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**Virginia Commonwealth University, Physics Department
**

DATES LABORATORY Laboratory Policies Jan. 16 – Jan. 18 Jan. 23 – Jan. 25 Jan. 30 – Feb. 1 Feb. 6 – Feb. 8 Feb. 13 – Feb. 15 Feb. 20 – Feb. 22 Feb. 27 – Feb. 29 Mar. 5 – Mar. 7 Mar. 12 – Mar. 14 Mar. 19 – Mar. 21 Mar. 26 – Mar. 28 Apr. 2 – Apr. 4 Apr. 9 – Apr. 11 No Laboratory (First week of classes) 1) Motion graphs (First Lab Meeting) 2) Linear Motion 3) Projectile Motion 4) Vector Addition of Forces 5) Centripetal Force 6) Conservation of Energy 7) Springs No Laboratory (Spring Break) 8) Collisions in One Dimension 9) Collisions in Two Dimensions 10) Rotational Inertia 11) Torques & Rotational Equil. (Last Lab) Appendix

ExcelTM is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation. DataStudioTM is a registered trademark of Pasco Scientific. VideoPointTM is a registered trademark of Lenox Softworks.

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Copyright © 2012 by VCU

All rights reserved.

Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012

**Laboratory Policies – IMPORTANT TO READ!!
**

1. There will be NO MAKE-UP LABS under any circumstances. Of the eleven labs this semester, your ten best lab grades will count towards your final grade in the lecture course. This policy does not condone “missing” the last lab if you have completed the previous ten experiments. 2. DO NOT “show up” to another lab section if you have missed your own laboratory. If a student comes to a section for which he/she is not enrolled, the lab instructor (T.A.) is REQUIRED to tell the student that he/she cannot attend. 3. If a student is more than 10 minutes late to lab, then he/she must work alone if there is a station available. Late students are not allowed to join groups that have already begun their data collection. Any student who is more than 20 minutes late will under normal circumstances not be allowed to perform the experiment. 4. Students may work with a single lab partner; however, each student must submit an individual lab report reflecting his/her own work. If there are not enough experimental stations for accommodating students in pairs, then the T.A. will assign those groups that are larger than two students. 5. ONLY USE PENCIL to complete your lab report. If pen is used, then there will b a 10% deduction on your lab grade. Points will also be deducted for reports that are not neatly completed. 6. Lab reports are due by the end of the class period during which the experiment is performed. Your graded report should be returned to you at the beginning of the next class period. If your TA is not returning graded reports promptly, then please contact the Chair of Physics (Dr. Gowdy, rgowdy@vcu.edu). 7. Bring your textbook and calculator to the laboratory. Many of the questions in these labs require you to know formulas or concepts from the textbook and to do short calculations. 8. DO NOT USE lab computers for unauthorized purposes. Any student caught modifying the computer setup, downloading and installing software, or using a computer for some other unauthorized purpose is liable to default a large portion of their grade for the lab section. 9. DO NOT USE lab printers for printing out this lab manual. The lab manual is now available as a PDF document on Blackboard and LON-CAPA. If you come to lab without the printout of the experiment, then you will be allowed to print the pages but there will be a 10% deduction for your lab grade that week. 10. There is to be no food or drink in the laboratory. 11. Students should familiarize themselves with the VCU Honor System documentation at: www.provost.vcu.edu/pdfs/Honor_system_policy.pdf. Convincing evidence of honor system violations will result in the submission of formal written charges to the Office of Judicial Affairs & Academic Integrity. Please note that an honor system sanction resulting in a course grade of ‘F’ cannot be voided by course withdrawal, repeat course option, or grade appeal. A transcript notation is also recorded for such a grade sanction. 12. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires Virginia Commonwealth University to provide a reasonable accommodation to any individual who advises us of a physical or mental disability. If you have a disability that requires an accommodation or an academic adjustment, please arrange a meeting with your professor and lab T.A. within the first two weeks of class. If you have any questions or concerns related to the laboratory, you may contact Dr. Demchenko at ddemchenko@vcu.edu or 828-7077.

2

Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012

**Lab 1: Motion Graphs
**

Introduction

Several of the laboratories in Physics 207 involve the use of sensors connected to a computer in order to obtain data. The combination of the sensors, computer interface box, and software was developed by Pasco® Scientific and is known as Data Studio. Data Studio is located at every computer station in the room with a black interface box. For this first Data Studio experiment, you will use a motion sensor to produce graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time. The motion sensor uses ultrasonic pulses that reflect from an object to determine its position. The velocity and acceleration of the object are obtained mathematically from the first and second time derivatives of its motion. In this lab, you will be moving a piece of foam board vertically above a motion sensor located on the floor.

Experimental Procedure

• Equipment: Two-meter stick, foam board, motion sensor, and computer equipped with Data Studio.

**Part 1: Position and Velocity
**

• • Complete the sketch and Data Table 1 in Part 1 of the Data Analysis sheet BEFORE taking data. Check that the interface box is ON and open a new Data Studio experiment by clicking on the Data Studio icon. Click on Create Experiment. NOTE: In future experiments, the directions for setting up the Data Studio program will usually NOT be included in the procedure section. You will refer to the APPENDIX for Data Studio guidelines. In the ‘Experimental Setup’ window, add the motion sensor to channel 1 by clicking the “Add Sensor or Instrument,” then locating the motion sensor icon, which is located in the “Science Workshop Digital Sensors” droplist. After the motion sensor is added to the experimental setup, set the sample rate to 20 (Hz). Create the graphing window for the motion sensor by double clicking the Graph icon under Displays. Choose Position to display. MAXIMIZE the Graph Display window. Under Data, click and hold the Velocity icon, and drag it inside the graph. There are now two graphs: one for position and one for velocity. Double click on the Position axis, and set the max to 2 and the min to 0. Double click on the Velocity axis, and set the max to 1 and the min to –1. Unselect automatic scaling by un-checking the Adjust Axes to Fit Data box. To change the title of the graph, select the current title (Graph 1) under Displays and click inside the box so that a cursor appears. Change the title to “Position and Velocity vs. Time” (include your name). The software is now ready to collect your data. Physically connect the motion sensor by inserting the yellow plug of the motion sensor into digital channel 1 of the interface box and inserting the black plug into digital channel 2. Set the motion sensor on the floor facing upwards (verify with the 90° mark located on the side of the sensor). Place a meter stick upright just behind the motion sensor. Once you begin taking data, you will move a piece of foam board vertically above the motion sensor in order to approximately reproduce the position graph in Fig. 1 on the Data Analysis sheet. Note: the minimum distance between the foam board and the motion sensor must be at least 20 cm. Practice taking data by selecting Monitor from the Experiment menu (or typing Alt-m), and then moving the foam board above the motion sensor. The motion sensor will make a faint clicking noise when taking data. The position and velocity graphs of the foam board should be displayed in real time. To stop monitoring data, select Stop from the Experiment menu (or type Alt-. )

• • •

• •

• •

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Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012

•

When you are ready to begin recording data, select Record from the Experiment menu (or type Altr). After 4 s of recording, select Stop from the Experiment menu (or type Alt-. ) If your graphs do not approximately match Fig. 1, then repeat the process to record another set of data.

• •

•

Resize the graphs by clicking the Scale to Fit button on the toolbar (left-most icon in graphing window). Determine the experimental velocity during the period of motion. Highlight the sloping part of the position graph by clicking and drawing a rectangle around the slope only. Then, click the Fit Menu button on the toolbar, and select Linear Fit. The slope m is your experimental velocity. Record this value as vEXP in Question 2. Print the graph by selecting Print from the File menu (or typing Ctrl-p).

**Part 2: Velocity and Acceleration
**

• • Complete the sketch and Data Table 2 in Part 2 of the Data Analysis sheet BEFORE taking data. Now, move the foam board to approximately reproduce the velocity graph in Fig. 2 on the Data Analysis sheet. Note: To change the axis on the graph, right click on the label [e.g., Position (m)] and select the appropriate new variable. Change the scale of each graph by double-clicking on the axis and setting the new range. This graph should have velocity and acceleration, and should be titled “Velocity and Acceleration vs. Time” (include your name). Print the new graph and attach all printouts to the back of your lab report when turning it in. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet.

• •

4

Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012

Name:

Partner: Lab 1: Motion Graphs – Data Analysis Sheet

Date:

2 Graph Printouts [20 pts] + 2 Tables [20 pts] + 6 Questions [40 pts] + 2 Sketches [20 pts]

**Part 1: Position and Velocity of Board
**

• Using the position vs. time graph in Fig. 1, sketch the Velocity vs. Time graph below.

Fig. 1. Graphs of Position vs. Time and Velocity vs. Time (10 pts) • Using the position vs. time graph in Fig. 1, fill in the missing position and time values for the foam board in Data Table 1.

