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Under (digital signal processing)



Dr.K.V.SubbaReddy Institute of Technology, Dupadu, Kurnool.

Digital signal processing (DSP) is the study of signals in a digital representation and the processing methods of these signals. DSP and analog signal processing are subfields of signal processing. DSP includes sub fields like: audio and speech signal processing, sonar and radar signal processing, sensor array processing, spectral estimation, statistical signal processing, image processing, signal processing for communications, biomedical signal processing, seismic data processing, etc. A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing, generally in real time. Digital signal processing can be done on general-purpose microprocessors. However, a Digital signal processor contains architectural optimizations to speed up processing. These optimizers are also important to lower costs, heat-emission and

power-consumption. DSP technology is now a days common place in such devices as mobile phones, multimedia computers, video recorders, CD players, hard disc drive controllers and modems, and will soon replace analog circuitry in TV sets and telephones. An important application of DSP is in Digital Voice Enhancement. DVE technology will enhance communication in passenger vehicles, but works especially well in vans and sport utility vehicles where noise levels are higher and the distance between passengers in greater. The system is also well suited for luxury vehicles which are typically designed to be quiet, but achieve that

level of quiet by using sound absorbing materials, which also absorb speech.

What is DSP?

numbers whose values represent the electrical DSP, or Digital Signal Processing, as the term suggests, is the processing of signals by digital means. A signal in this context can mean a number of different things. Historically the origins of signal processing are in electrical engineering, and a signal here means an electrical signal carried by a wire or telephone line, or perhaps by a radio wave. More generally, however, a signal is a stream of information representing anything from stock prices to data from a remote-sensing satellite. The term "digital" comes from "digit", meaning a number (you count with your fingers - your digits), so "digital" literally means numerical; the French word for digital is numerique. A digital signal consists of a stream of numbers, usually (but not necessarily) in binary form. The processing of a digital signal is done by performing numerical calculations. Signals commonly need to be processed in a variety of ways. For example, the output signal from a transducer may well be contaminated with unwanted electrical "noise". The electrodes attached to a patient's chest when an ECG is taken measure tiny electrical voltage changes due to the activity of the heart and other muscles. The signal is often strongly affected by "mains pickup" due to electrical interference from the mains supply. Processing the signal using a filter circuit can remove or at least the reduce the unwanted part of signal. the Increasingly nowadays, filtering of signals In many cases, the signal of interest is initially in the form of an analog electrical voltage or current, produced for example by a microphone or some other type of transducer. In some situations, such as the output from the readout system of a CD (compact disc) player, the data is already in digital form. An analog signal must be converted into digital form before DSP techniques can be applied. An analog electrical voltage signal, for example, can be digitized using an electronic circuit called an analog-to-digital converter or ADC. This generates a digital output as a stream of binary to improve signal quality or to extract important information is done by DSP techniques rather than by analog electronics. voltage input to the device at each sampling instant.

Signal processing

Analog and digital signals

Development of DSP
The development of digital signal processing dates from the 1960's with the use of mainframe digital computers for number-crunching applications such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which allows the frequency spectrum of a signal to be computed rapidly. These techniques were not widely used at that time, because suitable computing equipment was generally available only in universities and other scientific research institutions.

(Note that the acronym DSP used for a wide range

can variously of techniques for

mean Digital Signal Processing, the term processing signals digitally, or Digital Signal Processor, a specialized type of microprocessor chip).Like a generalpurpose microprocessor, a DSP is a programmable device, with its own native instruction code. DSP chips are capable of carrying out millions of floating point operations per second, and like their better-known general-purpose cousins, faster and more powerful versions are continually being introduced. DSPs can also be embedded both within devices, analog and complex often digital "system-on-chip" containing The introduction of the microprocessor in the late 1970's and early 1980's made it possible for DSP techniques to be used in a much wider range of applications. However, microprocessors general-purpose such as the circuitry.

Digital Signal Processors (DSPs)

Intelx86 family are not ideally suited to the numerically-intensive requirements of DSP, and during the 1980's the increasing importance of DSP led several major electronics manufacturers (such as Texas Instruments, Analog Devices and Motorola) to develop Digital Signal Processor chips with specialized architectures microprocessors

DSP Algorithm

designed specifically for the types of operations required in digital signal processing.

