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The echo in a bidirectional transmission system is studied and adaptive echo cancellers are used to cancel it. simulate the adaptive channel equalizers. iii . CPI (Cross Polarization Interference) cancellers and echo cancellers which are used to mitigate PMD. to simulate the optical to fiber chamel with PMD. The objective of this thesis is to create the system structure. The basic structure of this system is that two QAM signals are transmitted through a long optical fiber with PMD and they are received by a coherent receiver which consists of adaptive electrical channel equalizers and adaptive electrical CPI cancellers. CPI cancellers and echo cancellers and to evaluate the systern performance.This thesis is about the simulation of optical fiber communication systems with the effect of PMD (Polarization Mode Dispersion) and the application of adaptive channel equalizers.
.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would iike to express my profound gratitude and high regards to professor Brent R Petersen. 1also would like to express the deepest feeling of gratitude to my parents. Yong Wei Lu and Zhao Yun Ding for their support and love. His encouragement. fiiendship and suggestions during the course of this research have played a vital role.
... 111 Ac knowledgements ..................................................... 18 Chapter 3 Polarization Mode Dispersion .................................. 3..........2 Adaptive Equalization ...1.......................... Introduction to the Research ...................................... 3 1..... 22 3. 13 2.................................................................... v .......... 31 and 3............................................................ .......................... 19 3.............................. ........................................................................................................................ iv List of Contents ................. 33 3 4........ 3............................................. 7 2............1 1................................................................................................ 19 ................2 Baseband Simulation and Coherent Demodulation ............................................................ ............................................................... xvi Chapter 1 Introduction ...............4 ....21 ............. 3 4.... Chapter 4 Adaptive Channel Equalizers and CPI Cancellers ............................................ 26 ...2 Principal States of Polarization .....3 Baseband System Mode1 .....................................................................1................1..................3 ïhesis Outline .............3 System Development Tools: UL\TLAB%~ SIMULINK! . 7 2...................................................................... 33 4...... List of Figures ..............................................................................................................................2 Thesis Contributions ...............................................................1...... 19 3.1 What is PMD?........................................................... .............................................. List of Symbols ................................................................................................1 Adaptive Channel Equalization Technique ........................ ... vm .................................................................................. Abstract .................................................................................................................................... ....... 35 ... ... 15 2.. 1 ..................................3 Waveplate Mode1 ........ i 1........ .5 Channel Simulation using MATLAB~ SIMULINK? ...............................1 System Mode1 ........... VII............. ............. ......... List of Tables .................................................... x List of Abbreviations and Acronyrns ..................................1 Fundarnentals of Equalization ................................... ... Chapter 2 System Simulation Model ... 28 3 4 Cornputer Simulation of PMD .......................... .....2 Mode Coupling in Long Fiber ............. ............1 Birefringence and PMD ..............
1 Bidirectional Transmission System ....................2 Channel Equalization and CPI Cancellation ...................................................................................3 Power Budget ........................................................ 65 6... 75 Appendix B MATLAB%OU~C~ ... 59 .................................................................................................. 89 Code ...... 61 Chapter 7 Conclusions ...... .............................3...2 Rayleigh Backscatter ...3........... ................2 Performance of Channel Equalizm and CPI Cancellea ...................... 39 4...............................1...................1 Eye 51 Chapter 6 Bidirectional Transmission System .........3...................... 70 71 References ........4 Simulation of Echo Cancellen Using SIMULMK" . ...2 Future Work ..................................................................... 66 6......... ................... 5................................................................... 67 6................................................... Appendix A SIMULINK"Simulation Modeis .........................................................................................3 Adaptive Equalization Categorization and Algorithm ...........................................................1 Pcwer Budget of the System without Echo Cancellers ................................... 60 6.................... 69 .......... 50 50 5 ...... 59 6...................... 6............1 Fiber Coupler ............................... 7.....1 Conclusions ..........................1 Simulation Structure of Channel Equalizers and CPI Cancellers ...............................................................................4................................. .....2 Power Budget of the System with Echo Cancellen .....46 4.46 4........3......2 Bit Error Rate Evaluation ..........2 Echo Cancellation ........................................................................ 63 6.....................3 Simulation of Channel Equalizea and CPI Cancellers ............. 64 6..............................................48 4....... Pattern ...............................1............................................................... 69 7.......... .....1....... 36 Chapter 5 System Performance ..............
.................................................................................... 81 Parameters of Baseband Demodulation...7 Table A............ 87 Parameters of Square Error Trend .................................................... 80 Parameters of Gaussian Noise ....................... 7 5 Parameten of TransrnitterA/I3 ..........2 Table A... (dB) when DGD is 10 ps .....................................12 J............5 Table A........................................ (dB)when DGD is 100 ps ........ 84 Parameters of Normalized LMS Adaptive Filter................ ............10 Table A ................LIST OF TABLES Table 5.................................................. 53 m...............................................9 Table A ................ ....2 Table 5...... 86 Parameters of Performance Meter................ 77 Parameters of Channel ............................6 Table A......... 76 Parameters of Transmitter. (dB) when DGD is 500 ps .........................1 Table 5............................................ 85 ........................................ 78 Parameters of Impulse Response ............... 61 ........... Parameters of System Model .................................................................................... 56 WD 1515 senes: 153811558nrn Bidirectional Coupler ..............................1 1 Table A................................................................... 8 8 vii .... .........................................1 Table A............3 Table 6......... CPI Cancellers and Echo Canceliers ......................3 Table A............ 82 Parameten of Adaptive Channel Equalizers.................................8 Table A.....................4 Table A....1 Table A....... Jm..... 54 J.................. Parameters of Decision Circuit.....
............................2 Figure 6......................................................................................... 50 Eye Pattern (SN R=30) ................................................................................................ 9 5 Fiber Coupler .............................................5 Figure 6.......5 Figure 3.......... 5 8 Bidirectional Transmission System ....... .... ..............................................7 Figure 3................... 37 Channel Equalizers and CPI Cancellers ................1 Figure 4... 20 PDF of A t ...................................................... 16 PMD and DGD .................8 Impulse Response of RC Filter.......................................8b Figure 4 ............. .......................9b Figure 5 ....................................................... 51 Eye Pattern ( S M = 15) ............................ ............................... ..............................72 Transmitter ..1 Figure A.. ..............................1 Figure 6....... 64 Power Budget ......................................................................... 49 Fully Open Eye Pattern .. 8 ~ Figure 4.............. 71 TransmitterA ...................... ....................4 Figure 6................... 32 Equalization ..........8 Figure 3................................................................... 68 Eye Pattern with Echo Cancellers ..................1 Figure 6.................3 Figure 3........................... 49 2 J (dB)when ~ 0 ................................................6 Figure 6...................... 32 Simulation of Baseband Impulse Responses .. 36 Linear LMS Transversal Equalizer ..................3 Figure 4.....9a Figure 4......................... ..............................................................8a Figure 4..... 41 LMS Adaptive Filter .................................... .......................................................................2 Figure 4. 49 J (dB) when Filter Length=8 ...........................................1 Figure 3.........................................................9 Figure 3...............................62 Echo Cancellation ................................... 31 Optical Fiber Channel Simulation ......................................................................................... 29 Phases of Frequency Response ...............6 Figure 4...............................................3 Figure 3.......2 Figure 2......2 Figure 3.......................................3 Figure 6................................ ............................................3 Figure 5.............................l Figure 5......................... 30 Phases of Impulse Response ........... 29 Magnitudes of Impulse Response ..................................68 System Mode1 ...... 39 Vertical Channel Equdizen and CPI Cancellers .................................................................................. 12 Baseband System Mode1 ........ 27 Magnitudes of Frequency Response ....................................... ..................................... 49 4 J (dB) when ~ 0 .........................4 Figure 4..................................................................................6 Figure 3............ ................1 Figure 2.................8 Figure 6...................................................25 Waveplate Mode1 .............. 51 BER Plot .63 ............................................. 48 J (dB)when ~ 0 ..... 34 Categorization of Adaptive Equalization ......4 Figure 3................. ................. .........................................................7 Figure J........................................... 30 Interferometric Measurement of the 10ps PMD Emulator .......................... 60 A Possible Backscatter Plot ...5 Figure 4....................................9 Figure A ...................... 67 Eye Pattern without Echo Cancellen ...................................... 47 Adaptive Channel Equalizers and CPI Cancellers ................................... 73 viii ......................................LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2..2 Figure A...3 Passband System Model ........... ........... 64 Simulation of Echo Cancellers ......... 19 6 J (dB) when Filter Length= 16 ...........................................7 Figure 6........................2 Figure 5.. ....................10 Figure 4............................................ Structure of Echo Cancellers ...........................
............................................4 Figure AS Figure A..................................................................7 Figure A.................14 Channel ...8 Figure A........................................................9a Figure A.............................. 79 Receiver without Echo Cancellers ............................................... 76 Gaussian Noise ...........13 Figure A .............................................12 Figure A.................................................................. 80 Echo Cancellers ...............................11 Figure A ................................. 80 Normalized LMS Adaptive Filter ..81 Decision Circuit ..................................................9b Figure A .........................................................................................Figure A................................................................ 77 Baseband Demodulation .............................. 83 Square Error Trend ......... 74 Opticd Fiber Channel with PMD .......... 75 Impulse response ................................................................................84 .......l Oa Figure A .... 79 Adaptive Channel Equaliters and CPI Cancellers ...........................................................................................................................................6 Figure A. 82 Performance Meter . 78 Receiver with Echo Cancellers ..........1O b Figure A.......................
See Eq.2).8).6.8).1. (4. See Fig. estimated tapweight of the equalizer c. differential of *. unit vectors specifying the two output PSPs. See Eqs.See Eq.4). amplitude of the output PSPs in frequency domain. transmitter filter. (4.8). See Eq.21). (3 3).6.3. impulse response of the equalizer. (3. complex coefficients of PSPs.1).9). 11) and Figs. See Eq.1 7) and Fig. amplitude of the input PSPs in frequency domain.21).3). (3.. (3. (3.20. See Eq. input signal power. See Eqs.1). See Eq.2. estimated of the equalizer tap weights at step n. (4.2. complex unit vector specifj4ng the PSPs. phase retarder. amplitude of the timevarying output field. (2.2. See Fig. See Fig.3.(n).(n). See Eqs. See Eq. (4. (4. carrier Frequency.9).11) and Figs. (3. channel and matched filter. See Eq. mathematical expectation of input optical field vector. (4. output optical field in frequency domain. imaginary part of tap weight c(n).8).. See Fig. amplitude of the timevarying input field. input PAM signal in the horizontal channel. bit rate. (3.LIST OF SYMBOLS real part of the tap weight c(n).20. input PAM signal in the vertical channel. receiver filter. (3.7). See Eq. 'desiredn signal.1). Fourier transform of& (I).7).1. See Eq.2.4).1). See Eq. (2. light speed. See Eq. See Eqs. (1. See Eq. (4.. estimated error vector. (4. See Eq. combined impulse response of the transmitter. See Eq. See Eqs. channel equalizers . (3. (2. estimated tapweight of the CPI canceiler c.18).4. See Fig. (4. Fourier transfomi of c(r). (4. (3..2). CPI cancellen. (5.44).7). sampling frequency.9). overall complex baseband impulse response of the trammitter.9). (3.10. complex unit vector specifjhg the PSPs. See Eq. (2. channel. (4. (4. filter coefficients.45). estimated error. See Eq. (3.4.2.13). (3.. See Eqs. matched füter and .2). bandwidth of the message signal.8). (2. See Eq.
equalizer. matrix of the baseband horizontal to horizontal channel impulse responses. See Eq. ~ m & of the baseband impulse responses of the optical channel.23). (2. transfer matrîx of the fiber channel in the waveplate model. See Eq.24). (2. See Eq. (2. inphase of passband horizontal to horizontal impulse response. See Eq.4) and Fig. See Eq. (2. baseband horizontal to horizontal impulse response. matrix of the baseband horizontal to vertical channel impulse responses. passband vertical to horizontal impulse response. (2. 6 3 1 JlHz. imaginary number.5). See Eq. See Eq.5). quadrature of passband vertical ta horizontal impulse response.20). See a Eq. See Eq. (2. complex baseband impulse response. (2. (2. See Eq.1 ). (2. See Eq. (2.1). matrix of the baseband vertical to vertical channel impulse responses.1). See Eq.4) and Fig. (6. (2. matrix of the baseband vertical to horizontal channel impulse responses. See Eq.1).8).21). (2. (2. (2. baseband vertical to horizontal impulse response.1 1). See Eq.5).4) and Fig. See Eq. (4. (2. satisQing ' = .3) and Fig. inphase of passband vertical to horizontal impulse response. (2. (2.22).4).2 1). passband horizontal to horizontal impulse response.5). passband vertical to vertical impulse response. (2.5). quadrature of passband vertical to vertical impulse response.1.5). See Eq. matrix o f the passband channel impulse responses.5).4) and Fig. quadrature of passband horizontal to horizontal impulse response. 6 . (3. See Eq. See Eq. See Eq.5).5).5). See Eq. j . (4. See Eq. (2. See Eq.1 ). quadrature O f passband horizontal to vertical impulse response. (2. (3. See Eq. (2. baseband vertical to vertical impulse response. (4. See Eq. baseband horizontal to vertical impulse response. (2. passband horizontal to vertical impulse response. Planck's constant. inphase of passband vertical to vertical impulse response. (2.5). inphase of passband horizontal to vertical impulse response. (2. See Eq. See Eq.5). (2.
system loss. See Eq.2). (2. (3.5). (4. symbol error probability for Clevel QAM signal. (6. See Eq. crosstalk. (6. insertion loss. See Fig. See Eq.4). See Eq.1 ). power in the starting mode. See Eq.minimum MSE. See Eq. See Eq.12). (3.3). (6. (3. See Eq. See Eq. meansquared error vector. Qfunction of filter rolloff factor. (6. crosscorrelation vector between the input vector to the equalizer uJn) and the desired response x. See Eq.4). (2. power of TransmitterA. (3. See Eq. See Eq. (4. (6. (6.17) and Fig. (4.6). See Eq. (2.6). (6.1). fiber length. See Eq. See Fig.16. See Eq.6). effective index of refiaction for fast mode. See Eq.2). (6. received sensitivity (dBm). probability density function of DGD. bit error rate. (6. receiver sensitivity (average nurnber of photos per bit).3 1). directivity. See Eq. echo signal power due to coupler crosstalk and the Rayleigh scatter. (6.6). instantaneous estimate of P. DGD generator.6). signal power after CouplerA. optical power launched into the fiber. (3.(n). (4.1 1) and Fig.10).29). signal power received by ReceiverB. crosscorrelation vector between the input vector to the equalizer uJn) in the vertical polarjzation channel and the input vector in the vertical polarization channel u.2).2).(n). coupling length.3) power of TrammitterB. See Eq.(3. See Eqs. 0.8).42). (5. (6.6).3). See Eq. (4.1). (6.40). (3. Rayleigh scatter loss. See Eq.. See Eq.3). average power in the orthogonal polarization mode. See Eq(3. effective index of refraction for slow mode. See Fig. See Eq. split ratio.6).6). See Fig. signal power received by CouplerB.(3. transfer maaix of the segment k in a single mode fiber. See Fig.(n).17). total power in the fiber.1 9). See Fig. (5. (6. number of the transmitter or receiver filter taps.3). Rayleigh backscattered opticai power. See Eq. (6. xii . See Eq.. (5. randorn Gaussian noises. instantaneous estimate of Q&). excess loss.3.
