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Version 2002

**CFD Research Corporation
**

Cummings Research Park 215 Wynn Drive l Huntsville, AL 35805 Phone: (256) 726-4800 l Fax: (256)726-4806 Software Support: software@cfdrc.com/(256)726-4900 Software Sales: sales@cfdrc.com l www.cfdrc.com

CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805 © 1997-2002 by CFD Research Corporation All rights reserved. Published 2002 This manual is the confidential and proprietary product of CFD Research Corporation. Any unauthorized use, reproduction, or transfer of this manual is strictly prohibited. (Subject to limited distribution and restricted disclosure only.) CFD-ACE™, CFD-ACE+™, CFD-VIEW™, CFD-GEOM™, and CFD-FASTRAN™ are registered trademarks of CFD Research Corporation. CFD-GEOM contains SISL the SINTEF Spline Library Copyright 1989-2002 by SINTEF Applied Mathematics, Oslo, Norway

Released March 2002

CFDRC Confidential

Table of Contents

Introduction Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Section 7 Section 8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials Tutorials Summaries CFD-GEOM Tutorials Tutorials Summaries CFD-VIEW Tutorials Tutorials Summaries Simulation Manager Tutorials Summaries CFD-Micromesh Tutorials Summaries CFD-Maxwell Tutorials Summaries CFD-Fastran Tutorials Summaries CFD-VisCART Tutorials Summaries

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CFDRC Tutorial

Introduction

About this Manual

CFDRC provides tutorials for the following software packages: • • • • • • • • CFD-ACE(U) CFD-GEOM CFD-VIEW Simulation Manager CFD-Micromesh CFD-Maxwell CFD-FASTRAN CFD-Viscart

This tutorial manual is divided into seven section. Each section provides brief summaries of each tutorial for the respective software package. Information about locating full versions of each tutorial’s documention is also provided.

Locating CFDRC Tutorial Documentation

Complete tutorial documentation for all CFDRC packages except CFD-ACE(U) is located in the following directory: CFDRCDIR\Tutorials\package\TutorialTitle\Docs where "package" is the CFDRC software package and "TutorialTitle" is the title of the tutorial.

**CFDRC Tutorials Manual
**

5/22/02

v

Locating CFDRC Tutorial DocuCFD-ACE(U) Tutorial Docu-

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorial Documentation

CFD-ACE(U) tutorials are now divided into directories according to the module/feature that the tutorial demonstrates. The path to these directories is as follows: CFDRCDIR\Tutorials\aceu Each of these module/feature directories contains one or more subdirectories that represent the actual tutorial. The following table lists each CFD-ACE(U) tutorial along with the name of the module directory and tutorial subdirectory for that tutorial. These tutorial subdirectories contain a "Docs" directory which contains the full documentation necessary to run the respective tutorial. Tutorial Title Directory Flow\Laminar_Backstep Turbulence\Turbulent_Backstep Heat_Transfer\Conduction Heat_Transfer\Convection Stress\Compliant_Orifice Chemistry\Surface_Reaction Chemistry\Propane_Jet Chemistry\Propane_Jet Chemistry\Propane_Jet Flow\Transonic_NACA0012 Chemistry\Gas_Combustor Flow\Cylinder Biochemistry\Biosensor Electrokinetics\Electoroosmosis Chemistry\Sematech VOF\Inkjet Plasma\ICP

Tutorial 1 Tutorial 2 Tutorial 3 Tutorial 4 Tutorial 5 Tutorial 6 Tutorial 7 Tutorial 7a Tutorial 7b Tutorial 8 Tutorial 9 Tutorial 10 Tutorial 11 Tutorial 12 Tutorial 13 Tutorial 14 Tutorial 15

Laminar Flow Past a Backward Facing Step Turbulent Flow Past a Backward Facing Step Conduction Between Concentric Thick-walled Cylinders Natural Convection Between Concentric Thickwalled Cylinders Oil Flow through a Compliant Orifice Surface Reaction in a 2-D Axisymmetric Reactor Turbulent Mixing of Propane and Air Propane Combustion by Instantaneous Chemical Reaction Propane Combustion by Finite-Rate Chemical Reaction Transonic Flow Over NACA 0012 Airfoil Multi-step Reaction in a Gas Turbine Combustor Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder Binding Kinetics in a Biosensor Electroosmotic Flow in a Cross Channel Device Sematech Benchmark Case #5 Simulating Inkjets with VOF (Volume of Fluid) Free Surface Modeling in CFD-ACE+ ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) Reactor with Planar Coil in Argon

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CFDRC Tutorials Manual

Locating CFDRC Tutorial Documentation CFD-ACE(U) Tutorial Documentation

Tutorial Title Tutorial 16 Tutorial 17 Tutorial 18 Tutorial 19 Tutorial 20 Tutorial 21 Tutorial 22 Tutorial 23 PECVD of Silicon Dioxide CCP Reactor Sample Stacking by Electrophoresis Momentum Resistance Modeling Microfluidic Flow in a Tesla-type Valve Electrostatic Actuation of a Torsion Micromirror Cavitation in a Sharp-Edged Orifice 2D ICP-CCP

Directory Plasma\PECVD Plasma\CCP Electrokinetics\Electrophoresis Momentum_Resistance\Showerhead Flow\Tesla_Valve Stress\Micromirror Cavitation\Orifice Plasma\ICP_CCP_2D

CFDRC Tutorials Manual

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Locating CFDRC Tutorial DocuCFD-ACE(U) Tutorial Docu-

viii

CFDRC Tutorials Manual

CFD-ACE(U)TM

Tutorials

Version 2002

**CFD Research Corporation
**

Cummings Research Park 215 Wynn Drive l Huntsville, AL 35805 Phone: (256) 726-4800 l Fax: (256)726-4806 Software Support: software@cfdrc.com/(256)726-4900 Software Sales: sales@cfdrc.com l www.cfdrc.com

CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805 © 1997-2002 by CFD Research Corporation All rights reserved. Published 2001 This manual is the confidential and proprietary product of CFD Research Corporation. Any unauthorized use, reproduction, or transfer of this manual is strictly prohibited. (Subject to limited distribution and restricted disclosure only.) CFD-ACE™, CFD-ACE+™, CFD-VIEW™, CFD-GEOM™, and CFD-FASTRAN™ are registered trademarks of CFD Research Corporation. CFD-GEOM contains SISL the SINTEF Spline Library Copyright 1989-2002 by SINTEF Applied Mathematics, Oslo, Norway

Released March 2002

CFDRC Confidential

Table of Contents

Tutorial 1

Laminar Flow Past a Backward Facing Step

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3

Tutorial 2

Turbulent Flow Past a Backward Facing Step

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3

Tutorial 3

Conduction Between Concentric Thick-walled Cylinders

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3

Tutorial 4 ders

Natural Convection Between Concentric Thick-walled Cylin-

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3

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Tutorial 5

Oil Flow through a Compliant Orifice

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4

Tutorial 6

Surface Reaction in a 2-D Axisymmetric Reactor

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3

Tutorial 7

Turbulent Mixing of Propane and Air

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2

Tutorial 7a

Propane Combustion by Instantaneous Chemical Reaction

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7a-1 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7a-2

Tutorial 7b

Propane Combustion by Finite-Rate Chemical Reaction

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7b-1 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7b-2

Tutorial 8

Transonic Flow Over NACA 0012 Airfoil

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 Calculation of Simulation Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2

Tutorial 9

Multi-step Reaction in a Gas Turbine Combustor

**Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
**

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials iv

Table of Contents

Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2

Tutorial 10

Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3

Tutorial 11

Binding Kinetics in a Biosensor

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5

Tutorial 12

Electroosmotic Flow in a Cross Channel Device

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3

Tutorial 13

Sematech Benchmark Case #5

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4

**Tutorial 14 Simulating Inkjets with VOF (Volume of Fluid) Free Surface Modeling in CFD-ACE+
**

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1 Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4

Tutorial 15 Argon

ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) Reactor with Planar Coil in

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials v

Table of Contents

Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2

Tutorial 16

PECVD of Silicon Dioxide

Problem Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2

Tutorial 17

CCP Reactor

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2

Tutorial 18

Sample Stacking by Electrophoresis

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3

Tutorial 19

Momentum Resistance Modeling

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1 Modeling Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2 Reduced Model Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-5 Directory Contents Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7 Full Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7 Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9

Tutorial 20

Microfluidic Flow in a Tesla-type Valve

Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-2 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-3

Tutorial 21

Electrostatic Actuation of a Torsion Micromirror

Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-1

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Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-2 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-3

Tutorial 22

Cavitation in a Sharp-Edged Orifice

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-2 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-4

Tutorial 23

2D ICP-CCP

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1 Modules and Features Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-2

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Tutorial 1

Laminar Flow Past a Backward Facing Step

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following subjects in detail: • • • • • • • • • • Importing a grid from CFD-GEOM. Setting the model title. Setting constant values for fluid density and viscosity. Setting boundary values appropriate for inlets and outlets of laminar flow. Setting initial conditions. Setting solution iterations. Setting the spatial differencing scheme. Setting the relaxation parameters. Requesting printed and graphical output. Submitting the model for solution.

Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides.

Problem Description

Solve for the flow over a backward facing step at a Reynolds number of 200. The goal of the simulation is to find the reattachment length (i.e., the point where the separation bubble disappears on the channel floor.) The Reynolds number can be calculated as:

T99-A-02

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1-1

Tutorial 1: Laminar Flow Past a Backward Facing Step

UD Re = -------- , n where U is the average inlet velocity, and D is the hydraulic diameter (equal to 2h). The geometry is given in the figure below:

Inlet

h = 0.52 cm s = 0.49 cm 4 cm 20 cm 1.01 cm

Figure 1-1. Backward Facing Step Geometry Use fluid properties of air (density = 1.15 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity = 1.5e-5 m2/s). The average inlet velocity required to obtain a Reynolds number of 200 can be calculated as: nRe 1.5 ´10 ( 200 ) U = --------- = ----------------------------------- = 0.2885 m/s 2 ( 0.0052 ) D

–5

1-2

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T99-A-02

Tutorial 1: Laminar Flow Past a Backward Facing Step

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines Transient Other Features 3D

• Flow

Heat Transfer (Heat) Turbulence (Turb) Chemistry User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Fluid (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress Plasma Electric (Electr) Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem) Kinetic Semi Device

• 2D Planar

2D Axisym

T99-A-02

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1-3

Tutorial 1: Laminar Flow Past a Backward Facing Step

1-4

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T99-A-02

Tutorial 2

Turbulent Flow Past a Backward Facing Step

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following subjects in detail: • • • • • • • • • • Importing a grid from CFD-GEOM. Setting the model title. Setting constant values for fluid density and viscosity. Setting boundary values appropriate for inlets and outlets in turbulent flow. Setting initial conditions. Setting solution iterations. Setting the spatial differencing scheme. Setting the relaxation parameters. Requesting printed and graphical output. Submitting the model for solution.

Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides.

Problem Description

Solve for the flow over a backward facing step at a Reynolds number of 100,000. The goal of the simulation is to find the reattachment length (i.e., the point where the separation bubble disappears on the channel floor.) The Reynolds number can be calculated as:

T99-A-03

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2-1

Tutorial 2: Turbulent Flow Past a Backward Facing Step

UD Re = -------- , n

where U is the average inlet velocity, and D is the hydraulic diameter (equal to 2h). The geometry is given in the figure below:

h = 0.52 cm s = 0.49 cm 4 cm 20 cm

1.01 cm

Use fluid properties of water (density = 1000 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity = 1.0x10-6 m2/s). The average inlet velocity required to obtain a Reynolds number of 100,000 can be calculated as:

nRe 1.0 ´10 ( 100000 ) U = --------- = -------------------------------------------- = 9.62 m/s 2 ( 0.0052 ) D

–6

2-2

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T99-A-03

Tutorial 2: Turbulent Flow Past a Backward Facing Step

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines Transient Other Features 3D

• Flow

Heat Transfer (Heat)

• 2D Planar

2D Axisym

• Turbulence (Turb)

Chemistry User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Fluid (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress Plasma Electric (Electr) Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem) Kinetic Semi Device

T99-A-03

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2-3

Tutorial 2: Turbulent Flow Past a Backward Facing Step

2-4

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T99-A-03

Tutorial 3

Conduction Between Concentric Thick-walled Cylinders

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following subjects in detail: • Importing a grid from CFD-GEOM. • Setting the model title. • Setting constant values for fluid and solid properties. • Setting thermal boundary values. • Setting initial conditions. • Setting solution iterations. • Setting the relaxation parameters. • Requesting printed and graphical output. • Submitting the model for solution. Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides.

Problem Description

Solve for the heat transfer by conduction only between infinitely long concentric thick walled cylinders. The inner and outer walls are maintained at a fixed temperature. The goal of the simulation is to determine how much heat transfer is required to maintain the inner and outer walls at the specified fixed temperatures. The geometry and boundary conditions are given in the figure below:

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3-1

Tutorial 3: Conduction Between Concentric Thick-walled Cylinders

steel air

r1 r2 r3 r4

**r1 = 0.03 m r2 = 0.05 m r3 = 0.13 m r4 = 0.15 m Ti = 273.5 K To = 272.5 K
**

To

Ti

Use solid properties of steel (density = 7750 kg/m3, specific heat = 712 J/kg-K, conductivity = 40 W/m-K) and fluid properties of air (density = 1.1563 kg/m3, specific heat = 1000 J/kg-K, conductivity = 0.024 W/m-K). There is an analytic solution to this problem:

**Ti – To Q = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ln ( r 2 ¤ r 1 ) ln ( r 3 ¤ r 2 ) ln ( r 4 ¤ r 3 ) ----------------------- + ----------------------- + ----------------------2pk s 2pk a 2pk s
**

substituting in the known values yields

273.5 – 272.5 Q = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.1578 W/m ln ( 0.13 ¤ 0.05 ) ln ( 0.15 ¤ 0.13 ) ln ( 0.05 ¤ 0.03 ) ---------------------------------- + ---------------------------------- + ---------------------------------2p ( 40 ) 2p ( 40 ) 2p ( 0.024 )

3-2

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T99-A-04

Tutorial 3: Conduction Between Concentric Thick-walled Cylinders

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Flow Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines Transient Other Features 3D

**• Heat Transfer (Heat)
**

Turbulence (Turb) Chemistry User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress Plasma Electric (Electr) Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem) Kinetics Semi Device

• 2D Planar

2D Axisym

T99-A-04

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

3-3

Tutorial 3: Conduction Between Concentric Thick-walled Cylinders

3-4

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T99-A-04

Tutorial 4

Natural Convection Between Concentric Thick-walled Cylinders

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following subjects in detail: • Importing a grid from CFD-GEOM. • Setting the model title. • Activating gravitational body forces. • Setting constant values for fluid and solid properties. • Setting thermal boundary values. • Setting initial conditions. • Setting solution iterations. • Setting the relaxation parameters. • Requesting printed and graphical output. • Submitting the model for solution. Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides.

Problem Description

Solve for the heat transfer by conduction and convection between concentric thick walled cylinders. The inner and outer walls are maintained at a fixed temperature. The goal of the simulation is to determine how much heat transfer is required to maintain the inner and outer walls at the specified fixed temperatures. The geometry and boundary conditions are given in the figure below:

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3/26/02

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

4-1

Tutorial 4: Natural Convection Between Concentric Thick-walled Cylinders

steel air

r1 r2 r3 r4

**r1 = 0.03 m r2 = 0.05 m r3 = 0.13 m r4 = 0.15 m Ti = 273.5 K To = 272.5 K
**

To

Ti

g = 9.81

m/s2

Use solid properties of steel (density = 7750 kg/m3, specific heat = 712 J/kg-K, conductivity = 40 W/m-K) and fluid properties of air (density = Ideal Gas Law (Mol. Wt. =29), viscosity (kinematic) = 1.71e-5 m2/s2, specific heat = 1000 J/kg-K, conductivity = 0.024 W/m-K).

4-2

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T99-A-05

Tutorial 4: Natural Convection Between Concentric Thick-walled Cylinders

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Transient Other Features 3D

**• Flow • Heat Transfer (Heat)
**

Turbulence (Turb) Chemistry User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress Plasma Electric (Electr) Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem) Kinetics Semi Device

• 2D Planar

2D Axisym

• Gravity

Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines

T99-A-05

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

4-3

Tutorial 4: Natural Convection Between Concentric Thick-walled Cylinders

4-4

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T99-A-05

Tutorial 5

Oil Flow through a Compliant Orifice

This is a 2D-axisymmetric flow of engine oil through a compliant orifice. The effects of thermal stress and fluid-structural coupling are included in this simulation. In this tutorial we will learn to do the following: • • • • • • • • Basic CFD-GUI usage. Activating a stress simulation with grid deformation. Specify model options for a stress simulation. Define volume condition properties for a stress simulation. Set boundary conditions for a stress simulation. Post processing a stress simulation. Running with different stress options (i.e, no stress, fluid only, thermal only) Simulation of iterating with an external stress solver

Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. 2. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. You have just started the CFD-GUI application

Problem Description

2D-Axisymmetric flow of engine oil through a compliant orifice. Include the effects of thermal stress and fluid-structural coupling. Determine the inlet static pressure, maximum flow velocity, and orifice tip deflection. To understand the need for a full fluid-structural coupled solution, you are encouraged to simulate the same case with flow only (no stress of any kind), fluid-structural coupling only (no thermal stresses), and thermal stress only (no fluid forces).

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3/26/02

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

5-1

Tutorial 5: Oil Flow through a Compliant Orifice

GEOMETRY DIMENSIONS

0.01m R=0.005m + 0.005m 0.0015m 0.01m 0.015m 0.001m 0.005m

**FLOW / THERMAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
**

All Walls are No-Slip Adiabatic Fixed Velocity Inlet: U=0.045 m/s V=0 m/s T=350 K PTFE Rubber Fixed Pressure Outlet: P=0 Pa T=350 K

Axis of Symmetry

**STRESS BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
**

PTFE Rubber: Stress free @ 300K

Applied Fluid Force

**Applied Fluid Force Axis of Symmetry
**

5-2 CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials T99-A-01

Tutorial 5: Oil Flow through a Compliant Orifice

Required solid and fluid properties are given below: Table 5-1. PTFE Rubber Solid Properties [1] Property Young’s Modulus Poisson’s Ratio Expansion Coefficient Density Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity Value 2.7e+06 Pa 0.3 2.4e-4 m/(m-K) 1550 kg/m3 1670 J/(kg-K) 0.2 W/(m-K)

Table 5-2. Engine Oil Fluid Properties [2] Property Density Viscosity (dynamic) Specific Heat Conductivity (Prandtl) Value 854 kg/m3 0.0356 kg/(m-s) 2120 J/(kg-K) 546

[1] Dyneon Aflas FA-150E Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Fluoroelastomer, properties can be found at MatWeb (http://www.matls.com) [2] Incropera and Dewitt, “Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer”, 2nd ed., Wiley Publishing, New York, 1985.

T99-A-01

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

5-3

Tutorial 5: Oil Flow through a Compliant Orifice

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines Transient Other Features 3D 2D Planar

**• Flow • Heat Transfer (Heat)
**

Turbulence (Turb) Chemistry User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav)

• 2D Axisym

**• Grid Deformation (Deform) • Stress
**

Plasma Electric (Electr) Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem) Kinetics Semi Device

5-4

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T99-A-01

Tutorial 6

Surface Reaction in a 2-D Axisymmetric Reactor

In this tutorial we will learn to do the following: • • • • • • • Set the model name and title. Import a DTF grid. Define a mixture and mixture properties. Define a surface reaction mechanism. Set fluid and solid properties using volume conditions. Set boundary conditions and initial conditions. Set solution and output parameters.

Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides.

T00-A-01

3/26/02

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

6-1

Tutorial 6: Surface Reaction in a 2-D Axisymmetric Reactor

Problem Description

Outlet Boundary (P = 0 N/m2)

Reacting Wall

Aluminum Heated Wall (600 K) Reacting Wall

Inlet Boundary 50% AR 50% CL2 U = -0.691 m/s T = 300 K Heated Wall (600 K) Reacting Wall

This problem investigates the etching on an Aluminum surface due to Chlorine gas when a mixture of Argon (Ar) and Chlorine (Cl2) flows over an Aluminum substrate. The chamber pressure is 1333 N/m2. The surface reaction mechanism uses the sticking coefficient method to model the reaction: 2AL + 3CL2 -> 2ALCL3 with the reaction rate determined using the following rate coefficients: • Ap =5.6e7 • n=0 • Ea/R = 0

6-2

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T00-A-01

Tutorial 7

Turbulent Mixing of Propane and Air

In this tutorial we will learn how to do the following: • Basic CFD-GUI usage. • Specify model options for a chemistry simulation. • Define mixtures using the Property Manager. • Define volume condition properties for a chemistry simulation. • Set boundary conditions and initial conditions for a chemistry simulation. • Set solution and output parameters for a chemistry simulation. • Post processing a chemistry simulation.

Problem Description

Farfield Boundary Air Inlet Propane Inlet 4 cm Axis of Symmetry 41.6 cm Outlet 7.5 cm

The problem investigates the turbulent mixing of two streams of gases. There is a jet of propane gas emerging from a pipe into a co-flowing air stream. The pipe inner diameter is 0.52 cm and the outer diameter is 0.90 cm. The 3-D problem is solved using a 2-D axisymmetric model.

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3/26/02

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

7-1

Tutorial 7: Turbulent Mixing of Propane and Air

The goal of this simulation is to determine the propane mass fraction along the centerline of the system.

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines Transient Other Features 3D 2D Planar

• • • •

Flow Heat Transfer (Heat) Turbulence (Turb) Chemistry User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress Plasma Electric (Electr) Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem) Kinetics Semi Device

• 2D Axisym

7-2

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T00-A-02

Tutorial 7a

Propane Combustion by Instantaneous Chemical Reaction

In this tutorial we will learn to do the following: • Load a previously setup DTF file. • Setup and use an instantaneous reaction mechanism. • Use a previously run simulation as initial conditions • Change the model name during the solver submit process. Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. You have successfully completed tutorial 7 and have the results from that simulation.

Problem Description

Farfield Boundary Air Inlet Propane Inlet 4 cm Axis of Symmetry 41.6 cm Outlet 7.5 cm

In the previous tutorial, we simulated a mixing process only. In this and the next variations, we will also compute the chemical reactions by two reaction models: instantaneous chemistry in this first variation, and finite-rate chemistry will be presented in the next variation. The reaction to be modeled is: C3H8 + 5O2 -> 3CO2 + 4H2O

T00-A-02a

3/26/02

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

7a-1

Tutorial 7a: Propane Combustion by Instantaneous Chemical Reaction

The goal of this simulation is to determine the temperature and species concentration fields.

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Other Features 3D 2D Planar

• • • •

Flow Heat Transfer (Heat) Turbulence (Turb) Chemistry User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress Plasma Electric (Electr) Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem)

**• Gas Phase Reaction
**

Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines

• 2D Axisym

Transient

7a-2

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T00-A-02a

Tutorial 7b

Propane Combustion by Finite-Rate Chemical Reaction

In this tutorial we will learn to do the following: • Load a previously setup DTF file. • Setup and use a finite-rate reaction mechanism. • Use a previously run simulation as initial conditions • Change the model name during the solver submit process. Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. You have successfully completed tutorial 7a and have the results from that simulation.

Problem Description

Farfield Boundary Air Inlet Propane Inlet 4 cm Axis of Symmetry 41.6 cm Outlet 7.5 cm

This tutorial performs the propane combustion simulation utilizing a finite rate reaction mechanism. The reaction to be modeled is: C3H8 + 5O2 -> 3CO2 + 4H2O The goal of this simulation is to determine the temperature and species concentration fields.

T00-A-02b

3/26/02

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

7b-1

Tutorial 7b: Propane Combustion by Finite-Rate Chemical Reaction

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Other Features 3D 2D Planar

• • • •

Flow Heat Transfer (Heat) Turbulence (Turb) Chemistry User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress Plasma Electric (Electr) Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem)

**• Gas Phase Reaction
**

Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines

• 2D Axisym

Transient

7b-2

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T00-A-02b

Tutorial 8

Transonic Flow Over NACA 0012 Airfoil

Objectives

In this tutorial we will cover the following subjects: • Calculation of simulation conditions. • Setting problem type options. • Setting model options for compressible flow. • Setting fluid properties through volume conditions. • Setting boundary and initial conditions appropriate for inlets and outlets in external flow. • Setting Solver and Output parameters. • Post processing for resultant Forces. Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides.

Problem Description

The problem to be simulated is the flow of air past a NACA 0012 airfoil at 2.26 degrees angle-ofattack. The simulated altitude is 7000 meters and the free stream Mach number is 0.799. This geometry has been gridded both with a structured (quad) grid as well as an unstructured (triangle) grid. The user can run either grid and is encouraged to try both.

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3/26/02

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

8-1

Tutorial 8: Transonic Flow Over NACA 0012 Airfoil

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Heat Transfer (Heat) Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines Transient Other Features 3D

**• Flow • Turbulence (Turb)
**

Chemistry User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress Plasma Electric (Electr) Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem) Heat Transfer (Heat) Kinetics Semi Device

• 2D Planar

2D Axisym

**Calculation of Simulation Conditions
**

Since the physical conditions of the flow past the airfoil refer to conditions prevailing at an altitude of 7000 m in the atmosphere, we need to first calculate what the conditions are at that altitude. This is done using standard relations, but has to be done before we start assigning properties. So our first step will be to calculate the “simulation conditions.” Given: h = 7000 m, Mach = 0.799, angle-of-attack = 2.26 degrees

8-2

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T00-A-06

Tutorial 8: Transonic Flow Over NACA 0012 Airfoil

Find: Free stream pressure, temperature, velocity, and turbulence quantities From standard atmosphere relations: T = T o – Bh Bh 5.26 p = p a æ 1 – ------ö è To ø where To = 288.16 K B = 0.00650 K/m pa = 101,300 Pa Solving for T and p, T = 288.16 – 0.00650 ( 7000 ) = 242.66 K 0.00650 ( 7000 ) p = 101300 1 – ----------------------------------288.16

5.26

= 41023 Pa

To find the velocity we first need to know the speed of sound a = For standard air g = 1.4, R = 286.7, substituting a = ( 1.4 ) ( 286.7 ) ( 242.66 ) = 312.1 m/sec gRT

Solving for the free stream velocity gives U = a ( Mach ) cos ( a ) = 312.1 ( 0.799 ) cos ( 2.26 ) = 249.2 m/sec V = a ( Mach ) sin ( a ) = 312.1 ( 0.799 ) sin ( 2.26 ) = 9.834 m/sec In order to determine the free stream turbulence values we need to assume a value for the turbulence intensity. For atmospheric flight the values will usually be quite low (0-1%), for a wind tunnel simulation the values can be somewhat larger (1-5%). For this simulation we will assume 1% turbulence intensity. The free stream turbulence kinetic energy (K) can then be calculated as follows:

T00-A-06

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

8-3

Tutorial 8: Transonic Flow Over NACA 0012 Airfoil

2 2 1 2 K = -- ( u' + v' + w' ) 2

where u' is the turbulent fluctuation velocity and is equal to the turbulence intensity multiplied by the free stream velocity,

2 2 1 K = -- [ ( 0.01 ( 249.2 ) ) + ( 0.01 ( 9.834 ) ) ] = 3.11 m2/sec2 2

Determining the turbulence dissipation rate requires that we assume a ratio of turbulence viscosity over laminar viscosity ( b = m t ¤ m ) For an external flow simulation the Fairfield turbulence viscosity should be less than or equal to the laminar viscosity. For this simulation, we will choose b = 0.2. The dissipation rate can then be determined from the following equation, rC m K D = ---------------bm where Cm = 0.09 the density is given by the ideal gas law, P 41023 r = ------ = --------------------------------------- = 0.5897 kg/m3 ( 286.7 ) ( 242.66 ) RT the laminar viscosity can be calculated by Sutherland’s Law, AT m = ----------------(B + T) for air A = 1.4605e-06, and B = 112. Substituting and solving for viscosity gives ( 1.4606 ´10 ) ( 242.66 ) –5 m = --------------------------------------------------------------- = 1.557 ´10 kg/(m-sec) ( 112 + 242.66 ) Solving for the dissipation rate,

2 rC m K 5 ( 0.5897 ) ( 0.09 ) ( 3.11 ) D = ---------------- = ------------------------------------------------------ = 1.65 ´10 J/(kg-sec) –5 bm ( 0.2 ) ( 1.557 ´10 ) 2 –6 1.5 1.5 2

8-4

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T00-A-06

Tutorial 8: Transonic Flow Over NACA 0012 Airfoil

T00-A-06

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

8-5

Tutorial 8: Transonic Flow Over NACA 0012 Airfoil

8-6

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T00-A-06

Tutorial 9

Multi-step Reaction in a Gas Turbine Combustor

Objectives

In this tutorial we will do the following: • Read a DTF grid system and scaling the geometry. • Activate a turbulent, reacting flow solution including conjugate heat transfer. • Activate the Swirl feature for 2D axisymmetric geometries. • Define a multi-step gas phase reaction using the Reaction Manger • Define mixtures and mixture properties using the Property Manager. • Set boundary values appropriate for inlets and outlets in turbulent, reacting flow with swirl. Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. 2. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. You have either just started the application or just performed a File/New operation.

Problem Description

Metal Liner Cooling Air

Combustion Air Fuel

The problem consists of turbulent combustion of propane and air injected in a coannular fashion in

T00-A-07

3/26/02

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

9-1

Tutorial 9: Multi-step Reaction in a Gas Turbine Combustor

an axisymmetric combustion chamber. The hot reacting mixture is cooled by cold air which is flowing on the outside of a thin metal liner (see figure above). We want to compute the chemical reaction that occurs as the components mix in the course of flow. The goal of this simulation is to determine the temperature and species fraction fields.

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Other Features 3D 2D Planar

• • • •

Flow Heat Transfer (Heat) Turbulence (Turb) Chemistry User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress Plasma Electric (Electr) Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem) Kinetics Semi Device

**• Gas Phase Reaction
**

Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC

• 2D Axisym

Transient

• Swirl

Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines

9-2

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T00-A-07

Tutorial 10

Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following subjects in detail: • Loading a DTF file into CFD-GUI. • Setting properties of a fluid. • Setting Boundary and Initial conditions. • Setting Solution Controls such as iteration count; requesting graphics output etc. • Submitting the model for solution. • Post-processing for drag force. Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides.

Problem Description

U = 1.0 m/s

D = 0.2 m

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3/26/02

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

10-1

Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

The problem to be simulated consists of laminar flow at a Reynolds number of 1.0 around an infinite stationary cylinder. The “infiniteness” of the cylinder is captured by performing a 2D simulation (i.e. thus assuming it to be infinite in the 3rd dimension.) The goal of the simulation is to determine the drag force on the cylinder. The Reynolds number can be calculated as: UD Re = -------- , n where U is the average inlet velocity, D is the cylinder diameter, and n is the kinematic viscosity. For this simulation the cylinder diameter is 0.2 m. We will use an inlet velocity of 1.0 m/s and a kinematic viscosity of 0.2 m2/s2 to produce the desired Reynolds number of 1.0.

10-2

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T00-A-04

Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines Transient Other Features 3D

• Flow

Heat Transfer (Heat) Turbulence (Turb) Chemistry User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress Plasma Electric (Electr) Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry Kinetics Semi Device

• 2D Planar

2D Axisym

T00-A-04

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

10-3

Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

10-4

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T00-A-04

Tutorial 11

Binding Kinetics in a Biosensor

Objectives

This is a 3D model of chemical binding kinetics in a millimeter-scale biosensor. The objective of the model is to investigate the effects of various kinetic parameters on the simulated response. A general objective of modeling such problems (not covered here) could be to evaluate the effectiveness of the mathematical model for extracting kinetic parameters from the sensogram. In this tutorial we will learn to do the following: • Read the grid model into the GUI and set up the physical model • Activate Bio-Chem module needed for binding kinetics modeling • Specify transient solution process • Specify model input parameters expected by the solver for binding kinetics • Define volume and boundary conditions for binding kinetics • Set initial conditions, solver parameters and run the solution • Post-process the solution Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. 2. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. You have just started the CFD-GUI application

Problem Description

A schematic of the Spreeta sensogram to be modeled is shown in figure 11-1 on page 11-2. The sensogram is basically a bio-reactor. A sample containing an analyte passes through the orifice in the steel plate and a teflon block before entering the teflon flow cell through a circular inlet port. The bottom surface of the teflon flow cell is a gold-coated glass-slide on which the binding

T00-A-08

Revised 3/26/02

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

11-1

Tutorial 11: Binding Kinetics in a Biosensor

molecules are attached. When this surface is exposed to the sample, the analyte molecules bind to the sensor’s surface via their specific interaction with the binding molecules. This biomolecular binding is detected by the device. The reactor has one inlet and one outlet and dimensions as shown; the main chamber dimensions are 11.2 mm length x 2 mm width x 0.5 mm depth. The inlet and outlet tubes are 4.5 mm in length and 1.2 mm in diameter. Figure 11-2 shows a schematic of the ‘stripped-down’ version (model) of the actual device that will be used for modeling purposes. All the dimensions are maintained in the model since these are relevant to the analysis. The other elements of the sensogram such as the glass-slide, steel-block etc which are not directly relevant (they don’t affect the flow solution) are removed from our model. The data relevant to this particular problem is given in Table 11-1 and is used in the process of the model set-up during the course of the tutorial.

Figure 11-1. Schematic of System

11-2

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T00-A-08

Tutorial 11: Binding Kinetics in a Biosensor

A n a lyte In le t

G e o m e try

A n a ly te O u tle t

z x y Figure 11-2. Model of Spreeta Sensogram (Not to Scale) It can be seen from figure 11-2 that the model exhibits a symmetry about the XZ plane. This symmetry can be utilized for the analysis by building a grid that uses only half of the geometry (the symmetrical half about the XZ plane) and applying the symmetry BC on that plane. This is indeed exploited during the course of our analysis. The model is also symmetric about its center, about a plane parallel to the YZ plane. This symmetry cannot be used because, the flow is not symmetric about this plane (one is an inlet tube and the other is an outlet tube for the fluid flow, hence the asymmetry about that plane.)

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CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

11-3

Tutorial 11: Binding Kinetics in a Biosensor

The following data can be used for the set-up: Table 11-1. Kinetic and fluid parameters for adsorption modeling in Spreeta Biosensor Property Association rate constant: Ka Dissociation rate constant: Kd Initial Analyte concentration in bulk solution: Co Maximum possible surface analyte concentration: Ps Density of sample: r Viscosity of sample: n Diffusivity of analyte: D Inlet volumetric flow rate: Q Value 1E+9 M-1s-1 0.001 s-1 5E-6 M 2E-6 moles/m2 1000 kg/m3 0.86E-6 m2/s 4E-7 cm2/s 300ml/min

11-4

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T00-A-08

Tutorial 11: Binding Kinetics in a Biosensor

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines Transient Other Features

• Flow

Heat Transfer (Heat) Turbulence (Turb) Chemistry User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress Plasma Electric (Electr) Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate)

• 3D

2D Planar 2D Axisym

**• Bio-Chemistry (BiChem)
**

Kinetics Semi Device

Binding Kinetics

T00-A-08

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

11-5

Tutorial 11: Binding Kinetics in a Biosensor

11-6

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T00-A-08

Tutorial 12

Electroosmotic Flow in a Cross Channel Device

In this tutorial we will learn to do the following: • Setup an electroosmotic flow problem. • Set fluid properties using volume conditions. • Set boundary conditions and initial conditions. • Set solution and output parameters. Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. 2. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. You have a basic understanding of CFD-GUI operation.

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Tutorial 12: Electroosmotic Flow in a Cross Channel Device

Problem Description

P = 0 Pa f = 50 V

3 W = 1000e-6 m

P = 0 Pa f = 100 V

P = 0 Pa f=0V

1

h = 30e-6 m

2

h

P = 0 Pa f = 50 V

4

H = 1500e-6 m

This simulation models a two-dimensional cross channel geometry connecting four sample reservoirs. The process considered is electroosmotic driven flow from reservoir 1 to reservoir 2. The model examines the coupled fluid flow and electrostatic field at steady state. Boundary Conditions Inlet (RES1): Fixed static pressure inlet (0 Pa, 300K), the electric potential is fixed at 100 V. Inlet (RES3): Fixed static pressure inlet (0 Pa, 300K), the electric potential is fixed at 50 V. Inlet (RES4): Fixed static pressure inlet (0 Pa, 300K), the electric potential is fixed at 50 V. Outlet (RES2): Fixed static pressure outlet (0 Pa, 300K) the electric potential is fixed at 0 V.

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Tutorial 12: Electroosmotic Flow in a Cross Channel Device

Walls: A Debye thickness of 1e-9 m and a zeta potential of -0.1 V is applied to all of the walls. Volume Conditions: The working fluid is water (density = 1000 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity = 1e-6 m2/s, relative permittivity = 78.5).

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines Transient Other Features 3D

• Flow

Heat Transfer (Heat) Turbulence (Turb) Chemistry User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress Plasma

• 2D Planar

2D Axisym

• Electric (Electr)

Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem) Kinetics Semi Device

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Tutorial 12: Electroosmotic Flow in a Cross Channel Device

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Tutorial 13

Sematech Benchmark Case #5

In this tutorial we will learn to do the following:. • Import a DTF grid. • Scale the Geometry. • Activate Gravity. • Setup and Apply Radiative Properties. • Define a Mixture and Mixture Properties. • Define and Apply a Surface Reaction Mechanism. • Set fluid and solid properties using volume conditions. • Set boundary conditions and initial conditions. • Set solution and output parameters. Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. 2. 3. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. You have a basic understanding of CFD-GUI operation. You are running CFD-GUI and CFD-ACE(U).

