Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is success.

(Henry Ford) Teamwork represents a set of values that encourage behaviors such as listening and constructively responding to points of view expressed by others, giving others the benefit of the doubt, providing support to those who need it, and recognizing the interests and achievements of others The nice thing about teamwork is that you always have others on your side.
(Margaret Carty)

A team is “two or more people who must coordinate their activities to accomplish a common goal”. The common goal and the required coordination make them a team. It is mot enough for people to want to coordinate because it would be nice. Coordination must be required to accomplish the task in order to be a team. Teamwork is the ability to work together toward a common vision. The ability to direct individual accomplishments toward organizational objectives. It is the fuel that allows common people to attain uncommon results.

Teamwork is defined in Webster's New World Dictionary as "a joint action by a group of people, in which each person subordinates his or her individual interests and opinions to the unity and efficiency of the group." This does not mean that the individual is no longer important; however, it does mean that effective and efficient teamwork goes beyond individual accomplishments. The most effective teamwork is produced when all the individuals involved harmonize their contributions and work towards a common goal.

• • • Teams aren’t just groups of people Teams don’t just happen. You have to build them. Teamwork means people cooperating to meet common goals.

Members base their success on trust and encourage all members to express their opinions. • TEAMS Members work interdependently and work towards both personal and team goals. and they understand these goals are accomplished best by mutual support. and questions. • • • • • • • • . They may not fully understand what is taking place in their group. GROUPS • Members work independently and they often are not working towards the same goal. and suggestions are rarely welcomed. After reading through the list. it should be clear what the difference is and which one would be ideal in a classroom and the workplace. Members collaborate together and use their talent and experience to contribute to the success of the team's objectives.One of the first things that an instructor must recognize is the difference between an individual working as part of a group and an individual working as part of a team. Members are very cautious about what they say and are afraid to ask questions. Members do not trust each other's motives because the do not fully understand the role each member plays in their group. varying views. respectful. Members make a conscious effort to be honest. Members focus mostly on themselves because they are not involved in the planning of their group's objectives and goals. Below is a list of the differences that exist between these categories. Members feel a sense of ownership towards their role in the group because they committed themselves to goals they helped create. Members are given their tasks or told what their duty/job is. and listen to every person's point of view.

a structure that works for a bank may not work for a fire department). • • • • Members are encouraged to offer their skills and knowledge. Members are bothered by differing opinions or disagreements because they consider it a threat. • Develop a structure appropriate for the organizational environment (e..• • Members may have a lot to contribute but are held back because of a closed relationship with each member.g. and in turn each member is able contribute to the group's success. Members see conflict as a part of human nature and they react to it by treating it as an opportunity to hear about new ideas and opinions. Members may or may not participate in group decisionmaking. Accordingly an effective organization must: • Share a vision or sense of purpose that all its employees can articulate. The following are eight characteristics of effective teams the were identified by Larson and LaFasto in their book titled Teamwork: What Must Go Right/What Can Go Wrong (Sage Publications 1989). There is not group support to help resolve problems. Everybody wants to resolve problems constructively. This alignment occurs when management emphasizes personal performance and allows employees to fulfill themselves in their jobs. • Strike a balance between reason and intuition so that its employees are neither too oriented towards nor too disregarding of “hard” facts. and conformity is valued more than positive results. . the organizational environment itself must foster teamwork. Before an effective team can be developed. • Align employees so that everyone is going in the same direction. but each member understands that the leader might need to make the final decision if the team can not come to a consensus agreement. Members participate equally in decisionmaking. This emphasis is the key to the team–development process.

