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OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING (Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad) Submitted by B. SANTHOSH KUMAR (08791A0484) Under The Esteemed Guidance Of J. SRIDHAR Asst. Prof
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING AIZZA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (Affiliated to JNTUH, Hyderabad) Mulkalla, Mancherial, Adilabad - 504 209
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING (AIZZA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY) MULKALLA, MANCHERIAL, ADILABAD-504209 CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the technical seminar report on “HYDROGEN VEHICLE” Submitted by B. SANTHOSH KUMAR (08791A0484) in the partial fulfillment for the requirement of the degree of Bachelor of Technology. JNTUH, Hyderabad. This is a technical seminar report in the academic session 2011-2012.
INTERNAL GUIDE E.C.E
I would express our sincere gratitude to all those who have guided us in successfully accomplishing my technical seminar report. I would specially thank my internal guide J. SRIDHAR Asst. Prof. He explained the main aim of the technical seminar report. I’m grateful to his for having shared his knowledge and for putting forth his encouragement, support and valuable guidelines in the course of our technical seminar report. I extend heartiest thanks to our Head of the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Mr. P.PRABHAKAR Assoc. Prof. who had been a constant source of inspiration to us for his motivations in making this technical seminar report.
I profusely thank our PRINCIPAL Dr. M. THIRUPATHI REDDY for his encouragement and support. More over I sincerely thankful for giving me an opportunity to present this technical seminar report.
Lastly we express heart full thanks to all our faculty and friends for their constant support, encouragement and valuable contribution in completion of the technical seminar report.
B. SANTHOSH KUMAR (08791A0484)
Criticism 9.3 Public acceptance .2 Natural gas 9.1. Fuel cell 7.1 Fuel cell cost and durability 10. Hydrogen 7. Internal combustion vehicle 3. Specifications for the system 5.4 Codes and standards 8.3 Infrastructure 7. Design and how it works 4.1 Production 7.2 Hydrogen production and delivery 10.2 Storage 7.3 Battery electric vehicles 10. Introduction 2. Hydrogen economy 10. Hydrogen storage and safety 6.1 Plug-in hybrids 9. Comparison with other types of alternative fuel vehicle 9.
The drawbacks of hydrogen use are low . References 1. but is an energy carrier. Integrated wind-tohydrogen plants. solar. Many companies are working to develop technologies that might efficiently exploit the potential of hydrogen energy for mobile uses. Currently it is most frequently made from methane or other fossil fuels. if hydrogen is prepared without using fossil fuel inputs. Disadvantages 14. However. it can be produced from a wide range of sources (such as wind. vehicle propulsion would not contribute to carbon dioxide emissions. Future scope 15. Hydrogen vehicles include hydrogen fueled space rockets. to compete with traditional energy sources.11. INTRODUCTION: A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power. using electrolysis of water. The attraction of using hydrogen as an energy currency is that. Advantages 13. and quantities great enough. or by reacting hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run electric motors. Hydrogen fuel does not occur naturally on Earth and thus is not an energy source. or nuclear) that are intermittent. as well as automobiles and other transportation vehicles. The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy either by burning hydrogen in an internal combustion engine. too diffuse or too cumbersome to directly propel vehicles. are exploring technologies to deliver costs low enough. Widespread use of hydrogen for fueling transportation is a key element of a proposed hydrogen economy. Applications 12.
and the inefficiency of production processes. These hydrogen engines burn fuel in the same manner that gasoline engines do. Paul Dieges patented in 1970 a modification to internal combustion engines which allowed a gasoline-powered engine to run on hydrogen US 3844262. the large investment in infrastructure that would be required to fuel vehicles. very high storage vessel pressures. 3.energy content per unit volume. transportation and filling of gaseous or liquid hydrogen in vehicles. Mazda has developed Wankel engines burning hydrogen. high tankage weights. Francois Isaac de Rivaz designed in 1807 the first hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine. the storage. 2 INTERNAL COMBUSTION VEHICLE: Hydrogen internal combustion engine cars are different from hydrogen fuel cell cars. The advantage of using ICE (internal combustion engine) like Wankel and piston engines is the cost of retooling for production I much lower. Existing-technology ICE can still be applied for solving those problems where fuel cells are not a viable solution insofar. DESIGN AND HOW IT WORKS: Final Concept Design . for example in cold-weather applications. The hydrogen internal combustion car is a slightly modified version of the traditional gasoline internal combustion engine car.