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Tutorial 13: Sematech Benchmark Case #5

Problem Description

R 9.0 0.1 Top Outlet 1 3.2 Side Wafer Outlet 2 Window R 7.5 R 11.0 C L 0.0675 5.0 R 3.5 Inlet

2.5 4.3

0.5

This simulation models a two-dimensional axisymmetric geometry based on a Jipelec RTP reactor. The process considered is polysilicon deposition from silane. The model examines the coupled fluid flow, species transport, radiative heat transfer, and temperature distribution at steady state in the reactor. The wafer is modeled as a conducting body interacting thermally with the surrounding gas. A single surface reaction mechanism is used to model the deposition of silicon. Kinetic theory models for the transport properties are invoked. Boundary Conditions Inlet: The inlet flow rates are 2000 sccm of Argon and 100 sccm of Silane (standard conditions taken as 300 K and 760 torr). The temperature of the inlet gas is 300 K, as if it were injected through a porous distributor plate water-cooled at 300 K. (Inlet emissivity is taken as 0.15)

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Tutorial 13: Sematech Benchmark Case #5

Outlet: The outlet shall maintain a fixed pressure of 10 torr (effectively fixing the chamber pressure to 10 torr). (Outlet emissivity is taken as 1.0) Wafer: Wafer emissivity is 0.65. Top: The temperature of the top wall is 300 K. The emissivity of the top wall is 0.15. Side: The temperature of the side wall is 300 K. The emissivity of the side wall is 0.15. Window: The quartz window is divided into an inner and outer region. The inner region is held at 1023 K and has an emissivity of 1.0, the outer region is held at 600 K and has an emissivity of 0.92. Volume Conditions Wafer: Radial heat conduction shall be incorporated into the model of the wafer. This is to permit radial temperature nonuniformities to be predicted by the model. Conduction across the thickness of the wafer is not required. The density and specific heat of the wafer are 2330 kg/m3 and 712 J/ kg-K respectively. The wafer is assumed to be opaque for radiative purposes. The thermal conductivity of the wafer is approximated by a polynomial curvefit expression, valid between 300 K and 1273 K:

**k ( W ¤ m – K ) = 966.4 – 5.288 ( T ) + 1.210 ´10 ( T ) –5 3 –9 4 – 12 5 – 1.374 ´10 ( T ) + 7.675 ´10 ( T ) – 1.682 ´10 ( T )
**

Process Gas: The mixture density will be calculated by ideal gas law. The viscosity and thermal conductivity of the pure-species (argon, hydrogen, and silane) shall be determined from kinetic theory. The specific heat will be determined by JANNAF curve fits and the species diffusivity by Schmidt number (0.9). The process gas is assumed to be non-participating for radiative purposes. Chemical Reaction The chemical reaction occurs only on the surface and has the following stoichiometry: SIH4(g) -> SI(s) + 2H2(g) This reaction occurs on both sides of the wafer and on all interior surfaces of the reactor. The reaction rate for this surface reaction is derived from kinetic theory considerations as the rate of arrival of SIH4 molecules to the surface times a reaction rate probability (“sticking coefficient”), and can be expressed in Arrhenius form as

–2

2

g = 0.0414e

– 5021 ¤ T

The results shown in Coltrin, et. al. indicate that this reaction mechanism captures the true deposition rate at low temperatures where gas phase decomposition of silane is not important. This

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Tutorial 13: Sematech Benchmark Case #5

reaction mechanism is employed at all temperatures only for the purpose of keeping the chemistry simple for this model. Nonetheless, the trend of kinetically limited growth at low temperature and mass transport limited growth at high temperature will be produced by the given reaction rate.

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Other Features 3D 2D Planar

**• Flow • Heat Transfer (Heat)
**

Turbulence (Turb)

• Surface Reaction

Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC

• 2D Axisym

Transient

• Chemistry

User Scalar (Scalar)

• Radiation (Rad)

Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress Plasma Electric (Electr) Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem)

• Gravity

Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines

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Tutorial 14

Simulating Inkjets with VOF (Volume of Fluid) Free Surface Modeling in CFD-ACE+

Objectives

In this tutorial we will learn to do the following: • Read the grid model into the GUI and set up the physical model • Activate Free Surface (VOF) module needed for volume of fluid modeling • Specify transient solution process • Specify model input parameters expected by the solver for free surface • Define volume and boundary conditions for free surface • Set initial conditions, solver parameters and run the solution • Post-process the solution Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. 2. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. You have just started the CFD-GUI application

Problem Description

It can be seen from that the model exhibits a symmetry about the XZ plane. This symmetry can be utilized for the analysis by building a grid that uses only half of the geometry (the symmetrical half about the XZ plane) and applying the symmetry BC on that plane. This is indeed exploited during the course of our analysis. The model is also symmetric about its center, about a plane parallel to the YZ plane. This symmetry cannot be used because, the flow is not symmetric about this plane (one is an inlet tube and the other is an outlet tube for the fluid flow, hence the asymmetry about that plane.) Inkjets are used in inkjet printers. Generally a forcing function in a boundary moving wall (for

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Tutorial 14: Simulating Inkjets with VOF (Volume of Fluid) Free Surface Modeling in CFD-ACE+ example, electrostatically actuated vibrating diaphragm) which moves a wall, and causes ink to eject from a capillary or an opening onto a surface (paper). The objective of modeling this phenomenon is to determine the physical parameters which will produce certain characteristics in the ejected ink, such as droplet size, which produces an effect known as non-splashing. These characteristics are dependent upon a combination of fluid properties and geometrical parameters. Modeling offers a visual description of this process, as well as providing information such as pressure profiles and forcing function characteristics. Thus modeling is an effective aid in optimizing these design parameters in order to obtain high-quality printing from inkjet printers. The following data is used for the set-up.: Table 14-1. Kinetic and liquid parameters for VOF modeling in an Inkjet printer Property Density: ( ( r ) Viscosity: ( n ) Surface Tension: ( s ) Maximum possible surface analyte concentration: Ps Density of sample: r Viscosity of sample: n Diffusivity of analyte: D Inlet volumetric flow rate: Q Value 1000 kg/m3 1.0 E-6 m2/s 1.45 N/m

Table 14-2. Properties of Gas Phase (air) Property Density: ( ( r ) Viscosity: ( n ) Value 1.1563 kg/m3 1.71 E-5 m2/s

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Tutorial 14: Simulating Inkjets with VOF (Volume of Fluid) Free Surface Modeling in CFD-ACE+

Geometry

The 2D axisymmetric section as shown in figure 14-2 will be used for the CFD model.

Figure 14-1. Schematic of the full inkjet geometry

Figure 14-2. 2D axisymmetric section of the full inkjet geometry.

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Tutorial 14: Simulating Inkjets with VOF (Volume of Fluid) Free Surface Modeling in CFD-ACE+

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines Transient Other Features 3D 2D Planar

• Flow

Heat Transfer (Heat) Turbulence (Turb) Chemistry User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray

• 2D Axisym

**• Free Surface (VOF)
**

Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav)

**• Grid Deformation (Deform)
**

Stress Plasma Electric (Electr) Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem) Kinetics Semi Device Binding Kinetics

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Tutorial 15

ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) Reactor with Planar Coil in Argon

This tutorial shows how to do the following: • Set the model name and title. • Import a DTF grid. • Activate a reacting flow solution. • Define mixtures and mixture properties. • Define a surface reaction model. • Set boundary values appropriate for walls, coils, and heat sources in a reacting flow. • Set initial conditions. • Set solution iterations. • Set under-relaxation factors. • Request graphical output. • Submit the model for solution. Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. 2. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. You have either just started the application or just performed a File/New operation.

Problem Description

The goal of this Tutorial is to set up simulations of simplest inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The geometry is axisymmetric cylinder with a spiral coil on top. The coil can be modeled as two separate rings. The coil is covered by a metallic case containing an atmospheric air inside the case. For simplicity, the air can be modeled as solid with air properties. The thickness of a dielectric window separating the low pressure plasma chamber

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Tutorial 15: ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) Reactor with Planar Coil in Argon

from the coil can be neglected.

Case

Coils

Gas Chamber

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Other Features 3D 2D Planar

**• Flow • Heat Transfer (Heat)
**

Turbulence (Turb)

**• Gas Phase Reaction • Surface Reaction
**

Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System

• 2D Axisym

Transient

• Chemistry

User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav)

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Tutorial 15: ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) Reactor with Planar Coil in Argon

Modules Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress

Major Features Parallel Processing User Subroutines

Other Features

• Plasma

Electric (Electr)

• Magnetic (Magnet)

Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem) Kinetics Semi Device

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Tutorial 15: ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) Reactor with Planar Coil in Argon

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Tutorial 16

PECVD of Silicon Dioxide

In this tutorial we will learn how to do the following: • Set the model name and title. • Import a grid from CFD-GEOM. • Activate a plasma reacting flow solution. • Set solution iterations. • Set under-relaxation factors. • Request graphical output. • Submit the model for solution. Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. 2. You have either just started the application or just performed a File/New operation.

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Tutorial 16: PECVD of Silicon Dioxide

Problem Geometry

Coils Case

Outlet

0.18 m

Gas Chamber

Inlet

0.20 m

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Tutorial 16: PECVD of Silicon Dioxide

**Modules and Features Used
**

• Flow • Heat Transfer (Heat)

Turbulence (Turb)

**• Gas Phase Reaction • Surface Reaction
**

Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines

3D 2D Planar

• 2D Axisym

Transient

• Chemistry

User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress

• Plasma

Electric (Electr)

• Magnetic (Magnet)

Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem) Kinetics Semi Device

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Tutorial 16: PECVD of Silicon Dioxide

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Tutorial 17

CCP Reactor

In this tutorial we will learn how to do the following: • Set the model name and title. • Import a DTF grid . • Activate a reacting flow solution. • Define mixtures and mixture properties. • Define a surface reaction model. • Set boundary values appropriate for walls, coils, and heat sources in a reacting flow. • Set initial conditions. • Set solution iterations. • Set under-relaxation factors. • Request graphical output. • Submit the model for solution. Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. 2. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. You have either just started the application or just performed a File/New operation.

Problem Description

The problem to be simulated consists Capacitively Coupled Plasma (CCP) in a 2-D axisymmetric reactor. The Geometry is shown in the figure below.

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Tutorial 17: CCP Reactor

Figure 17-1. 2-D Axisymmetric Reactor

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Other Features 3D 2D Planar

• Flow

Heat Transfer (Heat) Turbulence (Turb)

**• Gas Phase Reaction • Surface Reaction
**

Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

• 2D Axisym

Transient

• Chemistry

User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress

17-2

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Tutorial 17: CCP Reactor

Modules

Major Features User Subroutines

Other Features

**• Plasma • Electric (Electr)
**

Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem) Kinetics Semi Device

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Tutorial 17: CCP Reactor

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Tutorial 18

Sample Stacking by Electrophoresis

In this tutorial we will learn to do the following: • • • • • • • Setup and run a transient electrophoresis simulation. Define transient inputs and output options. Define species and species properties Define mixtures and mixture properties. Set fluid properties using volume conditions. Set initial conditions on a volume by volume basis. Set solution and output parameters.

Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. 2. 3. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. You have a general understanding of how the CFD-GUI program works. You are running CFD-GUI / CFD-ACE(U).

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Tutorial 18: Sample Stacking by Electrophoresis

Problem Description

0V 100V

3mm 0.01

1mm

2mm

4mm

Mass Fraction Concentration of A- in Buffer

0.0001 Mass Fraction Concentration of B- in Buffer This case investigates the stacking of an ionic sample (B-) in the presence of a buffer solution which contains (in some regions) the ionic material A-. The channel is 0.01 m long and 200e-6 m wide (only half of the channel is gridded to take advantage of symmetry). A potential difference of 100 Volts is applied across the length of the channel. In order to simulate this type of problem, we will take advantage of the feature to allow the electrical conductivity to be calculated as a function of ion concentration. The mass diffusivity of A- is 2.5e-9 and the mass diffusivity of B- is 5.5e-9. The molecular weight of both A- and B- is 18. The background buffer is to be taken as water. The goal of this simulation is to determine the concentration profile of the sample (B-) versus time.

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Tutorial 18: Sample Stacking by Electrophoresis

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Other Features 3D

• Flow

Heat Transfer (Heat) Turbulence (Turb)

• 2D Planar

2D Axisym

• Chemistry

User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress Plasma

• Transient • Volume based ICs

Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines

• Electric (Electr)

Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem) Kinetics Semi Device

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Tutorial 18: Sample Stacking by Electrophoresis

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Tutorial 19

Momentum Resistance Modeling

Introduction

Momentum resistances are used to model physical resistances in the flow domain. They are mostly used when the physical size of the obstructions are smaller than the desired grid resolution. Examples include but are not limited to porous media, perforated plates, showerheads (in semiconductor equipment) and tube-bundles. In engineering systems, the above mentioned types of elements generally act in a manner to provide a resistance to flow (i.e. momentum resistance) which results in a pressure drop in the flow domain and uniformity of flow downstream of the elements. This effect (i.e. pressure drop) can be modeled without having to build a grid which will resolve the small scale features of the elements, thus saving on total grid size and yet achieving the same effect. This approach is called momentum resistance modeling and excludes the fine physical features of the element to be modeled. The following example will illustrate the important steps in determining the parameters in momentum resistance modeling. This tutorial is self contained but is best studied in conjunction with Chapter 7 of the CFD-ACEU User Manual.

Problem Description

Figure 19-1 shows the schematic of a typical CVD chamber. A gas mixture flows through the vertical mixing tube, turns and spreads radially into the thin gap above the blocker plate when it impinges on it. It then flows downward through the holes in the blocker plate and enters a second thin gap between the blocker plate and the face plate (also called showerhead.) The showerhead also is perforated with many holes in it (of a different size). The gas flows through the holes in the showerhead and finally enters the CVD chamber below it.

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Tutorial 19: Momentum Resistance Modeling

Mixing Tube

Face Plate (10 mm) Gap above face-plate (5 mm)

Gap above Blocker-plate (5 mm) Blocker Plate (2 mm)

CVD Chamber

Figure 19-1. Typical CVD Chamber The blocker plate and showerhead essentially serve to provide a uniform flow at their exits, but in the process, also produce a large pressure drop. It is computationally intensive to grid all the holes of the blocker and face plates even in a 2D model. Hence, the objective of momentum resistance modeling is to determine a suitable way to model the pressure drop using lumped parameters called momentum resistance coefficients.

Modeling Approach

The momentum resistance concept is used to model losses caused by geometric features that are much smaller than the typical grid dimensions of a model. It is implemented by adding source terms to the momentum equations that will induce the same pressure gradients as would be induced by the original small-scale features of the physical model. The formula used in the model is given by the equation 7-1 of the CFD-ACEU User Manual and reproduced here for convenience:

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Tutorial 19: Momentum Resistance Modeling

æ K ö Ki Kq l ÑP = r ç --------- + V ---------- – ------------------------------ ÷ · V ç 2b 2 V ( V + U 0 )÷ 2b è ø

The above generalized 3D vector equation can be reduced to a 1-D form as follows:

2 ¶p ----- = K l r × -- + K q r × æ --ö -- u - -- u - ¶z 2 b 2 è bø

(19-1)

(19-2)

In this equation,

**b = Porosity = (Flow area)/(Total area)
**

Kl = Linear Resistance Coefficient Kq = Quadratic Resistance Coefficient The central problem in this modeling approach is to determine values of Kl and Kq, the desired resistance coefficients. Knowing these, the source terms are easily computed by the solver. This equation can be applied to any flow problem. The holes in the blocker and showerhead plates can be thought of as numerous “pipes” in parallel. The approach is to first create a “reduced model” of the problem. This “reduced model” will model the flow through a single hole (or some smaller and suitable symmetric segment) of the blocker/face plate for various velocities and determine the corresponding pressure drops. Once this is done, we can fit a second degree equation to the data of pressure-gradient versus velocity of the form shown in equation 19-2 above, and obtain values for Kl and Kq. We can then use these values in the larger model directly.

Reduced Model

The process of creating a reduced model is to first examine the pattern of holes in the blocker plate (or face-plate) to be modeled. These patterns are generally known beforehand or can be determined by an examination of the physical equipment. Some sample patterns are shown below.

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Tutorial 19: Momentum Resistance Modeling

Smallest symmetric segment which can be modeled

(a) ‘Square’ Pattern P1

(b) ‘Hexagonal’ Pattern P2

Figure 19-2. Square and Hexagonal Patterns In this tutorial, we will assume that the blocker plate has the pattern P1, and the showerhead (faceplate) has the pattern P2. In the event that the exact the pattern(s) (with dimensions) for the showerhead and/or blocker plate to be modeled are not available, you can model a generic orifice at the expense of a little accuracy. In either case, the reduced model must preserve the exact same dimensions in the axial direction of the specific blocker-plate/face-plate assembly that is to be modeled.

**Reduced Model Grid
**

The 3D grids of the reduced models of the blocker and face-plates are available in the Reduced Modes/Blocker/Fresh sub-directory of this tutorial directory. They are named Blocker.GGD for the blocker and Showerhead.GGD for the showerhead. The cross-section of the reduced models for the blocker and showerhead are shown in the figure below:

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Tutorial 19: Momentum Resistance Modeling

0.0005

– 06 p 2 A hole = -- r = 9.817e 8

– 07 p 2 Ahole = ----- r = 2.618e 12 – 06 -Aplate = 1 lw = 1.538e 2

lw – 06 A plate = ----- = 4.5e 2 b = Ahole ¤ A plate = 0.0218

b = 0.1701

0.0025 0.00133

0.003 Blocker Modeled Cross-Section

0.001

0.0013094

Showerhead Modeled Cross-Section

Figure 19-3. Blocker and Showerhead Cross-Sections in 3D “Reduced Models”

**Model Input Calculations
**

The inlet velocity to be used for the reduced model can be calculated for a range of mass-flow rates which may be typical for the CVD chamber whose blocker and showerheads are being modeled. For this tutorial, a velocity range of 0.5 m/s to 2.5 m/s was used as the average axial velocity in the gap between the mixing tube and blocker plate. This same range was also used for the average velocity in the gap between the blocker and the face-plate. (These velocities are calculated using the mass conservation principle between the mixing tube and the gap between the blocker plate; and between this gap and the gap before the showerhead. This is the velocity that the holes in the blocker and face-plates ‘see’, or are exposed to.) We can assume a turbulence model to model the entrance effects of the flow in the vicinity of the holes and use appropriate K and D values. Assume K = 0.02, and D =1.0

**Reduced Model Results
**

The reduced models as shown in figure 19-3 above, were run for five inlet velocities, starting from 0.5 m/s, with an increment of 0.5m/s. For every case, the dP/dx across the hole (only) was found from CFD-VIEW as follows: • Plot z v/s P in CFD-VIEW using a line-plot object between the inlet and outlet • 'Save' the plot in a text datafile

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Tutorial 19: Momentum Resistance Modeling

• Find dP; divide dP by the hole length dz (dz = thickness of the blocker/face-plate whichever is being modeled.) We can also calculate the ‘porosity’, b of the blocker and faceplates. The porosity is the total hole area divided by the total plate area in the real case. (Alternately, we can leave b=1, so long as we also use that value when we set up our momentum resistance model. In our simulation below, a non-unity value of b was used for the curve-fitting process and the same value was used in the momentum resistance setup in the CFD model.) The data for the blocker-plate and showerhead is tabulated as follows: Blocker Plate w 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 dP 601.2 2321.1 5113.5 8983.9 13917 dP/dz 300600 1156050 2556750 4491950 6958500 w 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Showerhead dP 13.2 44.1 92.83 158.96 242.45 dP/dz 1320 4410 9283 15896 24245

**Fit a second-degree curve to the data using Matlab, Lotus, or Excel, of the form
**

dP ¤ dz = C q w + C L w . Then the coefficients Cq and CL are used to calculatethe Kl and Kq values

2 2

that we desire to have: K q = 2b C q ¤ r and K L = 2bCL ¤ r . MS Excel was used in fitting a curve for the above data (see Blocker\Results\blocker.xls and Showerhead\Results\showerhead.xls). This modeling methodology resulted in the following values for the block plate, assuming the square (P1) pattern for the holes: KL = 2855.5 and Kq = 895.9 Assuming a hexagonal (P2) pattern for the showerhead, and along with the above modeling approach, the following coefficient values for the showerhead were obtained from the curve-fit equations:

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Tutorial 19: Momentum Resistance Modeling

KL = 266.69 and Kq = 177.13

**Directory Contents Description
**

This tutorial is divided into two main parts residing in the two main directories: Full_Model and Reduced_Model. The Full_Model directory contains the two usual subdirectories "Fresh" containing the grid and fresh DTF files, and "Results" where the results of the simulation are found. The Reduced_Model directory contains the following subdirectories: Blocker, Showerhead, and Verification. The Blocker directory contains the usual "Fresh" and "Results" directories (which hold the fresh DTF file and simulation results, respectively) plus a directory called Modeling_Issues. Modeling_Issues contains the subdirectories "Convergence" and "Turbulence Modeling" which present parametric analysis of convergence and turbulence modeling issues. README.txt files in the aforementioned directories discuss the results. The Showerhead directory is set up exactly like the Blocker directory with similar results. The Verification directory contains simulations which verify that the coefficients KL and Kq obtained from the curve fits gave the expected pressure drops. This was done by removing the blockage (around the hole) from the Blocker and Showerhead models and modeling the plate using the momentum resistance model along with the coefficients obtained from the curve fit.

