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CHAPTER 5: TISSUES

LEARNING OUTCOMES: 5.1 Introduction 1. 2. 5.2 Describe a tissue, and explain the intercellular junctions in tissues. List the four major tissues types in the body.

Epithelial Tissues 3. 4. 5. Describe the general characteristics and functions of epithelial tissue. Names the types of epithelium and identify an organ in which each is found. Explain how glands are classified.

5.3

Connective Tissues 6. 7. 8. Describe the general characteristics of connective tissue. Compare and contrast the cellular components, structures, fibers, and extracellular matrix (where applicable) in each type of connective tissue. Describe the major functions of each type of connective tissue.

5.4

Types of Membranes 9. Describe and locate each of the four types of membranes.

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Muscle Tissues 10. Distinguish among the three types of muscle tissue.

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Nervous Tissue 11. Describe the general characteristics and functions of nervous tissue.

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5.1.

INTRODUCTION A. A _________is composed of similar cells that are specialized to perform a common function(s). 1. B. The study of tissues is called__________.

Cells in tissues are associated with _____________ See Fig 5.1, page 145 and Table 5.1, page 146. 1. ___________ (zipper-like junctions that prevent extracellular leakage) a. b. c. 2. lining cells in small intestine kidney tubules blood-brain barrier (See From Science to Technology 5.1, page 145).

___________(hold adjacent cells, and therefore hold the layer of cells, together) a. cells of outer skin layer

3.

____________ (channels between cells for passage of substances, impulses) a. b. cardiac muscle cells digestive smooth muscle cells

C.

Four adult primary types of tissues form the "fabric" of the human organism: See Table 5.2, page 146. 1. 2. 3. 4. __________tissues (ET; covering/lining); __________tissues (CT; support); __________tissues (MT; movement); __________tissues (NT; control).

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5.2

EPITHELIAL TISSUES A. General Structural Characteristics: 1. Locations: ETs cover us and line us: a. coverings o body (i.e. epidermis) and o ventral cavity organs (i.e. visceral serous membranes) b. linings o internal spaces (i.e. lumen of the intestine), o line body cavities (i.e. parietal membranes), o line ducts of exocrine glands (i.e. sweat glands). o Polarity: a. ETs exhibit polarity and always have a free surface ("apical surface") which opens to the outside or to an internal space (lumen); b. This free surface may possess modifications. o microvilli (increases membrane surface); o cilia (aid in movement of a substance across the layer). o Basement Membrane: a. The "basal surface" of ETs is anchored to underlying CT by a distinct_______________. See box on page 145 re: cancer cells secrete substance to dissolve basement membrane Avascularity: a. ETs contain_____________. b. ET is nourished by nutrients which diffuse upward from underlying connective tissue through the basement membrane. Regeneration: high regeneration capacity, due to rapid cell division Cellularity: ETs are composed of tightly packed sheet(s) of cells with little extracellular matrix between them. Specialized contacts that ETs may possess include: a. tight junctions (zipper-like junctions that prevent extracellular leakage); b. desmosomes (hold adjacent cells, and therefore the layer of cells, together). Functions: a. protection (i.e. epidermis) b. absorption (i.e. lining of intestine) c. secretion (i.e. ducts of glands) 5-3

2.

3.

4.

5. 6. 7.

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5.2

d. excretion (i.e. epidermis and lining of kidney capillaries) e. filtration (i.e. lining of kidney capillaries) EPITHELIAL TISSUES B. Classification of Epithelia (plural); Epithelium (singular): 1. 2. Many epithelial tissues are classified according to their _______and the number of _________they possess: Some terms used to describe epithelia include: a. _________ = single layer of cells; b. __________ = many layers of cells; c. ___________= flattened cells; d. ___________= square-shaped cells; e. ___________ = elongated cells (i.e. taller than wide); Types of Simple Epithelium

3. o o

a. ____________________: a single layer of flattened cells; o generally allows for ___________(diffusion) substances; Locations: 1. lining _________of lungs 2. lining capillaries 3. lining body cavities 4. covering ventral organs See Figure 5.2, page 147.

of

b.

