Performance Appraisal Management System Comparison between Public and Private Sector University of Pakistan.

Every organization has three types of resources physical, human & financial resources. A university plays an important role in building responsible plays an important role of providing quality education. Universities are providing higher education to trained its student and as well as helpful in development of personality. This all can be possible if teachers of university help to develop personality of student and transfer quality education to their students. This all can happen if teachers are motivated. Motivation is helpful for long term success of any organization. There are different theories of motivation like Maslow¶s hierarchy of need theory, Herzberg¶s motivation hygiene theory and Adam¶s Equity theory. These theories provide fundamental basis of motivation that help describing the motivation of employees in a systematic way and in understanding the contemporary theories of motivation like goal setting theory, reinforcement theory and expectancy theory etc. Maslow¶s (1943) need-based theory of motivation is the most commonly known theory of motivation according to which there are five fundamental needs of a person i.e., physiological, security, affiliation, esteem, and self-actualization. Herzberg (1959) has divided the motivational factors in terms of job satisfaction. He pointed out that factors giving job satisfaction are called motivators and factors that give job dissatisfaction called hygiene factors. The factors in field of education that are hygienic are salary, senior¶s role, work load. If these factors are supportive then there will be high performance level. These all can be determined by performance management system. Every organization conducts performance appraisal to find the performance of their employees. It is necessary for effective management and evaluation of staff.

It helps to clarify the aims and objectives of organization. V. III. feedback. X. Annual appraisal system On job observation One to one meeting Job tests Surveys Behaviour assessments Literature Review: . There are different types of performance appraisal system we-either it is traditional or 360 degree it would be helpful only if conducts in a proper way and honestly.Performance management system is simply the weightage of employee¶s working and its income. I. There are different benefits of performance appraisal management system that are following. interviews and discussions. It is also helpful to identify the training needs of employees. It improves the organization performance. Helpful to end-user satisfaction increase. II. I. IV. IV. VI. VIII. III. Formal ways include annual six-month. VI. Helpful to identify personal strengths Helpful for teambuilding. quarterly or monthly informal ways include on job also increase the employee¶s behaviour and motivation on work. II. There are formal an informal many ways of appraisal management systems. Helpful for making relationship between senior and junior employees Helpful to resolve the confusion and misunderstandings. Following are different types of performance appraisal. VII. IX. V. Helpful for employee growth and development Helpful for increase the profitability of any organization. Performance management depends upon the outcome. If the performance of employee is satisfied then there is rise in salary and if outcome is not satisfactory then there is cut in salary or dismissal from job. It helps to increase motivation level of employees. Performance appraisal system is also used to identify the gaps and training needs if required.

Moreover. 2011) For every organization (small or big) there are some objectives. the high ups should also ensure that the system is working to supports those purposes for which it is established in the civil service. (Muhammad Imran Rasheed. but still it could be used to improve performance appraisal system¶s fairness perceptions of civil servants working throughout the country. So the management in the civil service can increase fairness perceptions in non-supervisory employees which ultimately increase the effectiveness of the system. 360-degree appraisal. goals or missions to accomplish. as the same PAS is in practice for all the civil servants. (Malik Ikramullah (Corresponding Author). while developing a good performance appraisal system for teachers in higher education institutes. In order to increase the credibility of performance appraisal system there should be participation and ownership by the employees. In addition. ideas and needs of non-supervisory employees should be considered in the system development i.In short. These goals can be achieved by better planning. distributive and interpersonal and information justice perceptions should be increased. performance appraisal is the only tangible metric by which an institution can check and manage the performance of its diverse employees. Though the study was conducted in the District Dera Ismail Khan. goal-setting and performance Feedback are the most important factor in determining the success of appraisal system in any institution. (Aslam. The process leads towards the area performance management. So in order to increase fairness perceptions among non-supervisory employees their procedural. is measurement whether people are doing their work at right time in right manner. feedback. more participation in the system development. implementing strategies and smart management of human recourse. procedural justice. In addition. In this regard nonsupervisory employees should be given more training and knowledge regarding the system. 2010) The top management in the civil service should consider that fairness perceptions among the two groups of employees exist and supervisory employees have more favourable reaction to performance appraisal system then non-supervisory employees. adequate training. Role of head of . (Ambreen Anjum.e. Recognition. participation in performance planning and performance review meetings can be the factors of enhanced performance and should always be considered. so that their familiarity with the system should be increased. 2011). 2011) Management should have to adapt in order to enhance the quality of this system and its impact on teachers¶ performance. One of the important concerns however.