Full Model

The CVD Chamberl shown in figure 19-1 can be modeled as a 2D axisymmetric model as shown in figure 19-4 . Note that in figure 19-4, the holes have been replaced with a continuous grid. The above-obtained momentum resistance coefficients can be used to set up the momentum model in the regions of the blocker-plate and the showerhead, with a full, continuous grid in those regions. The appropriate boundary conditions are used and the results can be viewed in CFD-VIEW to determine the actual pressure drop across the blocker and face-plates.

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Tutorial 19: Momentum Resistance Modeling

Figure 19-4. 2D Axisymmetric Model

Tutorial

In this tutorial we will learn to do the following: • Read the reduced grid model into the GUI and set up the physical model • Specify model input parameters for flow and turbulence • Define volume and boundary conditions for gas mixture • Set initial conditions, solver parameters and run the solution • Post-process the solution Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. 2. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. You have just started the CFD-GUI application

The following data can be used for the set-up: Table 19-1. Fluid properties for momentum-resistance modeling Property Density of gas-mixture: r Viscosity of sample: n Value 1.15 kg/m3 1.0E-5 m2/s

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Tutorial 19: Momentum Resistance Modeling

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Surface Reaction Other Features 3D 2D Planar

• Flow

Heat Transfer (Heat)

• Turbulence (Turb)

• 2D Axisym

(for full model only)

Chemistry User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress Plasma Electric (Electr) Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem) Kinetics Semi Device

Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines Transient

Binding Kinetics

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19-9

Tutorial 19: Momentum Resistance Modeling

19-10

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Tutorial 20

Microfluidic Flow in a Tesla-type Valve

Abstract

The flow characteristics of a Tesla-type valve are investigated using CFD-ACE+. A Tesla-type valve is one of the no-moving-parts (NMP) type valves used in micropumps for microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices. Its principle of operation is based on the rectification of the fluid flow. For the same pressure drop, the flow in the forward direction through the valve is greater than the flow in the reverse direction, thus if an oscillating flow field can be set up, there should be net mass flow in the forward direction. The flow characteristics of a given Tesla-type valve are investigated in this tutorial by solving for the forward and reverse flow fields at steady state for a given pressure drop. This tutorial makes use of the BC integral output feature and the parametric run feature and has instructions for post-processing the results of these features. An example of using CFD-ACE+ to extract lumped parameters is also given. In this tutorial we will learn to do the following: • • • • • • • Scale the geometry. Activate and use the “Fixed Pressure” inlet boundary condition subtype. Activate and control the “BC Integral Output” feature. Activate and control the parametric run feature. Post-processing parametric run results. Post-processing the “BC Integral Output” results. Extracting Lumped Parameters.

Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. 2. 3. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. You have a basic understanding of CFD-GUI operation. You are using CFD-GUI V6.2+ and CFD-ACE(U) V6.2+

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials 20-1

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Problem Description

The geometry of the given Tesla valve is shown in figure 20-1.

480 170 120 45°

FORWARD FLOW Channel Depth = 120 All dimension in microns Drawing not to scale

Figure 20-1. Tesla-type Valve Geometry The goal of this simulation is to determine the flow characteristics (volumetric flow rate) in both the forward and reverse directions for a 30,000 N/m2 (~0.3 atm) pressure drop. The working fluid is water and the inflow boundary condition should be considered as fully developed laminar flow. We will be making use of the parametric run feature to run multiple cases (forward and reverse flow) with one solver execution. We will also be making use of the BC Integral Output feature to provide the desired output (volumetric flow rate) for each case in a straightforward manner.

V RE SE ER O FL W

480

20-2

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Tutorial 20: Microfluidic Flow in a Tesla-type Valve

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines Transient Other Features

• Flow

Heat Transfer Turbulence Mixing User Scalar Radiation Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase Cavitation Grid Deformation Stress Plasma Electric Magnetic Electroplating Bio-Chemistry Kinetics Semi Device

• 3D

2D Planar 2D Axisym

• Parametric Run • BC Integral Output

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Tutorial 20: Microfluidic Flow in a Tesla-type Valve

20-4

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

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Tutorial 21

Electrostatic Actuation of a Torsion Micromirror

Abstract

The actuation characteristics of a torsion micromirror are investigated using CFD-ACE+. A torsion micromirror is a component used in optical switching based on microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices. The given example is activated by electrostatic forces which can be used to control the angle of the micromirror. This tutorial shows the steps necessary to simulate the full deflection of the micromirror using the Deformation, Stress, and Electric modules of the CFDACE(U) solver. This tutorial makes use of the boundary element method (BEM) electrostatics solver in the Electric Module and the contact analysis feature of the Stress Module. An example of using CFD-ACE+ to extract micromirror angle versus applied electrostatic voltage is also given. In this tutorial we will learn to do the following:. • Setting up an Electrostatic simulation using the Boundary Element Method. • Setting up a Stress simulation using the contact model. Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. 2. 3. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. You have a basic understanding of CFD-GUI operation. You are using CFD-GUI V6.2+ and CFD-ACE(U) V6.2+

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21-1

Tutorial 21: Electrostatic Actuation of a Torsion Micromirror

Problem Description

The geometry of the given Micromirror is shown in figure 21-1.

Figure 21-1. Torsion Micromirror Geometry The goal of this simulation is to determine the deformation characteristics for the Torsion Micromirror when a voltage difference of 50v is applied between the mirror and contact pad #1 Is 50v enough to pull the mirror into contact with the pad? Are the stresses acceptable when the mirror is in contact with the pad? It would also be desirable to determine the “pull-in” characteristics of the mirror by running several simulations with different voltage differences to determine the angular deflection of the mirror vs. applied voltage.

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Tutorial 21: Electrostatic Actuation of a Torsion Micromirror

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Flow Heat Transfer Turbulence Mixing User Scalar Radiation Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase Cavitation Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Transient Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Surface Reaction Other Features

• 3D

2D Planar 2D Axisym

• Electrostatics - BEM • Stress Contact

**• Grid Deformation • Stress
**

Plasma

• Electric

Magnetic Electroplating Bio-Chemistry Kinetics Semi Device

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Tutorial 21: Electrostatic Actuation of a Torsion Micromirror

21-4

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Tutorial 22

Cavitation in a SharpEdged Orifice

In this tutorial we will learn to do the following:. • • • • • • • • In this tutorial we will learn to do the following: Read the grid model into the GUI and set up the physical model. Activate Cavitation module needed for modeling of cavitation problems in flow in a sharpedged orifice. Specify the steady state solution process. Specify model input parameters expected by the solver for cavitation. Set volume and boundary conditions. Set initial conditions, solver parameters and run the solution. Post-process the solution.

Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 4. 5. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. You have just started the CFD-GUI application.

Introduction

The capability for multi-dimension simulation of cavitating flows is of critical importance for efficient design and performance of many engineering devices. Some examples are turbopumps of rocket propulsion systems, industrial turbomachinery, hydrofoils, marine propellers, fuel injectors, hydrostatic bearings and mechanical heart valves. In most cases, cavitation is an undesirable phenomenon, causing significant degradation in the performance and life of the equipment. Multidimensional simulations can enable systematic analysis of ways to eliminate, reduce, or shift the cavitation regions.

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Tutorial 22: Cavitation in a Sharp-Edged Orifice

Numerical simulation of cavitating flows poses unique challenges both in modeling the physics and in developing a robust numerical methodology. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is complicated by the large density changes associated with phase change. For example, the ratio of liquid to vapor densities for water at room temperature is over 40,000. Furthermore, the location, the extent and the type of cavitation are strongly dependent on pressure field, which is strongly influenced by geometric details and the motion of liquid, and vapor phases. Therefore, in a practical modeling approach, a priori prescription (or assumption) of the location or type of cavitation should not be required. Likewise, the phase change correlation should not have minimum essential empiricism, so that various flow conditions can be simulated without adjusting any constants or functions. The following example will illustrate the important steps in determining the parameters in cavitational modeling. This tutorial is self contained but is best studied in conjunction with chapter 7, "Cavitation Module" in the CFD-ACE(U) Modules manual.

Problem Description

The cavitation characteristics of a flow in a sharp-edged orifice are investigated using CFD-ACE+. Modeling of such types of flows is of direct relevance to the design of diesel fuel injectors, etc. Nurick (1976) performed a series of experiments to determine the cavitation characteristics of circular and rectangular orifices for various geometric and flow parameters. The circular orifice configuration used by Nurick for the flow visualization study was chosen for the present analysis. 2D axisymmetric section of the sharp-edged orifice is shown in figure 22-1. Its geometric parameters are D/d= 2.88 and L/d= 5, where D, d, and L, denote the inlet diameter, orifice diameter, and orifice length, respectively. A 2-D block structured grid, consisting of 20 x 20 cells in the first block and 20 x 120 cells in the second one, is employed to discretized the geometry with adequate grid clustered around the sharp-edged corner.

D/2 d/2

L

Figure 22-1. Orifice Geometry

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Tutorial 22: Cavitation in a Sharp-Edged Orifice

Figure 22-2. Orifice Geometry with Grid The specific boundary conditions are: the total pressure Po at the inlet, static pressure Pb at the exit, no-slip condition for velocity at the walls, and symmetry conditions for the all the variables at the center line. The standard K-e model of Launder and Spalding (1974) was employed to compute the apparent increase in viscosity due to turbulence. The specified thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water and water-vapor correspond to 300K. These include vapor pressure Pv of 3540 Pa, liquid density, rl, of 1000 kg/m3, vapor density, rv, of 0.02558 kg/m3, and a surface tension of 0.0717 N/m. The experiment is undertaken under a fixed back pressure, Pb of 0.95 x 105 Pa, and the upstream total pressure, Po, is varied to generate flow in the orifice. For the flow conditions, the non-dimensional parameters characterizing the flow, i.e. cavitation number, is defined as follows:

Po – Pv s = ----------------Po – Pb

Discharge coefficient is defined as follows:

22-1

· · m actual m actual C d = ---------------- = ----------------------------------------· m ideal A o 2r l ( P o – P b )

22-2

· · where m actual and m ideal are the actual and ideal mass flow rates through the orifice. In cavitating regime, Nurick established the correlation:

Cd = Cc s

22-3

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Tutorial 22: Cavitation in a Sharp-Edged Orifice

where Cc the contraction coefficient has been taken as equal to 0.62. The approach is to calculate the discharge coefficient Cd for various values of upstream pressure and validate this with Nurick's correlation.

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Gravity Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines Transient Other Features 3D 2D Planar

• Flow

Heat Transfer (Heat)

• Turbulence (Turb)

Chemistry User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2)

• 2D Axisym

• Cavitation (Cav)

Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress Plasma Electric (Electr) Magnetic (Magnet) Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem)

22-4

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T01-A-03

Tutorial 23

2D ICP-CCP

This tutorial shows how to do the following: • Set the model name and title. • Import a DTF grid. • Activate a reacting flow solution. • Define mixtures and mixture properties. • Define a surface reaction model. • Set boundary values appropriate for walls, coils, and heat sources in a reacting flow. • Set initial conditions. • Set solution iterations. • Set under-relaxation factors. • Request graphical output. • Submit the model for solution. Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. 2. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. You have either just started the application or just performed a File/New operation.

Problem Description

The goal of this Tutorial is to set up simulations of simplest inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The geometry is axisymmetric cylinder with a spiral coil on top. The coil can be modeled as two separate rings. The coil is covered by a metallic case containing an atmospheric air inside the case. For simplicity, the air can be modeled as solid with

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Tutorial 23: 2D ICP-CCP

air properties. The thickness of a dielectric window separating the low pressure plasma chamber from the coil can be neglected.

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Other Features 3D 2D Planar

• Flow

Heat Transfer (Heat) Turbulence (Turb)

**• Gas Phase Reaction
**

Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines

• 2D Axisym

Transient

• Chemistry

User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress

**• Plasma • Electric (Electr) • Magnetic (Magnet)
**

Electroplating (Eplate) Bio-Chemistry (BiChem) Kinetics Semi Device

23-2

CFD-ACE(U) Tutorials

T02-A-03

CFD-GEOMTM

Tutorials Version 2002

**CFD Research Corporation
**

Cummings Research Park 215 Wynn Drive l Huntsville, AL 35805 Phone: (256) 726-4800 l Fax: (256)726-4806 Software Support: software@cfdrc.com / (256) 726-4900 Software Sales: sales@cfdrc.com l www.cfdrc.com

CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805 © 1997- 2002 by CFD Research Corporation All rights reserved. Published 2002 This manual is the confidential and proprietary product of CFD Research Corporation. Any unauthorized use, reproduction, or transfer of this manual is strictly prohibited. (Subject to limited distribution and restricted disclosure only.) CFD-ACE™, CFD-ACE+™, CFD-VIEW™, CFD-GEOM™, and CFD-FASTRAN™ are registered trademarks of CFD Research Corporation. CFD-GEOM contains SISL the SINTEF Spline Library Copyright 1989-2002 by SINTEF Applied Mathematics, Oslo, Norway Released March 2002

CFDRC Confidential

Table of Contents

Tutorial 1

Inclined Ramp Geometry Creation

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2

Tutorial 2

Inclined Ramp Structured Grid Generation

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1

Tutorial 3

Circles and Pipes

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2

Tutorial 4

Pipe Junctions Part 1 - Geometry Creation

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1

Tutorial 5

Pipe Junctions Part 2 - Structured Grid Generation

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1

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Tutorial 6

2-D Axisymmetric Rocket Nozzle

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1

Tutorial 7

Grid Generation for Compliant Orifice FSI Problem

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1

Tutorial 8

Unstructured Grid with “Near Wall” Problems

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-1 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-2

Tutorial 9

Generic Missile Body - Parametric Studies

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-1 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-1

Tutorial 10

Generic Semiconductor Reactor

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-1 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-1

**Tutorial 11 Generic Combustor Model: IGES to 3-D Unstructured Grid
**

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-1 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-2

Tutorial 12

Unstructured Grid on Simple 2D Plate

Objective: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-1 Tasks: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-1 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-2

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Tutorial 13

Grid Generation for a Bio-Sensor : Part 1, Geometry

Objective: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-1 Tasks: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-1 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-1

**Tutorial 14 Grid Generation for a Bio-Sensor: Part 2, Unstructured Tetrahedral Grid
**

Objective: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-1 Tasks: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-1 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-2

**Tutorial 15 Unstructured Grid Generation for a Bio-Sensor Model: Part 3, Prism Gridding
**

Objective: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-1 Tasks: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-1 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-2

Tutorial 16 Gridding

Grid Generation for a Bio-Sensor Model: Part 4, Structured

Objective: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16-1 Tasks: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16-1 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16-2

Tutorial 17 Hole

Unstructured Tetrahedral Grid for Cylinder with Transverse

Objective: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17-1 Tasks: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17-1 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17-2

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Tutorial 18

Tesla Valve

Objective: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-1 Tasks: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-1 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-2

Tutorial 19

GEOM Tutorial: Simple 2-Stroke Engine

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-1

Tutorial 20

Hybrid Grid

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-1

vi

CFD-GEOM Tutorial Manual

Tutorial 1

Inclined Ramp Geometry Creation

Objectives

In this tutorial we learn to do the following: • • • • • • Create points. Select points by various methods. Create lines. Extrude geometry. Split curves. Save a CFD-GEOM session.

GR-97-8

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

1-1

Tutorial 1: Inclined Ramp Geometry Creation

Geometry

Top

A X Z Base Points A B C D E F G H X 0 50 70 100 100 70 30 0 Y 0 0 10 10 10 10 0 0 Z 0 0 0 0 50 50 50 50 B C D

Isometric

H L,I G F E K,J K,L J,I

Y X H,A G B F,C E,D Z

Y

Front

Right

1-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

GR-97-8

Tutorial 2

Inclined Ramp Structured Grid Generation

Objectives

In this tutorial we will use the geometry we created in tutorial 1 to do the following: • • • • • Create grid edges. Create grid faces. Create 3-D blocks. Assign boundary condition types. Output structured grids and boundary conditions for use by CFD-ACE.

Geometry

The geometry used for this tutorial is the same as the geometry created in tutorial 1.

GR-97-9

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

2-1

Tutorial 2: Inclined Ramp Structured Grid Generation

2-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

GR-97-9

Tutorial 3

Circles and Pipes

Objectives

In this tutorial we learn to do the following: • • • • • Create circles and pipes. Use the revolve and rotate geometry tools. Create blocks by translation and rotation. Orient blocks. Create composite blocks.

GR-97-11

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

3-1

Tutorial 3: Circles and Pipes

Geometry

C y A(0,0,0) r=50 D F(-100, -100,0) 100 I I x E H G(100, -100, 0) r=50 H B y z r=150

3-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

GR-97-11

Tutorial 4

Pipe Junctions Part 1 Geometry Creation

Objectives

In this tutorial we will learn how to do the following: • • • • Create ruled and extruded surfaces. Perform surface-surface intersections. Use the point filter mechanism. Split curves at a parametric point.

Geometry

The geometry for this tutorial is a simple T-pipe junction (see figure 4-1). In this tutorial we will create the geometry as shown on the next page. In the next tutorial we will create a grid for this geometry in three domains: A Cartesian domain along the centerline of the large pipe surrounded by an O-topology domain to complete the large pipe, and a Cartesian or H-topology domain for the small pipe.

GR-97-17

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

4-1

Tutorial 4: Pipe Junctions Part 1 - Geometry Creation

X Z Top Point A Small Pipe

Large Pipe

Curve a Y

urve a

Z

Side

End

Isometric

Figure 4-1. Geometry for Tutorial

4-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

GR-97-17

Tutorial 4: Pipe Junctions Part 1 - Geometry Creation

GR-97-17

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

4-3

Tutorial 4: Pipe Junctions Part 1 - Geometry Creation

4-4

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

GR-97-17

Tutorial 5

Pipe Junctions Part 2 Structured Grid Generation

Objectives

In this tutorial we learn to do the following: • • • • Create a structured grid for a pipe junction. Create faces on NURBS surfaces. Project faces to surfaces. Use mirror entity feature to mirror symmetric models.

Geometry

The geometry for this tutorial is the same as the geometry used for tutorial 4.

GR-97-18

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

5-1

Tutorial 5: Pipe Junctions Part 2 - Structured Grid Generation

5-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

GR-97-18

Tutorial 6

2-D Axisymmetric Rocket Nozzle

Objectives

This tutorial addresses grid quality issues. The existing grid contains some common grid quality problems such as spacing discontinuities due to poor volume ratios, grid skewness, and not using the stretching function. You must learn to recognize these problems and correct them.

**Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial:
**

1. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides.