___________________________: o a single layer of square-shaped cells with large centrally located nuclei;

Functions: 1. ________________2.____________Location
s:

1. lining kidney tubules 2. lining ducts of glands 3. covering surface of ovary 4. lining follicles of the thyroid gland o See Figure 5.3, page 147. 5-4

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EPITHELIAL TISSUES B. ____________________________: 3. Types of Simple Epithelium (continued) c. _________________epithelium:

o o

a single layer of elongated cells with basally located nuclei (near basement membrane); Functions: 1. ___________ 2. ___________ 3.___________ Locations: 1. lining ___________ 2. lining uterus Free Surface Modifications: 1. microvilli (increase surface area); Fig 5.5, page 148. 2. goblet cells (secrete protective mucus); See Figure 5.4 & 5.5, page 148.

d. o o o o

_______________epithelium:

a single layer of elongated cells with scattered nuclei (i.e. look stratified but are not); all cells touch the basement membrane Functions: 1. secretion 2. protection Locations: 1. lining ________ Free surface modifications: 1. ______(trap debris and aid in passage of mucus up and out of airway); 2. goblet cells (produce mucus which coats cilia and helps trap debris). See Figure 5.6, page 148.

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EPITHELIAL TISSUES B. Classification of Epithelia 4. Types of Stratified Epithelium a. _______________epithelium:

o
o

many layers of flattened cells; Function =___________; locations: b. Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium: Discussed in more detail in Chapter 6. 1. epidermis of_______. Non-Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium: 1. lining mouth 2. lining throat 3. lining vagina 4. lining anus See Figure 5.7, page 149.

c.

d.

b.

Stratified cuboidal epithelium: o 2-3 layers of cuboidal cells o Locations 1. mammary glands 2. sweat glands 3. salivary glands 4. pancreas See Figure 5.8, page 149.

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EPITHELIAL TISSUES B. Classification of Epithelia 4. Types of Stratified Epithelium c. ___________________epithelium: 2-3 layers of elongated cells Locations 1. part of male urethra 2. parts of the pharynx 3. vas deferens See Figure 5.9, page 150.

o o

d.

Transitional epithelium:
o o o o

many layers of cells that change shape in response to tension Function = distensibility (i.e. __________to allow urine to fill bladder) Location = lining _____________and ureters See Figure 5.10, page 151.

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EPITHELIAL TISSUES B. Classification of Epithelia 5. _______________epithelium a. b. c. usually simple cuboidal or columnar ET; Function =____________; two major types: ______________secrete products into a duct, which opens onto: 1. An external surface (i.e. sweat gland) or 2. An internal space/lumen (i.e. gastric gland) ______________secrete hormones into the blood. These glands are ductless and will not be discussed until chapter 13. Exocrine gland structure varies tremendously See Fig 5.11, page 151 and Table 5.3, page 152. o Single cells (unicellular) goblet cells o Many cells (multicellular) 1. Simple unbranched 2. Compound branched 3. Tubular tube-like 4. Alveolar sac-like ___________________________are classified according to whether they consist of cellular products or portions of glandular cells: See Fig 5.12, page 152 and Table 5.4, page 153. Three types of secretions.

d.

e.

____________: secrete fluid through cell membranes into a duct with no loss of glandular cells. Example = salivary glands. 1. Serous cells watery and enzyme rich 2. Mucus cells thick with glycoprotein called mucin _____________:lose small portion of cells with secretion. Example = mammary glands ____________: release entire cells into secretion. Example = sebaceous glands in skin (oil). Also see Fig 5.13, page 153. * _____________= a tumor (cancer) originating from epithelial tissue. See box on page 150.

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EPITHELIAL TISSUES: SUMMARY TABLE: See Table 5.5, page 153 and key at the end of this outline)
DESCRIPTION STRUCTURE LOCATION FUNCTION TYPICAL SKETCH

NAME OF ET

SIMPLE SQUAMOUS

SIMPLE CUBOIDAL

SIMPLE COLUMNAR

PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR

STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS

TRANSITIONAL

GLANDULAR

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CONNECTIVE TISSUES A. General Characteristics: 1. Surrounding all body cells is ___________________(ECF). This is especially important in connective tissues. (Discussed in great detail in Chapter 21) Functions are many:

o o o

a. medium to dissolve solutes transport site of chemical reactions.