• Water is held in the onboard water supply tank.This section gives an overview of some of the technologies incorporated in the design of the Station. and provides a basis for the understanding of the components’ operation. • The chiller pumps coolant to cool the compressor. Specific equipment used in the Station is also identified. • The hydrogen generator uses the electricity and water to produce hydrogen via electrolysis. The Station operates as follows: • Electricity is produced by the diesel generator and distributed to the Stations equipment through the Service Entrance Panel. and is gravity-fed to the hydrogen generator. The Station . • High-pressure hydrogen is pumped from the compressor to storage tanks where it is ready to be dispensed when needed.
The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy either by burning hydrogen in an internal combustion engine. or by reacting .
S. despite its wide availability for commercial use. the service requirements can be found by simply dividing by the supply voltage. is charged at a given rate to determine the total. the total consumption can be divided by the number of hours in the billing period. measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh). Hydrogen stations which are not situated near a hydrogen pipeline can obtain supply via hydrogen tanks.1 Infrastructure The hydrogen infrastructure consists mainly of industrial hydrogen pipeline transport and hydrogen-equipped filling stations like those found on a hydrogen highway. compressed hydrogen tube trailers. 1000 W / 240 V = 4. 70% of the U. SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE SYSTEM: 4.hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run electric motors. In order to determine an average demand (kW).2 A . 3. Hydrogen use would require the alteration of industry and transport on a scale never seen before in history. typically 240 V for residential service.  and 4.S. would require new hydrogen stations costing. 20 billion dollars. liquid hydrogen tank trucks or dedicated onsite production. Widespread use of hydrogen for fueling transportation is a key element of a proposed hydrogen economy.6 billion in the EU. For example.1 Electrical Power Source When most people think of electrical power use they relate to their home electric utility bill. an average home may consume 720 kWh in a 30 day period. Other estimates place the cost as high as half trillion dollars in the United States alone. 720 kWh / (30 days *24 hrs / day) = 1kW Further. 4. by some estimates. population lives near a hydrogen-generating facility but has little access to hydrogen. knowing that Amps = Watts/Volts. Energy consumption. according to GM. The distribution of hydrogen fuel for vehicles throughout the U. For example.
It was calculated that a 50 kW diesel generator will provide sufficient power to operate all the components. it was vital to select a diesel powered generator capable of providing sufficient electricity. when selecting the power source for the Station. and then the chiller. The discrepancy lies in the definition of average power consumption. the electric clothes dryer is operating along with the 15 kW of strip heat in the heat pump. Contrast this to a cold winter night when the electric water heater has both of its 4000 W elements energized to heat the tank after the dishwasher has run. and nearly every light is on in the house.Yet most homes have a 200 A service from their utility supplier. the compressor. Therefore. Motors can draw several times their rated name plate values for short durations which could potentially cause severe voltage sags if the system is not designed properly. it is assumed that not all equipment would be started up at the same time. such as a mild spring day when no one is home and the only thing using electricity is the digital clock on the night stand. followed by the electrolyzer. The instantaneous consumption may often be near zero. Adding the total startup loads if all equipment in the Station was started simultaneously would significantly increase the total load. as the water purifier would be started first. It was determined that the total run load of the components would be about 33 kVA. However. The average power consumption is the integration of the instantaneous energy demand over a given time period. This condition may only occur for a few minutes each year but the electrical system must be robust enough to handle power demanded during this time. . The Station faces a similar situation with the added complexity of the ability to start motor loads without voltage sags which may cause components to cycle off and on.