DSP algorithms have traditionally run on specialized processors called digital signal processors (DSPs). Algorithms requiring more performance than DSPs could integrated however provide circuit there are were (ASICs). a typically Today of implemented using application-specific number

Computer Science Data compression Electrical engineering Information theory Telecommunication Analog signal processing

Automatic control is the research area and theoretical automation, base for mechanization methods and from employing

technologies used for digital signal processing. These include more powerful general purpose microprocessors, fieldprogrammable gate arrays (FPGAs), digital signal controllers (mostly for industrial apps such as motor control), and stream processors, among others.

mathematics and engineering. See also control theory. A central concept is that of the system which is to be controlled, such as a rudder, propeller or an entire ballistic missile. The systems studied within automatic control are mostly the linear systems. Automatic control systems are composed of three components: Sensor(s), liquid level. Responder(s), which may be simple electrical or mechanical systems or complex controllers computers. Actuator(s), which effect a response to the sensor(s) under the command of the responder, for example, by controlling a gas flow to a burner in a heating system or electricity to a motor in a refrigerator or pump. special or purpose general digital purpose which measure some

Why DSP?
The world of science and engineering is filled with signals: images from remote space probes, voltages generated by the heart and brain, radar and sonar echoes, seismic vibrations, and countless other applications. Digital Signal processing is the science of using computers to understand these types of data. This includes a wide variety of goals: filtering, speech recognition, image enhancement data compression, neural networks, and much more. DSP is one of the most powerful technologies that will shape science and engineering in the twentyfirst century.

physical state such as temperature or

Related fields
Automatic control

Computer science (or computing science) It is the study of the

theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and

application in computer systems. Computer science has many sub-fields; some emphasize the computation of specific results (such as computer graphics), while others relate to properties of computational problems (such as computational complexity theory). Still others focus on the challenges in implementing computations. For example, programming while language theory studies applies approaches to describing computations, computer programming specific programming languages to solve specific computational problems. A further subfield, human-computer interaction, focuses on the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable and universally accessible to people.

century after commercialization of the electric telegraph and electrical power supply. The field now covers a range of substudies including power, electronics, control systems, signal processing and telecommunications.

Information theory is a branch of

applied mathematics and engineering theory was involving the quantification of information. Historically, information developed to find fundamental limits on compressing and reliably communicating data. Since its inception it has broadened to find applications in statistical inference, networks other than communication networks, biology (neurobiology), quantum

In computer science and information theory, data compression or source coding is the process of encoding information using fewer bits (or other information-bearing units) than an unencoded representation would use through use of specific encoding schemes. One popular instance of compression with which many computer users are familiar is the ZIP file format, which, as well as providing compression, acts as an archive, storing many files in a single output file.

information theory, data analysis, and other areas, although it is still widely used in the study of communication.

Telecommunication is the assisted

transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. In earlier times, this may have involved the use of smoke signals, drums, semaphore, flags, or heliograph. In modern times, telecommunication typically involves the use of electronic transmitters such as the telephone, television, radio or computer. Early inventors in the field of

Electrical engineering sometimes

referred to as electrical and electronic engineering is an engineering field that deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism. The field first became an identifiable occupation in the late nineteenth




Graham Bell, Guglielmo Marconi and John Logie Baird. Telecommunication is an important part of the world economy and the telecommunication industry's revenue has

been placed at just under 3 percent of the gross world product.








Analog signal processing is any

signal processing conducted on analog signals by analog means. "Analog" indicates something that is mathematically represented as a set of continuous values. This differs from "digital" which uses a series of discrete quantities to represent signal. Analog values are typically represented as a voltage, electric current, or electric charge around components in the electronic devices. An error or noise affecting such physical quantities will result in a corresponding error in the signals represented by such physical quantities.

Digital Voice Enhancement

Digital Voice Enhancement (DVE)

Technology Provides Effortless Communication In Passenger Vehicles.

The main applications of DSP are audio signal processing, audio compression, digital image speech processing, processing, and video speech compression, recognition, Specific

How DVE Works?