**Data Table 1: Motion of the Foam Board
**

Starting Position: Ending Position: Velocity During Period of Motion: Change in Position: Total Time in Motion:

(10 pts)

1. Show the calculation of the velocity of the board during the period of motion and record in Data Table 1. Also record this as your theoretical velocity vTHEO in Data Table 2. (5 pts)

2. Calculate the percentage error between the experimental and theoretical velocities and record it below. Show the calculation. (See Appendix for %error formula.) (5 pts)

vEXP (m/s):

Calculations:

vTHEO (m/s):

% Error:

5

fill in the missing velocity and time values for the foam board in Data Table 3.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Part 2: Velocity and Acceleration of Board • Using the velocity vs. Fig. sketch the Acceleration vs. 2. Also record this as your theoretical velocity vTHEO in Data Table 4. (5pts) aEXP (m/s2): Calculations: aTHEO (m/s2): % Error: 6 . 2. 2. Graphs of Velocity vs. Time and Acceleration vs. Time (10 pts) • Using the velocity vs. Time graph below. Calculate the percentage error between the experimental and theoretical velocities and record it below. Show the calculation of the acceleration of the board during the period of motion and record in Data Table 3. Data Table 2: Motion of the Foam Board Starting Velocity: Ending Velocity: Acceleration During Period of Motion: Change in Velocity: Total Time in Motion: (10 pts) 3. time graph in Fig. time graph in Fig. Show the calculation. (5 pts) 4.

that positive v and a point right. and then rolls horizontally again. Sketch the acceleration for the ball rolling back down the incline. and that no energy is lost due to friction. and position graphs for the rolling ball shown below.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 5. Sketch the horizontal acceleration. velocity. 6. NOTE: The x and v graphs for a ball traveling on a horizontal with NO incline are shown for reference. Assume that the ball starts at x = 0. rolls up an incline. (5 pts) 7 . (15 pts) A ball rolls at constant velocity along a horizontal surface.

Double click on the velocity axis and set max = 2 and min = –2. motion sensor. Practice taking data by selecting Monitor from the Experiment menu (or typing Alt-m). Physically connect the motion sensor as shown. NOTE – LEVEL the track by adjusting the single-threaded leg and re-tightening the wing nut underneath the track. time.5 and min = 0. ring stand with clamp and short rod. the acceleration a of the cart is given by: Experimental Procedure • Equipment: Ruler. MAXIMIZE the Graph Display window. and repeat for Acceleration. ) When ready to begin recording. velocity v. Create the graphing window for the motion sensor. When a cart is on a track inclined at angleθ. After 10 to 20 s of recording. Double click on the position axis and set max = 1. • • • • • • 8 . Complete Part 1 on the Data Analysis Sheet before continuing to Part 2. Double click on the time axis and set max = 20 s. and acceleration vs. no net force acts on it and its acceleration is zero. Give the cart a moderate push along the track. If this is not the case. select Stop from the Experiment menu (or type Alt-. For a cart on a track inclined at angleθ.) Turn on the air supply to power up the track. about 20 cm away from one of the two track barriers. so it will move at its initial constant velocity. ‘Hook up’ the motion sensor to channel 1 and set the trigger rate to 20 (Hz). Unselect automatic scaling by un-checking the Adjust Axes to Fit Data box. cart (springs at both ends). velocity.8 m/s2) acts in the direction of the cart’s motion. Double click on the acceleration axis and set max = 20 and min = –20. carefully adjust the angle between the sensor and cart until it does (0° mark on side of sensor). t graph should resemble a triangular wave. Resize the graphs and print. select Record from the Experiment menu (or type Alt-r). click on Velocity and drag it over to the graph. air track (barriers with springs at both ends). (The barrier is positioned to ensure that the minimum distance between the cart and the sensor is 20 cm.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Lab 2: Linear Motion Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to study the relationship between position x. record another set of data. To stop monitoring data. Under Data. turn off the air supply. a component of the acceleration due to gravity g (= 9. select Stop from the Experiment menu (or type Alt-. You will use a motion sensor connected to Data Studio in order to study the acceleration of a cart on a horizontal and an inclined frictionless track. Choose Position to display. and computer equipped with Data Studio. There are now three graphs: position. ) If your graphs did not work out. When a cart moves on a horizontal track. Part 1: Horizontal Track • • • Refer to the Appendix for the guidelines regarding setting up the Data Studio program. The x vs. Change the title of the graph to “Linear Motion” (include your name). After a reasonable data set is generated. The motion sensor is mounted at one end of the air track. and acceleration a in linear motion.

(These heights should be measured from the table to the top of the track.. repeat the process to record another set of data. if the track is tilted so that its upper end is 14 cm above the table and its lower end is 4 cm above the table. turn off the air supply. re-title the graph. Once a reasonable set of data is generated. t graph should resemble an asymmetric triangular wave (sawtooth wave). Record this value as aEXP in Data Table 1. To find this differential height. then its differential height is 10 cm (i. If your graphs did not work out.e. and then print the graphs (type Alt-p). the track should rise a DIFFERENTAL HEIGHT of h = 10 cm over the TOTAL LENGTH of the track (L = 1. Place the cart at the top of the track and release it. Highlight one of the sloping parts of the velocity graph and perform a linear least squares fit. 14 cm – 4 cm).Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Part 2: Inclined Track • Raise the end of the track with the connected motion sensor so that the track becomes inclined. The v vs. Record data for 10 to 20 s. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet for Part 2. Re-title and print the graph. measure the heights of the two ends of the track and then find their difference. Raise the track at the end with the motion sensor attached to a differential height of h = 20 cm above the lower end and repeat the experiment. and attach ALL graphs to your lab report. Resize the graphs using Scale to Fit.) For example. • • • • 9 . The slope of the velocity graph gives the experimental acceleration of the cart.65 m from one end to other). Turn on the air supply. For the first data run.

what is the velocity of the cart along the horizontal surface in one direction (neglecting when it reflects off the barriers)? Explain how this can be determined from the position and velocity graphs. Show a sample calculation. What happens to the velocity vector of the cart at the barriers. Using trigonometry. calculate the value of sin θ for each height h and track length L and record in Data Table 1. (5 pts) Velocity (m/s): 2. (5 pts) 10 . Reading directly from the graphs. What happens to the acceleration of the cart at the barriers. why? (5 pts) 3. why? (5 pts) Part 2: Inclined Track 4.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Name: Partner: Date: Lab 2: Linear Motion – Data Analysis Sheet 3 Graph Printouts [45 pts] + 1 Data Table [15 pts] + 7 Questions [40 pts] Part 1: Horizontal Track 1.

Calculate the theoretical acceleration aTHEO of the cart for each height h using the equation given in the introduction and record in Data Table 1.10 0. (5 pts) Data Table 1: Acceleration on an Inclined Track h (m) 0.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 5. Calculate the percent error between the experimental and theoretical acceleration of the cart for each height h and record in Data Table 1. Show a sample calculation. Circle the point on each graph corresponding to the time when the cart is at the top of the track. (10 pts) 11 . and a vs. v. Show a sample calculation.65 1.65 sin θ aEXP (m/s ) 2 (15 pts) aTHEO (m/s ) 2 % Error 7. t for the inclined track. Sketch one cycle (not the first) of x.20 L (m) 1. (5 pts) 6.

Complete the Data Analysis Sheet.) Copy these formulas into the remainder of cells in those columns that have corresponding data points.) Position the graph beneath the data and change its background color to white. and to experimentally determine the acceleration due to gravity. Create a graph of velocity vs. Copy the data into an Excel spreadsheet.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Lab 3: Projectile Motion Objective The purpose of this lab is to show that the horizontal and vertical motions of a projectile are independent of each other. (Note: Use Ctrl-key to highlight nonadjacent columns. In this lab. Experimental Procedure • • • Open the Projectile Motion video. (See Appendix for instructions and additional information. and E and use the Chart Wizard. and the date to the right of the data. Highlight the entire data set and add a border. you will track one projectile as it travels through the air. Find the best linear fit to both data sets using the linear trendline feature. You will use VideoPoint™ software and Excel™ to analyze the motion of a ball tossed into the air.) The finished graph should have one set of data points that forms a roughly horizontal line (Vx) and one that forms a downsloping line (Vy). time that includes both the x and y components of the velocity. Print the Excel spreadsheet and turn it in with your lab report. Highlight the data and headings in columns A. See the Appendix for how to create an x-y plot in Excel using the graphing wizard. Add the equations of the trendlines to the graph. partner’s name. (Hint: The average velocity uses data from the current point and the previous point. Open Excel and enter the following headings into the spreadsheet: 1 2 A t (s) B x (m) C y (m) D Vx (m/s) E Vy (m/s) • Find the average velocity in the x direction (Vx) and the average velocity in the y direction (Vy) by entering velocity formulas into cells D3 and E3 that use the data in columns A. D. • • • • • 12 . and C. B. The initial cells D2 and E2 should be left blank. then write your name. Refer to the Appendix for general VideopointTM procedures. which is located in “L:\PHY\Public\_LAB-VIDEOS”. Record the entered formulas into Data Table 1 on the Data Analysis Sheet.

Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Name: Partner: Date: Lab 3: Projectile Motion – Data Analysis Sheet 1 Spreadsheet Printout [30 pts] + 2 Data Tables [15 pts] + 5 Questions [55 pts] Data Table 1: Formulas Used in Excel Spreadsheet Cell D3 E3 Variable Formula (10 pts) vx (m/s) vy (m/s) 1. (5 pts) t1 13 . What do the trendline equations tell you? How well does this match with your answer to the above question? (5 pts) 3. Using the linear equations of the trendlines on your graph: a) Find the initial velocities of the ball in the x and y directions. (10 pts) vx0 vy0 b) Find the time t1 it takes for the ball to reach the highest point of its trajectory. The trendlines that you added to the graph are the “best fit” straight lines to your data. From what you know about projectile motion. what should the slopes of the horizontal and vertical velocity graphs be? (5 pts) 2.