If the Station is used in locations where utility service is available.4 At maximum power for continuous use it supplies 40 kW. electricity will be routed to each of the Station’s components. The dimensions of the generator are 93 x 40 x 55 inches.The 50 kW Generac Model SD050 diesel generator was selected for the Station. it will receive electricity from the Station’s diesel generator. switch boxes. The generator is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2: General 50 kW Diesel Generator5 4. rather than residential.2 Electrical Interface When dealing with electricity. Load Panels are used. These panels are commonly known as breaker panels. in that the panel will be a 3-phase 240/120 panel. A service pole can be installed. It generates 120/240 Volts at a frequency of 60 Hertz. the most important issue is safety. however. They act as a type of traffic controller for an electrical application. and it weighs 2900 pounds. To control electrical flow and prevent overloading. and during continuous use supplies more than enough power to run all components simultaneously. Rather than receiving electricity from utility lines. From the panel. and wired . The Station will employ a panel similar to that used for commercial applications. or fuse boxes. it will be possible to supply electricity from the grid.
iron. The 144 gallon water tank will provide sufficient water to operate the Station for approximately 25 days at full load without refilling the tank. 4. but it may still contain other non-ionic types of impurities such as organic compounds that will also need to be filtered. The process removes all ions except H3O+ and OH−. so an onboard water storage tank will be used. which receives water from the purifier. requires 5. The Station is designed to be used in remote locations.into the Stations panel. 4.6 gallons/day to operate. calcium. bringing electricity to the Station similar to the way it would be supplied to a residence. The electrolyzer. Water is deionized by removing ions. water having greater than 1 megohmcm resistivity. such as cations from sodium. Its dimensions and construction are discussed in the Installation and Specification section. copper and anions such as chloride and bromide. The tank will be fabricated onto an interior wall of the Station’s container. . That is.4 Water Purifier: The operation of the hydrogen electrolysis generator requires ASTM Type II de-ionized (DI) water.3Water Supply The Station will require a constant supply of water for the operation of the hydrogen generator.
4. It produces hydrogen from water and electricity by means of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolysis. protons. Deionized water is introduced into the system where water is split into oxygen.482 V). . which is just the reverse of a PEM fuel cell process.999+% pure hydrogen gas on demand. and electrons on one electrode (anode) by applying a DC voltage higher than a thermoneutral voltage (1.5 Hydrogen Generator The Hogen RE 40 hydrogen generator was selected for use in the Station. The Hogen generator produces 99.
6 Hydrogen Compressor In order to move hydrogen from the electrolyzer into the vehicle being fueled. This tank may be used in applications where the compressor requires greater flow rate than the hydrogen generator can produce. and is discharged to the high pressure storage tanks. The electrolyzer produces hydrogen at approximately 200 psi. Figure 7 shows a diagram of the process. . Note that this diagram also shows an optional accumulator tank. and hydrogen-fueled vehicles will require a pressure of around 5000 psi to fill their tanks. a pressure difference must exist. it is stored at 200 psi in a low pressure accumulator tank. After hydrogen is generated by the electrolyzer. Therefore. The Station uses a high pressure storage process to produce sufficient volume and pressure.4. the hydrogen must be compressed prior to the fueling process. It is then fed to the compressor where it is compressed to a greater pressure than that required for fueling.
The liquefied refrigerant is then passed through a throttling device that lowers the pressure. chilled water systems are often chosen over chilled air devices. The chiller consists of a refrigeration unit and a closed coolant loop.Figure 8: 4. which is then passed through the condenser where it is cooled and condensed into liquid. The chiller’s refrigeration unit is a closed-loop system that compresses its refrigerant gas. For equipment in the size range considered for the Station.7 Chiller Inefficiencies in the operation of the compressor require that the excess heat be removed from this device. .