1. (2.3). output of the horizontal channel. (2.13). xiii . (2. threecomponent unit Stokes vector. (2.2) and Figs.6. (4.phase rotator. See Eq. (2. (2.10).6.9). (2.3) and Fig. discrete baseband input signal to the equalizer. modulated signal after the modulator in the horizontal channel.3). (2.3).11). See Eq.1. inphase signal after the trammitter filter in the vertical channel.2). (2.3). (2. See Eq. (3. instantaneous estimate of F&. See Eq.6).. K dimensional input discrete signal vector at step n. fraction of captured optical power.(n).25) and Fig. See Eq.3). See Eqs.3).3).7). baseband signal vector in horizontal channel. 2. (3.19) and Fig.6.3). See Eq. (2.30).11). input signal vectors to the equalizer in the vertical and horizontal channels.25) and Fig. (2.3).19) and Fig.25) and Fig. baseband signal vector in vertical channel.3) and Fig. See Eq. See Eq. (2.1. (3. (2.41).2) and Figs. output of the vertical channel. (4.2) and Figs.25) and Fig. received baseband quadrature signal in the vertical channel. (2.1. modulated signal after the modulator in the vertical channel.3).2.1). (2. (2. (2. complex baseband waveform of the modulated signal in the vertical channel. (4. (2. received baseband inphase signal in the horizontal channel. (6. See Eq. (2. (2. See Eq. (2. received baseband inphase signal in the vertical channel.2) and Figs.4). See Eqs. See Eq. 12). optical fiber complex transfer matnx. See Eq. (2. See Eq. See Eq.3). See Eq. See Eq. (2. (2. inphase signal after the transmitter filter in the horizontal channei. autocorrelation matnx of the input vector to the equalizer uv(n).25) and Fig. See Eqs.2. (2. (2. (2. output signal vector of the fiber channel.J. quadurate signal after the transmitter filter in the vertical channel. quadurate signal d e r the transmitter filter in the horizontal channel. (1. See Fig. See Eq. (2. See Eq. See Eq. (2. (4.3).3). received baseband quadrature signal in the horizontal channel. See Eq. 2. See Eq.4.25) and Fig. received baseband signal vector in vertical channel. (2.1). (2. See Eq. See Eq.4. transmitter filter sampling time. received baseband signal vector in the horizontal channei.
See Fig. See Eq. fiber loss. (4.4). (2. (4.1). (3. (2. received PAM signals in the horizontal channel.9) and Fig. See Eq. demodulated quadurate signal in the horizontal channel. (5. (3.1 ). propagation constant for the slow mode. output signal vector.10) and Fig.1). See Eq.10) and Fig. s s e SNR. quadurate signal in the vertical polarization channel. See Eq. See Eq. (2. (2. See Eq. (4. (3.10) and Fig.1). (2. (1. (2. See Eq. (2.17). quadurate signal in the horizontal polarization channel. (2. (3.1) and Fig. (2. (2.12). (2.1).6). (2. (6. demodulated quadurate signal in the vertical channel.8) and Fig. See Eq. See Eq.1). Gaussian noise signal in the vertical channel.1) and Fig. (3. received SNR. (2. See Eq.4).1).1 ). received PAM signals in the vertical channel. (2.5).u ~ ( o )~ . See Eq.1). (2. (2.8) and Fig.1). See Eq.1).6). (6.1) and Fig. different group velocity.1). See Eq. angular carrier frequency. See Eq.1).1 ).1) and Fig. Gaussian noise signai in the horizontal channel. See Eq. See Eq. See Eq. (2. ~ ~(0 ' 2 VA{) See Eq. output of the equalizer.15) and Fig. See Eq. (5.1) and Fig.1). See Fig.1). propagation constant for the fast mode.1) and Fig. T(o). input QAM signal vector for the veniczl channel.2 1). (3. (2. (4. (2. (2. (2. 'desiredm signal vector.1).7). average differential goup delay time. See Fig. (2. See Eq. (2. output of the adaptive equalizer. (2.1). See Eq. demodulated inphase signal in the horizontal channel. output of the receiver in the vertical channel. ytm xiv .1 ). inphase signal in the vertical polarization channel. (3. (2.10) and Fig.1) and Fig. See Fig.10) and Fig. (2. See Eq. (4. ( cornplex quantities of the transfer matrix. (1.8) and Fig. (2. See Eq. inphase signal in the horizontal polarization channel.1).9) and Fig. (2. See Eq. See Eq. Rayleigh scattering coefficient. output of receiver in the horizontal channel.1) and Fig.12). input optical pulse width. See Eq. input QAM signal vector for the horizontal channel. (2. (2. demodulated inphase signal in the vertical channel.2). See Eq. 0 ) Gaussian noise signal. (2. (4.
1).1). dispersion vectors. (3. complex conjugate of *. See Eq. (4. See Eq. angular frequency. initial phases in the vertical channel.. (4.6). (3. See Eq..elliandistributed DGD.9).1). 0. Mauwe. multiplication of and + average of absolute value of a. distnbuted frorn nto r See Eqs. (2. . arrivd times in the two polarization States. wavelength. matrix transpose of a. (2. See Eq. convolution of and +. central angular fiequency. . Hermitian transpose of *.22). (3..(n).(n)to c.8). (3. differential index of fraction. See Eq. initial phases in the horizontal channel. (6.atîenuation coefficient. (3. variance of n. See Eq. See Eq. See Eq. (3.(n). DGD.19). gradient of J. See Eq.18.4)..8).1415926 . Ludolphian number.2) and Fig. See Eqs.16). gradient of JJn) to c. (5. See Eq.17). indicates rate and direction of rotation. See Eq.7. See Eq. (3. (3. stepsize.3. an adaptation constant. (3. independent unifonly distributed random variables. average DGD in each segment of a fiber. phase of the optical field. (4. variance of n.23).3..15). 3.14).18). nns value of the differential group delay d r. polarizationindependentphase.10). See Eq. See Eq. variance of the channel Gaussian noise. (3. (3. See Eq. bitefngence.
LIST OF ABBREVIATION AND ACRONYMS BER CPI DFP DGD DSP EDFA FIR IF IMDD ISI LMS LTE MSE OTDR PAM PDF PbID PN PSPs QAM RLS RMS SNR Z F Bit Error Rate Cross Polarization Interference inverse Discrete Fourier Transformation Differential Group Delay Digital Signal Processing ErbiumDoped Fiber Amplifier Finite Impulse Response Intemediate Frequency Intensity Modulation with Direct Detection InterSymbol Interference Least Mean Square Linear Transversal Equalizer Mean Squared Error Optical Time Domain Reflectomew Pulse Amplitude Modulation Probability Density Function Polarkation Mode Dispersion Pseudonoise Principal States of Polarization Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Recursive Least Squares Root Mean Square Signal Noise Ratio Zero Forcing .
PMD is the main limitation that confines the optical fiber transmission systems fiom utilizing the bandwidth effectively. the current task of optical fiber communication system . intramode dispersion and PMD [2]. however. Therefore. In optical systems. Usually.1 Introduction to the Research Optical fiber communication systems have attracted more attention in the recent years.55 Pm. intermode dispersion is absent. In the systems used today. An optical fiber communication system uses a very high carrier frequency. but it makes the dispersion worse since the dispersion effects accumulate over the muitiple amplifier stages. An EDFA (ErbiumDoped Fiber Amplifier) can regenerate weak signals. which yields a far greater potential bandwidth than a cable system. coaxial cables have a bandwidth up to approximately 500 MHz [l]. the fiber dispersion includes intermode dispersion. this potential bandwidth cannot be fully utilized. The m s significant ment ot of an optical fiber is its enormous bandwidth. This enormous bandwidth provides the potential to transmit signals at a very high speed. At present. A significant reason is the fiber dispersion. because of the outstanding advantage of optical fiben. intramode dispersion is not a significant problem. this carrier frequency is usually expressed as a wavelength. around 200 T M [2].Chapter 1 Introduction 1. In a single mode fiber. 1.
Such strategies indude reduction of ISI (InterSymbol Interference) by electronic equalization in the receiver [40. an electrical equalizer operating at 10 GHz may be realized [j11. Winters proposed a strategy for PMD compensation using optical equalization [42]. This led to the low and stable values of PMD in the new generation of singlemode fibea being manufactured [62]. Early strategies to reduce PMD were focused on reducing the intrinsic PMD of the fiber by altering the manufacturing process [60. There are many techniques developed for PMD compensation in both the optical domain and the electrical domain [2]. The advantage of optical techniques is that they can be bit rate independent. .41. A hi& speed electncal equaiizer becornes an attractive solution for PMD mitigation due to its compact and cost effective implementation.59]. With the development of high speed DSP (Digital Signal Processing) and Si/SiGe epitaxial transistors (64. the complexity and difficulty will increase dramatically as the bit rate increases. He used a polarkation controller to adjust the polarization into a fiber to one of the PSPs (Principal States of Polarization) of the fiber. while for electrical techniques.611. The receiver detects only one of the PSPs to eliminate firstorder PMD.431.design is to solve the fiber dispersion problem. A method to track the changing PSPs using a gradient search algorithm was also presented in his paper. and optical equalization using an automatic polarization controller at the receiver or transmitter [42.651. More recent efforts have been examining ways in which lightwave e systems cm b designed to better accommodate othenvise unacceptable levels of PMD and thus make full use of the existing embedded fiber base. especially PMD.
more system capacity and higher bit rate. it aiso causes CPI between the two signals in the two polarization channels. Actually. the frequency responses and baseband impulse responses are obtained.52] and the waveplate model [42. This strategy has a clear advantage. Gaussian noise signals are also added to represent the thermal noise in the channe1 and the fiont end of the receiver.59]. However. This thesis proposes the combination of channel equalizers and CPI cancellers which are applied to compensate the PMD and CPI in an optical fiber communication system. the intent of this thesis is to constnict a simulation model of an optical fiber communication system. The complex baseband impulse responses are the backbone to construct the simulation of the optical fiber channel. CPI is the result of PMD due to the power coupling. The simulation of PMD in an optical fiber channel is an important part of this thesis. 1.2 Thesis Contributions This thesis proposes a novei optical fiber transmission system where two 4QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) signals are transmitted separately over vertical and horizontal polarization channels. PMD and CPI c m be compensated using electrical adaptive filters. By applying the theory of PSPs [45.57.Based on previous research. including simulaiing the optical fiber channel with PMD as well as the electrical channel equalizen and CPI cancellers to compensate PMD. It shows the potential application of electrical adaptive equalizen and CPI cancellers in an optical fiber communication system and demonstrates a bright funue for .
Finally. the bit error rate reveals the relation between PMD and the received SNR (Signal Noise Ratio). Signal format.28] are compared to show the contribution of the echo cancellers. Also.ihis strategy.3 Thesis Outline The outline of the thesis is as follows: Chapter 2: The system simulation model is consmicted. To eliminate this echo. and helps us determine the requirement for PMD and the noise tolerance. 1. It shows the PMD. The system performance such as the eye pattern and bit error rate are presented. The power penalties when there are echo cancellers and no echo cancelles [19.CPI and the noise effects on the optical fiber communication system as well as and the contribution of adaptive channel equalizers and CPI cancellers in the receiver. As a funher study. The crosstalk in the coupler and the backscatter [1] in the fiber causes a retumed echo in this system. trammitter. The requirements of the baseband simulation model are proposed and explained. MATL. The contribution that the equalizen and CPI cancellers offer is demonstrated by the performance improvement they create. The structure of the channel equaiizea and cancellen is described and analyzed. echo cancellers in the receiver might be used..AB' and 4 . the simulation tools. bidirectional transmission through a single t'ber is also presented. The bit error rate is an important parameter to measure the performance of an optical fiber communication system. channel and receiver structures are defined.
the method to determine the adaptive tap weights of the equalizer and CPI canceller using the normalized LMS (Least Mean Square) algorithm is derived.are introduced.SIMULINKD. The discussion of the system performance is presented. a waveplate mode1 is presented. Based on the theory of PSPs. Chapter 6: Bidirectional transmission in a single fiber is proposed. Chapter 5: The eye patterns of the received signals are s h o w in this chapter. nie method of simulation using MATLAB~ sIMULMK' is also shown in and this chapter. The coupler crosstalk and Rayleigh backscatter as well as their effect on the echo are introduced. Chapter 4: At first. the power penalty is calculated. The system bit error rate curve is dso shown. and . The computer simulation of PMD is achieved by using the complex baseband impulse responses. The performance of the adaptive equalize~ and cancellen is also analyzed. Then. The adaptive channel equalizers and CPI cancellen are constnicted based on these results. which includes hdamental equalizer theory and the type of adaptive equalizers. which is used to simulate the frequency responses and complex baseband impulse responses. Then. the adaptive channel equalizer technique is introduced. Chapter 3 PMD concepts and the PSPs are discussed first.
the implementation with or without an echo cancellers is discussed.