Geometry

Converging Nozzle Diverging Nozzle

Cylinder

Inlet

Outlet

Line of Symmetry Flow Direction

GR-97-31

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

6-1

Tutorial 6: 2-D Axisymmetric Rocket Nozzle

6-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

GR-97-31

Tutorial 7

Grid Generation for Compliant Orifice FSI Problem

This is a 2D hybrid structured/unstructured grid system. In this tutorial we will learn to do the following: • • • • • • • • • • Create basic geometry (points/lines/arcs) Create and use parameters to control geometry. Modify basic geometry for gridding purposes. Create 2D structured grid entities (edges/faces/blocks) Create 2D unstructured grid entities (loops / 2D unstructured domains). Generate 2D unstructured grid. Modify the grid system to improve grid quality. Setup boundary conditions. Setup volume conditions. Save grid system to a DTF file.

Problem Description

We are going to generate a grid system to study the flow of engine oil through a compliant orifice. Effects of thermal stress and fluid-structural coupling will be included. The goal is to determine the pressure delta across the orifice, maximum flow velocity, and orifice tip deflection. The geometry is 2D-axisymmetric and is given along with flow and structural boundary conditions in Figure 1.

T99-G-01

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

7-1

Tutorial 7: Grid Generation for Compliant Orifice FSI Problem

GEOMETRY DIMENSIONS

0.01m R=0.005m + 0.005m radius 0.01m 0.015m 0.005m PTFE Rubber

**delta=(.0025-rad)
**

0.03m

**FLOW BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
**

PTFE Rubber

Inlet Outlet Axis of Symmetry

**STRESS BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
**

PTFE Rubber: Stress free @ 300K

Applied Fluid Force

**Applied Fluid Force Axis of Symmetry
**

7-2 CFD-GEOM Tutorials T99-G-01

Tutorial 7: Grid Generation for Compliant Orifice FSI Problem

T99-G-01

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

7-3

Tutorial 7: Grid Generation for Compliant Orifice FSI Problem

7-4

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

T99-G-01

Tutorial 8

Unstructured Grid with “Near Wall” Problems

Objectives

In this tutorial we learn to do the following: • • • • Create circles. Add corner point sources to a domain. Add sources to a surfaces. Generate a triangular mesh.

T99-G-03

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

8-1

Tutorial 8: Unstructured Grid with “Near Wall” Problems

Geometry

r=50

r=r1

A (0, 0, 0) r=r2

8-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

T99-G-03

Tutorial 9

Generic Missile Body Parametric Studies

Objectives

In this tutorial we learn to do the following: • • • • Create ellipses. Create faces by extrusion. Create blocks by revolution. Use the Editor to modify parameters

Geometry

D

C B B

C (100, 0, 0)

T99-G-02

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

9-1

Tutorial 9: Generic Missile Body - Parametric Studies

9-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

T99-G-02

Tutorial 10

Generic Semiconductor Reactor

Objectives

In this tutorial we will learn to do the following: • • • • • • Revolve faces to create blocks. Revolve geometry. Split a curve at a point. Split an edge. Extrude a face to create a block. Substitute the underlying geometry for an edge.

Geometry

The geometry to be created in this tutorial is shown in figure 10-1 on page 10-2. This geometry is a generic semiconductor reactor. It has one large inlet on the top, a small outlet port and a side port. Four blocks or domains are used in this geometry. The central portion under the large inlet is a single block with a C topology and a polar singularity. A second C topology block surrounds this block. The side port and outlet pipe are filled with the final two blocks of H topology.

GR-97-12

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

10-1

Tutorial 10: Generic Semiconductor Reactor

Domain 4 Domain 2 Domain 1

Domain 3

Wafer sits on this surface Side Port Inlet

Outlet

Figure 10-1. Geometry for Generic Semiconductor Reactor

10-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

GR-97-12

Tutorial 11

Generic Combustor Model: IGES to 3-D Unstructured Grid

Objectives

In this tutorial we learn to do the following: • • • • • • • • Read an IGES file. Determine surface sets for an unstructured domain. Find internal surface sets for the unstructured domain. Define the unstructured domain and unstructured surface grid for an internal surface set. Find an external surface set for the unstructured domain. Define the unstructured domain. Create an unstructured surface grid for the combustor model. Find problem areas.

This tutorial is designed to simulate the “real-world” working process capabilities of CFD-GEOM. We read an IGES file generated from a CAD package, trim all surfaces, create an unstructured domain, and grid a combustor model.

GR-97-22

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

11-1

Tutorial 11: Generic Combustor Model: IGES to 3-D Unstructured Grid

Geometry

Figure 11-1. Combustor Geometry

11-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

GR-97-22

Tutorial 12

Unstructured Grid on Simple 2D Plate

Objective:

The objective of this tutorial is to understand the steps and methodology for creating unstructured grids. We’ll create a simple 2-D plate (no thickness) and generate a grid for it. We’ll first do this using two methods, one of which will be the ‘long’ way and the other using short-cuts that CFDGEOM provides especially for 2D unstructured grids.

Tasks:

In this tutorial we will to do the following: • • • • • • Create geometry of plate (points, lines, surface) Create basic unstructured grid entities Perform “Trimming” operation on surface Create Surface Set and Unstructured Domain entities Generate a surface triangulation (surface grid; surface mesh) Learn short-cuts available in CFD-GEOM for 2D problems

T00-G-01

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

12-1

Tutorial 12: Unstructured Grid on Simple 2D Plate

Geometry

D C

A: (0, 0, 0) B: (10, 0, 0) C: (10, 20, 0) D: (0, 20, 0)

A

B

12-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

T00-G-01

Tutorial 13

Grid Generation for a BioSensor : Part 1, Geometry

Objective:

The objective of this tutorial is to create structured and unstructured grids for a generic bio-sensor model with the ultimate aim of running a binding-kinetics simulation for it. The grid-generation proceeds from the geometry creation stage which is covered in this tutorial.

Tasks:

In this tutorial we will do the following: • • Create basic geometry of a sensogram model (points, lines, surface) Make modifications appropriate for unstructured and structured grids and save them.

Geometry

(0 1 0) (0 0 0) r = 0.4 mm 1.2 mm 11.4 mm 1 mm

T00-G-02-1

revised 3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

13-1

Tutorial 13: Grid Generation for a Bio-Sensor : Part 1, Geometry

13-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

T00-G-02-1

Tutorial 14

Grid Generation for a BioSensor: Part 2, Unstructured Tetrahedral Grid

Objective:

The objective of this tutorial is to create an unstructured grid for a generic bio-sensor model with the aim of running a binding-kinetics simulation for it. This is part two of a three-part tutorial and covers unstructured grid generation.

Tasks:

In this tutorial we will: • • • • • Generate loops and surfaces on geometry from previous tutorial Trim the surfaces with loops to obtain trimmed-surfaces Create a 3D trimmed surface model by extruding a set of 2D trimmed-surfaces Create a 3D Surface-Set and Unstructured Domain Generate a surface and a volume grid

T00-G-02-2

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

14-1

Tutorial 14: Grid Generation for a Bio-Sensor: Part 2, Unstructured Tetrahedral Grid

Geometry

y z x

mm 11.4

0.5 mm

4.5 m

m

14-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

T00-G-02-2

Tutorial 15

Unstructured Grid Generation for a Bio-Sensor Model: Part 3, Prism Gridding

Objective:

The objective of this tutorial is to create an unstructured grid for a generic bio-sensor model with the aim of running a binding-kinetics simulation for it. This is part three of a three-part tutorial and covers unstructured grid generation. Note: You cannot do this tutorial unless you have done tutorial 13. This tutorial requires that you read in a file that was saved during the process of doing that tutorial.

Tasks:

In this tutorial we will: • • • • Read in the geometry from the GGD file, and generate loops and surfaces Trim the surfaces with loops to obtain trimmed-surfaces Create a 2D SS, and UD and create a surface triangulation mesh Extrude a surface triangulation to create a 3D prismatic mesh

T00-G-02-3

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

15-1

Tutorial 15: Unstructured Grid Generation for a Bio-Sensor Model: Part 3, Prism Gridding

Geometry

y z x

mm 11.4

0.5 mm

4.5

mm

15-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

T00-G-02-3

Tutorial 16

Grid Generation for a BioSensor Model: Part 4, Structured Gridding

Objective:

The objective of this tutorial is to create an unstructured grid for a generic bio-sensor model with the aim of running a binding-kinetics simulation for it. This is part three of a three-part tutorial and covers unstructured grid generation. Note: You cannot do this tutorial unless you have done tutorial 13. This tutorial requires that you read in a file that was saved during the process of doing that tutorial.

Tasks:

In this tutorial we will: • • • • Read in geometry from GGD file saved in tutorial 13 Create 2D structured grid entities such as ‘edges’ and ‘faces’ Create a 3D mesh from 2D structured grid entities by extrusion Link edges and refine grid

T00-G-02-3

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

16-1

Tutorial 16: Grid Generation for a Bio-Sensor Model: Part 4, Structured Gridding

Geometry

y z x

mm 11.4

0.5 mm

4.5

mm

16-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

T00-G-02-3

Tutorial 17

Unstructured Tetrahedral Grid for Cylinder with Transverse Hole

Objective:

The objective of this tutorial is to understand the steps and methodology for creating unstructured grids for 3D geometric models. We’ll create a simple cylinder with a transverse hole and generate a grid for it. This will illustrate the general method for 3D models.

Tasks:

In this tutorial we will to do the following: • • • • • • • Create geometry of cylinder and hole (points, lines, curves, surfaces) Create basic unstructured grid entities Perform “Trimming” operation on surfaces Create Surface Set and Unstructured Domain entities Generate a surface triangulation (surface grid; surface mesh) Generate tetrahedral volume grid Use grid-viewer to view volume grid

T00-G-03

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

17-1

Tutorial 17: Unstructured Tetrahedral Grid for Cylinder with Transverse Hole

Geometry

Hole (No grid inside) Cylinder

Schematic of Cylinder-with-Hole geometry

17-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

T00-G-03

Tutorial 18

Tesla Valve

Objective:

The objective of this tutorial is to understand the steps and methodology for creating unstructured grids for 3D geometric models.

Tasks:

In this tutorial we will to do the following: • • • • • Create 2D and 3D geometry using extrusion Setup edge link groups Modify grid spacing for grid quality Set up boundary conditions Save GGD and DTF files

T00-G-04

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

18-1

Tutorial 18: Tesla Valve

Geometry

18-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

T00-G-04

Tutorial 19

GEOM Tutorial: Simple 2-Stroke Engine

Objectives

In this tutorial we will learn to do the following: • • • • • Create points Use the points to make a combustion chamber, piston, and crankcase. Use grid generation for modeling with arbitrary interfaces. Use grid generation for modeling with deforming grid. Save a CFD-GEOM session.

GR-97-11

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

19-1

Tutorial 19: GEOM Tutorial: Simple 2-Stroke Engine

19-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

GR-97-11

Tutorial 20

Hybrid Grid

Objectives

In this tutorial we learn to do the following: • • • • • • Create points. Select points by various methods. Create lines. Extrude geometry. Split curves. Save a CFD-GEOM session.

T01-G-01

3/27/02

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

20-1

Tutorial 20: Hybrid Grid

20-2

CFD-GEOM Tutorials

T01-G-01

CFD-VIEWTM

Tutorials

Version 6.6

**CFD Research Corporation
**

Cummings Research Park 215 Wynn Drive l Huntsville, AL 35805 Phone: (256) 726-4800 l Fax: (256)726-4806 Software Support: software@cfdrc.com / (256) 726-4900 Software Sales: sales@cfdrc.com l www.cfdrc.com

CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805 © 1997- 2001 by CFD Research Corporation All rights reserved. Published 2001 This manual is the confidential and proprietary product of CFD Research Corporation. Any unauthorized use, reproduction, or transfer of this manual is strictly prohibited. (Subject to limited distribution and restricted disclosure only.) CFD-ACE™, CFD-ACE(U)™, CFD-ACE+™, CFD-VIEW™, CFD-GEOM™, and CFD-FASTRAN™ are registered trademarks of CFD Research Corporation. CFD-GEOM contains SISL the SINTEF Spline Library Copyright 1989-2001 by SINTEF Applied Mathematics, Oslo, Norway Released July 2001

CFDRC Confidential

Table of Contents

Tutorial 1

2-D Combustor

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2

Tutorial 2

3-D Electronics Box

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2

Tutorial 3

3D Engine Valve

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2

Tutorial 4

Tesla Valve

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2

CFD-VIEW Tutorials

iii

Table of Contents

iv

CFD-VIEW Tutorials

Tutorial 1

2-D Combustor

Objectives

In this tutorial we will learn about the following: • • • • • • • • Reading data sets Object boxes K-plane object Surface attributes Colormaps Vector attributes and manipulation Streamline object Domain replication

In the following lessons these definitions apply: • • • • • • • Click - quickly depress one of the mouse buttons Double click - depress one of the mouse buttons twice in rapid succession Drag - depress and hold left mouse button as you move the mouse across the mouse pad Ctl-drag - simultaneously hold down the control button and the left mouse button as you drag the mouse Select - place the cursor over an object and click the left mouse button one time Type-in field - area in a dialog box where you enter information from the keyboard (type in) Toggle - toggle switches are either on or off; their condition changes as you repeatedly click on the switch (radio buttons or push buttons).

GR-97-13

3/27/02

CFD-VIEW Tutorials

1-1

Tutorial 1: 2-D Combustor

Configuration

The configuration for this tutorial is a 2D combustor with plenum as shown in figure 1-1. Grids have been applied to the walls of the combustor and the conjugate heat transfer into the walls has been modeled in the solution files. A swirler fuel inlet has been modeled by a spray of C10H19 along the center line. The air split among the primary and cooling holes is accurately modeled by modeling the plenum rather than specifying a mass flow rate through each of the holes. A 2-D model of a combustor doesn’t necessarily model the primary and cooling holes correctly because each hole can be considered a “sheet” rather than a row of discrete holes; but for demonstration purposes and for incremental studies, a 2-D model is adequate.

Air Inlet

Plenum

Cooling Holes Primary Holes Fuel Injection C L

Exit

Figure 1-1. Diagram of Combustor

1-2

CFD-VIEW Tutorials

GR-97-13

Tutorial 2

3-D Electronics Box

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following topics: • • • • • • • • • Reading wall files Walls objects More about computational planes Turbo mode Cutting planes Multiple legends and legend tracking Iso-surfaces / iso variables Point and line probes Saving and opening a model

In the following lessons these definitions apply: • • • • • • • Click - quickly depress one of the mouse buttons Double click - depress one of the mouse buttons twice in rapid succession Drag - depress and hold left mouse button as you move the mouse across the mouse pad Ctl-drag - simultaneously hold down the control button and the left mouse button as you drag the mouse Select - place the cursor over an object and click the left mouse button one time Type-in field - area in a dialog box where you enter information from the keyboard (type in) Toggle - toggle switches are either on or off; their condition changes as you repeatedly click on the switch (radio buttons or push buttons).

CFD-VIEW Tutorials 2-1

GR-97-14

3/27/02

Tutorial 2: 3-D Electronics Box

Configuration

The configuration for this tutorial is a 3D electronics box. The box contains two fans and four electronics boards. A single constant pressure inlet and two constant pressure outlets let air into and out of the box. At each of the inlets and outlets, a momentum resistance has been applied to simulate a porous blockage. Top Removed For Clarity

Fans

Inlet

Electronic Boards

Outlets

Figure 2-1. Diagram of Electronics Box

2-2

CFD-VIEW Tutorials

GR-97-14

Tutorial 3

3D Engine Valve

Objectives

This tutorial cover the following topics: • • • • • Use of the calculator Animation Unstructured surfaces Use of bounds Saving an image to a file

In the following lessons these definitions apply: • • • • • • • Click - quickly depress one of the mouse buttons Double click - depress one of the mouse buttons twice in rapid succession Drag - depress and hold left mouse button as you move the mouse across the mouse pad Ctl-drag - simultaneously hold down the control button and the left mouse button as you drag the mouse Select - place the cursor over an object and click the left mouse button one time Type-in field - area in a dialog box where you enter information from the keyboard (type in) Toggle - toggle switches are either on or off; their condition changes as you repeatedly click on the switch (radio buttons or push buttons)

GR-98-8

3/27/02

CFD-VIEW Tutorials

3-1

Tutorial 3: 3D Engine Valve

Configuration

The configuration for this tutorial is a 3D engine valve. Gas enters into a circular duct and then exits over the top of the valve. This tutorial uses a hybrid grid consisting of tetrahedral and hexahedral cells.

Inlet

Outlet Valve

3-2

CFD-VIEW Tutorials

GR-98-8

Tutorial 4

Tesla Valve

Objectives

In this tutorial we will learn about the following: • • • • • • • • Reading data sets Object boxes I-plane object Surface attributes Colormaps Vector attributes and manipulation Streamline object Domain replication

In the following lessons these definitions apply: • • • • • • • Click - quickly depress one of the mouse buttons Double click - depress one of the mouse buttons twice in rapid succession Drag - depress and hold left mouse button as you move the mouse across the mouse pad Ctl-drag - simultaneously hold down the control button and the left mouse button as you drag the mouse Select - place the cursor over an object and click the left mouse button one time Type-in field - area in a dialog box where you enter information from the keyboard (type in) Toggle - toggle switches are either on or off; their condition changes as you repeatedly click on the switch (radio buttons or push buttons).

T02-V-01

9/18/02

CFD-VIEW Tutorials

4-1

Tutorial 4: Tesla Valve

Configuration

A Tesla Type Valve is one of the no-moving parts (NMP) type valves used in micropumps for Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) devices. It’s principle of operation is based on the rectification of the fluid flow. For the same pressure drop, the flow in the forward direction through the valve is greater than the flow in the reverse direction, thus if an oscillating flow field can be set up, there should be net mass flow in the forward direction. A typical Tesla valve device is shown below.

Figure 4-1. Tesla Valve

4-2

CFD-VIEW Tutorials

T02-V-01

Simulation Manager Tutorials

**CFD Research Corporation
**

Cummings Research Park 215 Wynn Drive l Huntsville, AL 35805 Phone: (256) 726-4800 l Fax: (256)726-4806 Software Support: software@cfdrc.com / (256) 726-4900 Software Sales: sales@cfdrc.com l www.cfdrc.com

CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805 © 1997-2002 by CFD Research Corporation All rights reserved. Published 2002 This manual is the confidential and proprietary product of CFD Research Corporation. Any unauthorized use, reproduction, or transfer of this manual is strictly prohibited. (Subject to limited distribution and restricted disclosure only.) CFD-ACE™, CFD-ACE(U)™, CFD-ACE+™, CFD-VIEW™, CFD-GEOM™, and CFD-FASTRAN™ are registered trademarks of CFD Research Corporation. CFD-GEOM contains SISL the SINTEF Spline Library Copyright 1989-2002 by SINTEF Applied Mathematics, Oslo, Norway Released March 2002

CFDRC Confidential

Table of Contents

Tutorial 1

Parametric Study of Flow Over a Backward Facing Step

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

Tutorial 2

Parametric Study of Conduction Between Concentric Thick-Walled Cylinders

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1

Tutorial 3

Parametric Study of Oil Flow Through a Compliant Orifice

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1

Tutorial 4

Design Optimization of a Bent Pipe

Problem Description: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1

Tutorial 5

Using SimManager Optimization Template to Maximize Lift/Drag Ratio of a 2D Airfoil by Varying Angle-of-Attack

Abstract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2

Simulation Manager Tutorials Manual

iii

Table of Contents

Tutorial 6 Tutorial 7 Tutorial 8 Tutorial 9

Parametric Studies Using Simulation Manager Optimization Studies Using Simulation Manager Parametric Studies Using Scripting Templates in CFD-GEOM and Simulation Manager Geometric Optimization of a Bent Pipe Using Simulation Manager

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-1

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Simulation Manager Tutorials Manual

Tutorial 1

Parametric Study of Flow Over a Backward Facing Step

Problem Description

In this Tutorial we present an automated parametric study of laminar flow over a backward facing step. Based on a table of input values, Simulation Manager calls CFD-GEOM to update model geometry and grid, changes boundary conditions, then runs the CFD-ACE+ solver for each case. In this Tutorial, we vary the dimensions of the step, h and s, and the value of x-direction velocity on the inlet boundary (see Figure 1-1). There are three steps in performing this parametric study: 1. 2. 3. Create original geometry and grid in CFD-GEOM Define the model in CFD-ACEU Run the parametric study in Simulation Manager

These steps are described in detail in this tutorial.