such systems are not based on any serious formal purpose for which they were designed. there is limited number of private sector organizations who are able to effectively execute the performance appraisal systems. In Pakistan. Research reveals that employees become aware of their performance after passing through the mechanism of performance appraisal. This interpretation justifies the strategic role of the performance appraisal and also provides a strong reason to why companies must focus on the effective execution of performance appraisals. The organizations should focus on the principle of µjustice¶ and µfairness¶ while designing and implementing performance management programmes for employees by ensuring that only µgood performers¶ are rewarded. Therefore management should be well trained for conducting performance appraisal system. Conclusively. Those who use this system are confined to the traditional approach of performance appraisal. The condition for such positive outcomes is that the performance appraisal system must be effective. Although most employees are aware of the type of performance appraisal system used in the private universities. (Nyaoga.rating systems. The developmental plans must be communicated to the employees to ensure proper coordination as doing this will reduce the µirritations¶ employees feel when their performance is appraised in regular intervals. The management of the companies must also consider the fact that there must be criterion validity rather than inconsistencies which limit the employee¶s ability to work for the organization with full zeal and zest. the private universities cannot measure employees¶ performance hence making it difficult to achieve the intended Human Resource Management objectives. The market competition has injected a culture of competing against each other among employees. leads to the organizational performance. in target oriented jobs like sales and marketing where in an effort to achieve the targets. The effectiveness of performance appraisal systems in the private universities are only based on training to the employees involved in the rating/appraising process and are multi. which in turn.department is very crucial in evaluating teacher¶s performance developing their capabilities and receiving good results. Especially. 2010) The performance appraisal has been an issue of major concern with its long lasting impacts on the employees¶ job performance. because the performance appraisal systems used in private universities are not effective and that they exist just as a matter of formalities. people ignore the human factor. This also entails that proper communication of the performance management . Performance appraisal system is the only tangible metric way by which an organization can know the level of performance of its diverse employees.

systems must be there so that employees better able to understand the importance of performance management systems. (Shahbaz. the firms were simpler and profits-focused. Volume3. These measurements were used to reflect effectiveness of operation.1 (June. During this period. (Tong Xue. and the trend of firms in the future. Thus various financial performance indicators were used in measuring their performance. Nonfinancial indicators started to be seen in performance appraisal system of firms. Moreover the evolution of appraisal methods was based on the financial indicators. (Tong Xue. If appraisal is important.1. financial appraisal was almost the whole content of performance appraisal of firms. its effectiveness is largely determined by the understanding. 2011)) The public sector universities need to change the typical confidential reporting system. No. Number6. return on investment and productivity and so on. July 2011) The second phrase approximately began as the middle and late of 1970s until the end of 20 Century. (Khurram Shahzad. Vol. Number6. No. as people paid most attention on profit. and owners or managers emphasize maximizing profit as a sole objective for operation. commitment and skills of the managers who must actually implement the system. Without these critical competencies. The time period for evaluation should be reduced from one year to six months and results should be communicated to teachers so that they can improve their performance. It is easy to understand that in the early stage of development of modern industry. Vol. No matter how well designed a performance appraisal system is. the overall situation of firms. people started to examine more performance dimensions such as customer satisfaction. 2005) . so is the appraisal of that performance. If performance is important to an organisation. The evaluation system should be devised in such a manner that it is linked with promotion and compensation so that teachers consider it important. strategy and learning and innovation capability and so on. The companies were purely profitorientated. At this stage. then managers must be led to develop the skills presented in this paper that are critical for effective appraisal. Volume3. 4. Thus financial indicators are the most obvious ones for performance appraisal of firms. the organisational appraisal process cannot achieve its desired objectives. (Kumar. the keystone of research on performance measurement was to develop financial indicators. July 2011) The reasons for not properly training managers to conduct effective appraisals do not hold water in our ever-changing work environment. 4 No.2 March 2008) Before the 1970s.