Chapter 7 :
The conclusion of this research and the future work are presented.
Chapter 2 System Simulation Model
2.1 System Model
In this thesis, Cstate QAM signais are launched onto a fiber. The benefit of this
modulation scheme is good spectral efficiency. A dually polarized digital optical fiber transmission system with two independent QAM input signals is constructed [2 126]. One QAM signal is transmitted over a horizontal channel and the other is transmitted over a vertical chamel. This system is shown in Fig. (2.1).
The input signals A,(n) and A,,(n)are 4 level PAM (Pulse Amplitude
Modulation) signals. They are uniformly distributed random integer signals ranging from
1 to 4. These P A ! signals are then converted to QAM signals x,.(n) and x,(n). by
mapping,
where x,,(n), xh(n) are QAM signal vecton in the vertical and horizontal channels.
x,,(n) is the inphase signal in the vertical polarization channel,
x,(n) is the quadrature signal in the vertical polarization channel,
.r,(n) is the inphase signal in the horizontal polarization channel, and
x,,(n) is the quadurate signal in the horizontal polarization channel.
x1Jn), x,(n), x,,(n)and x,,(n) are the values of 1 +j, 1+j, I j and I j. And j is the


imaginary number, satisfying' = 1. j

Figure 2.1 Passband System Model
The signals after transmitter filter, g(r), are s,,,(t). s&), sJr) and s&),
where sI&) is the inphase signal after transmitter filter in the vertical channel,
sJt)
is the quadrature signai afier transmitter filter in the vertical channel,
. g(t) is the transmitter filter.(t) is the passband horizontal to horizontal impulse response.(t) is the inphase signal afier transmitter filter in the horizontal channel.. where hm&) is the passband vertical to vertical impulse response.(r) uith four passband impulse responses.. sh(t)is the modulated signal after the modulator in the horizontal chamel. h. The above signals are then passed to modulators..(r) is the passband vertical to horizontal impulse response..(t)and do* where sJt) is the modulated signal afier the modulator in the vertical channel. The optical fiber channel is characterized by a matrix h. which can be selected by the designer to satisfy the limitations on transmitted power and bandwidth. s. is the carrier frequency. T is the transmitter filter signaling rate or symbol period. and 1. and N is the number of transmitter filter taps. and hph(t)is the passband horizontal to vertical impulse response. The rnodulated signals are s. .s. h.(t) is the quadrature signal afier transmitter Blter in the horizontal channel..
denoting the type of impulse "bn. the output of the channel. s. respectively. denotes the input to the channel and the subscript denotes the output of the channel.can be obtained [25]. "inphase baseband" or "quadrature baseband". (2.. 'cornplex baseband". s2 and s. and i fis the Gaussian noise signal vector with the components in both vertical and ) . uh(f)is the output of the horizontal channel. Having known the modulated signals and channel responses. s2s.. where Re[. 'passband". response. is one of =pn.5) are of the fom s. will be either "vn or "hn. "in or "qn.4).In Eq.] denotes the real part of m. uv(r)is the output of the verticai channel. u(t). denoting "horizontal" and "verticaln respectively. The second and the third subscripts. The subscripts of h(t) in Eq.  where denotes convolution. (2. The first subscnpt. the passband channel impulse responses are related to the baseband channel impulse responses by. The subscript s.
At) is the receiver filter that is used to cut off the fiequency components near 2f..and A are the phase offsets between the trammitter and the receiver in the vertical and horizontal channels. The outputs of the receiver are y.(t) are zero mean uncorrelated with variances ofof. and preserve the desired component near zero.(t) and vh(t).(n) for the vertical and horizontal channels can be obtained . The noise signais vv(t)and v. where y.(t)is the demodulated inphase signal in the vertical channel.. In the receiver. #.(!) is the demodulated quadrature signal in the horizontal channel. v. y&) is the demodulated inphase signal in the horizontal channel..horizontal channels. y.(t) and yh(t). and we have. y&) is the demodulated quadrature signal in the vertical channel. u(t) is first demodulated and then passed through receiver filters. The PAM signals &(no and Z.
In this system. Figure 2 2 Impulse Response of RC Filter .2) [Il]. the RC filter is divided into two parts. The impulse response of RC filter is s h o m in Fig. O 5 r s 1. g(t) = /(O where r is the rolloff factor. In digital transmission.(t) and yh(t). ' ï o restrict the spectnim of the source signal. signals are ohen represented by ideal steps. (2. Each part is the square root of the magnitude response of the RC filter in the frequency domain. &(t) a d Zh(t)are similar in structure to A. an RC (Raised Cosine) filter is commonly used [Il]. nie impulse response of g(t) and f(t) is [Il].by demapping the received QAM signals y. and they have infinite bandwidth. one is the transmitter filter g(t) and the other is the receiver filterf(t).(!) and Ah([).
Since the optical carrier fiequency is usually very high. where Sb&) is called the complex baseband waveform. uses the complex envelope of a passband signal. ( t ) = JS[S.2 Baseband Simulation and Coherent Demodulation The previous section described the passband model where the carrier frequency f. According to Nyquist's baseband sarnpling theorem. .(t) and the quadrature signal S .. it requires that a simulation sampling frequencyf. TOalleviate this problem. around 200 THz.r) . ~ .. The equation for modulating the inphase signal s. ( I by ) the carrier frequency is [j.rj))] . As an example. Baseband simulation. The high frequency componentf. was introduced in the model. (2..s ( r ) sin(2. S . baseband simulation techniques are used. also known as the lowpass equivalent method.disappeared in this expression. consider the vertical channel in Fig. must be at least twice the maximum fiequency being modeled. The baseband simulation requires the simulation sampling rate to be .2. which is equivalent to. Baseband simulation models the complex baseband wave form &(t) only. . 1 ( t ) cos(2e. 11. message signal. Let B be the bandwidth of the ..1).modeling passband communication systems involves high computational loads.
<<A. Similar to y. + ( 2.larger than 2B. is.(t). Suppose.. . and is ubP(t)is the received baseband quadrature signal in the vertical channel. Coherent demodulation requires the knowledge of the frequency and phase to recover the received message signal. y. the received signal in horizontal chamel. or B .([). the output of a baseband modulator and the input to a baseband demodulator are cornplex signals.(t). the signal bandwidth is always assumed to be much smaller than the carrier fiequency.(t) jubpv(t))e'A.. coherent and noncoherent demodulation [Il]. In the baseband simulation.. Note.17 ) where ub.(t) the received baseband inphase signal in the vertical channel. = (ubn.. The coherently demoduiated signal in the vertical channel is. y.. Noncoherent demodulation permits the recovery of the message signal without knowing the fiequency and phase. Demodulation can be divided into RVO methods.
a receiver and a chamel?they are shown in Fig.where ubth(t) the received baseband inphase signal in the horizontal channel.3). (2.1) can be uansfonned to a baseband model. I Figure 2.3 Baseband System Mode1 Because of the benefit of baseband simulation. (2. and is u4. A baseband model is constnicted which includes a trammitter. the complex signals can be expressed as the mauix forms.3 Baseband System Modei . s 2. the passband model which is shown in Fig.(t) i the received baseband quadrature signal in the horizontal channel. In the baseband model.
(t) is die baseband impulse response mauix. (2. hdt) is the baseband impulse response mauix. in the trammitter. h. from the vertical to the vertical channel. ..... the baseband impulse responses are expressed in a matrîx fom. and s&) is the baseband signal vector in the horizontal channel. h..2..4.Thus. the baseband modulated signals s.(t) is the baseband signal vector in the vertical channel.5). fiom the horizontal to the vertical channel. fiom the vertical to the horizontal channel .(r) are. where h(t) is the overall baseband cornplex impulse response matrix. where s. Corresponding to the passband channel impulse responses in Eqs..(r) is the baseband impulse response matrix..(t) and s.
.. cos#.2.h. there is a phase rotation between u) & yh(t) which can be expressed as a matriu. we have. the baseband system rnodel is constnicted as that s h o w in Fig. In the receiver.([). (2.17.. ][ ] tibfv( t ) zlw(t) and Thus. Y&) sin$. .(r) and Therefore.3) which is used as a foundation of the cvhole simulation system..(r) is the baseband impulse response matrix.sin 4. and y.. Y m=[(0]=[ cos$. the received baseband signai vectors uh(t) and uhh(t)are. in the baseband model.. (2.18). u. From Eqs. fiom the horizontal to the horizontal channel..
simulating. sIMuLMK' is a powerful tool for realtime simulation.161. analysis. modeled in continuous time. and Fourier transforms [ 121. SIMULINK% a s o h a r e package in MATLAB' for modeling. compler and matrk arithmetic. It supports linear and nonlinear systerns. and simulation in the communications area [I Il. The communications Toolbox and DSP BIockset are the most usehl tools for simulation of telecommunication systems. parametric modeling. or a hybrid of the two. This toolbox supports a wide range of signal processing operations. sarnpled time. from waveform generation to filter design and irnplernentation. The DSP Blockset is a collection of block libraries which have been designed specifically for DSP applications. and include operations such as classical. multirate. and analyzing dynamical systems [IO]. . and adaptive filtering. convolution. It integrates computation. system design. visualization. tmnscendental and statiaical operations. development. and programrning in an easytouse environment where problems and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical notation. MATLAB' is a highperformance language for technical computing [13]. The Signal Processing Toolbox is a collection of tools built on MATLAB" [14].23 System Development Tools: MATLABDand SIMULINKB . and spectral analysis [15. The Communications Toolbox is a collection of computation functions and simulation blocks for research.
t 9 . Aneflis the differential index of fiaction' n. where A p is birefnngence.1 Birefringence and PMD In singlemode fibers there are two different polarization modes. is the propagation constant of the slow mode. n.1 What is PMD? 3. 3x l O' m/s. Each polarization mode has its own propagation constant PT 4. (3.1).which are shown in Fig.1. is the effective index of rehction of the fast mode.Chapter 3 Polarization Mode Dispersion 3. . is the propagation constant of the fast mode. P. The difference in propagation constants is called birefnngence [3]. the fast mode and the slow mode. due to birefnngence which is caused by intemal or external stresses or by nonperfect circularity of the fiber core. Usually the state of and poiarization of an arbiirary optical field can be represented by the vector sum of the field components aligned with the two polarkation modes. p. is the effective index of refiaction of the slow mode. c is the speed of light.
L is the fiber length. where d(m)denotes the differential of 0 . it becomes broader at the fiber output since the two components disperse along the fiber because of the DGD.1). This phenornenon is called . Thus the difference in the group delays of the fast and slow modes is.1 PMD and DCD 1701 Because of the existence of birefringence. / 1 denotes the absolute value of The birefnngence. and 0. (3. because they cause pulse broadening.O is the angular frequency. and 1 I DGD differentid p u p delay Figure 3. AB is related to the different group velocity v . The different group velocities of the modes limit the bandwidth of the optical fiber communication system. where d r is also called the differential group delay (DGD). see Fig. if the input pulse excites both polarization cornponents.
. the fiber shows a statistical variation in the polarization due to both PMD and mode coupling. And the delay between the two components is called the DGD. .) . 1.is within l/e2 of the power in the starting mode. it can be considered to be a shortlength fiber.1. longlength fiber. (3. The mode coupling is a random process. there is a polarization mode coupling due to power of one polarization mode leaking into the other mode.DGD is proportional to the fiber length. the polarization effects are deterministic and PMD grows linearly with the fiber length. In a shortlength fiber. In longdistance optical fiber transmission systems. However.o.2). this phenornenon occurs only in short fiber. 3. Pu where P. A coupling length.2 Mode coupüag in long fiber In Eq. Aiso. When a fiber length is much larger than [ we can regard it as a . In a longlength fiber. [. Ph((. L.c be used to distinguish between a long fiber and a shon m fiber.i is the total power in the fiber. When a fiber length is less than l. is defined to be the length at which the average power in the orthogonal polarization mode. for a specific Anef. but the average power will grow with the distance. and (a) stands for the ensemble average of e.Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD). the DGD becomes proportional to the square root of the fiber length [57].. The coupling length.
Ë . the linear medium can be described by a complex transfer matrix T(o)[67]. denotes complex conjugate of Suppose the input optical field vector is E ( ) and the output opticai field is u@. Edo). and the optical field Eu(@)and E. where a.3. in 1986 to describe PMD [SZ]. Under the assumptions of this model. and = 0. (dl21. It revealed that 'in any linear optical transmission medium that has no polarizationdependent loss there exist orthogonal input states of polarization for which the corresponding output states of polarization are orthogonal and show no dependence on wavelength to first order*.2 Principal States of Polarization Poole proposed a well known model. The relationship between these optical fields is.(0) and u. is the polarizationindependentphase.7 ) . Edo)= T(o) EX4. L) 11. ( 36 ) E ( O )= E. and they satisfy the relation. ( 3. .(o) can be expressed in the form [2]. "Principal States of Polarization". (o)eJPU (O). is the fiber loss.(o) are complex quantities. Such states are called principal states of polarization (PSPs). 1% (dl2 0' + [ri. HO.