Figure 1-1.

Problem Geometry

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Tutorial 2

Parametric Study of Conduction Between Concentric Thick-Walled Cylinders

Problem Description

In this Tutorial we present an automated parametric study of heat conduction between concentric cylinders. Based on a table of input values, Simulation Manager calls CFD-GEOM to update model geometry and grid, changes boundary conditions, then runs the CFD-ACE+ solver for each case. In this Tutorial, we vary the values of two radii and the temperature on the inner wall of the geometry (see Figure 2-1). There are three steps to performing this parametric study: • • • Step A: Create original geometry and grid in CFD-GEOM Step B: Define the model in CFD-ACEU Step C: Run the parametric study in Simulation Manager

The geometry for this tutorial is created parametrically using a similar procedure to that introduced in Simulation Manager Tutorial 1. Please refer to CFD-ACEU Tutorial 3 for detailed instructions on setting up the DTF file for this model.

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Tutorial 3

Parametric Study of Oil Flow Through a Compliant Orifice

Problem Description

In this Tutorial we present an automated parametric study of oil flow through a compliant orifice. Based on a table of input values, Simulation Manager calls CFD-GEOM to update model geometry and grid, then runs the CFD-ACE+ solver for each case. In this Tutorial, we vary the radius “R” of the compliant orifice (see figure 3-1). The geometry for this tutorial can be created parametrically using a similar procedure to that introduced in Simulation Manager Tutorial 1. Instructions for creating this model are given in CFD-GEOM Tutorial 7. Instructions for setting up the DTF file are provided in CFD-ACEU Tutorial 5. This tutorial assumes that the geometry journal file has already been created and that the DTF file for the model has been set up.

**Figure 3-1. Problem Geometry
**

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Tutorial 4

Design Optimization of a Bent Pipe

Problem Description:

In this Tutorial we optimize the geometry of a bent pipe. Consider a section of pipe that must provide a 90-degree change of direction for a fluid flowing through it (see figure 4-1). Determine the bend radius “R” that provides the minimal (optimal) pressure drop through the pipe. In order to optimize the pipe geometry, we need to coordinate three software tools: CFD-GEOM, CFD-ACEU, and an optimization algorithm. Geometry and grid are created in CFD-GEOM, the flow analysis is performed by CFD-ACEU, then the optimizer uses the CFD-ACEU results to determine a new geometric design. The three tools must be repeatedly called in this sequence to determine the optimal design. Simulation Manager’s Optimization Template integrates the three software tools and provides you with a graphical user interface for using them.

Figure 4-1. Bent pipe geometry.

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Tutorial 5

Using SimManager Optimization Template to Maximize Lift/Drag Ratio of a 2D Airfoil by Varying Angle-of-Attack

Abstract

The optimization template feature of SimManager is used to find the maximum lift/drag ratio of a NACA 0012 airfoil by varying the angle-of-attack The goal of this modeling effort is to find the angle-of-attack (design variable) of the airfoil at which the maximum value of the lift/drag ratio (cost function) occurs for a given altitude and free-stream Mach number. Discussion of model setup in CFD-GUI is given, including the use of the parametric input feature for setting angle-of-attack and user defined output subroutine for determining lift/drag ratio from the solution results. The SimManager optimization template is setup to read the cost function (lift/drag ratio) from the output file of the user defined output subroutine and vary the CFD-ACE(U) parameter which controls angle-of-attack. SimManager controls the simulation process by running solver jobs and automatically varying the angle-of-attack of the airfoil for each run until a local maximum value of the lift/ drag ratio is reached. SimManager plots the lift/drag ratio versus angle of attack, and the lift/drag ratio versus optimizer iteration as output. In this tutorial we will learn to do the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. Activate and use the "Parametric Input" feature in CFD-GUI. Calculate and write the value of an engineering quantity like L/D ratio to a file using the user subroutine output feature. Set the Design Variable and Cost Function parameters in the SimManager Optimization Template. Use SimManager to run the optimization and post-process the results.

Assumptions (requirements) for working on this tutorial: 1. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides.

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Tutorial 5: Using SimManager Optimization Template to Maximize Lift/Drag Ratio of a 2D Airfoil by Varying Angle-of-Attack 2. The user shared library (lift-airfoil.DLL, .SO or .SL file) corresponding to UOUT (lift-airfoil.f) subroutine for calculating and writing the value of the L/D ratio to a file is in the directory where the tutorial problem resides.

Problem Description

The grid system for external flow over the NACA 0012 airfoil is shown in figure 5-1.

Airfoil Chord Length = 1 m Freestream Mach Number = 0.799 Altitude = 7000 m

Figure 5-1. Problem Geometry The goal of this modeling effort is to us the SimManager optimization template to find the angle of attack for which the maximum value of the lift/drag ratio occurs for the NACA 0012 airfoil. The angle-of-attack, ALPHA, is a parametric input to the solver. The angle-of-attack is set in the simulation by varying the x-direction velocity, U, and the y-direction velocity V. The values of U and V are calculated as

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Tutorial 5: Using SimManager Optimization Template to Maximize Lift/Drag Ratio of a 2D Airfoil by Varying Angle-of-Attack U = Uinf * cos (ALPHA), and V = Uinf * sin (ALPHA) where Uinf is the freestream velocity. The value of the L/D ratio for each ALPHA is calculated by a user-defined output user subroutine "lift-airfoil.f", and written out to a file named "lift.txt". The optimization template in SimManager varies ALPHA values and finds the ALPHA for which the maximum value of the L/D ratio occurs.

**Calculation of Simulation Conditions
**

Before submitting the airfoil problem to SimManager for optimization, it is necessary to set up the simulation in CFD-GUI. Also, since the physical conditions of the flow past the airfoil refer to conditions prevailing at an altitude of 7000 m in the atmosphere, we first need to calculate what the conditions are at that altitude. This is done using standard relations and details can be found in the CFD-ACE(U) tutorial "Transonic Flow Over NACA 0012 Airfoil". • • Given: h = 7000 m, Mach = 0.799, angle of attack = 0 degrees Find: Free stream temperature, pressure, viscosity, velocity, and turbulence quantities • T = 242.66 K • P = 41023 Pa •

m = 1.557x10-5 kg/m/s

• U = cos(ALPHA)*249.4 m/s • V = sin(ALPHA)*249.4 m/s • K = 3.11 m2/s2 • D=1.65x105 J/kg/s

**Modules and Features Used
**

CFD-GUI

• • • Modules - Flow, Turbulence Major Features - User Subroutines Other Features - 2D Planar, Parametric Input

SimManager

• Template - Optimization

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Tutorial 5: Using SimManager Optimization Template to Maximize Lift/Drag Ratio of a 2D Airfoil by Varying Angle-of-Attack • Major Features - Cost Function from a File, Design Variable from a CFD-ACE parameter.

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Tutorial 6

Parametric Studies Using Simulation Manager

Scripting templates for Simulation Manager typically consist of two major sections: 1. 2. Initialization section, which includes setting up a custom GUI, initialization of plotter and optimizer (if used by the application). Execution section, which consists of two parts: • Part 1 invokes a CFD-GEOM script (if applicable) and sets up either a parametric or optimization run. • Part 2, which includes instructions for modifying boundary/volume conditions and launching the CFD-ACE+ solver. In this tutorial, we investigate a script that runs a parametric study of a miniature “tesla” valve. The script contains instructions for creating a custom GUI, adjusting boundary conditions, repeatedly calling the CFD-ACE+ solver, and plotting simulation results. The Initialization section of the tesla_valve.py, found in Tutorials/SimManager directory, is shown below with added line numbers:

1. Pressure = [10000, 20000, 30000, 40000, 50000] 2. SWindow.AddNewSection ("Solver Cases") 3. SWindow.AddNewTable (["Pressures"]) 4. for j in range (0,5): 5. 6. SWindow.AddNewTableRow ('Case %d' % (j+1)) SWindow.AddFieldToModify (globals (), "Pressure", 0, 100000, j)

7. SWindow.StartModifyingParameters (globals(), "Tesla", "tesla2.gif") 8. SPlotter.AddNewPlotter ("Tesla Valve") 9. SPlotter.SetTitlesToAxes (0, "Pressure", "Mass Flow") 10. SPlotter.AddNewGraph (0, “Tesla Simulation”, “FWD Inlet”) 11. SPlotter.AddNewGraph (0, “Tesla Simulation”, “REV Inlet”)

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Line 1 initializes a Python list containing the parameter values (boundary pressures) of interest. A Python list is equivalent to the array data type in other programming languages. Note that lists are ordered starting from 0; for example, Pressure[0] = 10000 and Pressure[4] = 50000. An element of the list can be accessed by specifying the required index of the position in the list, for example Pressure [position]. In order to add elements to the list, the 'append' construct can be used. This method inserts element to the end of the list. For example, if we call Pressure.append (60000) then it would result in Pressure [5] = 60000. For more information about lists, please see Python manual (accessible on http:// www.python.org). Lines 2-7 of this fragment create the custom GUI. This interface will appear each time this script is started, and allows the user to modify the contents of the list “Pressure”. The result of running these lines in Simulation Manager is shown in figure 6-1

Figure 6-1. GUI for the problem

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Lines 8-11 initialize the plotter. The function SPlotter.AddNewPlotter creates a new (empty) plotter with the specified title (see figure 6-2). In line 9, SPlotter.SetTitlesToAxes sets titles to the X and Y axes of the plotter. The first parameter for this function, 0, indicates the plotter number to which we want to add the titles. Each additional plotter will have a unique integer according to the order in which it was added. SPlotter.AddNewGraph creates a new line graph in the plotter and adds a legend to the plotter.

**Figure 6-2. Line Plotter Part 1 of the Execution section for this script consists of two lines:
**

1. 2. for i in range (0, 5): Run ('tesla_valve', Pressure[i])

This is a typical execution section for running parametric studies. Using the Python for loop construct, we call the function 'Run' (defined below) with the necessary parameters. Note that the statement on line 1means that all lines within the loop segment will be executed five times with 'i' having the following values: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. The function 'Run' sets necessary values to the DTF file and launches the solver. This function represents Part 2 of the Execution section of the script:

1. def Run(ofile, value):

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

for y in range(0,2): fdp = rdp = 0 if(y == 0): rdp = -value ext = 'fwd' dat_file = "tesla_valve-fwd-%d_FWD_INLET.dat"%(value) else: fdp = -value ext = 'rev' dat_file = "tesla_valve-rev-%d_REV_INLET.dat"%(value) nfile = "%s-%s-%d"%(ofile, ext, value) SimManager.CopyAllAceFiles (ofile, nfile) SDTF.SetBCValue("%s.DTF"%nfile,"Fwd_Inlet","P",fdp) SDTF.SetBCValue("%s.DTF"%nfile,"Rev_Inlet","P",rdp) SimManager.RunSolver (nfile) SPlotter.PlotDataFile (dat_file, value, "Mass Flow", 0, y)

For this particular case we need to run the solver twice for each case, i.e. one for reverse and one for forward flow. For the first run, we need to set "Fwd_Inlet" pressure to be 0 and "Rev_Inlet" to be negative value of the parameter, which was passed to the function "Run". It is vice versa for the second run. Lines 2-12 of this fragment set up proper filenames and values to handle these two runs. In particular, lines 7 and 11 specify the name of the .dat file that will contain performance data after CFDACEU run is completed. Line 13 copies all necessary files (.fmt, .DTF) to files with the new filenames. Lines 14 and 15 set pressure values to the boundaries named "Fwd_Inlet" and "Rev_Inlet" in the DTF file. Line 16 launches the CFD-ACEU solver. By default, the CFD-ACEU located in the $CFDRCDIR/bin directory will be launched, however an optional second parameter to this function allows specification of path and name of a particular solver. Line 17 reads data from the .dat file and adds a point to the graph. Final results of the parametric study are shown in figure 6-3.

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Figure 6-3. Final results of the simulation

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Tutorial 7

Optimization Studies Using Simulation Manager

As it was mentioned in Tutorial 5, scripting templates for Simulation Manager typically consist of the two major sections: Initialization and Executing. This tutorial shows how to setup the script to run optimization studies. In order to do that, we are going to use the same case as was described in tutorial 1 for parametric studies. Initialization section of this script is similar to the one presented in Tutorial 5:

1. Pressure = 10000 2. #Setting GUI 3. SWindow.AddNewSection ("Starting Value") 4. SWindow.AddParameterToModify (globals (), "Pressure", 10, 50000) 5. SWindow.StartModifyingParameters (globals(), "Tesla","tesla2.gif") 6. # Setting Plotters 7. SPlotter.AddNewPlotter ("Tesla Valve") 8. SPlotter.SetTitlesToAxes (0, "Pressure", "Mass Flow") 9. SPlotter.AddNewGraph (0, "Tesla Simulation, FWD Inlet") 10. SPlotter.AddNewGraph (0, "Tesla Simulation, REV Inlet") 11. SPlotter.AddNewPlotter ("Optimiser") 12. SPlotter.SetTitlesToAxes (1, "Pressure", "Cost Function") 13. SPlotter.AddNewGraph (1, "Tesla - Optimization Data")

For this case we build GUI for entering only one value of pressure, which will be initial point to start optimization (see figure 7-1). In addition to that, we are creating two plotters in the script, i.e. one for optimization parameter and one for Mass Flow. For this case we try to find the optimum pressure, which gives us the maximum relative difference, i.e. net over average, between mass flows for forward and reverse cases.

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Tutorial 7: Optimization Studies Using Simulation Manager

Figure 7-1. Customizable GUI for the optimization problem Creating Cost Function and setting up an optimizer are the two elements, which make the first part of the Executing section. For this case Cost Function is defined as follows:

1. def CostFunction (p): 2. 3. cost = Run('tesla_valve',p) return -cost

Optimizer calls Cost Function in order to get next value for the optimization. Cost Function (in this case it is called CostFunction) takes parameter, which we are trying to optimize (in this case pressure) as an input and returns value, which we would like to be optimum. For this case we would like to get optimum value of the maximum relative difference (net over average) between mass flows for forward and reverse cases. When we are setting up optimizer, we need to set this function as a cost function for the optimizer. Function SOptimizer.RegisterCostFunction (CostFunction) does that:

1. SOptimizer.RegisterCostFunction (CostFunction) 2. SOptimizer.SetRange (10, 50000) 3. SOptimizer.Brent_setDelta (10000) 4. SOptimizer.Brent_setPrecision1D (0.002)

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5. d = SOptimizer.Brent_run (Pressure)

As it was mentioned, line 1 of this fragment sets cost function for the optimizer. Line 2 specifies range for the optimization value. Line 3 sets delta or the first bracket, i.e. the first value change of the optimization parameter. On the next line function SOptimizer.SetPrecision1D sets calculating precision. Precision specifies when Optimizer should stop its calculation and considers the value to be optimum. Optimization run will be stopped when (value change / value) <= 2*precision). Last line of this fragment starts optimization and runs until the optimum value will be found or error will be produced. In case of halting the executing of the optimizer (power went off, etc.), intermediate results are not lost and can be used for restarting. These results are stored in the file name_of_the_script_restart.sim, which for this case is optimization_restart.sim. Second part of the Executing section of this script is very familiar to the one from tutorial 1

18. def Run(ofile, value): 19. y_value = [] 20. for y in range(0,2): 21. fdp = rdp = 0 22. if(y == 0): 23. rdp = -value 24. ext = 'fwd' 25. dat_file = "tesla_valve-fwd-%d_FWD_INLET.dat"%(value) 26. else: 27. fdp = -value 28. ext = 'rev' 29. dat_file = "tesla_valve-rev-%d_REV_INLET.dat"%(value) 30. nfile = "%s-%s-%d"%(ofile, ext, value) 31. SimManager.CopyAllAceFiles (ofile, nfile) 32. SDTF.SetBCValue("%s.DTF"%nfile,"Fwd_Inlet","P",fdp) 33. SDTF.SetBCValue("%s.DTF"%nfile,"Rev_Inlet","P",rdp) 34. SimManager.RunSolver (nfile) 35. val = SPlotter.PlotDataFile (dat_file, value, "Mass Flow", 0, y) 36. if val == 0: 37. raise "Error running flow solver" 38. y_value.append (val) 39. cost = (y_value[0] - y_value[1]) / ((y_value[0] + y_value[1])/2) 40. SPlotter.PlotData (1, 0, value, cost) 41. return cost

The only differences between function 'Run' in optimization.py and tesla_valve.py are plotting data to two plotters (lines 18 and 23) and calculating value, which we are trying to make maximum (line 22).

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Results of the simulation are shown in the figure 7-2.

Figure 7-2. Final results of the simulation

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Tutorial 8

Parametric Studies Using Scripting Templates in CFD-GEOM and Simulation Manager

This tutorial shows how to use CFD-GEOM scripting templates from SimManager. As a first step for doing parametric studies using geometry templates, we recommend to go to CFD-GEOM and prepare geometry / grid generation scripting template for your model. For more information on how to do that, please refer to CFD-GEOM scripting manual and tutorials. For this tutorial we are going to assume that geometry / grid generation script was already created (parametric_studies_geom.py) and we can use it. Lets look at Initialization section of the script parametric_studies.py:

1. val = [0.001, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03] 2. grid_coef = [1, 1.5, 2, 2.5] 3. ofile = 'grid3.DTF' 4. Number_Cases = 4 5. Length = [] 6. SWindow.AddNewSection ("Number of Cases") 7. SWindow.AddParameterToModify (globals (), "Number_Cases", 1, 10) 8. SWindow.StartModifyingParameters (globals(), "2D Structured Case") 9. SWindow.AddNewSection ("Solver Cases") 10. SWindow.AddNewTable (["Length"]) 11. for j in range (0,Number_Cases): 12. Length.append (1000*(j+1)) 13. SWindow.AddNewTableRow ('Case %d' % (j+1)) 14. SWindow.AddFieldToModify (globals (), "Length", 100, 10000, j) 15. SWindow.StartModifyingParameters (globals(), "2D Structured Case")

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Tutorial 8: Parametric Studies Using Scripting Templates in CFD-GEOM and Simulation

Lines 1-5 of this script fragment initialize variables, which are used in the script. In particular, Line 5 creates a list "Length" with no elements in it. The reason for doing it is that we can add elements to "Length" at a later time. Lines 6-15 of this code prepare GUI for user's interaction. Unlike our previous examples, in this case we create popup windows twice (see figure 8-1and figure 8-2). The reason for doing it is lack of a prior knowledge of number of cases, which we need to run. The user enters this information in the first popup window. After that the script generates second popup window based on entered number of cases.