However. it has a tendency to diffuse away quickly in case its container is breached and consequently may represent less of a hazard than gasoline.9 Uninterruptible Power Supply The Station’s safety system incorporates an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) to maintain operation of vital safety equipment during a generator power failure. The simplest way to carry hydrogen fuel in a car or other vehicle is as a high-pressure gas 3-10 kpsi (21-69 MPa) in metal or composite-reinforced (fiberglass. Further. carbon fiber. and safety shutdown system. because H2 is the lightest gas. Kevlar) tanks. 4. it is vital to have safe.14 However. The power failure may be a result of generator failure or emergency shutdown. the circuit disables the Hogen. the chiller. When an emergency stop or hydrogen sensor is triggered. including hydrogen sensors and emergency power stops.4. a vehicle being refueled would require pressure of approximately 5000 psig in order to approach its maximum capacity. Whether the application is hydrogen-fueled vehicles or large scale hydrogen production. 5. .8 External Hydrogen Storage and Supply One of the challenges faced when producing hydrogen is storage. This is similar to the way compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles operate. reliable storage capabilities that will not fail prematurely over time. and the compressor. The UPS will maintain power to the emergency lights. ventilation fan. Hydrogen is produced for the Station by a Hogen RE 40 electrolyzer at 200 psig and a rate of 44 SCFH. a flow rate of 40 SCFH would create a very slow refilling process. HYDROGEN FUEL STORAGE SAFETY Hydrogen has a reputation for being explosive and therefore raises concerns about the safety of carrying a substantial quantity of H2 in a vehicle fuel tank.
. production of hydrogen. FUEL CELL: While fuel cells themselves are potentially highly energy efficient. at least four technical obstacles and other political considerations exist regarding the development and use of a fuel cell-powered hydrogen car: the cost. research and design advances developed a new nickel-tin nanometal catalyst which lowers the cost of cells. The U. However. Fuel cells are generally priced in USD/kW. Their 2005 figure was $73 USD/kW (based on high volume manufacturing estimates). by 2010. Occasionally. reliability and durability of the fuel cells. These authors conclude that . storage of hydrogen for use in fuel cells.S. and has the ability to dissipate quickly into the atmosphere because of its light weight compared to air. which they said was on track to achieve the U. assuming high-volume manufacturing cost savings.hydrogen is no more or less dangerous than any other energy carrier and furthermore that hydrogen has properties that in certain areas make it safer than other energy carriers: it is not poisonous. Ballard Power Systems also published similar data.000 per car. many designs require rare substances such as platinum as a catalyst in order to work properly. which translated into each vehicle costing more than 1 million dollars. As of October 2009. Billings in the 1960s. hydrogen fuel cells are relatively expensive to produce and some are fragile.There is an interesting report on H2 for energy use  by the Norwegian environmental organization Bellona with useful safety information in Chapter 5.S. 6. Department of Energy estimated that the cost of a fuel cell for an automobile in 2002 was approximately $275/kw. Also.1 Fuel cell cost: Currently. Fortune magazine estimated the cost of producing the Honda Clarity at $300. 6. In 2010. a catalyst can become contaminated by impurities in the hydrogen supply. and delivery of hydrogen to vehicles. and working prototypes were made by Francis Thomas Bacon in 1959 and Roger E. the Department of Energy estimated that the cost had fallen 80% and that such fuel cells could be manufactured for $51/kW. rendering the fuel cell inoperable.