• The team must have competent team members. employee contribution and. Encouragement and praise works just as well in motivating teams as it does with individuals • The team must have principled leadership. consistent and respectful behavior. In the education setting this can be taking to mean that the problem given to the team should be one that the members can tackle given their level of knowledge. expressed so concisely that everyone knows when the objective has been met. Team members must know that the team leader has the position because they have good leadership skills and are working for the good of the team. It is a climate of trust produced by honest. they fail. The team members will be less supportive if they feel that the team leader is putting him/her above the team. motherhood statements. • The team must have a collaborative climate. for most. Team members must know what is expected of them individually and collectively. job satisfaction are increased. This doesn't mean that team members must agree on everything. Team goals should call for a specific performance objective. then the team will confront this and resolve the problem. Vague statements such as "positive attitude" and "demonstrated effort" are not good enough. It is often best to allow the team to develop the structure. Avoid fuzzy. • The team must receive external support and encouragement. • The team must have a results-driven structure. Teams usually need someone to lead the effort. In more fully participating in decisions and planning how work will be performed.without it. The team should be allowed to operate in a manner that produces results. • The team must have unified commitment. With this climate teams perform well. • The main value of teams is their ability to assemble and empower employees to use their talents to improve the organization.. • The team must have high standards that are understood by all. open.The team must have a clear goal. If an individual's efforts are going purely towards personal goals. achieving personal recognition or otherwise benefiting from the position.. . It means that all individuals must be directing their efforts towards the goal.

Being able to show discipline and professionalism can provide imperative discussions that can help the work environment run smoothly. The most important factor in teamwork is foundation. the concept of working together to get an assignment done is as nonexistent as co. Being quiet and reserve does not always work in the workplace. Knowing which position each person is within a team can help co-workers provide the work they're strong in. BENEFITS OF TEAMWORK • Enhances success.workers becoming acquainted outside the workplace.Why teamwork? Because it improves • • • • • Quality Flexibility Coordination Satisfaction and Development Productivity/Cost Teamwork is an important aspect that should be provided by both employers and employees. When a person is faced with co-workers who don't want to work. that way assignments can be completed on time and without problems. try gaining a voice because people will respect you more if you express your ideas. but to the company as well. Finally. No one would want to work with someone that is rude and insensitive towards everyone in the office. he or she ends up having to do work that others fail to complete or start an assignment over because someone did not do it right. . It can be stressful and downright disgraceful because not only does the department work ethics look bad on the employees. In today's work environment. One of the main reasons co-workers failed to work as a team because people do not voice their opinions on certain matters. There are certain characteristics to remember when knowing the values of teamwork. if a problem arises in a department. Having respect for one another is also very important. don't hesitate to speak up on the issue.

the do-your-own thing syndrome Excessive time needed to build and maintain the team . Slow decision making .when the team doesn’t get its act together Excessive independence . Helps both large corporations and small groups. Is fun and reduces tension and conflicts.reason for working together. PITFALLS TO SIDESTEP • • • • Negative synergy . Builds synergy. . Promotes trade-off and solves problems.consensus takes time and patience ESSENTIALS OF A TEAM • • • • A “Charter” Mission . Interdependency Commitment to benefits of group problem solving/decision making Accountability as a Functioning Unit • Defining the Mission. Responds to the challenge of change.• • • • • • Promote creativity.if company culture is not team oriented.

o Why do we exist? o Who do we serve? • Communicating the Vision and Formulating Overarching Goals. challenge people and attract them. o A vision is something to aspire to. o Determining success criteria o Formulating a Consensus and “By-In” o Performing a Resource Audit Evaluating the success criteria Marketing the team Celebrating success-recognition. o Functions o Authority o Accountability o Priorities Blending Individual Styles. The vision is.A mission is your team’s ultimate purpose. a way of communicating the organization’s strategy and objectives so that they excite people. but a practical thing. Developing a Code of Ethics. o Utilizing strengths. minimizing weaknesses o Motivating various styles o Managing conflict successfully Managing team performance conflict successfully. o How are we going to behave toward one another? o Which are the team’s Values? Establishing Roles. Action-Planning • • • • • • • • . It is not a mystical thing.