Figure 8-1. First input window

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**Figure 8-2. Second input window Now lets look at the Executing section of this tutorial:
**

1. for k in range(0,Number_Cases): 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. for i in range(0,4): nfile = 'grid3_%d_%d.DTF'%(k,i) SimManager.CopyAllAceFiles (ofile, nfile) tutorial3_geom.CreateModel (nfile, Length[k], grid_coef[i]) SDTF.SetBCValue(nfile,"Inlet_1","U",val[i]) SDTF.SetBCValue(nfile,"Inlet_2","U",val[i]) SimManager.RunSolver (nfile)

Lines 1 and 2 of this fragment specify loop statements. First loop is set to run Number_Cases times, the variable entered by the user. Second loop is set to run four times. Line 3 sets new name for the DTF file according to the value of the parameter. On line 4 we copy all template CFD-ACEU input files (.DTF and .FMT) to the file with a new filename. Line 5 executes function CreateModel from the script file tutorial3_geom.py. Function CreateModel () calls CFD-GEOM, generates geometry and grid for the model and saves data in the DTF file. Lines 6 and 7 set BC values to BC records "Inlet_1" and "Inlet_2". The last line of this script launches a flow solver for this model. Results of the execution of this script are DTF files, which can be visualized using CFD-VIEW.

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Tutorial 9

Geometric Optimization of a Bent Pipe Using Simulation Manager

Problem Description

Please refer to figure 9-1. Given a two-dimensional pipe with a fixed velocity inlet, find the optimum bend radius R such that the pressure drop in the pipe is minimum. As the bend radius changes, ensure that duct walls remain tangent to circle (inner and outer). Allow the right end, the inlet, to change its angle such that it is always perpendicular to the duct walls. Fix the lower end, the outlet, in the plane y = -7. The straight sections of the pipe must have fixed lengths of 5 and 7, measured from the ends of the arcs.

Figure 9-1. Pipe geometry

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CFD-MicromeshTM

Tutorials

Version 2.0

**CFD Research Corporation
**

Cummings Research Park 215 Wynn Drive l Huntsville, AL 35805 Phone: (205) 726-4800 l Fax: (205)726-4806 Software Support: software@cfdrc.com l Software Sales: sales@cfdrc.com www.cfdrc.com

CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805 © 1997- 2001 by CFD Research Corporation All rights reserved. Published 2001 This manual is the confidential and proprietary product of CFD Research Corporation. Any unauthorized use, reproduction, or transfer of this manual is strictly prohibited. (Subject to limited distribution and restricted disclosure only.) CFD-ACE™, CFD-ACE+™, CFD-VIEW™, CFD-GEOM™, CFD-Viscart™, CFD-Micromesh™ and CFD-FASTRAN™ are registered trademarks of CFD Research Corporation. CFD-GEOM contains SISL the SINTEF Spline Library Copyright 1989-2001 by SINTEF Applied Mathematics, Oslo, Norway Released July 2001

CFDRC Confidential

Table of Contents

Tutorial 1

Linear Comb Resonator

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

Tutorial 2

Tesla Valve

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2

Tutorial 3

Importing GDSII Layout and SIPPs Process Description

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

CFD-Micromesh Tutorials

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Table of Contents

ii

CFD-Micromesh Tutorials

Tutorial 1

Linear Comb Resonator

Objectives

In this tutorial learn to do the following: • • • • • • • • Import a CIF file View the elements in several layers Set model options and resolutions Generate a 3D solid model Build a 3D computational mesh View a 3D computational mesh in CFD-VIEW Rename parts of a layout Run an electrostatic and stress simulation in CFD-GUI

In the following lesson these definitions apply: • • • Left Mouse Button - selects an object Middle Mouse Button - zooms in and out the view Right Mouse Button - shifts (pan) the view.

These functions are briefly described in the context-sensitive help line located in the lower-left corner of the main window.

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Tutorial 2

Tesla Valve

Objectives

In this tutorial you learn to: • • Build a 3D model and computational mesh from an imported bitmap image (GIF file) Perform a full 3D simulation of fluid flow in the device, both steady and transient.

Problem Description

Tesla valve is one of the no-moving-parts (NMP) valves used in micropumps in MEMS. Its principle of operation is based on the rectification of the fluid flow, i.e. for the same pressure drop, the flow in the forward direction through the valve is greater than the flow in the reverse direction.

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Tutorial 2: Tesla Valve

Geometry

Figure 2-1. Tesla Valve Geometry

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Tutorial 3

Importing GDSII Layout and SIPPs Process Description

Objectives

In this tutorial learn to do the following: • • • • • Import a GDSII file View the elements in several layers Set model options and resolutions Generate a 3D solid model View a cross-section of a model with and without non-vertical side walls

In the following lesson these definitions apply: • • • Left Mouse Button - selects an object Middle Mouse Button - zooms in and out the view Right Mouse Button - shifts (pan) the view.

These functions are briefly described in the context-sensitive help line located in the lower-left corner of the main window.

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Tutorial 3: Importing GDSII Layout and SIPPs Process Description

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CFD-MaxwellTM

Tutorials

**CFD Research Corporation
**

Cummings Research Park 215 Wynn Drive l Huntsville, AL 35805 Phone: (256) 726-4800 l Fax: (256)726-4806 Software Support: software@cfdrc.com/(256)726-4900 Software Sales: sales@cfdrc.com l www.cfdrc.com

CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805 © 1997-2001 by CFD Research Corporation All rights reserved. Published 2001 This manual is the confidential and proprietary product of CFD Research Corporation. Any unauthorized use, reproduction, or transfer of this manual is strictly prohibited. (Subject to limited distribution and restricted disclosure only.) CFD-ACE™, CFD-ACE+™, CFD-VIEW™, CFD-GEOM™, CFD-Maxwell™, CFD-Micromesh,™ and CFD-FASTRAN™ are registered trademarks of CFD Research Corporation. CFD-GEOM contains SISL the SINTEF Spline Library Copyright 1989-2001 by SINTEF Applied Mathematics, Oslo, Norway

Released October 2001 Revisions A B October 30, 2001 November 15, 2001

CFDRC Confidential

Table of Contents

Tutorial 1

**Single Stripline 3D Model Creation and FVTD EM Simulation
**

Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2

Tutorial 2

**Single Curved Stripline 3D Model Creation and FVTD EM Simulation
**

Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2

Tutorial 3

**Even and Odd Mode Impedance Calculation of a Shielded Microstrip Line Pair
**

Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 Problem Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3

Tutorial 4

**Scattering of a Plane EM Wave on a PEC Infinite Cylinder
**

Problem Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3

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iii

Table of Contents

iv

CFD-Maxwell Tutorials

Tutorial 1

Single Stripline 3D Model Creation and FVTD EM Simulation

In this tutorial we show how to: • • Build a 3D model and computational mesh of the stripline on an insulating substrate; Perform a full 3D transient electromagnetic simulation of the structure.

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Tutorial 1: Single Stripline 3D Model Creation and FVTD EM Simulation

Geometry

Figure 1-1. Single Metal Stripline on an Insulating Substrate

1-2

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Tutorial 1: Single Stripline 3D Model Creation and FVTD EM Simulation

Figure 1-2. Top view of the model, showing additional “buffer zones” to allow applying appropriate boundary conditions (BCs).

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Tutorial 1: Single Stripline 3D Model Creation and FVTD EM Simulation

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Tutorial 2

Single Curved Stripline 3D Model Creation and FVTD EM Simulation

In this tutorial, we show how to: • • Build a 3D model and computational mesh of a single curved stripline on an insulating substrate. Perform a full 3D transient electromagnetic simulation of the structure.

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Tutorial 2: Single Curved Stripline 3D Model Creation and FVTD EM Simulation

Geometry

Figure 2-1. Single curved metal stripline on an insulating substrate

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Tutorial 2: Single Curved Stripline 3D Model Creation and FVTD EM Simulation

Figure 2-2. Side view of the model with "buffer zones" for applying proper boundary conditions

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Tutorial 2: Single Curved Stripline 3D Model Creation and FVTD EM Simulation

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Tutorial 3

Even And Odd Mode Impedance Calculation Of A Shielded Microstrip Line Pair

In this tutorial we show how to: • • build a 3D model and computational mesh of the stripline pair on an insulating substrate; perform a full 3D transient electromagnetic simulation of the structure.

In the following lesson these definitions apply: LB = Left mouse button, MB = Middle mouse button, RB = Right mouse button

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Tutorial 3: Even And Odd Mode Impedance Calculation Of A Shielded Microstrip Line Pair

Geometry

Figure 3-1. Shielded metal microstrip line pair on dielectric substrate

Figure 3-2. Top view of the model, showing additional “buffer zones”

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Tutorial 3: Even And Odd Mode Impedance Calculation Of A Shielded Microstrip Line Pair

Problem Description

The example discussed in this tutorial is shielded coupled microstrip line problem as shown above. Result from comparable FDTD simulations for this specific case have been published by Becker, Harm and Mittra in: “Time-Domain Electromagnetic Analysis of Interconnects in a Computer Chip Package”, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Technique, Vol. 40, No. 12, Dec. 1992. The results given in this tutorial mach these previously published numbers with discrepancies on the order of 1% to 2%.

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Tutorial 4

Scattering of a Plane EM Wave on a PEC Infinite Cylinder

In this tutorial we show how to: • • • Build a 2.5D model in CFD-GEOM Set up the FDTD electromagnetic simulation Visualize and compare results with the analytical solution

In the following lesson these definitions apply: LB = Left mouse button, MB = Middle mouse button, RB = Right mouse button

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Tutorial 4: Scattering of a Plane EM Wave on a PEC Infinite Cylinder

Problem Description

A uniform plane TEz polarized electromagnetic wave is normally incident on perfectly electrically conducting (PEC) cylinder. The radius of the cylinder is assumed to be equal to one meter, the surrounding medium is vacuum. An analytical solution can be obtained for this problem and will be used to verify the results.

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Geometry

y

Ei Hi

s=¥

R z

x

R=1m f = 100 Mhz l/d = 1.499

Figure 4-1. Geometry and Dimensions of the Analyzed Problem

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CFD-FASTRANTM

Tutorial Manual

Version 2002

**CFD Research Corporation
**

Cummings Research Park 215 Wynn Drive l Huntsville, AL 35805 Phone: (256) 726-4800 l Fax: (256)726-4806 Software Support: software@cfdrc.com l Software Sales: sales@cfdrc.com www.cfdrc.com

CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805 © 2002 by CFD Research Corporation All rights reserved. Published 2002 This manual is the confidential and proprietary product of CFD Research Corporation. Any unauthorized use, reproduction, or transfer of this manual is strictly prohibited. (Subject to limited distribution and restricted disclosure only.) CFD-ACE™, CFD-ACE+™, CFD-VIEW™, CFD-GEOM™, and CFD-FASTRAN™ are registered trademarks of CFD Research Corporation. CFD-GEOM contains SISL the SINTEF Spline Library Copyright 1989-2002 by SINTEF Applied Mathematics, Oslo, Norway Released March 2002

CFDRC Confidential

Table of Contents

Introduction Background ..................................................................v .......................................................v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi CFD-FASTRAN Features

CFD-FASTRAN Tutorial Manual Organization Tutorial 1 Inviscid Flow Past a 2-D Cylinder

Problem Description Tutorial 2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past a NACA-0012 Airfoil (Multi-domain Structured Grids) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1

Problem Description Tutorial 3

Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past a Cylinder Using Chimera Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

Problem Description Tutorial 4 Objectives

Unsteady Simulation of a Tank Dropping from a Wing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2

Problem Description Tutorial 5 Objectives

**Unsteady Simulation of Missile Staging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
**

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Problem Description Tutorial 6 Objectives

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2

Turbulent Mixing of Propane and Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2

Problem Description Tutorial 7

Supersonic Flow Over a Blunt Body with Chemical Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1

Problem Description Tutorial 8 Objectives

Unsteady Simulation of a Pitching Airfoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2

Problem Description Tutorial 9 Objectives

Simulation of Missile Aerodynamics using Parallel Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1

Problem Description

Tutorial 10 Supersonic Flow Over a Ramp in a Channel with Unstructured Grid Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1

Tutorial 11 Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past a NACA-0012 Airfoil (using Polyhedral solver) Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1

iv

CFD-FASTRAN Tutorial Manual

Introduction

Background

CFD-FASTRAN version 2002.0.0 is a compressible flow solver, suited for simulating external, as well as, internal flows. This tool represents the state-of-the-are in both structured and unstructured CFD methodologies. The modeling flexibility includes multi-domain grids, overset structured grids, and hybrid combinations of both. CFD-FASTRAN uses fully automated Chimera (overset) techniques that maximize the flexibility and efficiency of model setup and analysis of complex CFD problems. The software also provides advanced features including 6-DOF modeling for simulating the unsteady, dynamic motion of multi-body configurations.

**CFD-FASTRAN Features
**

Numerics

• • • • • • Finite volume, density-based Roe, Van Leer, flux splitting algorithms k-A, k-M, Baldwin-Lomax, Spallart-Allmaras turbulence models Higher order differencing schemes (up to third order) including Min-Mod, Osher-Chakravarthy, MUSCL, and Van Leer limiters Multi-stage, Explicit Runge-Kutta, Point implicit and Fullyimplicit time integration schemes Generalized finite rate chemistry with thermal non-equilibrium. Multi-block structured grids with blockages Multi-block unstructured (tetrahedra/triangles) grids

v

Grid Systems

• •

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Introduction

CFD-FASTRAN Tutorial Manual Organization

• •

Chimera (overset) grids Hybrid structured/unstructured grids Highly efficient and fully automated hole cutting and interpolation for Chimera meshes 6-DOF modeling with the following features: • Aerodynamic, gravitational, thrust force modeling • Auto-pilot simulation • Time/distance-dependent motion constraints • Time/distance-dependent ejector forces • Provision for user-customizing for modeling rocket forces, etc. • Support for constraints and model dependencies • Comprehensive output including forces, moments, angular rates, accelerations, and body orientations Prescribed modeling with the following features: • Arbitrary motion prescription for displacement, velocity, and acceleration using 5th order polynomial, sine-cosine polynomial, to time dependent data from a file • Motion may ne prescribed in inertial or any body-fixed coordinate system • Support for model dependencies

Moving Body Technologies

• •

•

CFD-FASTRAN Tutorial Manual Organization

This tutorial manual is intended to help the user set up a CFD-FASTRAN model, using a grid for any given geometry, and submitting the analysis code to perform desired flow simulations. The tutorials included in the manual are arranged in the order of increasing complexity, and demonstrate various features of CFD-FASTRAN version 4.0.0. • Tutorial 1 introduces the user to a fundamental model setup which involves simulating the flow around a 2-D cylinder using a single domain, structured grid. Tutorial 2 outlines the model setup simulating turbulent flow around a NACA 0012 airfoil geometry. This tutorial involves a slightly higher level of complexity, due to a multi-domain structured grid.

•

vi

CFD-FASTRAN Tutorial Manual

CFD-FASTRAN Tutorial Manual Organization

Introduction

•

•

•

•

• •

• •

•

Tutorial 3 introduces the Chimera methodology employed in CFD-FASTRAN for performing flow simulations with overset grids. This tutorial illustrates the model setup for laminar flow past a cylinder using a 3D, structured, overset mesh. Tutorial 4 details the model setup for performing an unsteady simulation involving moving bodies. A 2-D example of a fuel tank separating from a wing is employed in this tutorial. This problem setup brings forth most of the advanced features of CFD-FASTRAN such as Chimera, 6-DOF modeling, and moving grids simulation. Tutorial 5 presents additional 6DOF capabilities of CFD-FASTRAN besides those covered in Tutorial 5. Setting up model involving time dependent temperature and pressure boundary condition, thrust generating surface and incorporating the thrust force in motion model are explained. Tutorial 6 shows model setting up for problems involving chemical mixing without reaction. A simple problem involving mixing of air and propane has been used for this tutorial. Tutorial 7 shows setting up a problem with chemical reactions. Inviscid hypersonic flow over a blunt is considered. Tutorial 8 shows prescribed motion model capability. A 2-D example of an sinusoidally oscillating airfoil is considered. The motion of the airfoil is prescribed by a sine/cosine function. Tutorial 9 shows setting up a parallel job. Part-1 of tutorial 6 is set up to run with the parallel version of CFD-FASTRAN. Tutorial 10 shows setting up a model for the polyhedral solver. Flow over a ramp considered in tutorial 3 is setup to be run with the polydehral solver. Tutorial 11 shows setting up a case involving structured grids with the polyderal solver. NACA0012 multi-domain grid considered in tutorial 2 is set up for the polyderal solver.

Note

The grid files that are required for building the CFD-FASTRAN model in each of these tutorials are included in the software distribution.

CFD-FASTRAN Tutorial Manual

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Introduction

CFD-FASTRAN Tutorial Manual Organization

viii

CFD-FASTRAN Tutorial Manual

Tutorial 1

Inviscid Flow Past a 2-D Cylinder

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following subjects: • • • • • • • Setting a model name and title for the problem. Reading a single domain, Plot3D grid, and building a CFD-FASTRAN model. Setting fluid properties such as molecular weight. Setting initial values for the flow field. Setting boundary conditions appropriate for the inviscid flow problem. Setting solution iterations and cycles. Choosing a suitable time-integration scheme and setting CFL numbers.

Prerequisites for working this tutorial include the following: 1. 2. You have generated the grid using CFD-GEOM or any other grid-generator. The grid file resides in the working directory and is in whole, multi-domain, Plot3D format.

Problem Description

The problem to be simulated is the inviscid, subsonic flow of air past a cylinder. The diameter of the cylinder is 1 m. A line sketch of the computational domain employed is shown in figure 1-1. The numerical model employs only a semicylinder due to the symmetry of the flow pattern around the cylinder. The flow has a free-stream Mach number, M ¥ , of 0.177.

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Tutorial 1: Inviscid Flow Past a 2-D Cylinder

Figure 1-1. Computational Domain for Simulation of Flow Past a Cylinder

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Tutorial 2

Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past a NACA-0012 Airfoil (Multi-domain Structured Grids)

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following subjects: • • • • • • • Setting a model name and title for the problem. Reading a multi-domain, Plot3D grid and building a CFD-FASTRAN model. Setting fluid properties. Setting initial values for the flowfield. Setting boundary conditions appropriate for a turbulent flow problem. Setting solution iterations and cycles. Choosing a suitable time-integration scheme and setting CFL numbers.

Prerequisites for working this tutorial: 1. 2. You have generated the grid using CFD-GEOM or any other grid-generator. The grid file resides in the working directory and is in whole, multi-domain, PLOT3D format.

Problem Description

The problem to be simulated is the turbulent flow past a NACA-0012 airfoil. A line sketch of the computational domain is shown in figure 2-1. The flow has a free-stream Mach number, M ¥ , of 0.55 at an angle of attack, = , of 8.34°. The Reynolds number, Re, of the flow, based on the chord length of the airfoil, is 9x106. For this case, the flowfield develops a supersonic bubble near the

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Tutorial 2: Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past a NACA-0012 Airfoil (Multi-domain Structured Grids)

leading edge of the airfoil upper surface. Furthermore, the flow is slightly separated at the foot of the shock that terminates the supersonic region. For this problem, the employed.

k – A turbulence model is

Zone #1

Zone #2

Figure 2-1. Simulation of Flow Past a NACA-0012 Airfoil

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Tutorial 3

Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past a Cylinder Using Chimera Grids

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following subjects: • • • • • • • • Setting a model name and title for the problem. Reading a multi-domain, Plot3D grid and building a CFD-FASTRAN model. Setting fluid properties. Setting initial values for the flow field. Setting up a Chimera problem with overset grids. Setting boundary conditions appropriate for the Chimera method and the flow problem. Setting solution iterations and cycles. Choosing a suitable time-integration scheme and setting CFL numbers.