This would achieve closer parity with internal combustion engines for automotive applications. 6. Marine PEM fuel cells reached the target in 2004.2 Freezing conditions: Temperatures below freezing are a concern with fuel cells operations.Department of Energy's 2012 goal of $30 USD/kW. Operational fuel cells have an internal vaporous water environment that could solidify if the fuel cell and contents are not kept above 0° Celsius (32°F).3 Service life: Although service life is coupled to cost.S. 6. which would keep the fuel cell at an adequate operational temperature to function correctly. DoE's 2010 target for cold weather starting which was 50% power achieved in 30 seconds at -20 °C. HYDROGEN: . heat is a byproduct of the fuel cell process. Places such as Alaska where temperatures can reach −40 °C (−40 °F) at startup would not be able to use early model fuel cells. fuel cells have to be compared to existing machines with a service life in excess of 5000 hours for stationary and light-duty. Fuel cells have startup and long term reliability problems. Curre y like in the bus trials which are targeted up to a service life of 30. This makes startup of the fuel cell a concern in cold weather operation. Ballard announced in 2006 that it had already hit the U.000 hours. Most fuel cell designs are not as yet robust enough to survive in below-freezing environments. allowing a 100 kW fuel cell to be produced for $3000. 7. they would not be able to begin working. Frozen solid. especially before start up. Once running though. 100 kW is about 134 hp.
much like a battery. currently renewable energy represents only a small percentage of energy generated. and 85% of hydrogen produced is used to remove sulfur from gasoline. and power produced from renewable sources can be used in electric vehicles and for non-vehicle applications.1 Production: The molecular hydrogen needed as an on-board fuel for hydrogen vehicles can be obtained through many thermochemical methods utilizing natural gas. by a process called thermolysis. liquefied petroleum gas. and transmit the hydrogen by pipeline or truck. compress or liquefy. While methods of hydrogen production that do not use fossil fuel would be more sustainable.Hydrogen does not come as a pre-existing source of energy like fossil fuels. 7. Current technologies for manufacturing hydrogen use energy in various forms. totaling between 25 and 50 percent of the higher heating value of the hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen can also be produced from water by electrolysis or by chemical reduction using chemical hydrides or aluminum. or as a microbial waste product called biohydrogen or Biological hydrogen production. used to produce. 95% of hydrogen is produced using natural gas. A suggested benefit of largescale deployment of hydrogen vehicles is that it could lead to decreased emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors. When compared to ICE vehicles using gasoline. According to the United States Department of Energy "Producing hydrogen from natural gas does result in some greenhouse gas emissions. however. fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen produced from natural gas reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 60%.2 Storage: . biomass (biomass gasification). but is first produced and then stored as a carrier. Hydrogen for vehicle uses needs to be produced using either renewable or non-renewable energy sources. coal (by a process known as coal gasification). 7.
equal to about one-third that of methane. Even when the fuel is stored as liquid hydrogen in a cryogenic tank or in a compressed hydrogen storage tank. the volumetric energy density (megajoules per liter) is small relative to that of gasoline. 7.9 MJ/kg). Hydrogen has a three times higher energy density by mass compared to gasoline (143 MJ/kg versus 46.3 Infrastructure: Hydrogen car fueling .Compressed hydrogen storage mark Hydrogen has a very low volumetric energy density at ambient conditions. Some research has been done into using special crystalline materials to store hydrogen at greater densities and at lower pressures.
6 billion in the EU. To enable the commercialization of hydrogen in consumer products. Other estimates place the cost as high as half trillion dollars in the United States alone.S. compressed hydrogen tube trailers. by some estimates.4 Codes and standards: Hydrogen codes and standards.  and 4. as well as codes and technical standards for hydrogen safety and the storage of hydrogen.S. In May 2008.The hydrogen infrastructure consists mainly of industrial hydrogen pipeline transport and hydrogen-equipped filling stations like those found on a hydrogen highway. Wired News reported that "experts say it will be 40 years or more before hydrogen has any meaningful impact on gasoline . 20 billion dollars. despite its wide availability for commercial use. Hydrogen stations which are not situated near a hydrogen pipeline can obtain supply via hydrogen tanks.  7. state and local governments. 70% of the U. and hydrogen vehicles may never become broadly available. according to GM. The distribution of hydrogen fuel for vehicles throughout the U. For example. population lives near a hydrogen-generating facility but has little access to hydrogen. They claim that the focus on the use of the hydrogen car is a dangerous detour from more readily available solutions to reducing the use of fossil fuels in vehicles. liquid hydrogen tank trucks or dedicated onsite production. 8. would require new hydrogen stations costing. CRITICISM: Critics claim the time frame for overcoming the technical and economic challenges to implementing wide-scale use of hydrogen vehicles is likely to last for at least several decades. new codes and standards must be developed and adopted by federal. have been identified as an institutional barrier to deploying hydrogen technologies and developing a hydrogen economy. Hydrogen use would require the alteration of industry and transport on a scale never seen before in history.