honest communication is invaluable in aiding Winning Team goal achievement. and for the team itself. dependability and a willingness to sacrifice for other team members. Willingness to sacrifice and to make Commitments: Winning Teams are characterized by high commitment. each member feels a sense of failure as his or her individual goals are reached but the team goals are not. Both the Winning Team leader and members are vigilant in eliminating excessive. Individual Competitiveness is reduced on a Winning Team: Instead of excessive competition and conflict. Respect. and Cooperation exist among Team Members: As each accepts the importance of the other team members. Communication is Increased among Team Members: This open. the team members are convinced of the loyalty and unselfish motivation of the Winning Team Leader. In contrast. loyalty. individuals seek additional responsibility and authority in winning environment . we find cooperation and a willingness to help and serve others. Mutual Understanding. There is an energy and enthusiasm in working together. People outside the team notice this spiritedness and dedication. • • • • • • . the natural barriers break down. they feel that the Winning Team is committed to excellence and it shows trough increased productivity. in fact. Winning Teams are highly Productive: When people outside the team think about. Team Goals are as important as Individual Goals: Each member of a winning team is aware of the need to help achieve team goals as well individual goals. unproductive conflict. The Winning Team Leader Concentrates on Leading the Team and Refuses to Manage on a One-To-One Basis: The team leader sets the tone for the team and emphasizes team accomplishment.• • Each Goal is the Responsibility of all Team Members: Each person feels 100% responsibility for the attainment of the team goals. instead of individual management.

This list is used during the research cycle to observe how well a team is working together • LISTENING: The students in this team listen to each other's ideas. • PARTICIPATING: The students in this team participate. You will observe the students offering ideas and reporting their findings to each other. • PERSUADING: The students in this team use persuasion. You will observe the students encouraging and supporting the ideas and efforts of others. discussing. • QUESTIONING: The students in this team question each other. and posing questions to all members of the team. You will observe each student contributing to the project. • SHARING: The students in this team share. defending. • HELPING: The students in this team help each other. . and rethinking ideas. You will observe the students interacting. You will observe the students offering assistance to each other. • RESPECTING: The students in this team respect the opinions of others. You will observe the students exchanging. You will observe the students "piggy-backing" (or building) off each other's ideas.

Your organization should find your teams to be more responsive to the changing needs of the marketplace. Increased understanding of other peoples perspectives. Higher quality output. Widens the circle of communication. Teams can be closer to customer's needs. Provides a sense of security. Involvement of everyone in the process. Higher likelihood of implementation of new ideas. • • • • • • • • • • • More input leads to better ideas and decisions. more informed about advanced technology. Ability to compensate for individual weaknesses. Shared information means increased learning.ADVANTAGES OF TEAM WORK TEAM = Together Everyone Achieves More The key advantage of teamwork is a better end result. and faster to respond than traditional hierarchies. Develops personal relationships • . Increased opportunity to draw on individual strengths. Increased ownership and buy-in by members.

They maintain teamwork even when things are going wrong and the temptation is to slip back into former team unfriendly behavior. People who own work processes and positions are open and receptive to ideas and input from others on the team. • TIPS FOR TEAM BUILDING . In a teamwork environment. is valued less than the person who achieves results with others in teamwork. planning. and coming out on top. decisions and actions are better when done cooperatively. No one completely owns a work area or process all by himself. If values are formally written and shared. CREATE A CULTURE OF TEAMWORK To make teamwork happen. In America. teamwork is one of the key five or six. • Important stories and folklore that people discuss within the company emphasize teamwork. (Remember the year the capsule team reduced scrap by 20 percent?) People who “do well” and are promoted within the company are team players. People recognize. but with commitment and appreciation for the value.” It’s hard to find work places that exemplify teamwork. The lone ranger. you can create an overall sense of teamwork in your organization. bonuses. backgrounds. Workers are rarely raised in environments that emphasize true teamwork and collaboration. they’re the hard things. and experiences. Compensation. ideas. You can. our institutions such as schools. Executive leaders communicate the clear expectation that teamwork and collaboration are expected. being the best. create a teamwork culture by doing just a few things right.Fostering teamwork is creating a work culture that values collaboration. these powerful actions must occur. people understand and believe that thinking. our family structures. and even assimilate. the belief that “none of us is as good as all of us. We have miles to go before valuing teams and teamwork will be the norm. and rewards depend on collaborative practices as much as individual contribution and achievement. Organizations are working on valuing diverse people. • Teamwork is rewarded and recognized. and our pastimes emphasize winning. • Executives model teamwork in their interaction with each other and the rest of the organization. even if she is an excellent producer. however. • The organization members talk about and identify the value of a teamwork culture. Admittedly.