Record this acceleration in Data Table 2 as gEXPT. This slope is negative because the positive direction has been defined as upward. Calculate the percent error between the experimental and the known (theoretical) values of g and record it in Data Table 2. Show all work for full credit. Show ALL steps of your work clearly with units included at all times for full credit. Projectile Problem: A projectile is launched at an angle of 45° with initial velocity v = 20 m/s. (a) Find the projectile’s initial horizontal velocity vx and initial vertical velocity vy.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 • The absolute value of the slope of the y velocity graph is the magnitude of the object’s acceleration. Show the calculation. 4. (10 pts) vx0 vy0 (b) Find the time t1 when the projectile reaches the apex (or highest point) and time t2 when it hits the ground. (5 pts) Data Table 2: Comparison of Accelerations gEXPT m/s 2 (5 pts) 2 gTHEORY 9. (5 pts) Δx 14 . (10 pts) t1 t2 (c) Find the range Δx that the projectile travels.8 m/s % Error: 5. Show all work for full credit.

3) The experimental addition of vectors will use a “force table” to apply forces of various magnitude and direction to a ring in the center of the table. the net force is the vector sum of the two applied forces. The components along each axis are then added to find the components of the resultant vector (FR). i. We will do this using three different methods. Each force is applied by hanging a mass over a pulley. each of which should yield the same results. 1) where F1 and F2 are the lengths of the vectors and θ1 and θ2 are their angles. 1. Fig. The trigonometric addition of vectors involves resolving the vectors into their x and y components. This resultant force FR is equivalent to hanging a single mass at some angle θR on the force table. The purpose of this laboratory is to practice vector addition by finding the resultant vector force due to simultaneously applied forces. 15 . the vectors are drawn to scale and the resultant should be a scaled representation of the force vector. The magnitude of the applied force (N) when a mass is hung equals the product of the mass (kg) and the acceleration due to gravity g (9. FR and θR will be determined by finding a third “equilibrant” force FEQ at some angle θEQ that will exactly balance the resultant force. In the experimental part of this lab. 2.e. whereas quantities with both magnitude and direction are called vectors. as shown in Fig. or the parallelogram method.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Lab 4: Vector Addition of Forces Introduction Physical quantities that only have a magnitude are called scalars. 2) Using the Pythagorean Theorem and trigonometry. “Parallelogram” method of vector addition.8 m/s2). the magnitude and angle of FR are given by: (Eqn. F = mg. “Head-to-tail” method of vector addition. The graphical addition of vectors can be done using the “head-to-tail” method. These components can then be added to find the resultant vector components as follows: (Eqn. 1. measured from the x-axis.. The x and y components of each vector are given by: (Eqn. The equilibrant force will have the same magnitude but opposite direction to the resultant force. as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. where the pulleys can be adjusted to any position around a circular plate. When two forces are acting on the central ring from different directions. In each case.

100 and 200 g). 3). To check. i. The origin of the graph corresponds to the center ring of the force table. Rest the fourth string and pulley on the table. string. three hanging masses (50. set up the pulleys and three masses as follows: Use the same method as in Part 1 to determine the resultant experimentally and trigonometrically. mass holder. graphically determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the attached graph paper (see introduction and use either method). 1 block = 1 N. it will not be used in this part. pulleys. Label all vectors and corresponding angles on the graph. 2) and the total magnitude and angle FR and θR (see Eqn. Equilibrium is achieved when the ring is balanced around the center rod on the table. e. • • • • Part 2: Resultant Determination for THREE Forces • • • • Next. Place the circular ring over the center rod of the force table and three of the strings over pulleys. slotted masses. Enter all values into Data Tables 4 and 5. calculate the resultant force components FRx and FRy (see Eqn. You will not add these forces graphically. Find the x and y components of the force vectors and record these values in Data Table 3. Record your calculations and values in Data Table 3.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Experimental Procedure • Equipment: Force table. Calculate the percentage difference between the experimental and calculated resultant forces and the experimental and graphical resultant forces.g. “flick” the ring to momentarily move the system and check if it returns to the same position. Pull on the third string to first determine the angle and then add the third pulley and adjust the magnitude of the suspended mass by adding slotted masses (mslot) to the mass hanger (mh) until the ring is centered and the system is in equilibrium. choose a scale to represent the force vectors. To do this. Record the magnitude and direction of the resultant force in Data Table 2. Record the suspended mass (ms) and the direction (θ) in Data Table 1. Before turning in the Data Analysis Sheet. Part 1: Resultant Determination for TWO Forces • • • • • Check that the force table is level and adjust the screws on the base as needed.. Next. Record the mass of the hanger (mh). ring. You will now determine the resultant force using the trigonometric method. check that you have completed all parts of the experiments. determine and record the magnitude and direction of the resultant force in Data Table 1. ms = mh + mslot From the results above and the relationship between the equilibrant and resultant forces. 16 . Remember to add the mass of the hanger to the slotted mass to determine the suspended mass (ms).e. Next. Set up the pulleys and masses as follows: You will now determine the direction and angle of the equilibrant force. and protractor. ruler.

Data Table 3 – Trigonometric Determination Show the calculations for the Trigonometric Determination.200 (10 pts) Force (N) Data Table 2 – Graphical Determination Graphical Determination of Resultant: (5 pts) Record the measured Graphical Determination of the Resultant force from the graph.100 0.0° ms (kg) 0. (10 pts) FR (N) Experimental Trigonometric Graphical Calculations: % Difference θR % Difference 17 . Show the % difference calculations and record them below.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Name: Partner: Date: Lab 4: Vector Addition of Forces – Data Analysis Sheet 5 Data Tables [65 pts] + 1 Diagrams [15 pts] + 2 Questions [20 pts] Part 1: Resultant Determination for TWO Forces Data Table 1 – Experimental Determination mh = Mass 1 Mass 2 Equilibrant Resultant kg Angle (θ) 0. (20 pts) Results Calculations F1x (N) F1y (N) F2x (N) F2y (N) FRx (N) FRy (N) FR (N) θR: 1.0° 115.

(10 pts) FR (N) Experimental Trigonometric Calculations: % Difference θR % Difference 18 .0° ms (kg) 0.0° 120. (20 pts) Results Calculations F1x (N): F1y (N): F2x (N): F2y (N): F3x (N): F3y (N): FRx (N): FRy (N): FR (N): θR: 2.200 0. Show the % difference calculations and record them below.100 0.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Part 2: Resultant Determination for THREE Forces Data Table 4 – Experimental Determination mh = Mass 1 Mass 2 Mass 3 Equilibrant Resultant kg Angle (θ) 10.050 (10 pts) Force (N) Data Table 5 – Trigonometric Determination Show the calculations for the Trigonometric Determination.0° 225.

Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Graph paper for Graphical determination of resultant force for TWO forces (Part 1) 19 .

The equipment used in this laboratory is designed to measure the centripetal force of an object in uniform circular motion. In this lab we will measure the frequency of the motion and the radius of the circle in which an object is traveling. (Acceleration is defined as any change in velocity). that is. 20 . we can therefore determine the force that must be exerted on it from Newton’s law: F = maR. 1. it must be experiencing a force of magnitude maR that is causing it to move in a circle. From these we can find the centripetal acceleration of the object using the above equations. An object traveling with speed goes once around the circumference of a circle (= 2πr). Although the speed of the object does not vary. We will compare the force determined in this way to a direct measurement. This in turn causes the pointer to raise up and point to the head of the target screw at the bottom. The Cenco Centripetal Force Apparatus (Fig.) This acceleration is called centripetal acceleration and is related to the velocity of the object and the radius of its circle by: . The centripetal acceleration is directed radially inwards. In this case. but its direction is changing. or the centripetal force. the magnitude of the velocity is constant. in a time: .Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Lab 5: Centripetal Force Introduction An object is in uniform circular motion if it travels around a circle at a constant speed. The Cenco Centripetal Force Apparatus. where T is called the period of the motion. its velocity vector is changing direction and the object is therefore accelerating. 1) is designed to allow a force of any kind to stretch a spring to a specified length. Knowing the mass of the object. A bob attached to a spring allows one to stretch the spring until the bob hits the small metal lever at the right end. towards the center of the circle. Because the object is accelerating. The frequency of the motion (or how often the object traverses the circle in one second) is related to the period by: . The Cenco Digital Motor-Driven Rotator spins the apparatus and provides a digital readout of its angular velocity (revolutions per minute. Fig. or rpm).

Record this distance in Data Table 1 as the Radius. turn the Motor Speed knob down to zero. Experimentally determine the mass needed to stretch the string far enough to just affect the position of the pointer. Measure the total length that the spring extends by measuring the distance from the center of rotation line in the middle of the apparatus to the mark around the center of the bob. 50 g. Record these values in Data Table 1 as RPM2 and RPM3.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 • Equipment: Cenco Centripetal Force Apparatus. chuck key. Insert the small pole extending from the bottom of the apparatus into the head of the rotator. Remove all masses and the mass holders. slotted masses [ 1 kg (2). NOTE: “RPM” is a measure of the frequency of the motion. goggles. as well as the mass of the mass holder in the total. and 4 sets of the following: ring stand with table clamp and arm with screw clamps. turn the chuck counterclockwise to remove the apparatus. PUT ON YOUR SAFETY GLASSES!! Now. Record this total mass in Data Table 1 as the Hanging Mass. then turn the chuck clockwise to clamp the apparatus. turn on the power. Check that the “Freeze Display” switch is turned off. but measured in rev/min instead of rev/s. Record the mass of the bob alone in Data Table 1 as the Rotating Mass. Include the mass of the bob (engraved somewhere on the bob). Slowly increase the speed of revolution by turning the Motor Speed knob. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet for the lab. and a ruler. then repeat this step two more times to obtain two additional readings for revolutions per minute. Cenco Digital Motor-Driven Rotator. Press the Reset Button. At one of the hanging stations in the room. string. Hang a mass holder on the loop of string at the other end. 500 g. The correct frequency f in Data Table 1 requires a conversion of the average RPM into RPS. Record the RPM value from the display into Data Table 1 as RPM1. hang the apparatus up on a hook using the loop of string on one end so that the bob is on the lower end. Press the RPM/Revolutions button until the light next to RPM is lit (the RPM data is what you want to measure). Do this until the pointer first moves to point toward the target screw (you must be eye-level with the screw and pointer to observe the change). Experimental Procedure • • If the centripetal force apparatus is clamped in the motor-driven rotator head. Check that the digital motor-driven rotator is plugged in and turned off. Check that it is tightly clamped. Before turning on the rotator. and take down the apparatus. Turn the Motor Speed knob back down to 0. Adjust the motor speed gradually up and down until the pointer points directly at the head of the screw. 100 g (4). 20 g (2). • • • • • • • • 21 . mass holder. 10 g].