If leaders in education have the courage to do this and customise best practices in the world for local conditions they could well be providing a model of lifelong learning for teachers and in that way sustain improvement in the delivery of the organisational goal of education systems. and employees. Performance appraisal is much more limited.2006) Key performance areas are the most important factor for evaluating the employee¶s performance. Performance management is the creation of an entire system (a setting. a holistic process that should be advo-cated effectively and implemented as a part of managing teachers to enhance learning in the school. Most importantly. So. therefore. Summer 2007) Managing performance is. Performance should be . This constitutes an important and urgent avenue for in-service teacher training. Number 3 (2009)) Performance appraisal and performance management are different. (Tom Bisschoff. (Pedzani Monyatsi. but managerial and training aspects should be improved. Many teachers do not understand the purposes or practices of the current teacher appraisal process due to lack of orientation and training. Developing clear. 1. Volume 7. all the while harming the targeted individuals and even undermining the commitment and energy of the survivors. a work environment.29. teachers can gain increased knowledge and skills. The advocacy of an appraisal system for teachers: a case study. V o l 2 6. It is a process to assess how individual employees are performing and how they can improve their job performance and contribute to overall organizational performance.Aug. Vol. vol. which ultimately enhance their performance in their daily duties in the schools. (Grubb. The teacher appraisal system should be periodically reviewed to keep it in line with changes that may have taken place in the education system. (Mostafa Jafari. The current teacher appraisal system as practised in Botswana secondary schools is acceptable. 1. realistic performance standards can also reduce communication problems in performance appraisal feedback among managers. a culture) bringing together all of the essential factors so all of the people are enabled to work in an aligned and coordinated manner to the best of their abilities. 2009) Through the appraisal process as practised in Botswana secondary schools. supervisors. the appraisal process plays a crucial role in moulding the disposition of the teachers positively towards the teaching profession. there should be role clarity in the organization. No.A part of human resource management is performance appraisal to improve corporate performance.