I’m not averse to retreats. planning sessions. but they helped participants laugh together and get to know each other – a small investment in a big time sense of team. examine the work processes they mutually own. Think of team building as something you do every single day. Use ice breakers and teamwork exercises at meetings. many organizations approached team building this way. • Form teams to solve real work issues and to improve real work processes. Put team member names in a drawing for company merchandise and gift certificates. It’s the fact that the team members often haven’t agreed on how they will deliver a product or a service or the steps required to get something done. Sponsor sports teams and encourage cheering team fans. Provide training in systematic methods so the team expends its energy on the project. and to coordinate shared work processes. experienced at the retreat or seminar. You are limited in teamwork only by your imagination. Sponsor dinners at a local restaurant. seminars and team building activities – in fact I lead them .but they have to be part of a larger teamwork effort You will not build teamwork by “retreating” as a group for a couple of days each year. take the team to a sporting event. Go hiking or to an amusement park. failed to impact long term beliefs and actions back at work. Hold department meetings to review projects and progress. I worked with an organization that held a weekly staff meeting. Hold pot luck lunches. Hold a monthly company meeting. The problem is not usually the personalities of the team members. These activities were limited to ten minutes. If team members are not getting along. to obtain broad input. • • • • . Celebrate team successes publicly. they wondered why that wonderful sense of teamwork.Do you immediately picture your group off at a resort playing games or hanging from ropes when you think of team building? Traditionally. Buy everyone the same t-shirt or hat. Then. Build fun and shared occasions into the organization’s agenda. not on figuring out how to work together as a team to approach it. Participants took turns bringing a “fun” ice breaker to the meeting.

Increased efficiency tends to boost morale and productivity. It also helps to decrease stress. a culture that enables individuals to contribute more than they ever thought Team Development Successful team building has far reaching ramifications for your organization. Improve the way team members interact and you will improve their ability to solve problems. There are four key variables in the team development PROCESS . workers will be more (happily) productive and management will at the same time be able to manage (plan. turnover and operating costs. resilient. self perpetuating. Once you establish an effective team it becomes more creative. control. You’ll be amazed at the progress you will make in creating a teamwork culture. Better problem–solving means better efficiency in general. more productive. And all of these improvements bolster your organization’s public image. and confident. coordinate) better.Take care of the hard issues above and do the types of teamwork activities listed here. In others words.

support each other. INVOLVEMENT Everyone has a role in the team. PURPOSE The team understands how it fits into the overall business of the organization. PROCESS ORIENTATION Once a team has a clear purpose (why it’s together and where it’s going). Contributions are respected and solicited. TRUST Team members have faith in each other to honor their commitments. COMMUNICATION Communication refers to the style and extent of interactions both among members and between members and those outside the team. They are committed to group goals above and behind their personal goals. planning techniques. team members must feel a sense of partnership with each other. feel a sense of ownership. Team members know their roles. and accepted ways of dealing with problems. it must have a process or means to get there. decision making. The process should include problem-solving tools. and generally behave in a consistent and predictably acceptable fashion. • • • • • . and can see how they make a difference. It also refers to the way that members handle conflict. Despite differences. maintain confidences. meeting agendas and minutes. and day-to-day interactions. regular meeting. and a real consensus is established before committing the team to action.• COMMITMENT Team members see themselves as belonging to a team rather than as individuals who operate autonomously.

Spanish Priest) . because life is all about decisions.Teamwork divides the task and doubles the success. it is important that employees learn to function in a team environment so that they will have teamwork skill when they are at their work. The path to greatness is along with others. Teamwork is essential in any circumstance. Most companies realize that teamwork is important because either the product is sufficiently complex that it requires a team with multiple skills to produce. Being able to learn from life's expectations will help individuals in future endeavors and to provide better assessments for the people they encounter. Teamwork has become an important part of the working culture and many businesses now look at teamwork skills when evaluating a person for employment. (Baltasar Gracion. Therefore. and/or a better product will result when a team approach is taken.