From this average value. Show the calculation. (5 pts) 2. Show the calculation. (5 pts) 3. (15 pts) 4.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Name: Partner: Date: Lab 5: Centripetal Force of Circular Motion – Data Analysis Sheet 2 Data Tables [35 pts] + 8 Questions [65 pts] Data Table 1: Gravitational and Centripetal Force RPM1 (rev/m): RPM2 (rev/m): RPM3 (rev/m): RPMAVG (rev/m): Hanging Mass (kg): Radius (m): Rotating Mass (kg): f (rev/s): (25 pts) 1. Do not use your data in this question. The equation used to find the magnitude of the force exerted by the spring on the mass is F = 4π 2mrf 2. Calculate the magnitude of the force exerted by the spring on the mass using the relationship you just derived and record it in Data Table 2 as FCENT. calculate the frequency f in revolutions per second (RPS) and record it in Data Table 1. Derive this equation using the equations given in the introduction and Newton’s force equation. Show the calculation. (5 pts) 22 . Calculate the average RPM and record it in Data Table 1.

by what factor does the frequency change? Do not use your data in this question.: (10 pts) 7. (15 pts) 8. Calculate the magnitude of the gravitational force acting on the spring when the hanging mass was placed on it using FGRAV = mg and record it in Data Table 2. (5 pts) 6. The speedometer of your car shows that you are traveling at a constant speed of 75 miles per hour. Calculate the percent difference between the experimental gravitational force and the experimental centripetal force and record it in Data Table 2. Hint: This lab is about centripetal forces – what are we trying to learn here? (10 pts) 23 . Hint: Write the force equation from Question 3 for each setup (F1. Show the calculation. Show the calculation.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 5. equate the two expressions and solve for f2 in terms of f1. m2) and frequencies (f1. f2) are different. F2). (5 pts) Data Table 2: Comparison of Forces FCENT (N): FGRAV (N): % Diff. Because these two forces are equal (spring stretched same amount). If the weight of the rotating mass is doubled while everything except the frequency remains the same. Is it possible that your car is accelerating? Explain. where only masses (m1.

the gravitational potential energy is: . Find the total energy E by entering a formula into J3 that uses the data in H3 and I3. or type “Ctrl-v” to paste your data. For an object of mass m positioned a vertical height h from an arbitrary point. The purpose of this lab is to experimentally verify the law of conservation of energy. Assume the bob has a mass of 1 kg. but the relative values of the kinetic and potential energies can change. The total energy E of a system is the sum of its kinetic energy K and potential energy U of the objects within it: . When no external forces act on a system. • Enter formulas into columns D3 through J3 of the spreadsheet and record these formulas in Data Table 1 on the Data Analysis sheet. This sets the lowest y-value equal to zero.) Find the kinetic energy K by entering a formula into cell H3 that uses the mass of the bob and the velocity in G3. the total energy remains constant. Experimental Procedure • • • Refer to the Appendix for general VideopointTM procedures. Open Excel and enter the following headings into the spreadsheet: 1 2 A t (s) B x (m) C y (m) D Adj y(m) E Vx (m/s) F Vy (m/s) G V (m/s) H K (J) I U (J) J E (J) Click on cell A2 and then select Paste from the Edit menu. Find the potential energy U by entering a formula into cell I3 that uses the mass of the bob and the adjusted y-height in D3. Find the average x-velocity (Vx) by entering a velocity formula into cell E3 that uses data in columns A and B. The following information will help you complete the formulas: Find the adjusted y-height (Adj y) by subtracting the lowest y-value from each y-value. You will analyze a movie of a swinging pendulum using VideoPoint to find the kinetic and potential energies of the pendulum as a function of time. (Hint: Use the Pythagorean Theorem. Cells E2 to J2 should be left blank. the kinetic energy is: .) Find the average y-velocity (Vy) by entering a velocity formula into cell F3 that uses data in columns A and C. For an object of mass m moving at speed v. (Hint: Velocity uses data from the current and previous points. copy the data into an Excel spreadsheet. This principle of conservation is given by: .Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Lab 6: Conservation of Energy Introduction The two most common forms of energy are kinetic energy (of motion) and gravitational potential energy (of height). Find the total average velocity V by entering a vector addition formula into cell G3 that uses the velocities in E3 and F3. 24 . After collecting relevant data. Open up the Energy Conservation video. located in “L:\PHY\Public\_LAB-VIDEOS”.

Position the graph directly beneath the data and change its background color to white. • • 25 . I. H. Find the best polynomial fit to the kinetic and potential energies by using a trendline of degree 2. Find the best linear fit to the total energy data set using the linear trendline feature (see Appendix). then write your name. and the date beneath the graph. potential. and total energy by highlighting the data and headings in columns A. Create a graph of energy vs. and one roughly “constant” plot corresponding to the total energy. and J (use Ctrl-key).Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 • • Copy these formulas into the remaining cells of each column that have corresponding data points. partner’s name. Highlight the entire data set and add a border. The graph should have two nonlinear plots corresponding to the kinetic and potential energies. time that includes the kinetic. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet for the lab. Print the Excel spreadsheet and turn it in with your lab report.

was the total energy actually conserved? (5 pts) 2. Should the total energy of the pendulum be conserved in this experiment? Based on the trendline that you added to the graph.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Name: Partner: Date: Lab 6: Conservation of Energy – Data Analysis Sheet 1 Spreadsheet Printout [35 pts] + 1 Data Table [20 pts] + 5 Questions [45 pts] Data Table 1: Formulas Used in Excel Spreadsheet Cell D2 E3 F3 G3 H3 I3 J3 Variable Adj. Can kinetic energy ever be negative and why or why not? (5 pts) 26 . y(m) Vx (m/s) Vy (m/s) V (m/s) K (J) U (J) E (J) Formula (20 pts) 1. Explain why it is possible to test conservation of energy without knowing the mass of the bob. (5 pts) 3.

Find its velocity v just before hitting the ground. and THEN substitute numerical values. solve for the height h algebraically. Kinetic and Gravitational Potential Energy Problem: A block (m = 2 kg) is released from a height h = 50 cm above the ground. Show ALL work and units.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 4. FIRST. Show ALL work and units. (15 pts) v= (algebraic expression) v= (numerical value) 5. solve for the velocity v algebraically. (15 pts) h= (algebraic expression) h= (numerical value) 27 . and THEN substitute numerical values. Find the maximum height h of the block if the spring constant k = 100 N/m. The block is then released and travels up a frictionless. FIRST. Kinetic and Spring Potential Energy Problem: A block (m = 5 kg) is pushed against a spring that is compressed a distance x = 10 cm. inclined surface.

position. Otherwise. force sensor (~30 cm above table). x is the displacement of the spring from its equilibrium position. you will use a motion sensor and a force sensor to investigate Hooke’s Law: F = – kx . and time of a mass oscillating on a spring. slotted masses (10 g. 28 . Now add a 20 g mass to the mass hanger. aligned directly below the force sensor. and record in Data Table 1. mass holder. Click on the Force (N) axis. t and F vs. stand. ‘Hook up’ the force sensor (in ‘Analog Sensors’) to channel A. Experimental Procedure • Equipment: Rulers. un-check the Adjust Axes to Fit Data box. t graphs must resemble sinusoidal curves. You will be recording the oscillating motion of this massspring setup when the mass is pulled down and released. Hook the spring onto the force sensor and suspend the mass hanger (25 g) on the other end of the spring. 50 g). move the force sensor higher. In this laboratory. Once you are ready. you should first practice by monitoring the data (type Alt-m). Part 1: One Spring • • • • • • • • • • Refer to the Appendix for the guidelines regarding setting up the Data Studio program. The equipment should be set up with the force sensor suspended from the top of a rod and the motion sensor lying facing upward at the bottom of the rod. To find the theoretical spring constant kTHEO of the spring. For two identical springs in series. This laboratory uses Data Studio with a motion sensor and a force sensor to generate graphs of position and force of an object in simple harmonic motion. Zero the force sensor by pressing the Tare button on the right side of the sensor. the motion sensor will give a false signal. Ch A under Data and dragging it to the graphing window. Record a data run and stop after ~10 s. the spring constant is doubled. the spring constant is halved. Before recording data. motion sensor (WIDE setting). and computer equipped with Data Studio. You will also investigate how the spring constant changes when two springs of identical spring constant k are added in series and in parallel. and set the sampling rate to 20 Hz. Create the graphing window for the force sensor by clicking on force. ‘Add’ the motion sensor (in ‘Digital Sensors’) to channel 1 and set the Trigger Rate to 20 Hz. and set the max to 3 and the min to –3. IMPORTANT NOTE: There must be a minimum of 20 cm between the motion sensor and the bottom of the oscillating mass when it reaches its lowest point. Change the title of the Graph to “Simple Harmonic Motion” (include your name). 20 g. Click on the Position axis and set the max to 1 and the min to 0. The x vs. Physically connect the motion sensor and force sensor as shown. two identical springs. two spring separators with paper clips. Click on the Time axis and set the maximum time to 10 s and the minimum time to 0 s. Also. Resize the graphs and Print them. If the sinusoidal curves become noisy when the mass reaches the bottom of its oscillation. Create the graphing window for the motion sensor. and for two identical springs in parallel.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Lab 7: Springs Introduction The purpose of this lab is to study the relationship between force. Measure the extended length L + x of the spring using the ruler. MAXIMIZE the Graph Display window. and k is the spring constant. measure the rest length L of the spring and record in Data Table 1. where F is the restoring force of the spring.