Out of 139 universities 74 universities are in public sector and rest 65 universities are from private sector. The universities of Pakistan are offering education mainly from graduation to doctorate level which includes following 2009) A better performance appraisal system integrated with better HR practices will enhance performance appraisal satisfaction and also increase employee job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions to bring effectiveness in the www. Islamabad Allama Iqbal Open University. November 14. The traditional approaches like performance appraisal create many hindrances and instead of playing an effective role in the organization develop a cold war between the employer and employees. www. 13446 for public sector and 6180 for private sector universities. 5. (Adnan Ahmed. Graduation. Vol.ciit. Out of 803507 enrolments 339704 number of enrolments in distance learning program. Universities/DAI s chartered by the Government of Pakistan S. (Geeta Kumari. October 2010) Brief introduction of universities of Pakistan: There are 139 universities in Pakistan & most of the universities are started after year 2000. Effective performance appraisal systems stand to create a vision of success and a climate in which performers want to give their best and strive for continuous improvement. There are 37428 faculty members in universities according to HEC. Islamabad Main Campus Location Islamabad Islamabad Islamabad Islamabad Website Address www. Islamabad (AIOU) Bahria year 2008-09 total enrolment in universities are 803507.linked with reward and it should be given to employees timely. No 1 2 3 4 University/DAI Name Air University. 5. Goals are such that which should be easily sub divided into different organization.aiou. There are 18 public sector universities in Punjab province and 20 private sector universities. 1. Master. There should be consensus among employees when goals are developed. No. 348434 in public sector and 115369 in private sector. December 2010) The effective implementation of performance management system is the key to success for organizations looking for achieving the organization . Islamabad COMSATS Institute of Information www. (Faisal Tehscene Shah. MPhil. PhD. Developing and managing a performance management system is not an easy task.bci. Out of 37428 faculty members 17802 faculty members for distance learning Faisalabad National University of Modern Languages. Lahore University of www. Karachi Institute of Business www. Islamabad Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Dawood College of Engineering & 2011)Universities/DAI s chartered by Government of the Punjab S. Lahore Universities/DAI s chartered by Government of Sindh Main Campus Location Karachi Karachi www. No 1 2 University/DAI Name DOW University of Health Islamabad (PIEAS) Pakistan Institute of Fashion and Design. Gilgit Baltistan National College of Arts. Lahore University of Engineering & Technology.nust. Rawalpindi University of Education. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 University/DAI Name Bahauddin Zakariya (Pakistan.qau. Lahore Karachi Islamabad Islamabad Islamabad Gilgit Lahore Islamabad Faisalabad Islamabad Islamabad Islamabad Islamabad Lahore Abbottabad Karachi Islamabad Lahore Main Campus Location Multan Rawalpindi Faisalabad Lahore Bahawalpur Lahore Lahore Lahore Faisalabad Rawalpindi Lahore Lahore Taxila Gujrat Lahore Sargodha Lahore www. Sargodha University of the Islamabad Institute of Space www. Islamabad Virtual University of Pakistan. Lahore University of Veterinary & Animal www.pu. Karachi Federal Urdu University of Arts.uettaxila. Karachi Website Address Lahore University of www. Lahore Islamia University. Gujrat University of Health Sciences. Multan Fatima Jinnah Women Faisalabad University of Arid Agriculture. Islamabad (IST) International Islamic www.iba. Lahore (NCA) National Defense www. Rawalpindi (NUST) Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE) www. Faisalabad Government College www. Lahore Website Address Karachi Quaid-i-Azam Islamabad Karakurum International Sciences & www.pifd. Islamabad (NUML) National University of Sciences & Lahore Lahore College for Women Not Available Bahawalpur King Edward Medical University. Taxila University of Islamabad (NDU) National Textile University.numl.gcu. Lahore University of Engineering & Technology. Lahore Kinnaird College for Women. Abbottabad (PMA) Pakistan Naval www. Rawalpindi Government College Lahore Pakistan Military

quest. Mardan Frontier Women Universities/DAI s chartered by Government of Azad Jammu & Kashmir www. Jamshoro NED University of Engineering & Universities/DAI s chartered by Government of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa S. Malakand University of www.fwu. Dir University of Karachi University of Manshera Peshawar Peshawar Peshawar Kohat Peshawar Peshawar Dir Malakand Peshawar Bannu Swat Main Campus Location Khuzdar Quetta Lasbela Quetta Quetta Main Campus Location Mirpur Muzaffarabad www.aup. Quetta Website Address buetk. Kohat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural www. Swat Website Address www.lumhs. Peshawar NWFP University of Engineering.icp. Peshawar (IMS) Islamia College www. Khairpur Shahaeed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical Khuzdar Balochistan University of Information Technology & Management Jamshoro www. AJ&K University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir. Peshawar Kohat University of Science and Universities/DAI s chartered by Government of Balochistan S. Larkana Sindh Agriculture Peshawar Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Mehran University of Engineering & Technology. Peshawar Khyber Medical University.3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences. No 1 2 3 4 5 University/DAI Name Balochistan University of Engineering & Technology.pumhs. Mansehra Institute of Management Science. No 1 2 University/DAI Name Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST).pk www.iba-suk. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 University/DAI Name Abdul Wali Khan University.imsciences. Jamshoro Jamshoro Jamshoro Karachi Nawabshah Nawabshah Khairpur Larkana Tandojam Sukkur Karachi Jamshoro Main Campus Location Mardan Peshawar D.sbbu. Bannu University of Swat. Quetta University of Balochistan. Karachi Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences for www. www. Nawabshah Shah Abdul Latif University. & www.uok. Peshawar Gomal www. Quetta Lasbela University of Agriculture. www. Water and Marine Sciences Sardar Bahadur Khan Women www. Sciences & Technology. Sukkur University of Karachi. Peshawar University of Science & Nawabshah (Shaheed Benazirabad) Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering. Muzaffarabad Website Address Tandojam Sukkur Institute of Business Administration. Khan Hazara Azad