o o o o

b. Four types of ECF: __________________which fills the spaces between cells in tissues ______________which is the liquid portion of blood ___________which is in lymphatic vessels _____________which includes cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, humors of the eye, serous fluid and exocrine secretions 2. 3. 4. 5. Common Origin: from mesenchyme (from middle germ layer, mesoderm). Wide Range of Vascularity: from cartilage, which is avascular, to bone, which has a rich blood supply. Structural Elements: cells plus extracellular matrix (ground substance plus fibers). Ground Substance: a. b. * amorphous matrix that fills the space between cells and fibers Functions as a molecular "sieve" through which nutrients and gases can diffuse between cells and blood capillaries. See Clinical Application 5.1, page 154 re: The Bodys Glue: The Extracellular Matrix.

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CONNECTIVE TISSUES B. Major Cell Types: 1. ______________in each CT type: maintains constant numbers a. b. c. d. fibroblasts in CT proper See Fig 5.14, page 155. osteocyte in bone chondrocyte in cartilage ____________= undifferentiated cells that secrete matrix o fibroblast in CT proper o chondroblast in cartilage

osteoblast in bone * e. Once the matrix has been formed, these "blast" cells assume their less active role as "-cytes" (but they can be reactivated if needed); See Fig 5.14, page 155. ___________:

o o
o

Secrete heparin to prevent excessive blood clotting Secrete histamine to promote inflammation See Fig 5.16, page 155. See box on page 155.

2.

_______________; are not always there a. __________________that inflammation) ; 2 types: respond to tissue damage (i.e.

_______________(housed in tissues) or phagocytes (traveling in blood). See Fig 5.15, page 155. Eat foreign matrix

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C.

Connective Tissue Fibers = 3 types: 1.

See Fig 5.17, page 156.

_____________are composed of the protein collagen. a. b. c. d. e. provide high tensile strength to matrix stain pink found in most CT, and very abundant in tendons and ligaments See Clinical Application 5.2 and Table 5A, page 157, which discusses abnormalities of collagen. See box on page 156 re: loss of collagen in skin.

2.

______________are composed of the protein elastin. a. b. c. d. provide rubbery resiliency to matrix stain purple found in skin, lungs, and blood vessels See box on page 156 re: surgical use of bacterial elastin to prevent scar adhesions.

3.

______________are fine collagenous fibers. a. b. c. form delicate networks found in basement membranes and lymphatic tissues stain purple

D.

Categories of Connective Tissues Connective tissues are divided in two groups: Connective Tissue Proper and Specialized Connective Tissues 1. Connective Tissue Proper All CT with a semi-fluid ground substance a. (Loose)______________:

o o o o

gel-like matrix with______________, macrophages, mast cells and _________and ____________ Location =____________, covering ventral organs, between muscles Functions = diffusion of nutrients and gases/nourishment; wrap & cushion organs. See page Fig 5.18, page 157.

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CONNECTIVE TISSUES D. Categories of Connective Tissues 1. Connective Tissue Proper b. ______________:

o o o o

closely packed adipocytes (_____________) with nuclei pushed to one side within matrix (resemble signet rings) Location = __________(as subcutaneous layer), around heart, kidneys and eyeballs, breasts Functions =____________, insulation, protection See Figure 5.19, page 158. See box on page 158 re: adipose distribution among infants, and adult males and females.

c.
o o o o

Reticular CT:

network of _______________within loose ground substance and reticulocytes Location = liver and lymphatic organs (i.e. lymph nodes, thymus, spleen) Function = support/framework See Figure 5.20, page 159.

d.
o o o o o

Dense Regular CT (White Fibrous CT):

primarily _____________(pink) with few fibroblasts (you can only see nuclei) Location = ___________________ Functions =_____________, tensile strength Poor blood supply = slow to no healing See Fig 5.21, page 159.

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CONNECTIVE TISSUES D. Categories of Connective Tissues 1. Connective Tissue Proper e. ______________CT:

o o o o

primarily collagen fibers randomly arranged Location =____________, heart valves, capsules of organs Function = provides tensile strength See Fig 6.1, page --- and Fig 6.2, page --- (where it is located below stratified squamous ET in skin)

f.
o o o o

Elastic CT:

primarily _____________(purple) Location = large airways, wall of aorta, ligamenta flava Function = durability with stretch See Figure 5.22, page 159.