The slope of the graph gives the experimental spring constant of the springs in series. Place a 50 g slotted mass into the mass holder. Suspend the mass hanger on the end of the springs and place a 10 g slotted mass on it. time by clicking on the graph area. On the x-axis. The linear least-squares fit data for this graph should already be displayed on the screen. x data for 10 to 20 s. and hook them onto the force sensor. Add a linear fit line to the graph. Next. and print it. Record F vs.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 • • • Now. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet for Part 1 before continuing to Part 2. allowing it to oscillate up and down. x graph should be relatively linear. Pull the mass down gently and release it. re-title the graph. and repeat the previous two steps to determine a k value for the parallel spring setup. Ch 1&2’ from the menu that appears. 29 . x graph setup on the computer. Attach the graphs from both parts of the experiment to the back of the lab report to turn in. Resize the graph. Record this k value in Data Table 3. Now. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet for Part 2. and press ‘Delete’ on the keyboard. change the input from time to position by double-clicking on the time axis label (‘Time (s)’) and selecting ‘Position. Delete the graph of position vs. The slope of the graph gives the experimental spring constant of the spring. change the spring setup. connect the two springs side-by-side (in parallel) by using the two spring separators (with the paper clips for suspension). The F vs. Connect the two springs end-to-end (in series) and hook them onto the force sensor. Part 2: Two Springs • • • • • • DO NOT CHANGE the F vs. Record this value in Data Table 2 and then print the graphs. position graph to determine the spring constant k. create a force vs.

Show the calculation. Calculate the gravitational force F exerted by the mass hanger on the spring and record in Data Table 1. Assume that the mass of the mass hanger is 25 g. Show the calculation.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Name: Partner: Date: Lab 7: Springs – Data Analysis Sheet 4 Graph Printouts [35 pts] + 3 Data Tables [20 pts] + 7 Questions [45 pts] Part 1: One Spring Data Table 1: Hooke’s Law to Find kTHEO L (m): • (5 pts) x (m): F (N): L + x (m): Determine the displacement x of the spring with the mass hanger and record in Data Table 1. Show the calculation. Using Data Table 1. (5 pts) 30 . calculate the theoretical spring constant ktheo using Hooke’s Law and record in Data Table 2. Calculate the percent error between the experimental spring constant and the theoretical spring constant and record in Data Table 2. (5 pts) 3. (5 pts) Data Table 2: Comparison of Spring Constants kEXP (N/m): kTHEO (N/m): % Error: (5 pts) 2. 1.

On the graphs of position and force vs. (5 pts) Part 2: Two Springs Data Table 3: Springs in Series and Parallel kEXP (N/m) Series Parallel 5. explain why the amplitudes decay over time. (10 pts) (10 pts) % Error kPRED (N/m) 6. time. Using the experimental value for the single spring constant obtained in part 1 and the information given in the introduction on identical springs in series and parallel. (5 pts) 7. Show both calculations. (10 pts) 31 . determine the predicted value of the spring constant for the springs in series and parallel and record in Data Table 3.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 4. Calculate the percent error between the experimental and predicted spring constants for springs in series and parallel and record in Data Table 3. how would you make the “softest” spring and the “stiffest” spring possible? Draw the combinations below. Show both calculations. If you were given three springs to combine in series or parallel.

MAXIMIZE the Graph Display window. the kinetic energy of each colliding body can change. Click on the Position axis of the second graph. The kinetic energy that is “lost” in an inelastic collision is transferred to some other form of energy. motion sensors. Turn on the air supply. When it is level. A maximum amount of energy is lost in a perfectly inelastic collision. but the total kinetic energy of the system is conserved. where p1i and p2i are the initial momenta of objects 1 and 2. The program Data Studio™ is used with two motion sensors to generate graphs of the velocities of two carts undergoing collisions on an air track. NOTE – LEVEL the track by adjusting the single-threaded leg. When no external forces act on a system. and p1f and p2f are the final momenta. If the cart starts moving to one side.e. ‘Add’ the motion sensor for the cart on the right to channel 1 and set the Trigger Rate to 20 Hz. place the other cart on the track. i. Ch 1&2 to display. and under layout check Do Not Group. 32 • • • • .Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Lab 8: Collisions in One Dimension Introduction Momentum is the vector p defined as the product of the mass m and the velocity v of an object. Experimental Procedure • • • Refer to the Appendix for the guidelines regarding setting up the Data Studio program. Physically connect the motion sensors into the Science Workshop Interface. where the objects “stick together” after the collision and have the same final velocity. • Equipment: Two carts. ‘hooking up’ the motion sensor to digital channel 3. Each cart has its mass printed on it. Also. so the conservation of momentum is: p1i + p2i = p1f + p2f. adjust the legs on the track to make it level. but the total momentum P of the system (vector sum of momenta of all the objects) does not change. un-check the Adjust Axes to Fit Data option. Place a cart on the track to see if it is perfectly level. The purpose of this lab is to study collisions in one dimension. usually thermal energy. the linear momentum of the system is always conserved (provided no external forces act on the system). There are two possible types of collisions: elastic and inelastic. This law of conservation of momentum can be expressed as: ΔP = 0 or Pi = Pf where Pi is the initial total momentum and Pf is the final total momentum of the system. and set the maximum time to 5 s and the minimum time to 0 s. Repeat for the motion sensor on the left. Record these masses as m1 and m2 in Data Tables 1 and 2 on the Data Analysis sheet. Ch 3&4 and dragging it to the graphing window. the momentum of each object in the system can change. and set the max position to 2 and the min position to 0. Click on the Time axis. This experiment involves two objects. All “real-life” collisions are usually inelastic since thermal losses are typically unavoidable. Check that both sides with Velcro are facing outward so that the two metallic sides touch when the carts collide. Create the graphing window for motion sensor 1. air track. and set the max to 2 and the min to 0. In an elastic collision. Change the title of the graph to ‘Collision #1’ (include your name in parentheses). Choose Position. and computer equipped with Data Studio™. Regardless of the collision type. Create the graphing window for motion sensor 2 by clicking on Position. p = mv. An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy of the system is not conserved.

Since the carts are stuck together after the inelastic collision. Attach the graphs for both collisions to the back of your lab report to turn in. Determine the velocity of cart 2 AFTER the collision. The slope is the velocity of cart 1 before the collision. not the entire graph. The top graph should contain two slopes—a steeper slope before the carts collided and a less steep slope after the carts have collided. Complete Part 1 on the Data Analysis Sheet before continuing to Part 2. Position cart 2 at the center of the track and position cart 1 over the leg of the track on the right side. Do not click anywhere else on the graph at this point. If your graphs did not work out. Once a good set of data is generated. Check that the slopes on both graphs are still displayed and then print them (type Alt-p). Begin recording data when ready.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Collision #1 • For the first collision. not the entire graph. Resize the graphs by clicking Scale to Fit. Begin recording data when ready. respectively. Position cart 2 at the center of the track and position cart 1 over the leg of the track on the right side. Resize the graphs using Scale to Fit. The top and bottom graphs correspond to the positions of carts 1 and 2. Highlight the steeper slope of this graph and record the slope as v1i in Data Table 2. You should be able to identify the time at which the collision occurred. Determine the velocity of cart 1 AFTER the collision. Type (Alt-r) to start and (Alt-. repeat the process to record another set of data. Determine the velocity of cart 1 BEFORE the collision. turn off the air supply. Change the title of the graph to ‘Collision #2’ (include your name in parentheses). using the same procedure as before. • • • • Collision #2 (perfectly inelastic) • For the second collision. Record the magnitude of this slope (ignore the minus sign) as v2f in Data Table 1. Record this value as v1i in Data Table 1. This graph has a negative slope because the motion sensor is mounted on the opposite end of the track. To do this. and then print them. Determine the velocity of cart 1 BEFORE the collision by adding a linear fit line to the sloping part of the top graph. the slope of the bottom graph should approximately equal the less steep slope of the top graph. you will slide cart 1 toward cart 2 (stationary) so that they have a perfectly inelastic collision. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet. • • • • • • 33 . Check that the slopes on both graphs are still displayed. The linear leastsquares fit data should still be displayed from the previous collision. Highlight the less steep slope of the top graph and record the slope as v1f in Data Table 2. or you will reset the Curve Fit and change your data! Determine the velocity of cart 2 AFTER the collision by adding a linear fit line to the sloping part of the top graph.) to stop. turn both carts around so that the sides with Velcro touch when they collide. Highlight the sloping part of the bottom graph and record the magnitude of this slope (ignore the minus sign) as v2f in Data Table 1. you will slide the cart on the right (cart 1) toward the stationary cart on the left (cart 2) so that they collide.

