one of these may be required and which one should be loaded first. It will display a number including two decimal points.000 where the 0.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Maintenance the particular FEC card that may be installed and its binary file name begins with “M500F”. 0. In this eventuality the modem must be returned to Datum Systems for software initialization and calibration. And finally the procedure: 1.000 that indicates that the latest revision available for the 70 MHz M500 modem is 0. and the M500 Flash Loader program should start and recognize the attached modem.09 represents the firmware revision “0. The USB drivers for the modem should have already been installed. It may alternately be placed in another directory or folder and you will have to browse to locate the binary file. for example 0. Insure that the modem is connected to the PC via a USB type A to B cable. All user settings and calibration data are maintained when newer software revisions are installed. PSM-500/500L/500LT . 2. Complete update of the modem normally requires approximately 4 to 6 minutes. In the rare occasions when a new bootloader is installed in flash..Rev.12.  CAUTION: The process of updating software will result in disruption of any traffic currently through the PSM-500.90 Page 4-11 . and the modem is powered on. The file can be downloaded. unzipped and placed in the C:\Program Files\M500 FLASH Loader directory where the program can find it.12. Before performing an update check the web site first to determine if there is a later firmware revision and if there is any advantage to performing the update. To determine the modem‟s current Unit firmware revision go to the front panel and navigate to the <Unit: Status . Upgrade should not be performed on a live traffic unit.09” of modem type “000”. The firmware revision on the web is compared to that in the modem. The process cannot be accomplished on multiple modems simultaneously. In this case the 000 type is a 70 MHz modem.Version> parameter. failure to complete this portion of the loading process may result in complete loss of the modem programming. Then if on the web site there is found for example a firmware updated version number 0. Start the update program via “Start – Programs – M500 FLASH Loader” menu.  CAUTION: The process of updating software must not be interrupted once started. In a few seconds the modem‟s serial number and other information will be shown in the left panel displaying a window similar to that below.

fbf) files downloaded with the newer firmware version. The program window should now show that file selected.Rev. 6. This will bring up a file open dialog box. and if it is the same as the current file loaded into the modem it will display as below: Not the “** Current Version **” after the File Firmware Version = 0.Maintenance PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem 3. 4. 0. If you need to also load an FEC firmware binary file. then select the “Update M500 FLASH” button and the update process will begin.000 indicating the selected file is the same as that loaded.90 . 5. The modem will refuse to accept attempts to load the wrong software intended for another version. Browse to the location of the flash binary format (. If the binary file versions available in this directory are newer than those in the modem. 140 MHz and L-Band modem is determined by hardware only. Page 4-12 PSM-500/500L/500LT . then repeat the process by selecting that file and updating again. and select the M500F or M500U file desired. When completed the modem will reset itself and the revised information will be displayed in the left pane. When finished simply end the M500 FLASH Update program and disconnect the modem from the computers USB port. NOTE: The IF version of the 70 MHz. Click on the entry box below “M500 FLASH Program File” in the right pane.08. and has nothing to do with the software.

newer FEC options based on Intellectual Property (IP) which we must license and charge for. Feature sets can only be upgraded.4. The code is unique to this unit‟s serial number and will not work in any other modem.90 Page 4-13 . representing basic capabilities that suit it to certain tasks. There are only 3 upgrades possible at this writing.Rev.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Maintenance 4. which shows the capabilities of each standard feature set. from the M505 to the M511. Contact your local reseller or Datum Systems directly requesting an upgrade and noting the Unit Serial Number. 4. may fit into this category. Upon purchasing an upgrade you will be provided with a special 16 digit code which is used to enable the upgraded features. For example when the M523 feature set is enabled the <Unit: Status . from the M511 to the M523 and from the M505 to the M523. M505. then press the “Enter” key. Then enter the 16 digits of the given code directly using the digits on the keypad. If correctly entered the modem will now display the new feature set and list the available modulation modes above the standard set in the M505. 0. They are currently given a feature set code representing the elements of those features.4 Upgrading the Modem Feature Set Each of the modems in the PSM-500 series is available currently with 3 different “Feature Sets”. M511 and M523. For example. The procedure for these options will be similar to that described above and explained in the transmittal that accompanies the unlock code. To insert the code go to the <Unit: Status .Feature> parameter using the front panel keypad.2. Refer to Section 1.1 Future Software Options – In the future we may have additional options which can be enabled via an “unlock code”. Upgrading from one feature set to another is accomplished in the following manner.Feature> parameter will display “M523-8PSK-16QAM”. PSM-500/500L/500LT .1. current version and the version to which you would like to upgrade to. There is no code to downgrade a feature set to a lower one.