Such a situation requires a strong emphasis on the use of reasoning for making decisions and for reducing fear and panic. hopelessness. minimizing movement and exertion. Both the pilot and co-pilot were killed in the crash. and the night time temperature is 40 below zero. The nearest town is 20 miles away. Shock would be shown in the survivors by feelings of helplessness. Many individuals tend to overlook the enormous shock reaction this has on the human body and the deaths of the pilot and co-pilot increases the shock. These feelings have brought about more fatalities than perhaps any other cause in survival situations. The participants have just crash-landed. You are all dressed in city clothes appropriate for a business meeting. and the countryside is wooded with several creeks criss-crossing the area. and constructing a shelter. The daily temperature is 25 below zero. There is snow on the ground. You MUST come to agreement as a group. The first problem the survivors face is the preservation of body heat and the protection against its loss. and you are in Northern Canada. EXPLANATION Mid-January is the coldest time of year in Northern Canada. This problem can be solved by building a fire. Decision-making under such circumstances is extremely difficult. List the uses for each.45-caliber pistol Can of Crisco shortening Newspapers (one per person) Cigarette lighter (without fluid) Extra shirt and pants for each survivor 20 x 20 ft. Your group of survivors managed to salvage the following items: • • • • • • • • • • • • A ball of steel wool A small ax A loaded . It is midJanuary.You and your companions have just survived the crash of a small plane. and fear. using as much insulation as possible. loneliness. piece of heavy-duty canvas A sectional air map made of plastic One quart of 100-proof whiskey A compass Family-size chocolate bars (one per person) Your task as a group is to list the above 12 items in order of importance for your survival. .

The 20 miles to the nearest town is a long walk under even ideal conditions. The ranking of the survivors’ items was made by Mark Wanvig. This makes building a fire the first order of business. speed. and number of passengers. Before taking off. the walk is even more difficult due to shock. This survival simulation game is used in military training classrooms. Mr. Minnesota area. It would mean almost certain death from freezing and exhaustion. and that an attempt to calm them should be made. something is needed to produce sparks. type of aircraft. snow. Once the survivors have found ways to keep warm.Certainly the state of shock means the movement of the survivors should be at a minimum. Search-and-rescue operations begin shortly after the failure of a plane to appear at its destination at the estimated time of arrival. In this situation. particularly if one is not used to walking such distances. At temperatures of minus 25 to minus 40. RANKING • CIGARETTE LIGHTER (WITHOUT FLUID) The gravest danger facing the group is exposure to cold. Without matches. the survivors need a means of catching he sparks made by the cigarette lighter.S. Thus. and water barriers. This is the best substance for catching a spark and supporting a flame. BALL OF STEEL WOOL To make a fire. a pilot has to file a flight plan which contains vital information such as the course. a former instructor in survival training for the Reconnaissance School of the 101st Division of the U. all the items the group has salvaged must be assessed for their value in signaling the group’s whereabouts. a cigarette lighter can do that. their next task is to attract the attention of search planes. The greatest need is for a source of warmth and the second greatest need is for signaling devices. dress. even if the steel wool is a little wet • • EXTRA SHIRT AND PANTS FOR EACH SURVIVOR . the loss of body heat through exertion is a very serious matter. and even without fluid. Wanvig currently conducts wilderness survival training programs in the Minneapolis. estimated time of arrival. Army.