approximate the velocity of cart 2 before the collision (v2i) and the velocity of cart 1 after the collision (v1f) and record in Data Table 1. Show both calculations. Is kinetic energy conserved in this collision? What type of collision is it? (3 pts) 34 . Calculate the total momentum before (pi) and after (pf) the collision and record in Data Table 1. Calculate the percent difference between the initial and final total momenta and between the initial and final total kinetic energies and record in Data Table 1. Show both calculations. Data Table 1: Collision #1 m1 (kg): m2 (kg): pi (kg·m/s): Ki (J): v1i (m/s): v2i (m/s): pf (kg·m/s): Kf (J): v1f (m/s): v2f (m/s): p % Diff. Reading directly from the graph. Show both calculations.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Name: Partner: Date: Lab 8: Collisions in One Dimension – Data Analysis Sheet 2 Graph Printouts [30 pts] + 2 Data Tables [20 pts] + 11 Questions [50 pts] Collision #1 • • On the graph printout. (5 pts) 3. (5 pts) 4.: (10 pts) 1. and mark and label the point where the carts collided. (5 pts) 2.: K % Diff. Calculate the total kinetic energy before (Ki) and after (Kf) the collision and record in Data Table 1. Should momentum be conserved in this collision and does it appear to be? (2 pts) 5. mark and label the point where the first cart began moving.

and where the carts collided. It then collides with an identical.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Collision #2 (perfectly inelastic) • On the graph printout. Show both calculations. Calculate the total kinetic energy before (Ki) and after (Kf) the collision and record in Data Table 2. mark and label the points where the first cart began moving. Should momentum be conserved in this collision and does it appear to be? (2 pts) 10. Calculate the total momentum before (pi) and after (pf) the collision and record in Data Table 2. Show both calculations. stationary box and the boxes stick together in a perfectly inelastic collision. Should kinetic energy be conserved in this collision and does it appear to be? (3 pts) 11.: 6. (10 pts) 35 . (5 pts) 8.: K % Diff. Calculate the percent difference between the initial and final total momenta and between the initial and final total kinetic energies and record in Data Table 2. find the final velocity vf of the two “stuck” boxes. 1-D Collision Problem: A box slides on a frictionless surface with initial velocity v0. (5 pts) 7. Using conservation of momentum. Approximate the velocity of cart 2 before the collision (v2i) and record in Data Table 2. (5 pts) 9. Show both calculations. Data Table 2: Collision #2 m1 (kg): m2 (kg): pi (kg·m/s): Ki (J): v1i (m/s): v2i (m/s): pf (kg·m/s): Kf (J): (10 pts) v1f (m/s): v2f (m/s): p % Diff.

Add a border to the data. Copy these formulas into the remaining cells of each column that have corresponding data points. and write your name. Cells F2 to K2 should be left blank. find the average velocities of both pucks in the x and y directions by entering velocity formulas into cells F3 through I3 that use data from columns A through E. Mark and label the row on the data table where the collision occurs. Open Excel and enter the following headings into the spreadsheet: A 1 t (s) 2 B x1 (m) C y1 (m) D x2 (m) E y2 (m) F V1x (m/s) G V1y (m/s) H V2x (m/s) I V2y (m/s) J Px (g·m/s) K Py (g·m/s) Click on cell A2 and then select Paste from the Edit menu or type “Ctrl-V” to paste your data in. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet for the lab. you will analyze a movie of a 2D collision using VideoPoint to verify that momentum is conserved in both the x and y directions. Collect relevant data. Record these formulas in Data Table 1. Record these formulas in Data Table 1 on the Data Analysis sheet. Find the total momentum of the system in the x and y directions by entering formulas into cells J3 and K3 that use the mass of each puck (assume m1 = m2 = 100 g ) and the data in columns F through I. Print the Excel spreadsheet and turn it in with your lab report. partner’s name. • • • • 36 . Copy these formulas into the remaining cells of each column that have corresponding data points. These two directions can be treated independently when solving for the initial and final momenta of a system. In this laboratory. Experimental Procedure • • • Refer to the Appendix for general VideopointTM procedures. the linear momenta in the x and y directions are conserved. and copy the data into an Excel spreadsheet. • On the Excel spreadsheet.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Lab 9: Collisions in Two Dimensions Introduction For collisions in two dimensions. Open up the 2D Momentum video in the folder ‘L:\PHY\Public\_LAB-VIDEOS’. and the date beneath the data.

Do these results indicate that momentum is conserved in the y direction? (5 pts) % Diff: 37 . Calculate the percent difference between the average y momentum before and the average y momentum after the collision. Do these results indicate that momentum is conserved in the x direction? (5 pts) % Diff: 2. Calculate the percent difference between the average x momentum before and the average x momentum after the collision.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Name: Partner: Date: Lab 9: Collisions in Two Dimensions – Data Analysis Sheet 1 Spreadsheet Printout [35 pts] + 1 Data Table [20 pts] + 3 Questions [45 pts] Data Table 1: Formulas Used in Excel Spreadsheet Cell F3 G3 H3 I3 J3 K3 Variable V1x (m/s) V1y (m/s) V2x (m/s) V2y (m/s) Px (g·m/s) Py (g·m/s) Formula (20 pts) 1. Show the calculation. Show the calculation.

v1i. (a) Write the x. Then. m2. v2f ) (numerical equation) (numerical equation) (c) Find the final velocities v1f and v2f (in m/s) of pucks #1 and #2. v2f ) (algebraic equation using m1. Assume that the pucks move on a frictionless surface. v1f. (15 pts) p1xi + p2xi = p1xf + p2xf p1yi + p2yi = p1yf + p2yf (algebraic equation using m1.and ydirections (use m1. v1f.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 3. v2f.and y-components of the final puck velocities in terms v1f and v2f. (10 pts) v1xf = v2xf = v1yf = v2yf = (b) Write the algebraic conservation of momentum equations for the collision in both the x. substitute any known mass and velocity values and write the numerical equations. m2. v1f.). v1i. Substitute numerical values for any cosine or sine functions. Positive velocities are to the right or upwards. m2. 2-D Collision Problem: Puck #1 (m1 = 2 kg) moves with initial x-velocity v1xi = 2 m/s. (10 pts) v1f = v2f = 38 . It collides with a stationary Puck #2 (m2 = 2 kg) and the pucks continue with final velocities v1f and v2f as shown below.

and the angular acceleration α of an object are related by: . In this laboratory. check the velocity. 20 g weight. inner radius R1.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Lab 10: Rotational Inertia Introduction For rotational motion about a fixed axis. Refer to the Appendix for the guidelines regarding setting up the Data Studio program. Change the title of the graph to ‘Rotational Inertia for Rod Plus Two Point Masses’ (include your name). . Under Measurement. Click on the Time axis. Under “Sampling Options” set the Stop condition to 5 s. 1. Create the graphing window for the rotary motion sensor. a small hub will be rotated about its central axis due to the torque of a falling mass m on a string wrapped around the hub. and computer equipped with Data Studio™. rod. The purpose of this lab is to experimentally determine the rotational inertias of these objects and then to compare them with their theoretical values. The mass moves linearly downward at an acceleration a as the hub rotates about its fixed axis. • • • 39 . Choose Angular Velocity to display. ‘Add’ the rotary motion sensor to channel 1 and set Divisions/Rotations to 1440. the rotational inertia I. and set the maximum time to 5 s and the minimum time to 0 s. 1. In Eqn. Also. hoop. Data Studio™ is used with a rotary motion sensor to generate graphs of the angular velocities of various rotating objects. pulley. The two forces acting on the mass are its weight mg and the tension T in the string. distance R0 from axis): Hoop (mass M1. disk. Ch 1&2 (rad/s) box. outer radius R2): . the rotational inertia I. Experimental Procedure • • • • Equipment: Rotary motion sensor. Physically connect the rotary motion sensor to the Science Workshop Interface. For the objects used with the hub in this lab: Point Mass (mass M0. MAXIMIZE the Graph Display window. point masses. thread. and set Linear Calibration to the Medium Pulley (Groove). the torque τ on the hub (due to tension T of string) and angular acceleration a are given by: The remaining quantity in Eqn. the net torque τ. un-check the Adjust Axes to Fit Data box. The angular accelerations can then be found and used to determine the experimental rotational inertia of each object. Applying Newton’s second law to the mass gives: . depends on the mass of the rotating body and the way in which the mass is distributed relative to the axis of rotation.

If your graph did not work out. placing the hoop on the disk so it fits in place. Do not print graph. Resize the graphs using Scale to Fit. repeat the process to record another data set. Check that the linear least-squares fit data is still displayed on the graph and then print the graph (type Alt-p). Wind up the thread around the middle groove on the hub. Record the absolute magnitude of this value as α in Data Table 1 next to Rod Plus Point Masses. Remove the hoop and determine the angular acceleration α of the disk alone. Determine the angular acceleration α of the rod and point masses. time. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet. and secure them in place with the masses flush against the ends of the rod. Do not print graph. the slope value is the angular acceleration. you will determine the angular acceleration α of a rod with two “point masses” on it. Attach the graphs from both parts of the experiment to the back of your lab report to turn in. Wind up the thread around the middle groove on the hub. Stop recording data (type Alt-. Screw the rod onto the top of the hub. release the mass holder and begin recording data. you will determine the angular acceleration α of a disk with a hoop on it as well as α of the disk alone. Check that the linear fit data is still displayed on the graph and then print the graph. • • • • 40 . Remove the rod and screw the disk onto the top of the hub. Stop recording data before the mass reaches the end of the thread. The linear fit data should still be displayed from the previous part. Click the Fit button on the toolbar. Determine the angular acceleration α of the disk with the hoop on it and record this value as α in Data Table 2 under Disk Plus Hoop. ) before the mass reaches the end of the thread. Record this value as α in Data Table 1 under Disk Alone. slide the two masses onto each end of the rod. Change the title of the graph to ‘Rotational Inertia for Disk Plus Hoop’ (include your name). Because the graph shows angular velocity vs. Remove the two masses and determine angular acceleration α of the rod alone using the same procedure as before. Release the mass holder and begin recording data (type Alt-r).Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Part 1: Rotational Inertia of a Rod and Two Point Masses • For the first part. and select Linear Fit. as well as α of the rod alone. Record this value as α in Data Table 1 next to Rod Alone. • • • Part 2: Rotational Inertia of Hoop and Disk • For the second part. Resize the graph by clicking the Scale to Fit button on the toolbar.

Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Name: Partner: Date: Lab 10: Rotational Inertia – Data Analysis Sheet 2 Graph Printouts [40 pts] + 1 Data Table [15 pts] + 5 Questions [45 pts] Data Table 1: Rotational Inertias OBJECT Rod Plus Point Masses Rod Alone Point Masses Alone Disk Plus Hoop Disk Alone Hoop Alone 1. Show a sample calculation. where m is the hanging mass. 41 . The experimental rotational inertia of an object is given by I = mr(g-α r)/α .5 cm. r is the radius of the hub. In each case. (10 pts) • Find the experimental rotational inertia IEXP for the two point masses by subtracting the rotational inertia of the rod alone from that of the rod plus the two point masses. the disk with the hoop. (10 pts) (15 pts) IEXP (g-cm2) ITHEO (g-cm2) % Error α 2. and g = 980 cm/s2. and g is the acceleration due to gravity. the hanging mass m = 20 g. the radius of the hub r = 1. and the disk alone using the relationship above and record in Data Table 1. Calculate the experimental rotational inertia for the rod with the point masses. the rod alone. Find IEXP for the hoop by subtracting the rotational inertia of the disk alone from that of the disk plus the hoop. α is the experimental angular acceleration. Derive this equation using the information given in the introduction. Record in Data Table 1.

Show both calculations. (5 pts) 5. requires greater torque) in order to rotate and why? (10 pts) 42 . R1 = 2. (10 pts) 4. and a ring of radius r and mass m = 5 kg. Calculate the theoretical rotational inertia for each point mass (each M0 = 75. R2 = 3.65 cm. Which object is more difficult (i.5 g. Show both calculations.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 3. R0 = 18 cm) and for the hoop (M1 = 469 g. You are given the following two objects to rotate around their center axes: a flat disk of radius r and mass m = 5 kg.80 cm) using the equations given in the introduction for these objects and record in Data Table 1.e. Calculate the percent error between the experimental and theoretical rotational inertia for the point masses and the hoop and record in Data Table 1.

the lever arm r will be the distance from the pivot point to the center of mass (CM). then the following must be true: 1) The vector sum of all forces acting on the object must be zero (Translational Equilibrium). and θ is the angle between the force and the lever arm. In the case above. concentrated at the center of mass of an object can produce a torque For an object with a uniform mass distribution. To calculate the torque for an object with uniform mass distribution and length L rotated about any pivot point. 43 . or equilibrium). In this laboratory. where F is the magnitude of the force. The “turning” force is called torque τ and is defined as: . In the case of our uniform meter stick. If an object is in equilibrium. when the system is at rest (no net torque. Our definition of torque depends on the radial distance at which a force is applied from the axis of rotation. θ will always be 90°. The usual sign convention for torques in this course will be that counterclockwise torques are positive and clockwise torques are negative. 1. An example of how the weight. 2) The net torque about any axis of the object must be zero (Rotational Equilibrium). the center of mass would be the center of the meter stick. you will need to find the object’s center of mass. r is the lever arm of the force. so the torque simplifies to: .Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Lab 11: Torques and Rotational Equilibrium Introduction If a force F acts on an object at a distance r from an object’s pivot point. the meter stick is rotated about a pivot at the end of the stick and the lever arm r equals L/2. Torques rotate a body in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. forces will be applied to a meter stick balanced on a stand. then the object rotates about its pivot. The center of mass of an object is the point where all the mass could be placed to determine the translational motion of the object. there is no unique axis of rotation and one can calculate the net torque from any point and always obtain zero. because sin 90° = 1. In this lab. however. L Lever arm r = L/2 CM WCM = mCM g Fig.

Calculate the percent difference between the measured mass of the meter stick + clamp from Part 1 and the calculated mass. laboratory balance.05 kg + mclamp. and meter stick mass = mCM = mmeterstick + mclamp. Since the pivot point is at the center of mass. Hint: For finding the normal force exerted upward by the stand on the meter stick. Record this position as xCM in Data Table 1. From the end of the meter stick at 0 cm (Data Table 2): In this case. Let m1 = 0. Remember that the lever arm and torque values will be different about this different pivot point. Now. 100. Place the 200-g mass at the 10 cm position on the meter stick. force and position information from Data Table 1 into Data Table 2. hooked masses (50. calculate the mass of the meter stick + clamp. there will be three torques due to the three hanging masses AND a torque τCM due to the center of mass of the meter stick AND a torque τS due to the stand. We will calculate it using two different methods: 1. Record your results in Data Table 3.30 m mark and hang mass m2 at the x2 = 0. The position of the clamp is now the position of the center of mass of the meter stick. Adjust the balance point until the system reaches equilibrium. Record the balance point position in Data Table 3. Record these masses in Data Tables 1 and 2. we can choose any point as the pivot point.1 kg + mclamp. the lever arm rCM for the center of mass equals zero and the torque due to the meter stick is zero. 44 . m3 = 0. Since the system is in equilibrium and the sum of the torques equals zero. 200 g).001 kg). 2. Experimentally determine the position x3 (to the nearest 1 mm) at which mass m3 must be placed in order to balance the system. or it will damage the meter stick. Record in Data Table 3. Hang mass m1 at the x1 = 0.2 kg + mclamp. Adjust the position of the clamp until the meter stick is balanced. 2-prong support stand. Record the value of x3 in Data Table 1. and 4 adjustable clamps (3 with hanger. 1 without). • Place the adjustable meter clamp on the meter stick and place it on the support. think about the FBD of the meter stick.650 m mark. Enter the relevant mass.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Experimental Procedure • Equipment: Meter stick. • • • Part 2: Equilibrium using One Hanging Mass • • • Remove all of the masses from the meter stick. Part 1: Equilibrium using Three Hanging Masses Do NOT over tighten the screw. From the center of mass of the meter stick (Data Table 1): In this case. using the fact that the net torque of the system must be zero in equilibrium. there will be three torques due to the three hanging masses. Calculate the sum of the torques. m2 = 0. Measure the mass of each calibrated mass and its clamp and the meter stick and its clamp to the nearest gram (0.

Show the calculation for r3. Calculate the torques caused by the masses and record them in Data Table 1. The lever arm is the positive distance from the position of each mass to the pivot point (xCM) of the meter stick. (5 pts) 3. (5 pts) 2. Use the sign convention for torques and show the calculation for τ3. Show the calculations. (5 pts) Total Torque ∑τCW = ∑τCCW = ∑τ = 45 . Calculate the lever arms for all of the masses about the center of mass and record them in Data Table 1. Calculate the total clockwise and counterclockwise torques and record them below. Use the sign convention and sum these torques to find the total torque.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Name: Partner: Date: Lab 11: Torques and Rotational Equilibrium – Data Analysis Sheet 3 Data Tables [50 pts] + 10 Questions [50 pts] Part 1: Equilibrium using Three Hanging Masses Data Table 1: Torques about the Center of Mass meter stick mass (kg) = Mass (kg) (1 pt ea) m1 = m2 = m3 = Force (N) (1 pt ea) F1 = F2 = F3 = Position (m) (1 pt ea) x1 = x2 = x3 = (20 pts) xCM (m) = Lever Arm (m) (1 pt ea) r1 = r2 = r3 = τ1 = τ2 = τ3 = Torque (Nm) (2 pts ea) 1.

(5 pts) Total Torque ∑τCW = ∑τCCW = ∑τ = 46 . (5 pts) 7. Do the data confirm that the system is in rotational equilibrium? Explain. (5 pts) Data Table 2: Torques about the End of the Meter Stick (20 pts) meter stick mass (kg) = Mass (kg) m1 = m2 = m3 = meter stick stand mCM = Force (N) F1 = F2 = F3 = FCM = FS = Position (m) x1 = x2 = x3 = xCM = xS = xCM (m) = Lever Arm (m) r1 = r2 = r3 = rCM = rS = Torque (Nm) τ1 = τ2 = τ3 = τCM = τS = 5. Calculate the lever arms for all of the forces about the end (0 cm) and record them in Data Table 2. Show the calculation for r3. Use the sign convention and sum these torques to find the total torque. Calculate the total clockwise and counterclockwise torques and record them below. (5 pts) 6.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 4. Use the sign convention for torques and show the calculation for τ3. Calculate the torques caused by all of the forces and record them in Data Table 2. Show the calculations.