Prerequisites for working this tutorial: 1. 2. You have generated the grid using CFD-GEOM or any other grid-generator. The grid file resides in the working directory and is in whole, multi-domain Plot3D format.

Problem Description

The problem to be simulated is a turbulent, subsonic flow of air past a cylinder. The diameter of the cylinder is 1 m. A line sketch of the computational domain is shown figure 3-1. The flow has a free stream Mach number,

M ¥ , of 0.5. The free stream temperature and pressure are 300 K and 1x105

Pa, respectively. The computational domain is modeled with Chimera technology using an O-mesh

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3-1

Tutorial 3: Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past a Cylinder Using Chimera Grids

around the cylinder which is overset on a Cartesian background mesh. Grid #1

Grid #2

Figure 3-1. Computational Domain for Simulation of Flow Past a Cylinder with Chimera Grids

3-2

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Tutorial 4

Unsteady Simulation of a Tank Dropping from a Wing

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following subjects in detail:. • • • • • • • • • • • Setting a model name and title for the problem. Setting a multi-domain, overset, Plot3D grid and building a CFD-FASTRAN model. Setting up fluid properties. Setting initial values from the flow field to perform a steady-state simulation. Setting initial values for the flow field to perform an unsteady simulation. Setting appropriate boundary conditions. Setting up a chimera problem with overset grids. Setting up a 6-DOF motion model to simulate moving bodies. Setting up a moving grid simulation by associating the 6-DOF models with the grids. Setting solution iterations and cycles. Choosing a suitable time integration scheme and setting CFL numbers.

Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. 2. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. You have either just started the application or you have cleared your previous work with the File/New option.

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Tutorial 4: Unsteady Simulation of a Tank Dropping from a Wing

Problem Description

Figure 4-1. Overset grid for a 2D, Wing-tank Configuration.

Figure 4-2. The 6DOF model for the tank-drop motion. In this tutorial, the jettisoning of a fuel tank from a wing is modeled as shown in figure 4-1 and figure 4-2. The empty fuel tank is a very light, aerodynamically unstable body. It is jettisoned by

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Tutorial 4: Unsteady Simulation of a Tank Dropping from a Wing

the combination of an ejector force and hook attachment at the aft end of the fuel tank. This system ensures that the tank tumbles cleanly away from the wing. In this tutorial, a steady state simulation will be obtained, followed by the unsteady fuel tank drop simulation. The computational grid represents a 2-D model of the tank-wing configuration. A line sketch of the computational domain is shown in figure 4-1. The unsteady simulation involves a moving body and demonstrates the use of chimera and 6-DOF modeling features in CFD-FASTRAN. The flow has a free stream Mach number of 0.5. The freestream temperature and pressure are 1.013e05 Pa and 288.16 K.

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Tutorial 4: Unsteady Simulation of a Tank Dropping from a Wing

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Tutorial 5

Unsteady Simulation of Missile Staging

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following subjects:. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Setting a model name and title for the problem. Setting a multi-domain, overset, Plot3D grid and building a CFD-FASTRAN model. Setting up fluid properties such as molecular weight. Setting initial values from the flow field to perform a steady-state simulation. Setting initial values for the flow field to perform an unsteady simulation. Setting appropriate boundary conditions. Setting up a chimera problem with overset grids. Setting up a 6-DOF motion model to simulate moving bodies. Setting up a moving grid simulation by associating the 6-DOF models with the grids. Setting up time dependent pressure and temperature boundary conditions. Setting up thrust model. Setting solution iterations and cycles. Choosing a suitable time integration scheme and setting CFL numbers. Requesting output to be post-processed with CFD-VIEW.

Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. 2. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. You have either just started the application or you have cleared your previous work with the File/New option.

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Tutorial 5: Unsteady Simulation of Missile Staging

Problem Description

In this tutorial, a missile staging problem is modeled as shown in figure 5-1 and figure 5-2.

Figure 5-1. Overview of the payload and booster vehicles grid boundaries

Figure 5-2. The 6DOF motion of the booster. The simulation includes two separate 6DOF motion models. 6DOF model # 1 governs the motion of the second stage (payload vehicle), and 6DOF model # 2 governs the motion of the first stage (booster vehicle). The payload vehicle has a rocket nozzle that is modeled with a time dependent inlet condition simulating rocket ignition. First a steady-state solution of the combined vehicle flying at 5 deg. angle of attack is obtained. Then at time t=0, the rocket motor ignites and pressure builds up between the stages resulting in the separation of the two vehicles. Also the thrust integra5-2 CFD-GUI Tutorials GR-97-2

Tutorial 5: Unsteady Simulation of Missile Staging

tion option is employed to account for the thrust component at the nozzle chamber.

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Tutorial 5: Unsteady Simulation of Missile Staging

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Tutorial 6

Turbulent Mixing of Propane and Air

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following subjects in detail:. • • • • • • • Setting a model name and title for the problem. Importing a grid from CFD-GEOM. Activating a turbulent mixing properties. Setting boundary values appropriate for inlets in turbulent, mixing flows. Setting initial and boundary conditions. Setting solution iterations. Setting a suitable time-integration scheme and setting CFL numbers.

Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. 2. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides. You have either just started the application or you have cleared your previous work with the File/New option.

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6-1

Tutorial 6: Turbulent Mixing of Propane and Air

Problem Description

The problem to be simulated consists of 2D turbulent mixing of propane into an air stream as shown above.

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Tutorial 7

Supersonic Flow Over a Blunt Body with Chemical Reaction

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following subjects: • • • • • • • • • • Setting a model name and title for the problem. Reading a single domain, Plot3D grid, and building a CFD-FASTRAN model. Setting fluid properties such as density and molecular weight. Activating and setting mixture properties. Setting chemical reactions parameters. Setting initial values for the flow field. Setting boundary conditions appropriate for supersonic chemically reacting flow problem. Setting solution iterations and cycles. Choosing a suitable time-integration scheme and setting CFL numbers. Requesting output to be post-processed with CFD-VIEW.

Prerequisites for working this tutorial include the following: 3. 4. You have generated the grid using CFD-GEOM or any other grid-generator. The grid file resides in the working directory and is in whole, multi-domain, Plot3D format.

Problem Description

The problem to be simulated is inviscid, supersonic flow of air past a blunt body. A line sketch of the computational domain employed is shown in figure 7-1. The numerical model employs only one half of the body due to the symmetry of the flow pattern. The flow has a free-stream Mach

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7-1

Tutorial 7: Supersonic Flow Over a Blunt Body with Chemical Reaction

number,

M ¥ , of 23.5. Due to high free stream Mach number, the flow develops high tempera-

tures which initiates chemical reactions between the various components of air. These reactions include 1) dissociation of diatomic Oxygen 2) dissociation of diatomic Nitrogen, 3) dissociation of Nitrous Oxide 4) reaction of diatomic Nitrogen with oxygen and 5) reaction of Nitrous Oxide with Oxygen.

Figure 7-1. Computational Domain for Simulation of Flow Past a Cylinder.

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CFD-FASTRAN Tutorial Manual

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Tutorial 8

Unsteady Simulation of a Pitching Airfoil

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following subjects in detail:. • • • • • • • • • • • Setting a model name and title for the problem. Setting a multi-domain, overset, Plot3D grid and building a CFD-FASTRAN model. Setting up fluid properties. Setting initial values from the flow field to perform a steady-state simulation. Setting initial values for the flow field to perform an unsteady simulation. Setting appropriate boundary conditions. Setting up a chimera problem with overset grids. Setting up a prescribed motion model to simulate moving bodies. Setting up a moving grid simulation by associating the prescribed motion models with the grids. Setting solution iterations and cycles. Choosing a suitable time integration scheme and setting CFL numbers.

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Tutorial 8: Unsteady Simulation of a Pitching Airfoil

Problem Description

Figure 8-1. Overset grid for a 2D airfoil configuration. In this tutorial, a pitching airfoil is modeled. The airfoil oscillates in a sinusoidal fashion in the freestream. Two grid systems are employed namely, the airfoil and the background grid system. A prescribed motion model is employed to create the airfoil grid motion in the stationary background grid. The moving airfoil grid and the stationary background grid communicate using chimera methodology. The solution is carried out in two steps. First a steady state solution is obtained with stationary airfoil. Next, the moving grid simulation is carried out using the steady state solution as initial condition.

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Tutorial 9

Simulation of Missile Aerodynamics using Parallel Computing

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following subjects:. • Setting up a model for running CFD-FASTRAN solver in parallel mode.

Prerequisites for working this tutorial: 1. 2. You have set-up the steady-state part of Tutorial 5 and have staging.DAT and staging.DTF available in the current working directory. You have performed all the extra installations steps required for running parallel simulations.

Problem Description

A missile staging problem is modeled as shown in figure 9-1 and figure 9-2. This tutorial is the same as Tutorial 5. Please refer to Tutorial 5 for the procedure on setting up the problem using CFD-FASTRAN GUI. In this tutorial, the steady state part of Tutorial 5 is set up for the parallel version of CFD-FASTRAN solver.

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Tutorial 9: Simulation of Missile Aerodynamics using Parallel Computing

Figure 9-1. Overview of the payload and booster vehicles grid boundaries

Figure 9-2. The 6DOF motion of the booster.

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CFD-GUI Tutorials

GR-97-2

Tutorial 10

Supersonic Flow Over a Ramp in a Channel with Unstructured Grid

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following subjects: • • • • • • • Setting a model name and title for the problem. Reading a single-domain, unstructured grid and building a CFD-FASTRAN model. Setting fluid properties. Setting initial conditions for the flow field. Setting boundary conditions appropriate for an internal, supersonic flow. Setting solution iterations and cycles. Choosing a suitable time-integration scheme and setting CFL numbers.

Prerequisites for working this tutorial: 1. 2. You have generated the grid using CFD-GEOM or any other grid-generator. The grid file resides in the working directory and is in multi-domain FAST format.

Problem Description

The problem to be simulated is a supersonic flow over a ramp in a channel. A line sketch of the computational domain is shown in figure 10-1. A 3-D grid is employed for the problem; however, the flow is essentially 2D in nature. The flow is characterized by an oblique shock generated due to

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Tutorial 10: Supersonic Flow Over a Ramp in a Channel with Unstructured Grid

the change in the direction of the supersonic flow caused by the wedge. The flow has a free-stream Mach number, respectively.

surface 8 (Symmetry - Top) surface 7 (Exit)

M ¥ , of 2.0. The free stream temperature and pressure are 300 K and 101,300 Pa,

surface 2 (Symmetry - Back)

surface 6 (Wall) surface 1 (Symmetry - Front)

surface 3 (Inlet) surface 4 (Wall)

surface 5 (Wall)

Figure 10-1. Computational Domain for Simulating Flow over a Ramp in a Channel

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Tutorial 11

Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past a NACA-0012 Airfoil (using Polyhedral solver)

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following subjects: • • • Setting the target solver to Polyhedral Solver for structured grids. Setting fluid properties. Choosing a suitable time-integration scheme and setting CFL numbers.

Prerequisites for working this tutorial: 1. You have set-up Tutorial 2 and have naca.DAT and naca.DTF available in the current working directory.

Problem Description

The problem to be simulated is the turbulent flow past a NACA-0012 airfoil. A line sketch of the computational domain is shown in figure 11-1. The flow has a free-stream Mach number, M ¥ , of 0.55 at an angle of attack, = , of 8.34°. The Reynolds number, Re, of the flow, based on the chord length of the airfoil, is 9x106. For this case, the flowfield develops a supersonic bubble near the

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Tutorial 11: Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past a NACA-0012 Airfoil (using Polyhedral solver)

leading edge of the airfoil upper surface. Furthermore, the flow is slightly separated at the foot of the shock that terminates the supersonic region. For this problem, the k – A turbulence model is employed.

Zone #1

Zone #2

Figure 11-1. Simulation of Flow Past a NACA-0012 Airfoil

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CFD-FASTRAN Tutorial Manual

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CFD-ViscartTM

Tutorials

Version 2002

**CFD Research Corporation
**

Cummings Research Park 215 Wynn Drive l Huntsville, AL 35805 Phone: (256) 726-4800 l Fax: (256)726-4806 Software Support: software@cfdrc.com/(256)726-4900 Software Sales: sales@cfdrc.com l www.cfdrc.com

CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805 © 1997-2002 by CFD Research Corporation All rights reserved. Published 2001 This manual is the confidential and proprietary product of CFD Research Corporation. Any unauthorized use, reproduction, or transfer of this manual is strictly prohibited. (Subject to limited distribution and restricted disclosure only.) CFD-ACE™, CFD-ACE+™, CFD-VIEW™, CFD-GEOM™, CFD-Viscart™ and CFD-FASTRAN™ are registered trademarks of CFD Research Corporation. CFD-GEOM contains SISL the SINTEF Spline Library Copyright 1989-2002 by SINTEF Applied Mathematics, Oslo, Norway

Released March 2002

CFDRC Confidential

Table of Contents

Tutorial 1

**Cartesian Mesh Generation for Buildings
**

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

Tutorial 2

**Viscous Mesh Generation for Buildings
**

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1

Tutorial 3

**Internal or External Grid in Desired Region
**

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

Tutorial 4

**Geometry Repair for Open Ends Nozzle
**

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1

Tutorial 5

**Surface Split and Join
**

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

iii

Tutorial 6

**Local Refinement with Surface Sources
**

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1

Tutorial 7

**Local Refinement with Box Source
**

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1

Tutorial 8

**Generate Multiple Viscous Layer External Grid with a Wheel
**

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1

Tutorial 9

**Grid Adaptation on Velocity Gradient
**

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1

Tutorial 10

**Grid Adaptation on User Defined Region
**

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1

Tutorial 11

**Grid Quality Detection and Remove
**

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1

Tutorial 12

**Save STL Files with Geometry(s) and Unstructured Surfaces
**

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1

iv

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

Tutorial 1

Cartesian Mesh Generation for Buildings

Objectives

In this tutorial you learn to do the following: • • • • • • • Launch CFD-VisCART. Read multiple STL files. Save as VGD file. Handle different graphics view modes. Grid generation bounding box setting. Grid generation region specification. Generate external Cartesian grids.

Problem Description

This tutorial highlights the fundamental steps for reading multiple files procedure, specifying grid generation region, and generating a Cartesian grid (Stair mesh) using CFD-VisCART.

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

1-1

1-2

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

Tutorial 2

Viscous Mesh Generation for Buildings

Objectives

In this tutorial, you learn to do the following: • • • • • • • Launch CFD-VisCART. Read multiple STL files. Set bounding box. Generate external Viscous grids. Grid quality detection. Handle grid view mode. Save DTF file.

Problem Description

This tutorial highlights the fundamental steps for generating a viscous grid (Projected mesh) and also the grid quality detections in CFD-VisCART.

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

2-1

2-2

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

Tutorial 3

Internal or External Grid in Desired Region

Objectives

In this tutorial learn to do the following: • • • • • • • • Read STL files. Set bounding box. Set grid region specifying marker. Generate an internal grid. Generate an external grid. Generate an internal grid in the desired region. Generate an external grid in the desired region. Save to DTF file.

Problem Description

This tutorial highlights the fundamental steps for generating internal grids and external grids in desired region.

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

3-1

3-2

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

Tutorial 4

Geometry Repair for Open Ends Nozzle

Objectives

In this tutorial learn to do the following: • • • • Launch CFD-VisCART. Read single STL file. Create new surfaces. Save to VGD file

Problem Description

This tutorial highlights the fundamental steps for creating new surfaces to make the open-ends nozzle be closed so that an external Viscous grid can be generated.

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

4-1

4-2

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

Tutorial 5

Surface Split and Join

Objectives

In this tutorial learn to do the following: • • • • • • • • • • Read a single STL file. Detect critical features. Split one single geometry into multiple desired sub-geometries. Multiple select or deselect the geometries. Blanking or unblanking the geometries. Delete the geometry. Join multiple geometries into one single geometry. View geometry by Visual Rotating Bar. Save to new STL file Save to VGD file

Problem Description

This tutorial highlights the fundamental steps for reorganizing the geometry. When generating the viscous grid, the existing individual geometry will be considered as the individual patch so that you can set different boundary condition to each of the geometries. If you want to set different BC at one single geometry, you have to split it before generating the grid. Sometimes you do not want some specific geometry to be involved in the simulation, you can split, then delete these geometries.

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

5-1

5-2

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

Tutorial 6

Local Refinement with Surface Sources

Objectives

In this tutorial learn to do the following: • • • • • • • • Read STL files. Set different surface sources. Save VGD file. Generate an external grid. View grid front in CFD-VisCART. Save DTF file. Launch CFD-VIEW from CFD-VisCART. View unstructured surfaces in CFD-VIEW.

Problem Description

This tutorial highlights the fundamental steps for setting different surface sources to refine the local grids on the geometry surface.

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

6-1

6-2

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

Tutorial 7

Local Refinement with Box Source

Objectives

In this tutorial learn to do the following: • • • • • • Read STL files. Easy way to define the box source by dragging source box. Set box source to only refine the grids at certain location. Save VGD file. Generate an internal grid. View grid by cutting planes.

Problem Description

This tutorial highlights the fundamental steps for setting box sources to refine the local grids at the

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

7-1

7-2

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

Tutorial 8

Generate Multiple Viscous Layer External Grid with a Wheel

Objectives

In this tutorial learn to do the following: • • • • • • • Read STL files. Generate multiple viscous layer in external grid with power law distribution. View viscous layers Detect grid quality. Save VGD file. Generate multiple viscous layer in external grid with hyperbolic tangential distribution. Improve multiple viscous layer grid quality.

Problem Description

This tutorial highlights the fundamental steps for generating multiple viscous layer in viscous external grid. Grid quality detection, grid generation parameters specification, viewing viscous layers, and methods to improve grid quality are also described.

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

8-1

8-2

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

Tutorial 9

Grid Adaptation on Velocity Gradient

Objectives

In this tutorial learn to do the following: • • • • • • Read DTF file. Adapt the grid on velocity gradient. Check grid quality. Save as new DTF file. Adapt the grid on velocity gradient again. Append the adapted grid to an existing DTF file as additional simulation.

Problem Description

This tutorial highlights the fundamental steps for adapting the grid on the velocity gradient.

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

9-1

9-2

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

Tutorial 10

Grid Adaptation on User Defined Region

Objectives

In this tutorial learn to do the following: • • • • Read DTF file. Define a box source in the desired adaptation region. Adapt grid in the region at desired direction. Save DTF file.

Problem Description

This tutorial highlights the fundamental steps for adapting the grid on user defined regions with box sources.

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

10-1

10-2

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

Tutorial 11

Grid Quality Detection and Remove

Objectives

In this tutorial learn to do the following: • • • • • • Read VGD file. Generate multiple viscous layer. Detect grid quality. Automatically remove bad cells. View neighbor cells of bad cell, surrounding faces of the bad cell in graphics window. Remove bad cells by manual tool.

Problem Description

This tutorial highlights the fundamental steps for generating multiple viscous layer in external grid, and also the steps for handling grid quality detection and removing functionalities.

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

11-1

11-2

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

Tutorial 12

Save STL Files with Geometry(s) and Unstructured Surfaces

Objectives

In this tutorial learn to do the following: • • • • Read multiple STL files. Transfer different STL data format with multiple STL files. Generate fine unstructured surface mesh. Save unstructured surface mesh to STL files as new file names or the same file names.

Problem Description

This tutorial highlights the fundamental steps for handling different formats of STL file transfer procedures, and also saving unstructured surface mesh to STL files procedures.

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

12-1

12-2

CFD-Viscart Tutorials

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