3. o
o o

Specialized Connective Tissues

o
o o

a. ____________cartilage: Most common type of cartilage amorphous (chondroitin and glucosamine) matrix that surrounds cells = _____________(within lacunae) Locations = embryonic skeleton, costal cartilages, cartilage of the nose, wall of trachea and larynx Function = support Avascular = no healing (however outer cells are nourished by perichondrium) Covered by ______________ a dense irregular CT o See Figure 5.23, page 160.

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CONNECTIVE TISSUES D. Categories of Connective Tissues 3. Specialized Connective Tissues b. ____________cartilage:

o
o o

same as above plus elastic fibers (purple) Locations = external ear, epiglottis Functions = maintenance of shape plus flexibility See Figure 5.24, page 160.

c.
o o o o

Fibrocartilage:

tough with collagen fibers Locations = intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis Functions = tensile strength plus shock absorber See Figure 5.25, page 161.

d.
o o o

Bone:

o
o

hard, calcified matrix of hydroxyapatite crystals ([Ca3(PO4)2.(OH)2] = rigidity), with collagen fibers (tensile strength) and cells = ____________(within lacunae) Location = bones of the skeleton Functions = protection, support, movement, calcium storage and hematopoiesis Highly vascular = fast healing. See Figure 5.26, page 161. Note _____________of compact bone called______________.

e.
o o o o

Blood:

red cells (erythrocytes), white cells (leukocytes), and platelets (thrombocytes) in a fluid matrix called plasma Location = within heart and blood vessels Function = transport of gases, nutrients, wastes See Figure 5.27, page 162.

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CONNECTIVE TISSUES SUMMARY TABLE (See Table 5.7, page 162, or key at the end of this outline) 5-15

CHAPTER 5: TISSUES

NAME OF CT AREOLAR

DESCRIPTION

LOCATION

FUNCTION

SKETCH

ADIPOSE

RETICULAR

DENSE REGULAR DENSE IRREGULAR ELASTIC

HYALINE CARTILAGE FIBROCARTILAGE ELASTIC CARTILAGE BONE

BLOOD

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5.4.

TYPES OF MEMBRANES A. DEFINITION: An epithelial membrane is a continuous multicellular sheet composed of at least two primary types of tissue: an ________________to a discrete underlying CT tissue. Three Common Types: 1. _______________ (serosae): a. b. are found in closed ________________ consist of two layers with a potential space (cavity) between them:

B.

o o

visceral membrane surrounds an organ parietal membrane lines a body cavity c. d. e. secrete a thin watery fluid called _______________into the cavity between the membranes; function =______________; each membrane consists of a thin layer of simple squamous ET resting on a thin layer of areolar (loose) CT are named for the organs that occupy each cavity: o pleural = lungs

o o

pericardial = heart peritoneal = abdominal organs 2. Mucous Membranes (mucosae): a. b. c. d. 3. line body cavities that open to the outside include lining of digestive, respiratory and urinary tract are "wet" or ______________(through secretions of mucus) consist of a layer of epithelium (varies depending upon location) firmly attached to a layer of loose areolar CT.

Cutaneous Membrane: a. ___________ B.consists of keratinized stratified squamous ET firmly attached to a thick layer of dense irregular CT

C.

Another type of membrane composed entirely of connective tissue is called a_______________. It lines joints and is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 8.

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5.5.

MUSCLE TISSUES A. General Characteristics: 1. 2. B. All muscle cells are elongated = muscle fibers Muscle fibers are ___________[i.e. they change their shape (shorten) to cause their attachments to move].

Types of Muscle Tissue: 1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue a. b. c. d. e. Structure: long thin cells (fibers) with many nuclei; alternating areas of light & dark (___________) Location: attached to bones Function: move bones of skeleton Control: ____________= conscious See Figure 5.28, page 163.

2.

Smooth Muscle Tissue a. b. c. d. e. Structure: spindle-shaped cells with one centrally located nucleus; no striations Location: walls of hollow visceral organs walls of blood vessels attached to hair follicles in the dermis Function: movement of food through digestive tract; vasoconstriction Control: ______________= unconscious See Figure 5.29, page 164.

3.