In either of these polarization states there is no pulse shape distonion. Because of the existence of PSPs. any input signal can be expressed as the sum of two states. Eu@)are the amplitudes of the timevarying input PSPs i the time domain. . a i s the phase of the input PSPs in fiequency domain.(t) is the output PSPs in the tirne domain. and . E.6) is a frequency model used to describe the PSPs. The Eq. This means that the only distortion in the pulse is the phase distortion and it will not change the shape of the pulse. p.care complex coefficients.. but the two states have different time delays. where E. The important contribution of this model is that it points out the property of polarization invariance with frequency for the fint order. (O) where Eu(#) is the amplitude of the input PSPs in frequency domain.Eb = Ea(#)elR Ëh(m).is the phase of the output PSPs in frequency domain. Thus we also describe the model in the time domain as [54]. (3. that an optical pulse aligned with a principal state at the input of a fiber will emerge at the output with its spectral components al1 having the same state of polarkation [52]. is Eh( O )is the complex unit vector specifying the output PSPs. Ë (o) the complex unit vector specifj6ng the input PSPs. n c .(o) is the amplitude of the output PSPs in frequency domain. which are the fraction of the power of the input .
r . the principal states correspond to the polarization modes of the  fiber. where S is the threecomponent unit Stokes vector. The diffetence of the arriva1 times is DGD. q are the &val times in the two polarization states. and .signal into each of the PSPs. and x + denotes the multiplication of and + . . 11is equal to the differential group delay time experienced by spectrally narrow pulses having polarïzation aligned at the input with two orthogonal PSPs [ S I .9) describes the fiatorder effect of PMD in time dornain [45]. In frequency domain. that the rate of rotation. 0indicates the rate and direction of rotation. Eq. z.55]. Over a narrow frequency range. (3. the polarization mode dispersion is manifested as a frequency dependent state of polarization at the output of a fiber [54. which shows two different PSPs cause the pulse broadening at the output of a fiber. it takes the fonn of a rotation of the polarization on the Poincaré sphere. Ë . which is shown to induce a dual splitting of the initial pulse.are unit vectors sjxcifying the two output PSPs. The relationship between the fiequency domain and the time domain behaviors is 0. A r = r. these states are deterrnined by the cumulative effects of the birefringence over the entire span [2]. In short fiben.Ë. representing the states of polarization of the output on the Poincaré sphere. In the long fiber spans. and is usually referred to as dispersion vector.
Therefore. first we should pnerate three independent Gaussian random variables. with zero mean and identical variance [56].Using the theory of PSPs. Ar. p(Ar). to generate a Mawellian distributed variable. The PDF (Probability Density Function) of DGD.2 PDF of Ar 25 . 10 otherwise. Figure 3. has k e n proven to be a Mavwellian distribution [58]. where 4. is the mis value of the DGD. and Q are dispersion vectoa which have independent Gaussian distributions .. the statistical properties of DGD were studied. where a is the average differential group delay time. then take the square root of sum of three squared Gaussian random variables.
and K is the number of fiber segments. Thus. iCl. then the phase shifi of a fiber can be described by a Jones matrix. K. and the output field is an output reference frarne which consists of two orthogonal output PSPs. the average DGD in each segment. and phase retarder 4 which is s h o w in Fig (3.3 Waveplate Mode1 The waveplate mode1 is a practical and effective approach to measure and simulate the firstorder PMD in a long single mode fiber and was discussed in papers [57. ( r ) is.59]. delay. 26 . a fiber which is polarization loss independent.Fig. Thus each segment of a single mode fiber cm be simulated as a combination of a DGD generator iCh(o).9.a phase rotator R. we should add a phase rotator and phase retarder. where r. and the number of segments. Considering the existence of mode coupling which causes random rotations. 3.2) shows a probability distribution of the random Maxwellian distributed DGDs in every segment of a fiber whose average DGD through the whole fiber is 100 ps. Thus if we suppose the input field is an input reference frarne which consists of two orthogonal input PSPs. According to the theocy of PSPs. (3.is 100. excited by one of its PSPs defined at the optical angular frequency o behaves as a simple . is the differential time delay of one segment.(o) which we cal1 the "DGDgenerator".
.where N. rm 1 Figure 3.is the concatenation of ail the segments s h o w in Fig. (3. distributed f o .3). and pkare independent unifomly distributed random variables.(o) is the transfer matrix of the segment k in a single mode fiber.3 Waveplate Mode1 nie overall transfer matrix. and 0. where K m ) is determineci by the polarizationindependentphase shift and the fiber loss. H(w).75 to IC.
the DGD is 100 ps. the passband frequency responses should be shified to baseband. JO is 1. .~1. h. and Fig. H(o). (3.5 GHz.55 Pm.)]. where h.(t) is the complex baseband impulse response.6) shows the magnitudes of impulse responses. hb. we used 128 frequency points in the frequency domain. The waveplate model provides the Frequency transfer response H ( o ) with central frequency. O r objective is to get the baseband impulse responses of the optical fiber channel u with PMD.. Thus a passband Frequency is in the range from /. (3.j 7 2 t0f. DFT' denotes inverse discrete Fourier transformation. (3. is 128xB. In this simulation. to balance the computing speed and the accuracy./2.3. and q is the central angular frequency. . f. Then the baseband impulse responses cm be obtained from. h ~ t=)DFTI[H(~a. and Fig..4 Cornputer Simulation of PMD Based on the waveplate model. the bit rate.where the central wavelength.1) shows the magnitudes of the frequency responses.7) shows phases of impulse responses. which means the sampling frequency. B. a computer simulation is used to get both frequency responses and impulse responses. hbbv(t).5) shows the phases of these frequency responses./.Fig. is 2. and K is 100 segments.(t). Fig. = ciAc.where B is the signal bit rate. Thus we can get four complex baseband impulse responses.(t) and hbM(t). In the digitai simulation performed in this thesis. .. To achieve this objective. (3.
5 Phases of Frequency Responses .Frequency Response: Hw Frequency Response: Hvh 1 i 14 14 Frequency Response: ~hv Frequency Response: ~ilh# Figure 3. t 14 14 Frequency Response: f v i h Frequency Response: ~ilttH) Figure 3.4 Magnitudes of Frequency Responses Frequency Response: Hw 4 Frequency Response: Hvh 4.
2 3 .1 0.25 I Impulse Response: H ~o"O J lm pulse Response: ~ k O" h 0.Impulse Response: Hw Impulse Response: H\rti 0.25 a O .2 u aJ 0.05 O 3 .15 c 0.7 Phases of Impulse Responses .05 O 2 2 2 O 2 Figure 3..0.0.6 Magnitudes of Impulse Responses lmpulse Response: Hw Impulse Response: Hvh 4 n fO Impulse Rerponss: HRJ~'O Impulse Response: nhhl0 Figure 3.1 5 0.25 0.15 c O I O Rf 0.
9). (3. as in responses is realized by calling the MATLAB~ y(t 1= fi[te&(t)? x ( t ) ) .9). (3.3 pm)of a 10 ps (Intensity Modulation emulator in a IMDD with Direct Detection) transmission system [68]. . C 20 O 20 Relative delay bs] Figure 3.3). Convolution of the input signals in Fig. and Ho. V. (2. (3. wavelength. and the implementation of these impulse responses is shown in Fig. and value of PMD (1 O ps or 100 ps).8 Interferometrie Measurement of the IOps PMD Emulator (68) 3. In Fig.Fig. It is just the implementation of the fiber model in Fig. channels. (3. which 3 1 .10).8) shows the interferometric measurement of PMD (1= 1..5 Channel Simulation using MATLAB' and SIMULINKC Based on the waveplate model and the baseband impulse responses. Although it is a different type of transmission system. and represent the inputs to the vertical and horizontal represent the outputs of the vertical and horizontal channels..fdter(). (3. where y(() is the output of fiber chamel? h.(t) is the real or imaginary part of baseband channel impulse response. A complex impulse response is comprised of four real impulse responses. H.10) with these real impulse function. the optical fiber channel simulation is constructed in Fig. there is a qualitative agreement between the measurement and the simulation. The impulse responses are complex.. and V .
a SIMULMK~ block. is used to cal1 a MATLAB' function. The purpose of the "Buffernand 'Unbuffer" block is to convert scalars and vectors.h vv(t) Imputsa Response hvh(t) . Impulse Raseonse hhh(t) vout Hout I Figure 3. In1 SplH Join Figure 3..IO). (. 8i 4 I 0*lR..9 Optical Fiber Channel Simulation In Fig. SFunction. I L .10 Simulation of Baseband Impulse Responses .
causing bit erron at the receiver. If the impulse response of equalizer is c(t). In an optical fiber. Since the fading channel is usually random and time varying. Equalization is a technique to overcome ISI. equalizers must track the time varying charactenstics of the fading channel.W + v u ).1 Fundamentals of Equalization The transmission of digital data through a linear communication c h a ~ eusuaily i suffers deterioration due to two major limits. 1st is caused by multipath in a bandlimited time dispersion channel which distons the tmsmitted signai. where v(t) is the baseband Gaussian noise signal.1 Adaptive Channel Equalization Technique 4. the factors that can cause ISI are intermode dispersion. (4.1) shows a communication system with an adaptive equalizer c(t) [ ] ~ ( t ) is the data input. j. andf. chromatic dispersion. channel and matched filter. y ( [ )= w*j. then the output of the equalizer is . and PMD. Fig. and this kind of equalizer is called adaptive equalizer which provides precise control over the time response of the channel. The signal received by the equalizer is. K I and additive thermal noise.(t) is the overall complex baseband impulse response of the transmitter.Chapter 4 Adaptive Channel Equalizers and CPI Cancellers 4.1.
then to force y.3) is used to get In frequency domain. channel.2 ) where g. .3 ) The complex impulse response of equalizer c(t) can be expressed as a transversal FIR filter with coefficients c.~q(09 Y$) = y(O* d t ) = x(t)* ( 1 )* c(t ) + v(t )* c(t ) = x w * g.. (0+ v(O* 4 0 .5) can be expressed as.(t) equal to x(r).(O* ~ ( 0 . Ideally. the desued output of equalizer. matched filter . (4.  H) l Mstcbed yEqualizer *) :( ' x.(t). ( 4.(t) is the combined impulse response of the transmitter. g. Eq.O) = f.. (4. ( 4. should be equal to the original input x(t). If v(t) is equal to zero..1 Equalizatioa and equalizer. y. Eq.W 1 40 Channel Mt) film  A + d0 Decision circuit  2 >m fd(') x2(t) I Figure 4. where N is the number of filter taps.
a sequence of PN (pseudonoise) signals are sent fiom transmitter as test signals. 1. and CU) is the Fourier transfomi of c(t). The PN signal is called a training sequence.V) is the Fourier transform o f ' (t). An adaptive equalizer needs the knowledge of the desired input so as to compare it with the output of the equalizer to get the error signal which is used in the adaptive algorithm. In Fig.CT)which is the fiequency response of the combination of fiber channel. In the training perïod. The first method is called training. In the receiver. the equalizer filter CV)actually is an inverse filter of F. (4. There are two methods which cm generate a "desired" signal as that in the transmitter [ ] 7. (4. it is difficult to get the original data input to the transmitter in the receiver. transmitter and matched filter.F. Mer the üaining period.6) shows that when the baseband noise v ( t ) is ignored.2 Adoptive Equalizatioa The charactenstic of the time varying opticd fiber channel requires the use of an adaptive equalizer. 41. the training sequence will be resent perîodically to allow the adaptive equalizer to adapt to the tirnevarying channel. before data transmission. In this method. The result we get in Eq. Sometimes. it means the receiver is using the 35 . when the switch is switched to "1".(f)C(f)= 19 where F. the filter coefficients are fixed. the adaptive equalizer c m adjust its filter coefficients and reaches a steady state where the smallest enor is achieved. and the time to transmit the training sequence is called the training period. However. this PN signal is prestored and it is the sarne as that in the transrnitter.1). because of the different locations of trammitter and receiver.
4.training sequence. afier the training period.and x. the error and ISI are very srnail. 1). the decisions made by the receiver are correct enough to be used as a replica of the desired signal. the equalizer is adapted using a training sequence.2) [ ] j. In the training method. Zcm Forcing LMS Gradient RLS LMS RLS GriuiicarW LMS RLS RLS Algorithm Figure i 2 .13 Adaptive Equalization Categorization and Algorithm The general categorization of adaptive equalization techniques according to the types. In Fig. ïhe second method is called decisiondirected.(t) is used to estimate the error e(t). . 2. the equalizer will be adapted using the decisiondirected method at the receiver. (4. Afier the training period. (4.which will be used to update the tap weights. x (t). Usually this method is used along with the training method. structures and algorithms is s h o w in Fig. the switch is then switched to "2"from " 1". When the training penod is over. This means that the adaptive equalizer is able to improve the tap weight settings by virtue of the correlation procedure built into its feedback control loop.~nte~orizntioa~ d k t i v E q u i b t i o n [SI of c 3 6 . Therefore.
where n is time index.1).3). a discrete L E (Linear Transversal Equalizer) structure is used which is s h o w in Fig.3). ( n ) are the cornplex coefficients. the equalizer is nonlinear. (4. In this thesis. (4. z(t). and y(n) is. A discrete LTE is made up of K tapped delay lines which have a symbol period TV.Equalizers can be divided into two general categories. the number of taps is K. if z(t) is fed back in order to control the equalizer. there is no feedback fiom the output of receiver. the output of the LTE. In Fig. On the other hand. I Figure 4 3 Linear LMS Transversal Equalizer . thus it is a linear equalizer. and c. In Fig. u(n) is the baseband input signal. (4. linear and nonlinear equalizers.
e(n) is the estimated error. The complex normalized LMS algorithm is descnbed mathematically as [7. In this thesis. p is the adaptation constant. u(n) is the K dimensional input signal vector at step n. ( 49 . d(n) is the "desiredwsignal. where an denotes Hermitian transpose of e.12].1) . and a is a small positive constant (e'9 used to overcome the potential numerical ins~ability the tap weight update.Classic adaptive equalizer algorithms include Z (Zero Forcing). LMS (Least F Mean Squares) and RLS (Recursive Least Squares). y(n) is the output of adaptive equalizer. four linear LMS transversal adaptive filters are used as cbannel equalizers and CPI cancellen. u(n) = [tr(n) cr(n.. ic(n  K+ [)Ir.. sometimes it is cailed stepsize. in . c(n) is the K dimensional vector of estimated of the equalizer tap weights at step n.