edu. Lahore Lahore School of No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 University/DAI Name Beaconhouse National Islamabad Riphah International www. Islamabad Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS) Taxila Imperial College of Business www. Lahore Institute of Southern Universities/DAI s chartered by Government of the Punjab S.mul. Lahore National College of Business Administration & www.lums.indus. Karachi Indus Valley School of Art and www.PRIVATE SECTOR UNIVERSITIES/DEGREE AWARDING INSTITUTES Universities/DAI s chartered by the Government of Pakistan S.usp. Lahore The GIFT University. Lahore (university status) Global Institute. Lahore Forman Christian College. Lahore University of Lahore. Lahore University of Management & Islamabad Main Campus Location Karachi Islamabad Lahore Islamabad Islamabad Main Campus Location Lahore Lahore Lahore Lahore Taxila Lahore Lahore Multan Lahore Lahore Lahore Lahore Gujranwala Lahore Faisalabad Lahore Lahore Lahore Lahore Wah Main Campus Location Karachi Karachi Karachi Karachi Karachi Karachi Karachi Karachi Website Address Universities/DAI s chartered by Government of Sindh www.aku. Faisalabad University of Central Karachi Website Address Lahore Minhaj University. Lahore University of South www. No 1 2 3 4 5 University/DAI Name Aga Khan Lahore HITEC University. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 University/DAI Name Baqai Medical Lahore University of www. Gujranwala The Superior Multan Lahore Leads University. Lahore National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences.umt. Karachi Institute of Business Karachi Hamdard www. Lahore The University of www. Karachi Foundation www.usa. Karachi Indus Institute of Higher www. Karachi Commeces Institute of Business & Emerging Sciences. Lahore Institute of Management Lahore Hajvery University. Karachi Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education.Karachi Greenwich Wah Website Address www.

Karachi Iqra University. Hyderabad Jinnah University for Women. Peshawar Gandhara University. AJ&K (Admissions allowed only at main campus. Karachi Zia-ud-Din University. No 1 University/DAI Name Al-Hamd Islamic University. Karachi Karachi Karachi Hyderabad Karachi Karachi Karachi Karachi Karachi Karachi Karachi Karachi Karachi Karachi Karachi Karachi Main Campus Location Peshawar Peshawar Peshawar Peshawar Topi Peshawar Nowshera Kohat Peshawar Website Address www. Karachi Newport Institute of Communications & Economics. Peshawar CECOS University of Information Technology and Emerging www. Karachi Karachi Institute of Economics & Technology. & 17. Science and www.10. Topi Iqra National University. No Universities Name Main Campus Location Website Address Status .9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Institute of Business and www.newports. AJ&K www.juw. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 University/DAI Name Abasyn www. Khan Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology. No 1 2 University/DAI Name Al-Khair University. Karachi Isra http://www. Quetta Main Campus Location Quetta Main Campus Location Bhimber Nerain Sharif Website Address http://www. Karachi Muhammad Ali Jinnah Universities/DAI s chartered by Government of Azad Jammu & Kashmir Karachi Preston Institute of AJK Website Address www.pafkiet. Karachi Sindh Institute of Medical www.biztek. Peshawar Northern University.preston. Karachi Textile Institute of Bhimber. Karachi KASB Institute of Technology. Karachi Sir Syed University of D.preston.szabist. Peshawar Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences & Universities banned for enrollment Nowshera Preston University. Kohat Qurtaba University of Science and Information Mohi-ud-Din Islamic www. Karachi Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of www.giki. Peshawar City University of Science and Information www.Khan Peshawar www. Karachi Preston www.abasyn. & Technology (SZABIST) Universities/DAI s chartered by Government of Balochistan Universities/DAI s chartered by Government of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa S.