The Washington Post asked in November 2009. . the GM Volt's battery has 4 coolers and two radiators. states in 2010 and in more locations in 2011. for the foreseeable future. became commercially available in some U. The PHEV concept augments standard hybrid electric vehicles with the ability to recharge their batteries from an external source while parked. The battery needs to be cooled. Plug-in hybrids Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The infrastructure required to charge PHEVs is already in place. the hydrogen car will remain a tailpipe dream". and transmission of power from grid to car is about 93% efficient. "the total well-to-wheels efficiency with which a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle might utilize renewable electricity is roughly 20% (although that number could rise to 25% or a little higher with the kind of multiple technology breakthroughs required to enable a hydrogen economy). when electrical energy is already waiting to be sucked out of sockets all over America and stored in auto batteries"? The paper concluded that commercializing hydrogen cars is "stupendously difficult and probably pointless. COMPARISON WITH OTHER TYPES OF ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE : Hydrogen vehicles are one of a number of proposed alternatives to the modern fossil fuel powered vehicle infrastructure. "But why would you want to store energy in the form of hydrogen and then use that hydrogen to produce electricity for a motor. and we can't afford to wait that long. That's why.consumption or global warming. In the meantime. As of 2009.S. the first commercially-manufactured PHEV. enabling increased use of the vehicle's electric motors while reducing their reliance on internal combustion engines. 9. or PHEVs. fuel cells are diverting resources from more immediate solutions. are hybrid vehicles that can be plugged into the electric grid and contain an electric motor and also an ICE or other engine. The Chevrolet Volt.
 A December 2009 study at UC Davis found that. academia. and portable power applications. their Hydrogen Program is dedicated to working with industry. is 80% (and could be higher in the future)— four times more efficient than current hydrogen fuel cell vehicle pathways. national laboratories. HYDROGEN ECONOMY: The hydrogen economy describes a new system in which our energy needs will be predominantly met by hydrogen. Natural gas powered vehicles have a lower carbon dioxide footprint than ICE vehicles. rather than hydrogen vehicles. 10.The well-to-wheels efficiency of charging an onboard battery and then discharging it to run an electric motor in a PHEV or EV. would become standard in the automobile industry. and federal and international agencies to: • “Overcome technical barriers through research and development of hydrogen production. rather than carbon-based fossil fuels. as the greenest vehicle available. and there is sufficient infrastructure to provide both commercial and home refueling stations. however. Natural gas has a higher energy density than hydrogen gas. distributed stationary power. which uses compressed natural gas. In 2008. over their lifetimes. PHEVs will emit less carbon than current vehicles. When using Biogas. CNG vehicles have been available for several years.” • “Validate and demonstrate hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in realworld conditions. and storage technologies. while hydrogen cars will emit more carbon than gasoline vehicles. NGVs become carbon neutral vehicles that run on animal waste.” • “Address safety concerns and develop model codes and standards. as well as fuel cell technologies for transportation. delivery." A 2006 article in Scientific American argued that PHEVs. the ACEEE rated the Honda Civic GX. According to the United States Department of Energy (DOE). and” . Natural gas ICE-based CNG or LNG vehicles (Natural gas vehicles or NGVs) use Natural gas or Biogas as a fuel source.
