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( ax + b )

n +1

x n +1

∫ where n ≠ −1 ∫ ( ax + b ) dx = a ( n + 1) +c where n ≠ −1

n

x n

dx = +c

n +1

1 1 1

∫ ( ax + b )

−1

∫x dx = ∫ dx = ln x + c dx = ∫

−1

dx = ln ax + b + c

x ax + b a

⎡⎣f ( x ) ⎤⎦

n +1

f ′( x)

( ) ( ) ∫ f ( x) dx = ln f ( x ) + c

∫

n

f ′ x ⎡

⎣ f x ⎤

⎦ dx = +c

n +1

1 f ( x)

∫ f ′( x) e

f ( x)

dx = ef ( x ) + c ∫ f ′( x) a

f ( x)

dx = a +c

ln a

1 ax +b 1

∫ e dx = e +c ∫e ∫ a dx = ln a a

ax + b

x x

dx = e +c x x

+c

a

∫ cos x dx = sin x + c ∫ sin x dx = − cos x + c ∫ sec x dx = tan x + c

2

2

⎛x⎞ ⎛x⎞

( x < a) ∫

1 1 1

∫ a2 − x2

dx = sin −1 ⎜ ⎟ + c

⎝a⎠ a 2

+x 2

dx = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ + c

a ⎝a⎠

1 ⎛ x−a⎞ 1 ⎛a+ x⎞

∫x 2

1

−a 2

dx = ln ⎜ ⎟+c

2a ⎝ x + a ⎠

( x > a) ∫a 2

1

−x 2

dx = ln ⎜ ⎟+c

2a ⎝ a − x ⎠

( x < a)

⎛ π⎞ ⎛ π⎞

∫ tan x dx = ln ( sec x ) + c ⎜x < ⎟

⎝ 2⎠ ∫ sec x dx = ln ( sec x + tan x ) + c ⎜ x < ⎟

⎝ 2⎠

TRIGONOMETRIC FORMULAE USED IN INTEGRATION

Trigonometric Identities (NOT FOUND IN MF15)

sin 2 x + cos2 x = 1 tan 2 x + 1 = sec2 x 1 + cot 2 x = cosec2 x

Double Angle Formulae (FOUND IN MF15)

cos 2 A = cos 2 A − sin 2 A

1

sin 2 A = 2sin A cos A = 2 cos 2 A − 1 ⇒ cos 2 A = (1 + cos 2 A)

2

1

= 1 − 2sin 2 A ⇒ sin 2 A = (1 − cos 2 A )

2

Factor Formulae (FOUND IN MF15)

1 1 1 1

sin P + sin Q = 2sin ( P + Q ) cos ( P − Q ) cos P + cosQ = 2 cos ( P + Q ) cos ( P − Q )

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

sin P − sin Q = 2 cos ( P + Q ) sin ( P − Q ) cos P − cosQ = −2sin ( P + Q ) sin ( P − Q )

2 2 2 2

An Open Source Education Project H2 Mathematics 9740: INTEGRATION (REVISION 2008)

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OTHER TECHNIQUES USED IN INTEGRATION

Integration by a given Substitution

⎛ dv ⎞ ⎛ du ⎞

Integration by Parts ∫ ⎜⎝ u dx ⎟⎠ dx = uv − ∫ ⎜⎝ v dx ⎟⎠ dx

SUMMARY (PLANE AREA & VOLUME OF SOLID OF REVOLUTION)

Area under a curve Area under a curve

(bounded by the x-axis) (bounded by the y-axis)

y y

d

δy

y x

x c x

a δx b

vertical strips horizontal strips

y is written as a function of x x is written as a function of y

curve above x-axis − positive area curve to the right of y-axis − positive area

curve below x-axis − negative area curve to the left of y-axis − negative area

b d

∫ a

y dx ∫ c

x dy

(rotated about the x-axis) (rotated about the y-axis)

y δy

x

a b

δx

c

Volume of solid formed when region under the Volume of solid formed when region bounded

curve bounded by the x-axis is rotated about by the curve and the y-axis is rotated about the

the x-axis = π ∫ a y 2 dx y-axis = π ∫ c x 2 dy

b d

Volume of solid formed when region between Volume of solid formed when region between

two curves is rotated about the x-axis two curves is rotated about the y-axis

= π ∫ a y1 dx − π ∫ a y2 dx = π ∫ c x12 dy − π ∫ c x2 2 dy

b 2 b 2 d d

An Open Source Education Project H2 Mathematics 9740: INTEGRATION (REVISION 2008)

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EXERCISE

3 − 2x

1. Express in partial fractions.

x ( x 2 + 3)

3 − 2x

Hence or otherwise, find ∫ x( x 2 + 3)

dx . [ACJC 2006]

1

( 4 − x 2 ) dx .

1

2. (i) By using the substitution x = 2 sin θ , find the exact value of ∫ 0 3

1

x

and y =

1

3

(

4 − x 2 , the x-axis, the y- )

axis and the line x = 1.3 is shown in the diagram below.

y

1 R

y= (4 − x 2 ) 1

3 y=

x x

O 1.3

(b) Find the volume formed when the shaded region, R, is rotated through 360°

about the x-axis. [HCI 2006]

∫ ∫

3 3

3. (a) Find (i) x 2 e x dx (ii) x 5 e x dx .

9

∫1 x − 4

x

(b) Use the substitution u = x to find the exact value of dx .

x +5

[NYJC 2006]

d ⎡

4. (i) Find x 1 − x 2 ⎤ , simplifying your answer.

dx ⎣ ⎦

∫ 4 x sin

−1

(ii) Find x dx . [AJC 2006]

An Open Source Education Project H2 Mathematics 9740: INTEGRATION (REVISION 2008)

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5. (a) The graph of y = x 2 + 1 , for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 , is shown in the diagram. Rectangles, each of

1

width , are drawn under the curve.

n y

1 2 3 n − 3 n − 2 n −1 1

x

O

8n 2 − 3n + 1

n n n n n n

(i) Show that the total area of all the n rectangles is given by .

6n 2

(ii) By considering the area of the region bounded by the curve y = x 2 + 1, x = 1

8n 2 − 3n + 1 4

and the axes, briefly explain why < .

6n 2 3

(b) The region R is bounded by the curves x = 2 y , x = 4 y and the line x = 16 as shown.

y

x = 2y

R x = 4y

x

O

x = 16

Find the volume of solid formed when R is rotated through four right angles about

the y-axis. Leave your answer in the form aπ where a is a real constant corrected to

three significant figures. [NJC 2006]

ANSWERS

3 − 2x 1 ⎛ 2+ x ⎞

− ln ( x 2 + 3) + C

2 x 1

1. = −⎜ ⎟ ln x − tan −1

x ( x + 3)

2

x ⎝ x2 + 3 ⎠ 3 3 2

1 ⎛π 3⎞

2. (i) ⎜⎜ + ⎟ (ii) (a) 1.37 (b) 4.56

3⎝3 2 ⎟⎠

1 3 1 x3 3 1 x3

3. (a) (i) e x + C (ii) e x − e +C (b) 4 + 3π

3 3 3

1 − 2x2

4. (i) (ii) 2 x 2 sin −1 x + x 1 − x 2 − sin −1 x + C

1 − x2

5. (b) 420π

An Open Source Education Project H2 Mathematics 9740: INTEGRATION (REVISION 2008)

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