Calculate the percent difference between the calculated and measured masses of the meter stick. Show all work. Calculate the mass of the meter stick and record it below. (5 pts) Part 2: Equilibrium using One Hanging Mass Data Table 3 (10 pts) Balance point (m) = Mass (kg) m1 = meter stick Force (N) F1 = Position (m) x1 = xCM = Lever Arm (m) r1 = rCM = Torque (N⋅m) τ1 = τCM = 9. Do the data confirm that the system is in rotational equilibrium? Explain.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 8. (5 pts) % difference = 47 . (5 pts) Mass of Meter Stick mcalc = mmeas = 10. Show all work.

highlight the desired area of the graph by clicking. select Record from the Experiment menu (or type Alt-r). Motion Sensor) are located in the “Science Workshop Digital Sensors” dropdown list. All relevant measurement options should be displayed in the window after the specific sensor is selected. double click on top of the axis. Click on Create Experiment. and click once inside the box so that a cursor appears. Navigate through the tabs until you see what must be adjusted. There should now be two graphs. This is the same process as changing a file’s name on your computer desktop. The graphs should be displayed in real time. To stop monitoring data. ) When your are ready to begin recording. and drawing a rectangle around that area only.g. To add a second graph. Create the graphing window for the motion sensor by double clicking the Graph icon under Displays (bottom-left frame). Remember to always include your name in the title! Practice taking data by selecting Monitor from the Experiment menu (or typing Alt-m). To change any sensor options. Choose the graph you want to display. To change axis settings. Open a new Data Studio experiment by clicking on the Data Studio icon.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Appendix Data Studio™ Guidelines • Check that the interface box is ON. click on the sensor icon that is ‘hooked’ to the picture of the interface box. select Stop from the Experiment menu (or type Alt-. To ‘Add’ a sensor. This will adjust the axis settings to fit your graph. NOTE: Some sensors are located in the “Science Workshop Analog Sensors” drop-down list. click on the ‘Add Sensor or Instrument’ button within the “Experiment Setup” window. under Data (upper-left frame). If the interface box is not on you will have to turn it on and reboot the computer. MAXIMIZE the Graph Display window. Print the graphs by selecting Print from the File menu (or typing Ctrl-p). click and drag the desired variable over to the graph. To analyze your slope. while others (e. and navigate the tabs to set the desired range of values. holding.. Unselect automatic scaling by un-checking the Adjust Axes to Fit Data box. Resize the graphs by highlighting one graph and clicking the Scale-to-Fit button on the toolbar. click the current title (Graph 1) under Displays. • • • • • • • • • • 48 . Then. To change the title of the graph. Repeat if three graphs are required. not the entire graph The selected data will be highlighted in yellow. Attach the graphs to the back of your lab report to turn in. click the Fit Menu button on the toolbar. and select Linear Fit.

then position the cursor on the other end of the ruler and click. When the Movie Message appears. Move the cursor to the object’s new position and click again to mark the object’s second location.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 VideoPoint Guidelines: • • • • Open the movie for analysis. select 1 or 2 features or objects to be located.00 m and click Continue. Enlarge the window if necessary. MAXIMIZE the movie window (This step will ensure greater accuracy for location of features. 49 . Verify by making sure that the x. After highlighting all three data columns. Note: The quality of your data will be determined by how accurately you select the center of the object. You can advance the movie by clicking on the right arrow near the bottom right corner of the movie until the ball first appears. x-pos. choose Copy Data from the Edit menu (or type “Ctrl-C”) to make a copy of your data for transferring to Excel. When the Number of Points window appears. position the cursor on one end of the 1 meter line in the movie and click. Movies are located in the ‘L:\PHY\Public\_LAB-VIDEOS folder. Complete the experiment as instructed in the Manual. NOTE: You will next identify the ends of a meter stick so that the program accurately measures lengths. Find the Data window with all of the data values for the points that you just “clicked”.data are in terms of meters and NOT pixels. and is highly recommended. Repeat until the object is no longer on the screen or the video is over. To copy all three data columns at one time. first highlight the time column and THEN hold down the Ctrl-key and highlight the x-pos. • Collect data from the captured movie. and y-pos values from the Data window into an Excel spreadsheet. If you do not click on the ends of the meter stick as carefully as possible. This depends on the number of points you will be tracking. Open Excel and enter the following headings into the spreadsheet (may vary depending on lab): 1 2 A t (s) B x (m) C y (m) D E ™ Click on cell A2 and then select Paste from the Edit menu (or type “Ctrl-V”) to paste in your data. (Some videos may not require this step. You will need to copy the time. the program will not give correct position values. The movie should now automatically advance by one frame.and y. Double-click on the movie file to start VideoPoint™. and y-pos columns. • Copy the data into an Excel spreadsheet. Set the Known Length to 1.) Position the cursor so it is directly on top of the object and click to mark its first location. directly below the blue-colored up/down buttons. • • Print the Excel spreadsheet and turn it in with your lab report. When tracking 2 objects the screen will not advance until both objects have been clicked on.) Set the scale of the movie so that your data is in SI units: Open the Scale Movie window by clicking on the scale symbol on the left hand side of the VideoPoint window. This procedure stores the ball’s x-y position in a data table.

Highlight the remaining column(s). then click on the Options tab. then select Add Trendline from the menu that pops up. where cells A2 and B2 are to be added. Formulas are entered in a column by clicking on the cell of the first row in which you want to use a formula. and click OK. A might be needed in order to determine a relationship between them. and click OK. To change the graph background color to white. Chart Location: Check that As Object In is selected. ™ Additional Operations • • • • 50 . 3. then release the Ctrl-key. Set the presets for Outline and Inside. click and drag the cursor so that it fills up the cells in the C column that require the formula. Using the Chart Wizard. The graph should now appear on the same sheet as the data. A2 corresponds to the number 1 and B6 corresponds to the number 15. For example. select Linear for the type of trendline. right-click on the gray background and select Format Plot Area. To do this. Chart Source Data: Check that the Columns option is selected. where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept. make the following selections: 1. Chart Options: Enter an appropriate title for the graph next to Chart Title and label the axes (include the units) next to Value (X) Axis and Value (Y) Axis. Drag the text to a new location if it is obstructed by the graph or anything else on the screen. select Automatic under the Area section. highlight the area that is to be given a border.) Click on Next >. Chart Type: Select XY (Scatter). 4. one would highlight all the values in columns A and B. (See the Proper Format for Spreadsheet Printouts section on the following page for further information. the formula does not have to be typed again. The equation displayed on the graph will be of the form y = mx + b. 1 at the right. For the second row. Note: To highlight non-adjacent columns of data. Instead. In the next window. To add a border to the data set. you would click on box C1 and type =A1+B1. and click on the Border tab. then press and hold the Ctrl-key. Then select Cells from the Format menu. create a graph by clicking the Chart Wizard button (pictured at right) on the toolbar. Next. and click OK. To add a linear trendline to a graph. 1 a graph of B vs. in Fig. click in the white area surrounding the graph and drag to the desired location. Click on Next >. When the mouse button is released. For example. check the box for Display equation on chart. and then entering an equal sign Fig. in Fig. and use the Chart Wizard to create the plot. 1). then click on Finish. 1. click on cell C1 with the formula and position the cursor over the small black square that appears in the lower right corner of the cell (indicated by the arrow in Fig.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Excel Guidelines Every cell in an Excel spreadsheet is identified by its column letter and row number. Example Spreadsheet followed by the formula. Click on Next >. in Fig. One way to analyze the data is to enter formulas into the spreadsheet. highlight the first column. To position the graph. This feature of Excel graphs the data such that the first column is on the x-axis and the remaining column(s) are on the y-axis. 1 the numbers in column A can be added to the numbers in column B to obtain a third set of numbers in column C. 2. Creating a Graph • After highlighting the data that is to be graphed. For example. On the next window. right-click on one of the data points. every value in column C will be the sum of the values in the A and B columns to the left of them. Another method to analyze the data is to plot it. So in this example.

. =average(A1:A6) To define a block of cells for a formula. and the date should appear on the spreadsheet printout. Your name...Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 Hints for using formulas in Excel • • • • • • Do not forget to BEGIN every formula with an EQUAL sign.A10) =(B3-B2)/(A3-A2) The average velocity uses data from the current point and the previous point.g. calculate the percent difference: 51 . use a $ sign before the column letter and/or row number. lab partner’s name. All graphs must be labeled with a descriptive title to make clear what is being graphed. e. Common formulas used in this laboratory include: =average(A1:A10) =sum(A1. “= (B3-B2)/(A3A2)” where (B3-B2) represents the change in x-position and (A3-A2) represents the change in time. the cells A1 to A6 in the formula =average(A1:A6).. e. i. the location of a cell that never changes regardless of where the formula is typed. Error Analysis • To compare an experimental value E to a calculated or known (theoretical) value T. lab section number.. Graph(s) should be positioned directly beneath the data points. All spreadsheet data must have a border around the entire set of data points. e. To define an ‘absolute’ cell in a formula.e. To save printer toner. All graphs must have their axes labeled with units in parentheses. you can highlight the cells to enter their values into the formula.g. calculate the percent error: • To compare two experimental values E1 and E2. $A$18.g. To find the abbreviations for the available functions in Excel. set the graph background color to white.g. • Proper Format for Excel Spreadsheet Printouts • • • • • • • Excel spreadsheet printouts should follow the form of the sample printout on the following page. To copy the formula in a given cell to a block of nearby cells. e. choose “Insert” from the menu and then “Function”. click on the lower right-hand corner of the formula cell and drag the cursor over the block of nearby cells..

85 2.082 0.32 0.075 1.4 0.775 4.977 1.12 0.04 0.425 1.658 0.08 0.524 0.16 0.24 0.139 0.2 0.55 3 3.Phys 207 VCU Laboratory Manual – SPRING 2012 SAMPLE EXCEL SPREADSHEET PRINTOUT t (s) 0 0.039 0.2 4.675 Student's Name Partner's Name Lab Section Number Date 52 .3 0.302 0.012 0.213 0.225 2.44 0.35 3.36 0.404 0.48 x (m) 0 0.28 0.809 0.675 1.164 v (m/s) 0 0.

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