e. Remote Control. These modes are typified by the modes used in the CDM5xx and CDM6xx series of competitive modems. These modes are denoted by the FEC Option type “CT” on the front panel selection. Data Interface and Manual.5 Frequently Asked Questions . This allows mixed systems of 4900 and 500 series modems without initially changing control software.90 . How do I make the PSM-500 talk to a xxxx brand modem on the other end of a link? The PSM-500 has several new programmable features which should make this easier than ever. Why Doesn’t It?. Is Datum Systems' Turbo Product Codes compatible with that made by other modem manufacturers? The PSM-500 also has a significant number of FEC compatibility modes for aid in achieving compatibility with some competitive modems. Page 4-14 PSM-500/500L/500LT . 0. The presentation here is divided into 5 common areas – Link Setup. Third. Most items of this type are programmable in the PSM-500 modem. but would invert data between modems of different types on each end of a link. because we have many customers that use our modems in systems requiring low latency we implemented an alternate "Short Block" mode that reduces the typical TPC delay by approximately 1/3.FAQ OR How Do I?. These modes are denoted by the FEC Option “CT” on the front panel selection.Rev. A. Is the PSM-500 Remote Control Protocol Compatible with the PSM-4900? The PSM-500 has significant new capabilities and features that cannot fit into the structure of the PSM-4900 protocol. Second. Still all modem manufacturers have their own conventions for setting parameters with no specified standard. and insuring the absolute best performance with no compromises. the PSM-500 will respond to properly formatted PSM-4900 binary control packets within the capabilities of the PSM-4900. Front Panel. where possible if both modems adhere to Intelsat IESS standards then those defined parameters should be set the same. We have seen no other TPC implementation that even comes close to ours.Maintenance PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem 4. This would make no difference between two modems of the same type.1 Compatibility with other Modems. Our latest TPC “Advanced” modes are also proprietary to Datum Systems. The compatibility does not currently extend to operation over the link on the MCC channel. First is that there is no standard for implementation of TPC. Datum Systems spent a lot of time and development in implementing a full set of TPC parameters (i. Link Set Up and Installation. especially in Turbo FEC modes. so for example some modems may have a different modulation sense for data bits than others. 3/4 and 7/8). especially in Turbo FEC modes. A. and Where Is? This Section is intended to form a smart index pointing to proper sections of the manual with information on performing common actions or answering common questions. First. The PSM-500 also has a significant number of FEC compatibility modes for aid in achieving compatibility with some competitive modems. Rates 1/2. There are several modes that are probably not compatible for several reasons. However. The techniques used in this TPC achieve the best performance of any modem currently produced. simply because we know of no one else using the specific parameters.