Fig. Because this is a baseband model.4. We can express the relationship between these signals in matrix form. the IF (Intemediate Frequency) stage and the rnodulator/demodulator are not shown.(n). where cw(n)and cVl(n) the channel equalizers and we cal1 c d n ) and c. (4.(n) are are the CPI cancellers. This chapter contributes to realize CPI cancellation as well as ISI equalization. and the outputs of channels are u l n ) and u.2 Channel Equalhtion and CPI Cancellation The existence of PMD in an optical fiber introduces CPI between the dually polarized signals and ISI.4 Channel Equalizers and CPI Cancellers The complex inputs to the vertical and horizontal polarization channels are xv(n) and x.4) shows the discrete baseband structure of the channel equdizers and CPI cancellen. . nius the channel is followed by channel equalizen and CPI cancellers whose outputs are yJn) and yh(n).(n). 1 Figure 4.
u(n) is the fiber channel output at step n.(n) and u. eT stands for the matrix transpose of *. c(n)is the matrix of adaptive channel eqdizers and CPI cancellers.(n) are the input signal vectors in vertical and horizontal channels to the equalizer. . u. u(n) is the input signal vector to the equalizer.where y(n) is the output signal vector.
(2. e(n).21). see Eq. is the difference between the desired response r(n) and output of the cancellers and equalizers. J ( n ) = ~(e(n)e'(n)) ~ ( l e ( n f ) = where E(.r(n) is the desired signal vector. The error.5 Vertical Channel Equalizor and CPI Caaceller . J(n). I Figure 4.) denotes mathematical expectation of 0. Next is defined the MSE (meansquared error). y(n). h(n) is the matrix of the complex baseband channel impulse responses.
To simpliQ the analysis.12. (4.(n)to c.. is.... as s h o w in Fig.(J..(n)to c.(n) and c.. The dient of J. consider only the vertical polarization channel equalizer c. ~ ( J .22). According to Eqs. and ) v. (4. (4. ( ~is) the gradient of J. where a(n) is the real part and b(n) is the imaginary part of tap weight c(n)..(n).(n) and the CPI canceller c.4.4.(n). is Substituting the JJn) of Eq. .(n)is [7]. Suppose the complex filter tap weight vector for channel equalizer c.20) [7]. (4.18.+..(n)with respect to c.Jn).19) in Eq..5). where v .(~)) the gradient of J.(n) fiom the horizontal to the vertical channel.
. the final result will be. (4. .Therefore.22).(n) = ~ [ ~ .. where P. ( 4.(n) and the desired response xV(n).(n) R.. To study the channel equalizer c. RJn) is the autocorrelation matnv of the input vector to the equalizer u..(n) is the crosscorrelation vcctor between the input vector to the equalizer u. giving...30 ) ..( n ) u % o ] .expand Eq.(n).
the updated value of the tapweight vectors for equaiizer cJn) and canceller c d n ) are..(n). Subnituting in V . an adaption constant which controls the size of the incremental correction applied to the tapweight vector [q.. and where p is called step size. ( cm According to the method of steepest descent. ( ~ ) ) and . ~ ( J .Q. Vvh ~ ~ ( n ) ) be expanded to get. l Similar to above...(n) is the crosscorrelation vector between the input vector to the equalizer uJn) in the vertical polarization channel and the input vector in the vertical polarization ~ h m n eu.
P. )) is realized in the LMS algorithm.39). however. respectively. .In Eqs.&O = uv(.43 ) where S.(n)u. ( n )2u. they are defined by. (4. s _ ( ~ ~ .)4'(n) The corresponding instantaneous estimate of the gradient vector i then. and ê. . ( n ) ) O .38. ( n ) = u.(n)x:(n)+ îu.. . the instantaneous estimates are used instead of the correlation matrix R(n) and crossconelation matrices P(n) and Q(n).( ~ ~ ( nmust be estimated from the available data. O ( ~ .(n)) and . Zuv(n)u:(n)e. . This idea . In the LMS algorithm.(n). In reality. w x : (4 .(n) is the estimated tapweight of CPI canceller cvh(n). ( ~ ~ ( n ) impossible is ) since it requires the correlation matrix R(n) and crosscorrelation matrixes P(n) and Q(n). ? k ( n ) = u. this method will not work because the exact measurement of the gradient vector V (~.. Therefore. and for channel equalizer cJn).(n)u~(n)ê. the adaptive tapweights for channel equalizer c.. = ) + ( 4..(n) is the estimated tapweight of channel equalizer cJn).(n) and CPI canceller cAn) are established. Q. and .4.
(n)[x:(n).&.Substituthg the estimated gradient vector +.(n)) in Eq. (4.(n) [xi ( n ) .^ a + u:(n)u.44 ) t. gives get the adaptive tapweight in the LMS algorith.u : ( n ) ~ . a is a small positive constant.u:(n)ê. k ( n + 1) = ê .41 4.Jn + 1 ) = ê.u*(n)c.ri(n). the LMS algorithm experiences a gradient noise amplification problem [7]. and similar to Eq.u (n)Qhhn ) .44) are.u : ( : (n)t.43). ( 4..( n ) ]. ( n ) ] . (4. The normalized algorithms of Eqs.50 ) where p is the step size.. (4. . the normalized algorithm is used to overcome this problem. 6.36).An)) in Eq.u ~ ( n ) ê .(n) .(n) + PU. . Therefore. ( n ) ] . O c p < 2 . . ( 4.47 ) When the input u(n) is large.(n)[. ( 4. ( n ) + pu. (4.(n + 1) = ê.43) for the V &.(n) + pu.(n).
.6). The input signals are sarnpled at the rate 1. the Nomalized LMS channel equalizers or CPI cancellen can be constnicted using SIMULMK~ shown in Fig.4. At the beginning of this simulation.6 LMS Adaptive Filter The overall adaptive equalization and cancellation system is s h o w in Fig. the second input is error e(n)and the output is y@). receiver filter and channel delay. Complex delays. (4.3 Simulation of Channel Equalizers and CPI Cancellers 4. (4. the tapweights are adjusted to minimize the enoa. = B which is 128 times lower than the channel sampling rate before they go into the equalizer. (4. The buffer is used to generate input signal vector u(n). the first input is u(n). the nvitches are set to the training method.7).are " used to synchronize the output of the equalizer and the desired input. Figure 4.484. In this model.6) shows the model of the nonnalized LMS filter. T w switches are used to select the training or decisiondirected rnethod.5 l). After the MSE reaches the steady state. as Fig.1 Simulation Structure of Channel Equalizers and CPI CanceUers Based on the Eqs. In every bit period. The factors that cause the delay include the mansrnitter filter. (4.3. 2 and ?. So the desired input h m the information generator has to be delayed by the same time.
(4. it is clear we have to tradeoff the training time versus the residuai error. the error is the smallest. when p is 0.4 and 0. Thus we choose p equal to 0. which is the best compromise.0. Also.6.6 respectively. When p is 0.2. (4.2 Performance of Channel Equalizers and CPI CancelIers From Eqs. Fig.4.7 Adaptive Channel Equalizers and CPI Cancellers 4. In the simulation system.484. ive choose 8 iaps for . I av I C Figure 4. 1). By comparing these three cases.switches are then set to decisiondirected method where output signals of the decision circuits are used as the desired input.3. the number of taps in the equalizer and canceller is the factor that affects the perfotmance and accuracy of the receiver. When p is 0.5 we can see that the value of stepsize p is very important. but the error is the largest. but it takes longer time to train.8) shows three leaning c w e s wïth erron (dB) on the ordinates.2. the equalizer can reach the steady state quickly.
. .. ...... ... . a ...... the filter takes less time to reach steady state and has smaller variance. I . .... a a J (dB) when p 0 . .. ... because when we use 8 taps... .. .. ... .. ... .....8 (a) J(dB) when ~ 0 . . t . .. 4 Figure J d (b) J (dB) when PO. ... ... ... ..... ..equalizers and cancelles rather than 16 taps...... .... ....... .. .. .... ...... ... .. Y  . . . .... ....... ... . .. .8 (c) wben Filter Leagth=l6 Figure 1.. ..... ..... ... . . . . .. . ....~.. .. .... .. .. ...... ...... The errors (dB) of the equalizer and canceller when number of filter number of taps is 8 and 16 are show in Figs.. II' : . 6 Figure 4. ..9b)... ..p......... .. R ' I '.. & ... .. ... . .9 (a) when Fi lter Lengthts Fi@ ire 4 9 (b) . . (4... ......: ...... ....... 2 Figure 4....: * .... .... ! 4 ... .. .... . ... ......... .9~4........ .... ...... .......
which is usually obtained by displaying the data pulse stream on an oscilloscope.8 in the transmitter is s h o w in Fig. which suffers fiom the PMD and noise. When the input SNR is 30 dB. In this eye pattern.3) is the eye pattern when input SNR is 15 dB. (5. the eye pattem in the receiver is obtained as s h o w in Fig (5. Fie. it is clear that the width of eye pattern d2 i Fig. Thus sampling should occur at this point where eye is open the widest. and the central vertical line indicates the decision point where one can get the lowest error and best BER. By companng these two figures. which indicates the latter traces deviate fiom the completely open eye pattern.1 Eye Pattern The eye pattem is a convenient way to see the distortion on a channel.Chapter 5 Sysiem Performance 5. A two level signal after an RC filter with filter rolloff factor of 0. Ive can roughly mesure the performance of the received signai in the receiver. If al1 of the lines in the traces go ihrough the desired pulse amplitude at the decision point.2).1). one symbol interval is displayed. such as the one in Fig (5. (5. (5.1 Fully Open Eye Pattern Through the eye pattem. Figure 5. then the eye is said to be fully open. The width of eye pattern d3 is .2) is smaller than n dl.1).
This is simple.much smaller than d2. usually lower than it requires a rather long tirne to get a satisfactory resdt by simulation. An alternative way to measure BER is by calculation. the bit error rate (BER) m u t The simplest way to measure BER is error counting. or counting the number of error bits in a penod. To analyze accurately the performance of a telecommunication system. Figure 5.2 Eye Pattern (SNR=30) Figure 5 3 Eye Pattern (SNR=15) 5. so the enor probability is larger.2 Bit Error Rate Evaluation The eye pattern is only a rough method to measure the enor. but it may not be accurate. . Consider the case in which the tmsmitted signal over the vertical or horizontal channel is s(t). because there is a smaller space to distinguish between the two levels. Also because the BER in a optical fiber communication system is very low.
(5. are the variances of n. Pb.pb)Z = c. then the symbol error probability in Eq.is where n. stands Suppose. b ( 1 .is. which is defined as. d. and + are the error signais with zero mean and the same variance. the received SNR. CPI and noise. and . y. To simpliQ the calculations. r(t).4) is. This distortion in the detected bit is due to ISI. The relationship between bit error rate. the distortion is treated as Gaussian noise. P. is. this assumption will produce an acceptable estimate of the BER Thus the symbol error probability for Clevel QAM signal is [8]. For high signaltonoise ratios. and P. The correspondhg received signal in receiver. where ~ and 0. respectively. where a*) for Qfunction. ..where E is the input signai power.
y.Thus. J. BER can be obtained by measuring the J . vertical quadrature signal. is from 4 to 32 dB.. Therefore. (5. Each t h e ... Thus. p is 0. 4) for every in vertical inphase signal.2.5 x I O4 sec for 100ps PMD and 10 104 sec for 500ps PMD.4. The training time is longer than 3 x 1O4 sec for 1Ops PMD. y. where.1. it is possible to measure the minimum received MSE J.5.  2 q is the variance of channel Gaussian noise. are phase and horizontal quadrature si& Iisted in Tables (5.. . The relationship between the teceived SNR.5. 100 ps and 500 ps.3). In this simulation system. The DGD is 10 ps. and minimum MSE. the channel and receiver thermal noises are treated as Gaussian noises. horizontal inare obtained. and stepsize. We measure the J.5 GHz.. The system SNR. y .. the J. is [8].1 1). and to get the BER according to Eq. four times (No. and . when the channel equalizen and CPI cancellers reach the steady state. 1 to No.. The experimental results of J. we have. The signal bit rate is 2. y. the input signal power is O dB. separately. = t . The number of the adaptive filter taps is 8.
0 .1 .9 13.94 12.3 13.9 13.1 2 3 4 1 .0 .7 13.0 1 13.3 23.4 13.6 17.16.1 J.8 12.3 14.0 13.3 10.10.8 1 1.1 12.8 1 7.0 1 1.13.8 .50 .9 12. 9.5 2 23.7 18.10.12. Jmtn Horizontal Inphase 13.6 .1 1 1.7 16.14.7 19.16.3 16.3 .17.7 9.5 1 7.6 I 13.78 10.5 16.10.9 21.4 .5 1 1.8 13.8 12.5 .1 Avg.5 12.6 1 27. (dB) when DGD is 10 p3 t 1 Vertical Inphase Vertical Quadurate 7.2  1 2 3 4 .5 2 17.9 24.1 .2 22.7 236 25.4 11.6 14.4 .17.5 12.0 14.1 2 3 .7 30.9 1 9.2 1 6.12.12.3 .4 16.6 13.50 Horizontal Quadurate 12.19.6 3 4 .55 .9 .1 .0 .14.17.45 7.7 Avg.10.8 .4 1 17.22 8.14.15.9 8.3 9.6 19.1 1 7.13.3 26.7 15.17.3 18.0 17.2 .0 21.2 .5 .84 12.0 .3 17.0 1 1.14.16.10.6 1 3.17.14.9 14.14.8 4 1 2 3 4 .18.2 15.12.9 1 1.8 .16.Table 5.94 12.3 13.4 .10.3 .9 .2 8.3 1 8.2 1 1. (dB) 10.76 10.7 36.1 .13.1 .2 1 1.5 .5 18.3 .0 18.7 24.12.