1Fuel Cell Cost and Durability: . and survivability in extreme climates. 10.Cooperation between national and international organizations will be vital to making the transition to this new economy. and structural integrity of hydrogen storage system must be addressed before the technology can be commercially available to a wide market. and operating cycle life in real-world applications. fast-fill dispensing efficiency. Validation is required for vehicle drivability. operation. and emissions from hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICE).2 Hydrogen Production and Delivery . Each segment of this network will bring perspectives unique to their target applications. In this way. failure. component technologies can be developed independently. and then integrated with other technologies to form the complete infrastructure of the hydrogen economy. Hydrogen Storage – Current technology does not meet the requirements for large scale transportation or stationary applications. long-term durability.Information and statistical data for concept and developmental fuel cell vehicles is often limited and proprietary.1. Capital cost. validation of integrated systems is necessary for system development. Research and development is needed to address performance. 10. Although various components have been tested and validated independently.
and codes and standards will need to be developed and adopted The design of the Station is a step toward making available a real world application of portable hydrogen production and refueling technologies. This project and projects like it help to demonstrate that the technical and safety barriers that currently stand in the way of widespread commercial acceptance of these technologies can be overcome. 11. Data is limited for integrated coal-to-hydrogen/power plants with sequestration options. the availability of hydrogen production systems is low.– Currently the cost of hydrogen production is high. the high-temperature renewable hydrogen production systems. APPLICATIONS: 11. 10.3 Public Acceptance: – In order to foster acceptance of the hydrogen economy. Delivery options must be developed. and alidated for every potential production technology. and . personnel will need to be trained to operate and maintain the infrastructure. tested. and production and delivery technologies are still in their early stages of development.1 Automobiles: production of hydrogen from nuclear power. the public will need to be educated.
Equipment and Applications in 2007. the Ford Motor Company has dropped its plans to develop hydrogen cars. China.2 Buses: Fuel cell buses (as opposed to hydrogen fueled buses) are being trialed by several manufacturers in different locations. Other manufacturers as Vectrix are working on hydrogen scooters. 11. and some automobile manufacturers have begun developing hydrogen cars (see list of fuel cell vehicles).4 Motorcycles and scooters: ENV develops electric motorcycles powered by a hydrogen fuel cell. stating that "The next major step in Ford’s plan is to increase over time the volume of electrified vehicles".Ford Edge hydrogen-electric plug-in hybrid concept Many companies are currently researching the feasibility of building hydrogen cars. 11. However. unveiled a hydrogen bicycle at the 9th China International Exhibition on Gas Technology. The Fuel Cell Bus Club is a global fuel cell bus testing collaboration.  .3 Bicycles: Pearl Hydrogen Power Sources of Shanghai. including the Crosscage and Biplane. Some double deck models use between floor tanks. 11. Hydrogen was first stored in roof mounted tanks. although models are now incorporating onboard tanks. Funding has come from both private and government sources.
11. 43 kW diesel internal combustion engine converted to use hydrogen as a fuel with the use of a compressor and direct injection. . The Boeing Fuel Cell Demonstrator powered by a hydrogen fuel cell Companies such as Boeing.Finally. 11. hydrogen fuel cell-electric hybrid scooters are being made such as the Suzuki Burgman Fuel cell scooter and the FHybrid. The hydrogen tank is filled with 26 liters of hydrogen at 350 bar pressure. It used a 2. 2008. Lange Aviation.5 Airplanes: . internal combustion engine powered industrial forklift truck used for lifting and transporting materials. The first production HICE forklift truck based on the Linde X39 Diesel was presented at an exposition in Hannover on May 27. Unmanned hydrogen planes have also been tested.0 litre. and the German Aerospace Center pursue hydrogen as fuel for manned and unmanned airplanes. In February 2008 Boeing tested a manned flight of a small aircraft powered by a hydrogen fuel cell.6 Fork trucks: A truck is a hydrogen fueled.