but actually achieve the same performance. Like the PSM-2100 the built in AUPC (Automatic Uplink Power Control) can be enabled only if the multiplexer option is installed or if an external communications channel is provided. Because there are so many parameters it is possible to have one unit with a slightly different parameter set than that at the other end of the PSM-500/500L/500LT . Any satellite modem has a significant number of parameters. From that point you make necessary changes to set the desired configuration.90 Page 4-15 . but retains the AUPC from the PSM-2100 type modems.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Maintenance My PSM-500 and PSM-2100 do not agree on the Eb/No parameter with Reed-Solomon Codec installed? The PSM-2100 was designed before Intelsat IESS 309 added the section defining how the Eb/No was measured with Reed-Solomon concatenated coding.Rev. Unfortunately the IESS lists two possible methods of computing the Eb/No with Reed-Solomon. A. The PSM-500. If you are unfamiliar with the common terms and modes used in satellite communications you should first refer to Chapter 2 of this manual “Installation and Setup”. Why doesn’t my PSM-500 talk to another PSM-500 over the satellite? I have set all the parameters the same. From there you can always go back to this configuration by recalling it. adheres to both IESS definitions by allowing the reference point to be varied. This will automatically set the “n”. These modes are the “Standard” and "Enhanced” multiplexer operating modes. Does the PSM-500 have AUPC and AUFC and are they compatible with the PSM-2100? The PSM-500 does not have AUFC. being of more recent design. For the AUPC to function and to be compatible with a PSM-2100 it must be set in the “Enhanced” mode. To maintain compatibility with the PSM-2100 specific similarly named options are available in the PSM-500. The PSM-500 AUPC is compatible with that in the 2100 when the PSM-500 modem IBS Multiplexer is placed in the “Enhanced” mode. Once all parameters are set as required the configuration can be saved using the <Unit: Configuration . The 500‟s “IESS-309” and “Custom” modes are not compatible with the PSM-2100. and uses a different method. How do I set up the IBS Multiplexer and AUPC Option in the PSM-500 to be compatible with the PSM-2100 Modem? The PSM-500 Modem is capable of varying the parameters for the IBS Multiplexer beyond the capabilities of the PSM-2100. The method is encapsulated in ASIC and not changeable. As a starting point the modem can also be taken to a default basic set of operating parameters by using the front panel <Unit: Configuration . It is not compatible in the “Custom” mode.Recall> parameter and select option “0” or “Factory”. “k” and “Depth” options to 126. Refer to Appendix RS for more information on setting the calculation parameter. To maintain compatibility with the PSM-2100 specific similarly named options are available in the PSM-500. When enabled the RS FEC Mode should be set to “IESS-308”.Store> control. The 500‟s “Custom” mode is not compatible with the PSM-2100. which are settable in order to achieve the maximum performance at the least cost. 0. This can make the set-up daunting at first.2 Operating and Performance Questions. 112 and 4 respectively. How do I set up the Reed-Solomon Option in the PSM-500 to be compatible with the PSM2100 Modem? The PSM-500 Modem is capable of varying the parameters for the Reed-Solomon Codec beyond the capabilities of the PSM-2100. The two therefore may read differently. There are so many options and parameter settings! Where do I start? The PSM-500 is highly programmable.

Modifying the PSM500 to work with a specific burst demodulator scheme is an option which requires contacting the factory for availability.Rev. The burst demodulation scheme compatible with the modulation used in the PSM-2100 is no longer manufactured. The AGC has been the classic parameter used for this type of function. If it is absolutely essential to view the eye pattern as analog test information.The PSM-500 has a single analog output that is produced by the main processor and converted to analog by a D/A converter. but the PSM-500 provides an output that may be better in most situations. The signal is available at the rear panel on the J5 Alarm Connector. Eb/No or Mod CXR Level selected in the <Unit: Monitor . What happened to the Burst Modulator mode in the PSM-500? The PSM-500 has the basic circuitry necessary to implement burst modulation. Use the front panel <Unit: Configuration . which is a function without the slope changes and negative signal sense of the AGC signal. including those in the IBS Multiplexer and Reed-Solomon if equipped and enabled. The parameter selected for this output can be either the AGC. See Installation Section 2. All information at this point in the receive chain is digital and measured by the modem processor. Intelsat in the latest IESS 308/309 has changed the definition of the C0 and C1 values. In addition Appendix A lists the specified fixed and rate dependent delays incurred in the modem‟s transmit and receive processing. You may want to save your current configuration before resetting to the default. How do I use the modulator and demodulator functions to invert the spectrum? These options were added into the PSM-500 to aid in building specialized systems which may invert the spectrum