57 1 1.0 11.54 Horizontal Quadurate 9.58 10. ~m (dB) Vertical I nphase 1 Vertical Quadurate 8.22 5.2 .12.9 10.10.5 1 1.2 .2 8.(dB) (DGD = 100 ps) Avg.8 .9 1 Avg.2 9.20 1 1.5 12.34 7.41 7.2 16 I 1 .89 7.05 9.3 1 9.46 8.70 1 1.3 1 6.YS NO.23 9.5 .L .27 12.10.58 Horizontal Inphase 8.2 11.77 1 1.77 7.05 9.12.12.84 3 4 8.5 4 1 7.13 7.0 .6 .89 10.1 1 1.83 7.75 1 2 6.94 7.8 2 3 4 .5 1 10.13 7 .5 1 7.1 1.7 8.67 10.3 1 1.5 .27 8.5 13.66 8.4 3 1 7.10. 8.57 7.32 7. r Ji.10.12.7 14.8 .77 7.5 2 1 1.2 7.10. 1 9.42 8 .43 8.6 .10.10.2 IO.3 9.5 1 7.t 2.89 (dB) 4 1 9.10.47 5.0 12 1 .0 .6 10.4 8.
Table 5. (dB) when DGD is 500 ps .3 J .
.
With the increase of y.100 and 500 ps. (5. Figure 5. it decreases slowly.From the above tables and Eq..4 BER Plot . to make the BER smaller than 1c9. y. the plot of BER when DGD is 10 and 100 ps decrease steeply. larger than 21 dB when DGD is 100 ps. and larger than 27 dB when DGD is 500 ps.4). however. should be larger than 17 dB when DGD is 10 the ps. the BER plot is show in Fig. From the BER plot. system SNR.1 1). (5. This figure shows the BER when DGD is 10. when DGD is 500 ps.. Also the BER plot shows the trends of'BER for these three cases.
the bidirectional transmission system can improve the synern capacity. two fibers are required. what was discussed is an unidirectional data transmission system through a fiber. which consists a transmitter. a receiver and a coupler. there are some problems which need to be solved in the bidirectional transmission system. one for the f o m d transmission. However. and Save fiber resources. The most important limit is the echo ahich is 59 . Ordinarily. a bidirectional transmission system is presented. Reccivcr Coupler Coupler . to reaiize a duplex transmission using only one waveiength. the other for the backward transmission.1 Bidirectional Transmission System Clearly.1). Ttransceivcr  Figure 6. (6.Recriva Ttranscciver . a transceiver is used. In this stratea. a different strategy. This strategy is s h o w in Fig. In this thesis.1 Bidirectional Transmission System Until now.Chapter 6 Bidirectional Transmission System 6. .
The powen in these ports are P. the insertion loss of port 1 to port 4. 4 4+4' The insertion loss.. A very small part of the launched power is echoed to port 2.is the ratio of power input to power output. P. and cornes out of ports 3 and 4. p. P. It contributes . 6.... Crosstaik provides a mesure of the directional isolation. The crosstalk.. P?. I I Figure 6.1 Fiber Coupler Fig. P. The optical power is launched into port 1. For example. = lOlog. the excess loss. . P.2) is a basic structure of a fourport fiber coupler [l].caused by the use of a fiber coupler and the existence of Rayleigh backscatter in fiber.1.. and P. is.2 Fiber Coupler [II The loss parameters of this coupler are defined as follows. is the loss obtained for a particular port to port path. (6.is the ratio of the backscatter power received at the second input port to the input power.
the echo in the bidirectional transmission,
Sometimes, directivity, Pd,,is used instead of crosstalk,
The split ratio, P,, is the percentage division of the optical power between the output
Some typical specifications of \Vil 15 15 series, 153811558 nm bidirectional
couplers fiom JDS Uniphase are illustrated [69],
Table 6.1 WDlS15 series: l53BllSSBnm Bidirectional Couplers
Parameter
r
Specification
< 2.5 dB bidirectional system
Insertion loss Bidirectional directivity
< 3.2 dB unidirectional system < 4.0 dB univenal system
,
a
> 60 dB
6.1.2 Ray leigb Backscatter
Rayleigh scattering is a fundamental loss mechanisrn arising fkom local
microscopie fluctuations in density [3]. Density fluctuations lead to random fluctuations
of the refractive index. Light scattering in such a medium is known as Rayleigh scattering. The backscattered opticai power, P,(t), can be obtained from the relationship
[ i l 9
where
P,is the optical power launched into the fiber,
S is the fraction of captured optical power,
y, is the Rayleigh scattering coefficient,
Fr,is the input optical pulse width, and
y, is the attenuation coefficient.
The Rayleigh scatter loss, Pm, defined as, is
&(O) PnI= P
leflected Power
A
'
Backscatter
.
Reflection
Figure 63 A Possible Backscatter Plot
Rayleigh scatter cm be measured using OTDR (Optical Time Domain
Reflectometry). The reflected power measured by a OTDR is illustrated in Fig. (6.3). The slope in this figure represents the loss caused by Rayleigh backscatter, and pulses are caused by reflections. The typical value of Rayleigh scatter loss is 45 dB to 60 dB [Il.
6.2 Echo Cancellation
To eiiminate the echo due to coupler crosstaik and Rayleigh backscatter, an echo canceller can be used. In this application, the echo canceller is an adaptive electrical filter used behveen the transmitter and the receiver, which estimates the echo signal fiom the original signal, then subtracts the estimated echo signal form the received signal. The echo cancellation is illustrated in Fig. (6.4).
Transmitter
Laser
Echo canceller
v
+

.
b
. 

.

Coupler
Detector A

Y
<
Figure 6.4 Echo Cancellation The structure of the echo cancellea in the simulation syaem is shown in
Fig. (6.5). The echo cancellea are located afier the channel equalizers and CPI cancellea. The structure of the echo cancellea is very similar with that of the channel equalizers and CP[ cancellers, and they also use the normalized LMS adaptive algorithm. 63
A i g z g y? A e n  Figure 6.5 Structure of Echo Cancellers 6. 'AHCoupler_A .. which are the bidirectional . such as a BER being less than 10".. The power budgets of two bidùectional transmission schemes are discussed.e_ : Tra?s_mmite^   > :& P3_: /  ReceberA . .3 Power Budget Pi T&Site 4 Rayleigh scatter _ _ y # PO .Aps .   .6 Power Budget A power budget is needed to ensure power will reach the receiver in order to maintain reliable performance..    .& ' ...s . .CouplerB Receiver B P4  .  I Figure 6.
6. rr. . = 36 (average number of photons per bit). = 0. (6.6) shows the bidirectional transmission system without echo cancellers.=3 dB.= 50 dB. Coupler crosstalk:P. 6. Coupler insenion loss:P. Bit rate: B R = 1550 nrn? Po = O dBm..1 Power Budget of the System without Echo Cancellen Fig. The power budget of this system is discussed as follows. heterodyne synchronous detection) [l]: :Vp i..= 50 dBT Pm. Fiber los: q.63 x 1o . V Receiver sensitivity:P. = 6 dB. where h is Planck's constant. P.5 G H z Receiver sensitivity (ASK modulation. hr. = O dBm. B= 2.3.2 dB/km. P .J/= ~ f is optical frequency. Given. Wavelength: A TrammitterB power: Po TrammitterA power : P..transmission system without echo cancellers and the bidirectional transmission system with echo cancellers. Rayleigh scatter loss: P. P. System loss: LLI. and . (dBm) .
. From Fig.1 2 .P. 6. L = 70 km. = 47 dBm. should be larger sufficiently than the echo signal P.3. Therefore. only the received signal needs only to be larger than the receiver sensitivity. Thus.P .2xLdBm. = Poi PL... measured in km for these calculations. . . and the echoed signal due to coupler crosstalk and the Rayleigh scatter is. the received signal P. that means. Thus we have the mêuimum fiber length is. P 4 . the echo signal will be negligible compared with the received signal. is.2 Power Budget of the System witb Echo Ciacellers When the echo canceller is introduced in this bidirectional transmission systern. is. P. to make the BER smaller than 1U9when DGD is 100ps. P. To detect the signal without the effect of echo. the signal power after couple. n i e signal power received by receiverJ3..4).= P.Therefore. P. we can get. and much smaller than the receiver sensitivity. P.Fiber length: L. Pa = PR. . the S N R is assurned to be 2 1 dB.«Pm. (5.!+ P .. = .l = 3 dBm. . is.P5 221 dB.=90.0 . 2 ~ LdBm. P. P3 = P 2 qxLM. Pz= P. The signal power received by couplerB. P.
are desired signals which are used for training.and the maximum fiber length is Lz = 187 km. (6. where . 1 lb Lh r Figure 6. which include the echo signals.4 Simulation of Echo Canceller using SIMULINK~ The bidirectional transmission system is simulated using SIMULM'. and and . as s h o w in Fig. The received signals are UV U. E and Ehare transmitted signals which cause the echo. 6.7 Simulation of Echo Cancellers A 150 km bidirectional optical fiber transmission system is simulated. 4. d.. The discussion of power budget shows the improvement in transmission distance because of the echo canceller.7).
is 30 dB. stepsize. are investigated. (6.. The m number of the adaptive filter taps is 8. 70 km. Two schemes.5 GHz.8).PMD is 100 ps.9). B.9).8. which indicates that the fiber length can not exceed the maximum fiber length. without echo cancellers and with echo cancellen. and the system S y. Figure 6. is a it open eye that shows the contributions of echo cancellers. p is 0. is 2. The training time is larger than 5 104sec.6. the eye is almost closed.9 Eye Pattern with Echo Cancellers . In Fig. In Fig. because there are no echo cancellen. The signal bit rate.8 Eye Pattern without Echo Cancellers Figure 6. The eye pattern of these two schemes are shown in Figs. (6. (6.4.
The impulse responses showed the broadened pulse.1 Conclusions This thesis has presented the simulation of optical fiber communication systems. For the first time. the improvement in fiber length was 1 17 km when echo cancellen were . adaptive echo cancellers applied in a bidirectional optical fiber communication system. 100 ps and 500 ps. which agree with previous experimental results. this thesis presented. Moreover. for the fim tirne. channel equaiizers. and the BER plot in Fig. a PMD compensation technique using the combination of channel equalizen and CPI cancellers was presented. a baseband QAM signal transmission system in dually polarized fiber channels with PMD was simulated. with PMD compensation.5 for the first time. shown in Eqs. This baseband simulation system included the transmitter. For a transmission system with 100ps PMD. (4. The BER has been calculated when PMD is 10 ps.43. CPI cancellers and echo cancellers.8). in Fig.Chapter 7 Conclusions 7. The waveplate mode1 has been studied to obtain the frequency and impulse responses of the fiber channel with PMD. the fiber channel with PMD.484.s h o w in Figs. Through the study of the nomalized LMS algorithm applied to adaptive channel l). (3. the Gaussian noise simulator.7). (3. (5. to overcorne the coupler echo and Rayleigh backscatter.4) showed the contributions of this PMD compensation technique. the baseband coherent demodulator. equaiizers and CPI canceliers.
bit error rate. CPI cancellers and echo cancellen were used. and an integrated circuit design to adapt the tap weights of the adaptive filters. Only such a prototype would allow one to identify al1 of the cornplex issues associated with an irnplementation. a PMD emulator [68]. only firstorder PMD was considered. These experiments require optical transmission and reception equipment.2 Future Work In this thesis. 7. Throughout this thesis. experirnents to venfy the simulation results could be perfonned.used. These factors should be considered in future work. or fiber length. With the development of SuSiGe epitaxial transistors. To incorporate nonlinear effects. and other highspeed circuits. These filten would allow further improvements in bit rate. linear adaptive charnel equalizen. such as those caused by high trammitter laser power. . nonlinear filters should be used. neglecting chromatic dispersion and secondorder PMD.