The data is collected from G. 2011. The data is collected by questionnaire from faculty members of both sectors. To investigate the difference of method used in both sectors such as formal or informal appraisal system. Data analysis & research findings: Usage of formal and informal practices: According to this research 80% of respondents of private sector said that formal appraisal performance system is used in their institute and this feedback is given by head of institute. 2011) Objectives of study: 1. ( find difference about out how much changes takes affect after performance appraisal system. Qualitative approach is used to know the employee¶s perception about performance appraisal system. To investigate the different factors upon which performance appraisal system made. Whereas in public sector . 2. To find the difference about how much performance appraisal system helpful in both sector in employee career development as a teacher. This study is based on sample of 11 questionnaires five from each sector.2011. HEC will only recognize the degrees awarded to students already enrolled prior to 1st January. 5.1 University of East. other faculty members and external individuals such as government regulatory authority like higher education New Admission closed w. 6.e.uoe. Research methodology: The data for this study is collected by public and private sector universities. The basic aim of this study is to compare the public and private sector university performance management system and to improve the human resource practices in higher educational institutes of Pakistan. Hyderabad Hyderabad http://www. 4.f01. To investigate the difference of teacher¶s job satisfaction in both sectors.C University Faisalabad that is Public Sector University and 6 questionnaires are collected and from University of Central Punjab Faisalabad campus that is representative of private sector from their 5 questionnaire are collected. To find the difference about fair used of performance appraisal system.

100% respondents said that professional development undertaken. Effects of performance management appraisal feedback : In public sector university data 67% respondents said that there is no change in salary. change in the like hood of career development. student discipline and behaviour & extracurricular activities with students are with moderate importance aspects of performance appraisal feedback. 50% said that classroom management. work with head of institute and colleagues 67% respondents said that innovative teaching practices and understanding of main subject & knowledge 50% said that relation with students & knowledge and understanding of instructional practices in main subjects & teaching students with special learning needs are considered high importance aspects of performance appraisal feedback. On the other hand in public sector universities 84% respondents said that students test scores. working well with head of institute and colleagues. 100% respondents said that student¶s 83% respondents says that they received feedback from head of institute more than once in each month. parent¶s feedback. knowledge and understanding with teacher¶s main subject. from other teachers monthly and 67% respondents said that from external body they got feedback once per year. student¶s discipline and behaviour & extra-curricular activities with students have high importance in performance appraisal system. financial bonus or other rewards.50% respondents said that large change in public recognition from head of institute and colleagues 67% said that large change in work responsibilities that make job more attractive. teaching students with special learning needs. Important aspects of performance appraisal system or feedback: According to private sector teachers 100% respondents said that student test score.80% respondents said there is moderate change in opportunities for professional development activities & change in the like hood of career advancement. 83% respondents said that other student learning outcomes. In private sector institute 100% respondents said there is moderate change in salary. public recognition from head of institute or . knowledge and understanding of instructional practices.67% respondents said that moderate change in role in school development initiatives. classroom management and 80% respondents said that teaching in multi-cultural setting have moderate importance in performance appraisal feedback.

teaching student in multicultural setting and emphasis place on student test scores in their teaching.100% of respondents said that there is moderate change in class room management practices. . handling of student discipline and behaviour. In Public Sector University 50% respondents said that there is large change in knowledge and understanding in main subject & handling of students discipline and behaviour 67% said that there is large change in knowledge and understanding of instructional practices in main subject and development and training plan to improve teachings. teaching students with special learning needs.100% of respondents said that there is large change in financial bonus or other rewards.50% respondents said that there is moderate change in knowledge and understanding of their main subject and emphasis place upon improving students test scores. instructional practices in main subject. opportunities for professional development activities and change in work responsibilities that makes job more attractive.colleagues & role in school development initiatives.67% respondent said that there is moderate change in classroom management practices and teaching of students with special learning needs. Effect of employee behaviour concerning the performance appraisal/ feedback: In private sector 100% respondents said that there is large change in knowledge and understanding of their main subjects and training plan to improve their teaching.