sense of the received carrier.11 for more information on connection and use of the monitor function. What is the delay from end to end using the PSM-500? The satellite link itself represents a fixed and very slightly variable delay due to the distance of the satellite from the two stations linked. These parameter settings also allow changing the modulation of adjacent carriers on the satellite so that a demodulator will not lock to them. This option allows compatibility with any definition. Page 4-16 PSM-500/500L/500LT . This has value if the carriers are placed closer than the required receive acquisition range. Where is the “Eye Pattern” test points for the I and Q channel receive signals? The PSM-500 does not have an analog test point to view the eye pattern.Recall> and select option “0” or “Factory”. pin 5 with the Ground return on pin 6. 0. contact the factory for availability of a special test fixture for conversion. Using this scheme requires the use of the demodulator search mode. If after insuring that all parameters are set the same and that the acquisition range is correct and that there are no interfering carriers.3.3.Maintenance PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem link. How do I use the modulator and demodulator functions to vary the FEC C0 and C1 values? These options were added into the PSM-500 to help achieve compatibility with other brands of modems at the other end of a link. and there is no clear standard for implementing this capability. This delay is approximately 250 milli-seconds. The slope and polarity are selected using the “Zero” and “Full” parameters below this. and Operations Section 3.Mode>. The main cause of this would be an up or down converter which performs a spectrum inversion.90 . That is the Eb/No. The result of this measurement is presented as the Eb/No. one other method is to take both modems back to the factory default condition and rebuild the configuration from “scratch”. Can I use the PSM-500 to help align the station antenna? Is an AGC output provided to feed to automatic antenna positioning equipment? Yes . “Alarm Connection”.

so for instance. A. The modem knows though. while PSM-500/500L/500LT . The normal setting for this is “Last” (0). Confirm or Manual. We only found that occasionally someone disabled it and then had problems locking up to carriers. 0.3 Why does It do that? The modem is operating fine and then suddenly will not lock! You probably have the differential encoder/decoder turned off. and it is available at the front panel parameter showing the current transmit/receive symbol rate. 12” will enter a value of –12 dBm.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Maintenance How do I determine the transmitted "Symbol Rate" of the modem? This particular parameter used to be a lot simpler to define. Once you become accustomed to the “Quick” entry mode and using the change sign (+/-) and decimal point keys you will find it more convenient than any entry on the PSM-2100. How do I enter a number with a minus sign? At any time during the “Edit” process the “+/-“ key will change the sign of the current entry (if the change is possible). This mode can be set to one of three states: Automatic. In the quick edit mode this can be the first key pressed. Automatic will turn the carrier off during the parameter change and return the carrier on (if currently enabled) after the change is completed. A close match is achieved by disabling the “quick” entry mode and remembering to press the “Edit” key first instead of the “Enter” key. Why does the transmit carrier turn off whenever I make a change? First the transmit carrier can be set to a mode which will turn the carrier off if any change is made that would result in a possible interference with other carriers on the satellite. With the introduction of Turbo Product Codes coupled with all the other modem modes and options like programmable IBS multiplexer data load it is now extremely hard to define. so this capability was initially removed from front panel control. You could also press “1+/-2” or “12+/-” with the same result.Rev. B.90 Page 4-17 . All of the latest firmware however now allows this control. if the current setting for modulator transmit output level is –10 dBm then pressing “+/-. Front Panel Control What happened to the “Differential Encoder/Decoder parameter? In normal operation there is no need to disable the Differential encoder or decoder. Confirm will ask if the carrier should be left on (requiring a “yes” or “no” answer). This will change the modem configuration if the receive carrier is lost longer than the number of seconds entered. Why doesn’t the PSM-500 front panel act like the PSM-2100 or PSM-4900? [and] How do I make it act like the PSM-2100? The PSM-500 has many more features and programmable options than the PSM-2100 modems. The <Unit: Config – Power-Up> parameter may be set to change to a specified configuration on power-up. The modem changed its operating parameters without me doing anything! The ACR or Automatic Configuration Recovery feature is possibly enabled by setting one of the <Unit: Config – Recall X> parameters set to a non-zero value. so you may need to update your firmware. It is in the <Mod: Test – Symbol Rate> and the <Dem: Test – Symbol Rate> parameters. It is only provided as a control for very special cases and should normally be set to “Enabled”.