References: John M. Theodore S. Macmillan Publishing Company. 1984. 10. Boston. pp.1997. [18] David Smalley. 1996.1 994. Digital Signal Processing using i\. McGraw Hill.1996.. Academic Press. Adaptive Filter Theory. 63. 1997. T E X A S INSTRUMENTS. 1991. [191 Echo Cancellation Sofnvare for the TMS320Cjlx.Proakis. Lee and David G. Greenstein. Salz. Digital Communication. No. N.MathWorks. 1997." A T& &T Bell Lab. 1997. 1995.it K. Simon Haykin. Senior. 3. McGraw Hill. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1999. 1992. 1999. pp. TL4Bu. Gibson. Prentice Hall. Agrawal." AT&T Bell Lab. 1985. [14] Signal Processing Toolbox For Use rvith MA TLAB" MathWorks. New York. Channel Equalizutionfor the IS54 Digital Cellular Sysfem With the T~ClS320Cjx. 1999. John G. Vol. David. New York. Principles of Digital and Analog Communicutions. Digiraf Signal Processing. 484492. Mitra. New Jersey. Ingle and John G. [2 11N. [16] Samuel D. Proakis. [20] Ellion D Hoole. Koch. . Select. San. 22152259. 2"d edition. PWS Publishing Company. TEXAS INSTRUMENTS. [22] J. . Edward A. Amitay and J.Eqzrulization Concepis: ri Tutorial. A CompterBmed Rpproach. Areas Cummrrn. "A New Class of Adaptive CrossPolarization Interference Cancellers for Digital Radio Systems.Dynumic System Simulation for ICIAT U B R .1994. 3" edition. Boston. "Anaiysis/Simulation study of CrossPolarization Cancellation in . TEXAS INSTRUMENTS. Fiberoptic CommunicationSystems. pp. Messerchmitt. 1988. 2nd edition. [24] L. Prentice Hall PTR. TEXAS INSTRUMENTS. Wiley. "Linear Equalization Theory in Digital Data Transmission Over Dually Polarized Fading Radio Channels. [23] Michel Borgne. SAC5. 64. [1 O SIiCIULINKR .VK" MathWorks. Designing an Echo Canceller Sysrem Using ~ h e TitlS32OCjO DSP. No. Prentice Hall. Jerry D. Signal Processing Algorithms in Prentice Hall.. 6. Priwiples and Practice. 1999. 1987. ] [I 1] Weizheng Wang.J. "Digital Transmission Over CrossCoupled Linear Channels. J. Kaminow and Thomas L. J. [17] Paulo Marques and Fernando Sousa. Stearns and Ruth A.. Tech. Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIL1. 1993. 2"*edition. [13] rCMTLAB" The Langrrage of Technical Comptrting . Digital Communication. SIL~IULINK' Communications Toolbox MathWorks. Salz. 11471159. Optical Fiber Communications. Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. J." IEEE J. 1998.UTLABR K 4 .MathWorks. Govind P. [15] Vinay K.. Ivan P. No. 1999. Rappaport. Tech. [12] DSP Blockser Fur Use ivifhSMULI. 1996.
Giltin. "CornputerAided Design of Digital Lightwave Systems.1985. Zygmunt Haas. Falconer. Data Transmission. Shigeyuki Unagami. No. NO. System at 100 Gbh. 1 1 101 1 18. and Alan H.64. D.J." IEEE Communications Magazine. Sam Shanmugan.. 2. vol." IEEE J. 19972021. 1999. No. 9.. T. J . 6. SAC2. "Experimental Equalization of Polarization Dispersion. Kavehrad and J. pp. pp. 0 [37] Aly F. Vol. pp. Winters and M.J. "Digitalized CrossPolarization Interference Canceller for Multilevel Digital Radio. [39] Dietrich Marcuse and Curtis R Menyuk. Kavehrad. 1981. 1990. T.. "Cornputer Simulation of Digital Lightwave Links. 1984. Areas Commun." IEEE Trans.64. H. Messerschmitt. Vol. Mario A. SAC5. 1978. 4.S. [32] David G. "Echo Cancellation and Applications." B. Commun.S.. "Equalization of Multimode Optical Fiber Systems. 1981. Keith Townsend. [25] M. 55. H. No. Vol. 13671387. [33] Kazuo Murano. "Electncal Signal Processing Techniques in Longhad... No. [28] T. L. "Jointly Adaptive Equalization and Carrier Recovery in TwoDimensional Digital Communication Systems. "Echo Cancellation in Speech and Data Transmission. Fumio Amano. NO. Kavehrad.64. pp. J." IEEE J. Vol." B. [40] J. "Baseband CrossPolarization Interference Cancellation for MQuadrature Amplitude. 283297. Romeiser and K. L. 38. 22112245. "A Unified Theory of DataAided Equalization. [38] Donald G. [3 11 David G. 1982." B. SAC2." Journal ofLighnvave Technolo~.DualPolarization Digital Radio:' AT& T Bell Lob. [36] M. No. pp. "CrossPolarization Interference Cancellation and Nonminimum Phase Fades. Gnauck. 1913." B. J.. Kasper. Salz. COM26.. Lett. Vol. No. 10. No. L. Tech. 20392063. 61. [29] Gersho and T. Select. Mueller. Fiberoptic Systems. 20232038.1985. Winten and Richard D. 3. 1. Vol. pp. [42] Jack H. Messerschmitt. 94. 1. No. 9. 145 1990. pp. Commun. [26] M.. Areas Commun. Lim. 3. [27] J. No. [41] J. 22472259. Hiroyuki Ohtsuka and Takehiro Murase. T. Vol.. 1985. "Adaptive Cancellation of Intersymbol Interference for A. Salz. pp. 1985. "Minimum MSE Equalization of Digital Fiber Optic Systems.3. [30] D." AT&T Bell Lab. S. 226 12280. vol. pp. Santoro.104. No." AT& T Bell Lab.. 493501. 11. [35] B. 60. pp.S. Select. 17. Winten. pp. Areas Commun. Tech J. TrossPolarization Cancellation and Equalization i n Digital Transmission Over Dually Polarized Multipath Fading Channels. 59 1593.. 10. No. Elrefaie.S. 1 . . 171. T..." B. '%nulation of SingleChannel Optical Vol.J. Vol." IEEE J." IEEE Trans. pp. Santoro." IEEE Photon Tech. 7. 3 1 7334. T.S. pp. 60. Select.J. No. 1990. Lim and M.1975.Moddated Signals Over Multipath Fading Radio Charnels.pp. J. Tech. 1439.. 64. "Optical . [34] Hideaki Matsue.185. "Adaptive Equalization and Phase Tracking for simultaneous Analog/Digital Data Transmission.. Areas Commun. Malcolm B.1981. 60. pp. pp. pp. No. 8. 1984. 7.1926. 4954. Select.J. Duff." A TdiT Bell Lab. 1987.Vol. 1988. A. Tech. Jan." IEEE J.
Mao. [45] Frank Bruyere. "Polarization Dispersion and Principal States in a 147km Undersea Lightwave Cable. ECOC '99. PhotoOpt. pp. 23. 1986. 1999. Gianello and M. Matera. No. [J9] E.Poole. 19. Bmyere and 0. [46] Lothar Moller and Herwig Kogelnik. 6. D. Someda. Moeller and ChinLin Chen. G." Optics Letters. Atlas and D.4 5 ? pp.1993. Daut. Schiano. Wagner. 756758. 1832. Leir. 25. "PolarkationDependent Pulse Compression and Broadening Due to Polarization Dispersion in DispersionShified Fiber. [5 11 H. Vol. Neal S. Poole. 14. A. 10. Wagner and H. R E. Daino. [58] F. vol II. [43] Jack H. 3469357. 16. No. E. 11621 166. vol. "Concatenation of Polarisation Dispenion in Singlemode Fibres. and C. R. "Effect of Polarkation Dispersion on the Performance of IMDD Communication Systems. Robert P. pp. .D." IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. pp. H. 8. [56] C. 4 3 . Daino. pp. 1989. L Schulte. 11851 190. Vol. "Measurement of PolarizationMode Dispersion in SingleMode Fibers with Random Mode Coupling. pp. 1988. 1 38.Poole.. "Impact of Fim. 1987. vol. Iannone. [55] C. Lightwave Tech. Galtuossa. Vol." Journal o Lightwave Technology. Vol. "PMD Emulator Restricted to First and Second Order PMD Generation. G. Vol. pp.and SecondOrder PMD in Optical Digital Transmission Systems. 1. pp. Bergano." IEEE Photonics Technology Lerrers. 269280. pp. D. No. [57] F. pp. pp. Thielecke and TWehren. Baumert. ivice." Optical Fiber Technology 2." Journal o Lighhvuve Technology.Equalization of Polarization Dispersion." Joiirnal o f Lighhvave Technology.E. [53] C. "Statistical Treatment of the ut. G. f pp. Poole. Vol.Wagner. Eng. Vol. No. G. No. "Polarization Mode Dispenion Characterization of SingleMode Optical Fiber Using Backscattering Technique. "Chromatic Dispersion Limitations in Coherent Optical Fiber Transmission Systerns. 8. No.1843. C r i B. vol." Proc. 16. [47] William K. Vol. Instr. [54] C. f [44] A. Vol.. 1787. 455468. De Marchis and F. Winters. G. F. R.449. Poole and C. [SU] F." Optics Letters." Oprics Letters.1992. "Equalization in Coherent Lightwave Systems Using a Fractionally Spaced Equaiizer. 2. No. 1990. D. 6. "Phenomenological Approach To Polarisation Dispersion in Long SingleMode Fiben". Maisonneuve. No.Bulow." ECOC '99. 523525. 10.'? IEEE J. "Adaptive PMD Mitigation at 10GbiVs Using an Electronic SiGe Equaiiser I . 1991. no. 13. *' Assessrnent of System Penalties Induced by Polarization Mode Dispersion in a 5 Gbfsoptically Amplified Transoceanic Link. Soc." Elecfron Lett. "Dynamical Equation for Polarization Dispersion. Q." Journal o Lighnvuve Technology. 1247. 1994. R. 1989. pp. Eleciron. 1999. W. LT1.139. [jZ] C. B. Andrea Galtarossa and Luca Palmieri. Lett. F. 1996. Matero. Winters and J. pp. 6. Burns. 7.1249. R Ballentin. f 1998. 190292. J. 22. Nagel.. D. A. 10291030. C" Proc. 2630. 372374. "DepoI~zationin a SingleMode Optical Fiber. Audouin. Curti. D.. G. 5. 1988. A. No. Vol. Elrefaie. pp. 10. France. pp. Evolution of the Principal States of Polarization In SingleMode Fibers. Giles. Vol. [48] Fabnno Coni." Electron. 10. 1983. 3. Matera.
J. Refi. 348319. A. [65] D.[59] J. ThJ7. E. C. Payne. S. Integration and Analog Applications." Electron Lerr. 198 1. RamskovHansen and D. J. 1994. Y. J. 658664. No. G. 3. "Polarization in Opticai Fiben. J. C Meyerson and T Tice. [68] C. J. pp. 1997. Qimntitm Electron. L. F.jdsunph..com/htmUcatdog!productmenusrch. J. No. [62] A. pp. P. M. Physics. vol. "Automatic Compensation Technique For Timewise Fluctuating Polarization Mode Dispersion in Inline Amplifier Systerns. 1994. P. lucent. h~p://www.455469. NO. and Circuits. 22. O . N.pdf." Electron. vol." IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. Vol. "PMD Emulaton and Signal Distortion in 2. "Birefnngence and Polarization ModeDispersion in Spun SingleMode Fibers. 1894. Opr. Da1 Fomo. Vengsarkar." J. 1995. Von der Weid. "Optical Fibers for Optical Networking". "Improved PMD stability in OptiFiben and Cables. "SiBiGe EpitauialBase TransistorsPart II: Process . ~~~~~~~~mar . 1995. X." IEEE Transactions on Efecrron Devices.. QE. H. Cressler. J. Sun. 6. R. Judy. Crabbe. [66]1. M. [64] D. D.198 1.. 12. Imai and M. H. [63] T. B. S. pp." Processing of 4"' International Wire & Coble Symposium. pp. 1993.html. L. "Polarization Mode Dispersion in Dispersion Shifled Fibers: A Exact Analysis. A. [61] A..T. J. [69] "WD15 15 Series 1538/1558 nm Bidirectional Couplen. 488503. Crabbe. Prola Jr. F. [67]R. Vol.1 7.SOC. %/SiGe EpitaxialBase TransistorsPart 1: Materials. 20. Takahashi . Vol. Harame. "Modelling of Polarisation Mode Dispersion in Single Mode Fibres. L. O. C. Cressler. F. Cohen and W. Op?." Appl. E. 3. Mamrnel. Gisin. No. H. http://www. J. Jones. 1997. J. Passy.. D. [60] A." IEEE J." JDS Uniphase. Tice. Meyerson and T. H. Vol. L.469482. Barlow. 1522. N. pp. Duser and E.48Gbls IMDDLightwave Systems. J.corn/minds/techj 1999lpdVpaper 13. Lert. C. Harame. Pereira da Silva. Vol. Kaminow. "A New Calculus For the Treatment of Optical Systern I. 33. Comfon. pp. 42. Glingener. 30' pp. Comfort. Y. A.ch?fnd 15. 15 [70] James J. Aiki.. Am." Processings of the OFCC. Moesle. 296202968." IEEE Phoronics Technology Letters. pp. Sun. Elbers. P. 9.1895. Voges. B.
SIMuLANKC Simulation Models A.1 System Model Table A.0 1 4 Noise Ievel QAM State A NO M .l System Model    Figure A.Appendix A.1 Parameten of System Model Values Symbols Parameters Bit Rate B 25e9 100 Fiber Segments K Trms td ts 1 Frequency Points PMD Bit Period System Sampling Time 100e12 1/B td/I Filter sampling Time ts 1 tdil6 0.
A.l .2 TrammitterA(B) Table A. Data Transni tterl Figure A.2 Parameten of Trammitte(B) Block Variable randint( 1e5.M) td 1 Source Data Generator Data output sampling tirne (sec) Cyclic control I Initiai output Io I .2 System Model\TransmitterA@) Generator Sour#.
8 6 Filter type 'FIR 1 With or without sinc filter QAM baseband 1 Initial phase (rad) 1O 1 .A 3 System Model\TransmitterA(B)\T~mitter 4 ] e1 bised &ne filter u Z ~ X I Figure A 3 Transmitter Table A 3 Parameters of Traasmitter Blocks QASK Samp Parameters Mary number Values M td td Input symbol interval and O ffset(sec) Symbol interval(sec) RaisedCosine filter Computation sarnpling time (sec) Filter rolloff factor Delay step tsl 0.
able A. Cyclic conaol Initial output Io .4 Parameters of Channel p  I Block Parameter Variable Value (rand(lJ)*2l)*pi td* t 00000 Random Phase Shifi Data output sampling tirne (sec) .4 Channel  .4 System Model\Channel  p p p p Figure A.A..
5 Optical Fiber Channel with PMD . Respons h 2 l (t) \ Impulsa Responsa Vin 9 ++.A S System model\Channel\Fiber Channel Imputa. hZZ(1) *+ Figure A.