DVE, made possible by Digisonix DVE voice enhancing technology allows for comfortable and safe conversations at highway speeds. The Digisonix real-time DVE software uses microphones in the vehicle cabin to separate voice signals from the vehicle noise. The DVE software then enhances the voice signal and removes unwanted noise to create a natural sounding reproduction of the voice through the vehicles audio system loudspeakers. The DVE system can be combined with voice recognition software to become the gateway to voice command in an Automobile.

digital communications, RADAR, SONAR, seismology, biomedicine. examples are speech compression and transmission in digital mobile phones, room matching equalization of sound in Hifi and sound reinforcement applications, weather forecasting, economic forecasting, seismic data processing, analysis and control of industrial as CAT processes, scans computer-generated and MRI, image animations in movies, medical imaging such manipulation, high fidelity loudspeaker crossovers and equalization, and audio

Better Hands Free Mobile

The DVE technology also provides a clear voice signal to the hands-free mobile phone

and allows all passengers to participate in the hands-free call. This is a great feature for business meetings or family calls. Included in the DVE technology is the Digisonix voice message system allowing passengers to record a voice message hands-free in the vehicle that can be played back later.

Designed for Vehicles

Digisonix DVE technology will enhance communication in passenger vehicles but works especially well in vans and sport utility vehicles where noise levels are higher and the distance between passengers is greater. The system is also well suited for luxury vehicles, which are typically designed to be quiet by using sound-absorbing materials that also absorb speech. Enhanced passenger-to-passenger voice The First Automotive Implementation of a Digital Voice of Enhancement vehicle SystemApplied adaptive Signal Processing, Inc. (ASP) has applied its knowledge acoustics, modeling, and digital signal processing to implement a Digital Voice Enhancement (DVE) system for Volkswagen AG. The system, which uses a Texas Instrument TMS320C55x DSP-based controller, is offered as an optional feature to enhance voice communication in the new 2004 Volkswagen Multi van. Minivans and sport utility vehicles are communication All passengers participate in hands-free phone calls Clear voice for mobile phone Voice recording in the vehicle Gateway to voice recognition/commands systems Designed for all vehicles Easy to use

tremendously popular, but these vehicles have a greater distance between seated passengers and higher interior noise levels. Luxury vehicles typically affect incorporate voice signicant acoustic These treatments, which absorb road noise, but also communication. characteristics often make normal conversation among the vehicle occupants difficult. The ASP DVE system improves the environment for natural conversations in vehicles by using speech-enhancing signal processing techniques to amplify the voice signals, while minimizing the amplication of other noises. Safety is a

direct benit of the DVE system, because the driver does not have to turn his head or take his eyes off the road to converse effectively with the other passengers. Also, passengers are more comfortable when they can speak in normal tones and can hear others without having to lean forward or change seats. he DVE system uses microphones, mounted overhead, to pick up the occupants voices. It also deals with non-speech inputs, such as road, wind, engine, and accessory-generated noises. The DVE system applies a discriminating function to detect voice activity from the dynamically changing noise oor. The vehicles audio system loudspeakers broadcast speech from one zone to another within the vehicle, Figure 1 (above). The DVE system maintains high sound quality and speech intelligibility by properly equalizing the communication channel and integrating vehicle-specic compensation routines for volume and tone. It also addresses classic feedback problems by removing Digital signal processing (DSP) is the study of signals in a digital representation and the processing methods of these signals. Digital signal processing can be done on generalpurpose microprocessors. By utilizing speech microphones, standard audio loudspeakers with amplification, and advanced digital signal processing techniques, the ASP DVE system allows for conversation within vehicles at normal speech levels. It provides an ideal way to acquire speech signals, giving automotive designers a new gateway for implementing such features as a digital voice notepad, voice recognition systems, and hands-free cellular telephony. It can provide compensating for reverberations and feedback for each of the talkers microphones. If the optional VW cell phone car kit is installed the DVE system becomes a digital hands-free system in which all passengers can participate in a phone call. Other technical features of the DVE system include smart-gating and a variety of signal management tools that compensate for voice levels, reception-level requirements, and ambient noise levels. Dynamic Gain Control increases the total dynamic range, effectively equalizing the sound levels of both loud and soft talkers to increase comfort. speech intelligibility and listener


increased driver safety and passenger comfort for a very reasonable cost.