The other reason could be that the Modulator or Demodulator is disabled. Can I use the USB connector at J10 to remotely control the PSM-500? The USB connector is mainly intended for firmware updates requiring a faster speed than the RS232/449 connection can supply. The far right “Remote” LED is blinking. so it will likely require re-writing your packet routines. More directly the setting described is probably set to “Manual” mute mode. Many items such as the interface structure. only the binary packet protocol. First.parameter which shows what is enabled and allows changing. What do the abbreviations on the front panel and in the manual mean? See the abbreviations in FAQ Section E below. It is possible to control the modem in binary packet mode via the USB connection. Why can’t I find or see a certain option parameter that is shown in the tables? Many parameters are only available when another option has been enabled which requires that parameter. You cannot currently use the USB connection for “Terminal Mode” control. I seem to have no modulator or demodulator functions available? There are two reasons that could explain this. The SnIP however does have a fairly complete command line driven control method via the “m500ctl” program. Can I control the far end modem from the front panel of a local modem? The PSM-500 has the ability to control the far end modem (when linked and locked) from a local modem. Control from the front panel is prone to possible mistakes that would lead to accidentally setting the remote modem in a state that could not be recovered without going to the remote site. For example. data rates and available options are so different that creating a compatible command set was Page 4-18 PSM-500/500L/500LT . What does it mean? The Unit Remote Activity parameters allow setting this lamp to blink when activity is detected on the USB or serial remote control ports. This ability requires enabling the Multiplexer option. this connection does not use or accept addresses in the packet structure. Is there a “compatibility” mode for the remote control binary packet protocol that looks like that in the PSM-4900? Yes. This option is set in <Mod: IF – Mute>. These units would have a model number indicating this such as PST for a Modulator transmit only or PSD indicating a Demodulator receive only. C. there are some units sold with only one function installed for special purposes. but only using the remote control port. To check and enable if desired.90 . the <Demod: IF – Sweep Time> parameter is only visible if the <Demod: IF – Sweep Mode> is set to “Search”.Rev. 0. These options are shown in the tables as gray to indicate this status. The same is possible for the “Local” LED using the Unit Keyboard Activity control.Maintenance PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Manual will always turn the carrier off after a change. Remote Control Where is the ASCII Control packet structure in the PSM-500? The PSM-500 and the PSM-4900 modems do not have an ASCII control packet protocol. go to the <Unit: Config – Modem>. However. In addition the SnIP can potentially control multiple modems connected via its external RS-485 control port. The new PSM-500 design dictated a new structure to implement the significantly greater number of commands available in the PSM-500.

2 for information on using the built-in BERT.35 (or EIA-530) device? See the “Installation” Chapter 2 and Appendix C on “Cabling Specifications” which shows how to make cables to interface between the modem‟s DB37 connector and other types of common connectors used.1. Many items such as the interface structure. The connections are discussed in Chapter 2 “Installation” and shown in Appendix C. If the encoder is turned off the modem has a possibility of locking to a signal with the wrong phase. Data Interface How do I make a cable to connect to my V. Can I use the built-in Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) set to test the line or DTE side equipment? Yes with reservations. Why do I keep getting “sync losses” on my link? Or why does a BERT test show “sync losses”? This is usually a sign that some section of the link has a clock or data inversion. However the PSM-500 actually contains both its own and a copy of the PSM-4900 protocol. The new commands dictated a new structure to implement the significantly greater number of commands available in the PSM-500. This allows mixed systems of 4900 and 500 series modems without initially changing control software. Where do I get a “Y” cable to implement 1:1 redundancy? These may be purchased from Datum Systems or it is possible to build your own. 0. The Turbo Product Codes (TPC) option does not use the differential encoder. The compatibility does