Cardiac Muscle Tissue a. b. c. d. e. Structure: network of branching cells with one centrally located nucleus per cell; ____________(where 2 cells meet); striations Location: ___________; Function: to pump blood from heart lungs to pump blood from heart body Control: ______________= unconscious See Figure 5.30, page 164.

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5.5.

MUSCLE TISSUES SUMMMARY TABLE (See Table 5.8, page 165 and key at the end of this outline)
DESCRIPTION OF STRUCTURE TYPE OF CONTROL LOCATION FUNCTION SKETCH

NAME OF MUSCLE TISSUE

SKELETAL MUSCLE

SMOOTH MUSCLE

CARDIAC MUSCLE

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NERVOUS TISSUE A. Structure: 1. 2. B. Primary cells = _____________which respond to changes in their surroundings (stimuli) neurons are surrounded by ___________(supporting cells)

Locations: 1. 3. __________2. ____________ ____________

C.

Function: 1. _______________or integration of body parts (i.e. to transmit signals from body parts to brain and from brain back to body parts)

D. E.

____________________of neurons, only neuroglia can divide. See Figure 5.31, page 165.

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NAME OF ET SIMPLE SQUAMOUS

DESCRIPTION STRUCTURE a single layer of flattened cells

LOCATION

FUNCTION

TYPICAL SKETCH

SIMPLE CUBOIDAL

linings of air diffusion, sacs, capillaries, cushioning CHAPTER 5: TISSUES lymph vessels, body cavities; covering ventral organs a single layer of linings of kidney absorption, cube-shaped cells tubules, ducts of secretion with large centrally glands located nuclei a single layer of tall cells with basally located nuclei, goblet cells, & microvilli a single layer of tall cells with scattered nuclei, cilia, & goblet cells many layers of flattened cells lining of intestine protection, absorption, secretion

SIMPLE COLUMNAR

PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR

lining of trachea, lining of fallopian tube

protection, secretion

STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS

TRANSITIONAL

several layers of cells that change shape under pressure mostly simple cuboidal

keratinized = epidermis; non-keratinized = lining of vagina, anus, throat, mouth lining of urinary bladder and ureters

protection

distensibility

GLANDULAR

lining the ducts of glands

secretion

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CONNECTIVE TISSUE SUMMARY TABLE


NAME OF CT AREOLAR DESCRIPTION gel-like matrix with fibroblasts, collagen and elastic fibers closely packed adipocytes with nuclei pushed to one side network of ret. fibers in loose matrix dense matrix of collagen fibers loose matrix of collagen fibers matrix of elastic fibers chondrocytes in lacunae in amorphous matrix less firm than above above plus elastic fibers concentric circles of calcified matrix red cells, white cells and platelets in liquid plasma LOCATION beneath ET (serous membranes & mucous membranes) beneath skin, breasts, around kidneys & eyeballs basement membranes, lymphatic organs tendons, ligaments dermis of skin FUNCTION diffusion, cushioning organs, lubrication insulation, energy store, protection Support SKETCH

ADIPOSE

RETICULAR

DENSE REGULAR DENSE IRREGULAR ELASTIC

attachment (high tensile strength) tensile strength

large airways, wall of aorta embryonic. skeleton, costal cart, tip of nose, trachea, larynx intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis external ear, epiglottis skeleton

durability with stretch Support

HYALINE CARTILAGE FIBROCARTILAGE ELASTIC CARTILAGE BONE

tensile strength, shock absorber shape maintenance plus flexibility support, protection, movement, Ca ++ store, hematopoiesis transport of nutrients, wastes & gases

BLOOD

in heart and blood vessels

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MUSCLE TISSUE SUMMARY TABLE


NAME OF MUSCLE TISSUE SKELETAL MUSCLE DESCRIPTION OF STRUCTURE long, thin fibers with many nuclei and striations TYPE OF CONTROL Voluntary LOCATION FUNCTION SKETCH

attached to bones

to move bones

SMOOTH MUSCLE

spindle shaped cells with one centrally located nucleus, lacking striations

Involuntary

walls of visceral hollow organs, irises of eyes, walls of blood vessels

to move substances through passageways (i.e. food, urine, semen), constrict blood vessels, etc.

CARDIAC MUSCLE

a network of striated cells with one centrally located nucleus attached by intercalated discs

Involuntary

heart

pump blood to lungs and body

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