Vehicle propulsion would not contribute to carbon dioxide emissions. and liquified cryogenic hydrogen in the space shuttle. Just prior to a launch. and any other application that requires water in space. and is used for drinking. ADVANTAGES: 1.7 Rockets: Many large rockets use liquified cryogenic hydrogen as a propellant. 12. to charge the fuel cells that power the electrical systems. In addition they use liquified cryogenic oxygen. the rocket fuel tanks are filled and chilled. The biproduct of the fuel cell is water. . The oxygen is also used to provide the rocket engines with oxygen for better thrust in space.11. due to the lack of oxygen in space.
14. and activated carbon. transportation and filling of gaseous or liquid hydrogen in vehicles. the large investment in infrastructure that would be required to fuel vehicles. the storage. very high storage vessel pressures. we review briefly the status of carbon nanotube storage. fullerenes. and the inefficiency of production processes.13. Other carbon-based storage technologies that have been proposed include alkali-doped graphite. FUTURE SCOPE: Carbon Nanotube and Related Storage Technologies The status of hydrogen storage in advanced carbon materials is still unclear. . high tankage weights. In this subsection. and graphite nanofiber stack storage. DISADVANTAGES: The drawbacks of hydrogen use are low energy content per unit volume. both single-walled and double-walled.
Of the other hydrogen storage systems. It is hard to say what is a reliable estimate of the hydrogen uptake number because of the differences in the reported levels by different groups.5 wt% has been suggested) brought this response : 1.5% value is not yet achievable in my opinion. advanced carbon materials have been especially intriguing possibilities. So far it doesn’t seem to me that there is yet much available carefully controlled work. 16. very mixed . While this technology has the disadvantages of limited energy density and possibly high weight for the tank. Ogden reported various conflicting. 2. results . some excessively optimistic. 3. However I would not discount the possibility of a breakthrough that might change the situation dramatically. arguing from a theoretical standpoint. However. A query by this subcommittee to Prof.000 psi) on-board storage tanks. presumably doing similar measurements. Mildred Dresselhaus of MIT about the achievable wt% (6.High surface area and abundant pore volume in the nanostructured materials make these especially attractive as potential absorption storage materials. The problem seems to be hard to me. CONCLUSION: The only proven system for hydrogen storage today that is practical for fuel cell vehicles is compressed gas high pressure tank storage. The 6. The reasons for the different results between groups are not understood. it has been shown to workable with up to 70 GPa (10. Some early work gave tantalizing results for hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes.
September 2009. Finally. . Department of Energy. but a breakthrough is needed to provide a foundation for confidence that carbon nano tubes or related materials will be able to satisfy storage requirements. Retrieved 7 January 2010. Golden. CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. REFERENCES: ^ "Wind-to-Hydrogen Project".experimental results have left us to conclude that these materials are far from proven to have adequate storage capacity. Further research is ongoing. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research. new ideas in hydridation of metal-N-H systems are sufficiently interesting that they are being pursued and may lead to the development of practical storage systems. U.S.
Peter. 2009 Blanco. Washington Post. 2008 ^ Dennis. "Nissan Swears Off Hydrogen and Will Only Build Electric Cars". ^ "New Hydrogen-Powered Land Speed Record from Ford". Retrieved 1 June 2009. green. hydrogen cars 10x more expensive than Volt". Washington times. Retrieved 5 September 2009. "Honda Announces First FCX Clarity Customers and World’s First Fuel Cell Vehicle Dealership Network as Clarity Production Begins". Bloomberg News (24 August 2009).com. "Honda pulls out of Frankfurt to . Sebastian. Abuelsamid. October 30.autoblog. October 17. 2009 Whoriskey. Motorsportsjournal. Retrieved 2010-12-12. All Cars Electric.com. and many more demonstration car kits. February 26. Other educational materials. December 2. ^ "Ford Motor Company Business Plan". "GM CEO: electric cars require teamwork. Sam. 2009 Honda Motor Company (16 June 2008). "The Hydrogen Car Gets Its Fuel Back". "Hydrogen-powered vehicles on horizon". Lyle. ^ Thames & Kosmos kit.