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# LINEAR MOTION

## Scalar and Vector Quantities

Physical quantity that only has magnitude is called Scalar Quantity while physical quantity that has both magnitude and direction is called Vector Quantity. distance of 138 km. From Butterworth, Zainal then traveled back to Kuala Lumpur, a distance of 369 km. (see figure 1.1) Distance is a total length traveled by the object.

Table 2.1 List of some base quantity Scalar Quantity Speed Distance Volume Temperature Time Vector Quantity Velocity Displacement Weight Acceleration Momentum

## Hence, distance = 507+138+369= 1014km.

Displacement is the shortest distance between the starting and ending point. Since Zainals final location is the same as his starting location, his final displacement = 0 km

## Example: Distance vs Displacement

Kangar 138 km 507 km Butterworth 369 km

Kuala Lumpur

## Figure 2.1: Zainal travelling path

speed, i.e. 70 km/h, they are travelling at Zainal traveled from Kuala Lumpur to Kangar, a distance 507 km. After that, he continued his journey to Butterworth, a different velocity because the directions are different.

## Analyzing linear motion

Linear motion considers objects which move in a straight line. It can be a uniform motion which the object travels equal distance in equal time intervals or non-uniform motion which the object moves unequal distances in equal time intervals. A number of important terms relating to linear motion include:a) Distance and displacement b) Speed and velocity c) Acceleration and deceleration Distance Total route taken by a moving object. Displacement Distance taken with consideration of direction. Scalar quantity Vector quantity SI unit: Meter (m) Example 1: A car moving round a big roundabout which has a radius of 70m. After one circle, calculate (a) The distance moved by the car. (b) The displacement of the car. Example 2: a cow moves 3m to the east and then 4m to the north. Find the (a) Total distance moved by the cow. (b) Displacement of the cow. Speed Rate of change of distance.
= , .

Instantaneous Velocity - Indicates how fast a particle moves and the direction of the motion at each instant of time. Instantaneous Speed - The magnitude of the instantaneous velocity. In a moving car, it is the number (with units) indicated by the speedometer Example 3: a car moving from point O and moves 50m to the north in 60 seconds. The car then moves 120m to the west in 40s. Finally, it stops. Calculate the. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Total distance moved by the car. Displacement of the car Velocity of the car Average speed of the car Speed of the car when it moves to the north. Deceleration The negative acceleration is also known as deceleration.

=

## Where: a = acceleration v = final velocity u = initial velocity t = time taken

SI unit: Meter/second squared (m/s2) Velocity Rate of change of displacement in a fixed direction.
, = , .

## Vector quantity Scalar quantity SI unit: Meter/second (m/s)

Instantaneous Acceleration - The acceleration of a particle at any given time if it is moving at variable acceleration.

## Chapter 2: Linear motion.

Constant Acceleration - Implies that change in velocity is uniform with time in direction and magnitude.

Example 4: A stationary car achieves a velocity of 40m/s in 10 seconds. Calculate the acceleration of the car. Example 5: A car travelling along a straight road at 20m/s. It slowing down for 15 seconds until it reached 8m/s. Calculate the deceleration of the car. Example 6: A driver is driving his vehicle at a velocity of 30m/s until it reached the velocity of 60m/s in 3 seconds. Determine the acceleration of the vehicle.

Example 8: An airplane accelerates down a runway at 3.2 m/s2 for 32.8 seconds until it finally lifts off the ground. Determine the distance traveled before takeoff. Example 9: A boy rides his bike with a constant acceleration of 5 m/s2. His velocity at that time is 8 m/s. Determine: (a) His velocity 16 seconds later. (b) Distance traveled by the boy. Example 10: A vehicle moved with an acceleration of 1.2 m/s2. What is the velocity of that vehicle 30 seconds later? Also, determine the distance traveled by that vehicle.

## Equation of Linear Motion

There are several equations that frequently being used in analyzing linear motion such as = + .. (1) 2 = 2 + 2 (2) = + 2 2 . (3) = 2 + . (4) With, u = initial velocity v = final velocity a = acceleration s = displacement t = time taken
1 1

Motion Graphs
Motion of an object along a straight line with acceleration (a), initial velocity (u), final velocity (v), displacement(s) and time (t) can be shown in a graphical diagram. Displacement-time graph Let says, a boy was walking from school to meet his friend at the convenient store (A to B) a distance of 100 m. He took 2 minutes to be there. After 5 minutes, he went back to his home and arrived 20 minutes later (C to D). (See figure 2.1).
Displacement, (m) Chapter 2: Linear motion.

Example 7: A car moved from its static condition to reach its destination in 45 minutes. Its final velocity is 120 km/h. From the information, calculate; (a) Acceleration of the car in m/s. (b) Displacement traveled by the car in meter, m.

A Time, (s) D

Figure 2.3

If he walks with the same speed, at what speed does he walk to meet his friend? How far does his home from school? Example 11: The diagram below shows a displacement time graph for a train moving from rest. It travels a distance of 900 m in 30 seconds. Calculate the average velocity.
Displacement, (m)

(a) Acceleration of the car in the first 50 seconds. (b) Deceleration of the car before it stops. (c) Total distance traveled. Example 13: diagram below shows a graph for the motion of a trolley. Determine: (a) The total distance traveled, and (b) The displacement of the trolley.
V/ms-1 15

900
-10

24 5 15 20

30

t/s

30

Figure 2.6
Time, (s)

Figure 2.4 Velocity-time graph From the velocity time graph, displacement can be obtained by calculating the area under the graph. The acceleration also can be determined by find the gradient of the lines slope. In velocity time graph, negative velocity shows that the object moves in inverse direction.
Example 12: V/ms-1 25

Example 14: A car moved from 4 m/s to 25 m/s with constant acceleration of 2 m/s2. Then its velocity was kept constant before the car was stopped with deceleration of 2 m/s2. Total distance traveled by the car is 5 km. Calculate the: a) Draw the graph representing the motion. b) distance during the acceleration c) distance traveled during deceleration d) total time traveled by the car

## t/s 50 80 Figure 2.5 90

The diagram above shows the velocity - time graph for a car which is travelling for a 90 seconds before it comes to stop. Calculate the;