not currently extend to operation over the link on the MCC channel. The packet structure itself is virtually identical though and in most cases the new command set can be accommodated by a “driver” tailored to the PSM-500. For all normal operation of the modem the Modulator differential encoder and the Demodulator differential decoder must be “Enabled”. Why does the modem occasionally fail to operate with my DTE equipment. data rates and available options are so different that creating a compatible command set was impossible. “Cabling Specifications”. Is there a “compatibility” mode for the remote control binary packet protocol that looks like that in the PSM-2100? No. and to correct it I have to invert the data or clock? The only cause in an otherwise functioning modem for this symptom is that the differential encoder/decoder is turned off. New in the PSM-500 is the ability to electrically switch the direction that the BERT “looks” toward PSM-500/500L/500LT .90 Page 4-19 .PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Maintenance impossible. How do I use the built-in Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) set? See Maintenance Section 4.Rev. See Chapter 4 of the manual for “Loop” testing to try to determine where the problem is and correct either the wiring or change the modem data or clock sense. The PSM-500 BERT now has the ability to be switched to look at the data line side. allowing the PSM-500 to accept and respond to PSM-4900 packets within the limitations of the PSM-4900 capabilities. and when it is enabled the differential encoder and/or decoder is turned off and the option is removed from the parameter matrix. D. but a linked modem may have the ability to turn it on or off. The BERT is designed to normally transmit and receive to the modem side. Modems use the differential encoding to determine the proper relationship between the clock and data. Other modes also automatically control the differential encoder and decoder in the PSM-500.

If it is set to any options but “On All Alarms” then the particular alarms that are summed into the A and B alarms are themselves programmable. Manual What do the abbreviations on the front panel and in the manual mean? A good example is the display and manual representation "Redundcy SW Rqst". Bit Error Rate Test Block Up-Converter Calibrate Clock Configuration Contrast Carrier Demodulator Differential Engineering Service Channel Errored Forward Error Correction Frequency Format High Speed Serial Interface (used with routers) I and Q channel DC Offset Input/Output Interface Page 4-20 PSM-500/500L/500LT . See the discussion in section for more information. QDcOff I/O Int'f Full Text One for One. 0. Abbreviation 1:1. Unfortunately the display does not hold enough characters to display the full text of "Redundancy Switch Request". E.Rev. All redundancy switch types. See Maintenance Section 4. However.1. Automatic Configuration Recovery Automatic Frequency Control Automatic Gain Control Automatic Level Control Alarm Alternate Automatic Uplink Power Control Automatic Uplink Frequency Control Bit Error Rate.90 . Why doesn’t my 1:1 redundant switch on certain alarms? The 1:1 redundancy logic is programmable on two levels. One for N and M for N. Frq Frmt HSSI IDcOff. First is the <Unit: Redundcy – SW Rqst> parameter which selects whether a switch is requested on all alarms. creating the second level. BERT BUC Cal Clk Config Cntst CXR Dem Dif ESC Erred FEC Freq.Maintenance PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem the line side.2 for information on using the built-in BERT. Following is a list of abbreviations used. M:N ACR AFC AGC ALC Alm Alt AUPC AUFC BER. because of the hard wiring of the interface the pinout is fixed as a DCE device. 1:N. alarm A and/or alarm B.

0.PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem Maintenance Abbreviation Keybrd LCD LDPC & FLDPC LNB LO Loopbck Lvl Max MCC Min Mod Mux Opt OverHd RCV. Sw Sync SysClk Ter. Terr TPC Tst USB VSAT XMT. into the Demodulator Redundancy Reference Request Reed-Solomon – Type of FEC Satellite Single Channel Per Carrier Symbol Error Rate Satellite network Interface Processor. our name for an Ethernet Interface running Linux. Xmt Full Text Keyboard Liquid Crystal Display (Flexible) Low Density Parity Check FEC Low Noise Block downconverter Local Oscillator Loop-back Level Maximum Modem Control Channel Minimum Modulator Multiplexer Option Overhead Receive. R-S Sat SCPC SER SnIP SW. Switch Synchronous or Synchronization System Clock Terrestrial – Line side of modem Turbo Product Codes – Type of FEC Test Universal Serial Bus Very Small Aperture Terminal Transmit.Rev. from the Modulator PSM-500/500L/500LT .90 Page 4-21 . Rcv Redundcy Ref Rqst RS.