It could also provide reading material for recreation. It can be rubbed on exposed skin for protection against the cold. It might also be used as a ground cover to keep the survivors dry. This is bright enough to be seen beyond the horizon. If they had no other means of signaling than this. Water is important because dehydration will affect decision-making. it could be used as a tent or a wind screen. Since it contains mostly carbohydrates. While this could be limited somewhat by the trees. A newspaper can also be used as a verbal signaling device when rolled up in a megaphone-shape. bedding. It is much safer to drink warmed water than to eat snow. and constructing a frame for the canvas tent. There are other uses for this item. • CAN OF CRISCO SHORTENING This has many uses. since warm water will help retain body heat. clothes can also be used for shelter. Spread on a frame made of trees. It’s shape. the shortening is helpful as fuel. and canvas would protect against wind and snow (canvas is used in making tents). when contrasted with the surrounding terrain. cutting tree branches for ground insulation. The empty can is useful in melting snow for drinking water. After shining the lid with steel wool. it supplies the energy without making digestive demands on the body. bandages. • NEWSPAPERS (ONE PER PERSON) These are useful in starting a fire. The ax could be used for this as well as for clearing a sheltered campsite. • • . it will reflect sunlight and generate 5 to 7 million candlepower. When melted into an oil. signaling. melted shortening will act like a candle. makes it a signaling device.Besides adding warmth to the body. When soaked into a piece of cloth. a member of the group could climb a tree and use the mirrored lid to signal search planes. A mirror-like signaling device can be made from the lid. SMALL AX Survivors need a constant supply of wood in order to maintain the fire. • FAMILY SIZE CHOCOLATE BARS (ONE PER PERSON) Chocolate will provide some food energy. The can is also useful as a cup. string (when unraveled). they would have a better than 80% chance of being rescued within the first day. and fuel for the fire. 20 X 20 FOOT PIECE OF CANVAS The cold makes shelter necessary. They can also be used as insulation under clothing when rolled up and placed around a person’s arms and legs.

The butt of the pistol could be used as a hammer. For example. Alcohol takes on the temperature it is exposed to. • • • HOW TO SCORE Each team should list its top 5 choices in order prior to seeing the answer sheet. The pistol also has some serious disadvantages. resulting in a rapid loss of body heat. and the powder from the shells will assist in fire building. Award points to each team’s top choices according to the numbers here. Anger. thinking it would bring warmth. a drunk person is more likely to get hypothermia than a sober person is. The availability of a lethal weapon is a danger to the group under these conditions. Alcohol also dilates the blood vessels in the skin.45-CALIBER PISTOL The pistol provides a sound-signaling device. and lapses of rationality may increase as the group awaits rescue. (The international distress signal is 3 shots fired in rapid succession). one can start a fire by firing the gun at dry wood on the ground. COMPASS Because a compass might encourage someone to try to walk to the nearest town. it would take an expert marksman to kill an animal with it. the map would earn 12 points. frustration. The danger of whiskey is that someone might drink it. Thus. Then the animal would have to be transported to the crash site. By placing a small bit of cloth in a cartridge emptied of its bullet. resulting in chilled blood belong carried back to the heart. SECTIONAL AIR MAP MADE OF PLASTIC This is also among the least desirable of the items because it will encourage individuals to try to walk to the nearest town. and a drink of minus 30 degrees ahrenheit whiskey would freeze a person’s esophagus and stomach. . To award points. impatience. QUART OF 100 PROOF WHISKEY The only uses of whiskey are as an aid in fire building and as a fuel for a torch (made by soaking a piece of clothing in the whiskey and attaching it to a tree branch). The empty bottle could be used for storing water. it is a dangerous item. There have been numerous cases of survivors going undetected because they were too weak to make a loud enough noise to attract attention.• LOADED . irritability. Its only redeeming feature is that it could be used as a reflector of sunlight (due to its glass top). which could prove difficult to impossible depending on its size. Although a pistol could be used in hunting. It’s only useful feature is as a ground cover to keep someone dry. look at the ranking numbers on this answer sheet.

ASIF KHURSHID SUBMITTED BY KOKAB ISHAQ SP06-BBA-039 SAIMA TABBASUM SP06-BBA-029 MEHREEN SALEEM SP06-BBA-019 JASIA SARMAD SP06-BBA-049 HIRA HAYYAT SP06-BBA-013 . SUBMITTED TO SIR. Lowest score wins (and survives).while the steel wool would earn 2 points.

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