3.K.ts*(I*(k1 )) i=1 J.A.6 Impulse Response Table A.6 System Model\Channel\Fiber ChanneNmpulse Respoase Jotn : a Blocks channel W B J Butfer2 SFunctionJ Partial UnPuffeR Figure A.5 Parameters of Impulse Response Parameters Values Buffer Buffer overlap 1 ts Input sampling time 1 Initial condition Buffer size First output index Unbuffer 10 ISK I+ 1 1% Last output index 1 Number of channels Input sampling time 11 t s * ((K1 )) ~ J SFunction3 Sfunction parameters I. 1.4 .i.
6 Parameters of Gaussian Noise Values Parameters Variable i randn(t.l).A.7 Gaussian Noise Blocks l Table A.*NO td Guassian Noise Generator Data output sampling time (sec) Cyclic control Initial o u t ~ u t I .7 System Model\CbanneWiber Channel\Gaussian Noise Generator Gausean Nais Generatori Figure A.
7 Parameters of Baseband Demodulation BIocks Parameters Values ( 1 Variable Randorn Phase ShiR ' Data output sampling time (sec) td* 100000 Cyclic control 1 Initial output Digital Clock O 1 Sampling time 1 ts .8 Baseband demodulation Table A.A.8 System ModeKhannelWiber Cbannel\Baseband Demodulation c Re L *' im / Corn plex Multiply2 % Random P h a w fhiftl Random P h a w shift 1 Figure A.
9 System modelüteceiver P + Figure A.A.9a Receiver with Echo Cancellers Figure A9b Receher without Echo Cancellers .
CPI Cancellenand Echo Cancellers I I Figure AJOa Adaptive Channel Equalizers & CPI Cancellers Figure AlOb Echo Cancellen Table A.8) 1 td 1 .4 FIR filter length (n) Step size (mu) Initial value of fle taps (ic) itr sarnpling time (tsadp) zeros(l.10 System modeRReceiver\Adaptive Channel Equalizers. CPI Cancellers and Echo Cancellers  Blocks Nonndized LMS Adaptive filter Parameters Values 8 0.8 Parameters of Adaptive Cbannel Equalizers.A.
9 Parameters of Nonnalized LMS Adaptive Filter 1 paramoters Nom 1 values Squared 2nom le10 Complex Nonnalization Buffer r Normalization bias Buffer size Buffer overlap Input sarnpiing time I n n. In2 ?+ *+ *+* 2 1 . CPI Cancellen and Echo cacellen Wormalized LMS Adaptive Filter 1 BIOC~S * g P+ Compluc U In1 al.l k a d ~ O I Cornplex Unit Delay Initial condition  Initiai condition ic .A.* Complu Add Figure A .ll System ModelWeceiver with Echo Canceller\Adaptive Cbannel Equalùers. l l Normalized LMS Adaptive filter Table A..
10 Parameters of Decision Circuit Parameten Values Complex delay Integer sarnpler delay Initial condition 2*I*(K.l)*ls/td+6+6+1 1 0 p QADM baseband Lowpass filter numerator Lowpass filter denominator Il 1 1 I Initial phase (rad) Sample time (sec) O  tsl l QASK square QASK Mary number M td M td demap QASK square Output symbol interval QASK Mary number map Input symbol interval .2 Figure A.12 Decision Circuit Table A.A 1 System model\ReceiverU)ecUion .
13 Performance meter Table A. . plot offset. Number of saved traces Linetype for eyepattern diagram Linetype for scatter plot Plot update sample time .A.11 Parameters of Performance Meter Blocks Parameters [Syrnbol interval. td12.13 System model\ReceiverWerformance meter Sum4 Pmduà r 5 2 I Pfctdudl ~qwre~nor T mnd W Imagine Pan I Figure A. decision offset] Values I Sample time eyediagram scatter [td. rdiZ] 1 Lower and upper bound incoming signal .
12 Parameters of Square Error Trend Bloch Parameten Values 50 O l Buffer size Buffer Buffer overlap Input sampling time b td ones( 1.A.14 System modelUkeceiver\Performance metersquare Error Trend Figure A.50)* i Initial condition .50)+ones(l.14 Square Error Trend Table A.
u. [sys. str.num.i.x. Revision: 2. A i l Rights Reserved.Ts) . %%%%a%%%%% % Update % %%%%%%%%%% case 2 . sys = mdlupdate (t. %t%%%0%%*%I%% % Terminate % %%%%%%%%*kt%% case 9.Appendix B MATLAB~ . .length) .xO. u) . %tt%%%%%%?%%%%%tt% % Initialization % %%%%%%Y%$$%%%%%%%% case 0 .0 % % % % %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%b%%%%%%~IbO%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% switch flag.ts] = md11nitializeSizes (length. sys = mdloutputs(t. type. % Copyright (c) 2000 by B I N LU. %%%%%%%%%% % Output t %%9tt%tt*% case 3 . Source Code % % % % % % % O % % % % Purpose: Implements the impulse responses of optical fiber channels % t Parameters: length: length of x type: real or imagine part of impulse responses i: channel bumber Ts: sampling time % u:input signal. x.
sys = simsizes (sizes). if type==O xo=real(B(:. ts = [Ts O]. end function [systxOtstrtts]=mdlInitializeSizes(length.sys = il. end xO=abs (x0 .numttypeti. str = [1 . elseif type==l xO=imag(B(:.i)' 1 .i)' 1 .Ts) sizes = simsizes. otherwise error([Iunhandled flag = ltnum2str(flag)l). % end mdlInitializeSizes .
.
%%W%%W%kt%%%W% Random parameter Wt%%%%t%t%%%%%% . %%t Light speed. t = [T/S:deltaT:T/2] .SG/lOG I=128.. C=3e8.. %%%freq. OlbSampling period.. t=t(1:I) ...... points T=I/B... lamdaO=lSSe6. %%% Bit rate S.. d e l t a T = ~ / ~ ..5e9. fO=C/lamdaO.....0 format long %%%t%%%%%t%%k%kt%%%t%%%b%% Predefinition . Trms=lOOe12... A l 1 Rights Reserred. %%%% Segment Number B=2....% % % % % % Function: FiberImp ( ) Purpose: Simulate the channel of optic fiber in the effect of PMD Output: Frequency response H ( f ) & t % 0 % % % % Impulse response h(n) Copyright (c) 2000 by BIN LU.. Revision: 2. %%%rms DGD lOOps K=100.
4 ) 1 ) title('Frequency Response: H22') .5)*2+pi. subplot(223) .~) 0.5)*2*pi. MO=MO*Mk.k) ) .k))+sin(randdangle(l.4)1. +coç (randangle (Il k) exp(j*rand_phase(l.k exp(j*rand_phase( 1.abs(M(:J )1 ) title ( a Frequency Response : Hl1 ' ) .plot(f.plot(f.2) M(:. ylabel ( Magnitude ' . exp(j+rand~hase(i. for k=l:K %t%%t%tt%t%% fiber segments K tt%tt%tt%%t k) Ml= [exp(j*randghase (i.randangle=(rand(2. subplot ( 2 2 2 ) .3) M(:.K)0. t%%tt%tW% M=[1.k)).k)1 +sin(randdngle(1.k) ) +cos (randangle( 1.abs (~(:. ylabel( 'Magnitude . %%%%Wb%%%%%%%%% t%%%%%%t Magnitude of frequency response figure subplot(221). l %%%%%%%%%%%%%% . ylabel ( Magnitude ' 1 . subplot(224).3) 1 ) t it le ( Frequency Response : H2 1 a ) . ttZ%t%%%%O Random phase %t%b%%%t%% %tbb%t%t%%tt%tt%t time delay i each segmant n dgd=DGD ( P m .plot(f. for i=l:I %t%tt% frequency w ( i ) points 1 MO=1. Wtt%%tttt Random angle tb%%%%%%tt randghase=(rand(2.abs(M(:.2) ) title('Frequency Response: H12').plot(f.abs(M(:. end end $%%%O%%%%%%% Overall frequency response M=[M(:.K) .I) M(:.
ylabel( ' Magnitude ' .Q))) title(tFrequencyResponse: ~ 2 2 ' ) .real(M(: 1 ) .imag(M(:.plot(f. ylabel ( phase ' 1 . subplot(224). subplot(223).4) title(tFrequencyResponse: H22'). ylabel ( l imagine ) .plot(f. ylabel ( 'phase' .imag(M(:. %%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% Imagine part of Frequency response figure subplot(221)lplot(f. 2 ) 1 ) title ( ' Frequency Response: Hl2 ' ) . title('Frequency Response: H1lt) ylabel( phase .angle(M(:.imag(~(:. ylabel( real .3)) 1 title('Frequency Response: H21').T) ) 1 title('Frequency Response: Hllt) .angle(M(:.plot (f.l) 1 ) title('Frequency Response: H1lt).plot(f.plot(f. subplot(222)lplot(f. subplot(223).plot (f.plot (f.4) ) 1 title(tFrequencyResponse: H22') . %%%%%%%%%%%%%% . %%%%%%%% Real part of frequenq response figure subplot (221) .2) ) 1 title('Frequency Response: K12'). real(M(:.3)) 1 title('Frequency Response: H21'). subplot (223). subplot (222) .plot(f. ylabel( ' real 1 . ylabel ( ' real .imag(M(:.3) ) 1 t itle ( ' Frequency Response: H2 1 ' ) . subplot(224).2) ) 1 title(Ifrequency Response: H12'). ylabel( reall . subplot(224). ylabel ( 'imagine ' . ylabel( ' imagine ' 1 .plot(f.real(M(:.angle(M(:.angle(M(:.real(~(:.l))) .plot(f. ylabel( 'phaseo . %%%%%%%% Phase of frequency response %%lttZttWt%*Z figure subplot(221). ylabel( ' imagine ' . subplot(222).
subplot(223).real(m(: .plot (t.plot(t. title ( ' Impluse Response : H22 ' 1 . ylabel( ' real ' .plot(t. ylabel ( ' phase ' 1 . subplot(222). m(l:I/2.2)1 ) t i tle ( Impluse Response : H l 2 ' ) . ) Phase of impulse response figure subpiot(221). m=[m(I/2+1:1.teal(m(:. ylabel ( 'phase' 1 .angle(rn(:. 4 ) ) ) title(afmpluseResponse: H22') . s~bplot(222) .3)) title( 'Impluse Response: H21m) . : ) . ylabel( ' phase ) . %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%% Real part of impulse response figure subplot(221).abs(m(:.plot (t.plot(t. 3 ) 1 ) title('fmp1use Response: H2It) . . ylabel ( 'Magnitudem . ylabel( real ' 1 . title('Imp1use Response: H1lt) ylabel ( 'Magnitude . subplot(224).t W W 1 1 1 2 t t t Covert frequency responses to impulse responses t W t t t % 0 0 0 ~=[~(1/2+1:1.abs(m(:.real(m(:.plot(t.3))) title(tImpluse Response: H21t) .plot~t.plot(t.angle(m(:. : ) ] . subplot (224). %SZ%%0%%%t%tt% .plot(t. subplot(224) .2) 1 ) title('1mpluse Response: H12'). subplot(222).l) 1 ) title ( ' Impluse Response : Hl1 ' ) . ylabel ('Magnitude') . ylabel( real ' 1 . title(aImpluse Response: H22'1.:)1. subplot(223).plot(t. ylabel( 'phase') .l) title(lImpluse Response: H1lt) . subplot (223). ylabel ( 'Magnitudet .2))) title ( ' Impluse Response: Hl2 ' 1 .l))) .plot(tlabs(m(:.real(m(:.angle(m(:4 ) 1 ) . ylabel ( ' real . M(1:1/2.plot(tlangle(m(: 1 ) .abs(m(: 4 ) 1 ) . % % t O O % % % Magnitude of impulse response %%%%%%%%%%%%%% figure subplot(221) . :) m=if f t (M).
subplot(223).plot(t.imag(m(:.plot(t.ttSIIISt Imagine part of impulse response figure subplot(221). title(lImpluse Response: H22') .plot(t. ylabel ( l imagine ' .dat'.plot(t.3) ) 1 title('Imp1use Response: H21r).imag(m(: 1 ) . subplot (224). ylabel ( ' imagine .imag(m(: 4 ) 1 ) . ylabel( ' imagine ' 1 . t%tWebtSWtt% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% . m) .img(m(:.l))) title('Imp1use Response: H U f ) . subplot (222). ylabel( imagine ' . %%%t%t%%W%%%% Save filter coefficients dlmwrite ( FiberImp .2) title('Imp1use Response: H12').
hold on plot(x. A~ %%%O%%%% Gaussian distributed dispersion %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% X= [O:N] . zO=(y(l. : ) + y ( 3 .z2. %%%%%%%% Maxiwellian distributed DGD %%%%%b%%%%%%%%%% y=almagacA2. return . 21) . N) *de .:) > l & zO (1. : ) ). Irt) .5 . t % Revision: 2. for l=O:N zl= [zl sum(z0 (1. :) cl+l)/NI .function z=DGD(delta. ^ o .0 * %%%ttwtt82t%ttttS~OtO%Ott%t0%ttttttt%ttt%*t%%%%O%ttOtOtt%%O%%%O%%t%~%t~ %%%O%%%% variance %OOt%%Ot%t%tt% delta= ( (delta+lel2) ^2/3) . %%%%%%%% draw the output figure %Ot%%%%%%%%t%%% figure stem(x. end z=zO*le12. almaga=randn( 3. s .: ) + y ( 2 . Al1 Rights Reserved.N) t%%t%%tO8tttt%ttt%%tttttOttttt%tttt%ttbbO%%~%%%%%%OtOt%%%~OO%O%O%%O%OO%~ O t O Function: DGDO t % Purpose: Generate Maxiwellian random DGDs t % t % t O Copyright (c) 2000 by BïN LU. zl= [ ] .