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# Dispersion:

Illustration13. In two factories A & B engaged in the same industry, the average monthly wages & standard deviations are as follows: Factory A B Avg. monthly wages (Rs.) 4600 4900 S.D. of wages (Rs.) 500 400 No. of wages earners 100 80

a) Which factory A or B pays larger amount as monthly wages? b) Which factory shows greater variability in the distribution of wages? c) What is the mean & standard deviation of all the workers in two factories taken together? Illustration14. The number of employees, daily wages per employee & the variance of the wages per employee for two factories are given below: Factory A Number of employees Avg. daily wages per employee (Rs.) Variance of the daily wages per employee (Rs) 50 120 9 Factory B 100 85 16

a) In which is their greater variation in the distribution of daily wages per employee? Illustration 26. Calculate variation & coefficient of variation from the following data: Profit (Rs. Cores) Less than 10 Less than 20 Less than 30 Less than 40 Less than 50 Less than 60 No. of companies 8 20 40 70 90 100

Illustration 35. Find the mean, median & standard deviation of the weight of billet in 8 gms as given in the following table: (Wt. in gms) 210-215 215-220 220-225 225-230 230-235 235-240 240-245 245-250 Frequency 8 13 16 29 14 10 7 3

Problem 19. Compute coefficient of variation from the following table: Weekly income (Rs.) 1300-1399 1400-1499 1500-1599 1600-1699 1700-1799 1800-1899 1900-1999 No. of employees 30 46 58 76 60 50 20

Problem 24. Lives of two models of refrigerators in a recent survey are: Life (No. of tears) 0-2 2-4 4-6 6-8 8-10 10-12 No. of refrigerators (Model A) 5 16 13 7 5 4 (Model B) 2 7 12 19 9 1

What is the Average life of each of these refrigerators? Which model has grater uniformity?

Problem 29. A factory produce two types of electric lamps A & B. In an experiment relating to their life, the following results were obtained: Length of life 500-700 700-900 900-1100 1100-1300 1300-1500 No. of lamps A 5 11 26 10 8 No. of lamps B 4 30 12 8 6

Compute the variability of the life of the two types using coefficient of variation.

Problem 32. The life of two types of tires in a sample survey is given below: Life (in Km) 5000-10000 10000-15000 15000-20000 20000-25000 25000-30000 Types A 18 22 26 25 9 Types B 15 24 30 18 13

a) Which of the two types tires give a higher average life. b) If price are same for both the types, which type would you prefer & why? Problem 56. Assume that your pathology lab. Provides the following details of blood test carried out on 100 patients for diabetes: Blood sugar 90-100 100-110 110-120 120-130 130-140 140-150 150-160 No. of patients. 16 20 22 25 10 4 3

## Skewness, Moments & Kurtosis

Illustration 4. From the following data calculate first four moments & also find the value of Monthly profits ( in Lakh Rs.) Less than 7.5 7.5-12.5 12.5-17.5 17.5-22.5 22.5-27.5 27.5-32.5 32.5-37.5 No. of patients. 4 10 20 36 16 12 2
1:

Illustration 7. An analysis of production rejects resulted in the following figure: No. of rejects per operation 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 No. of operators 5 15 28 42 15 12 3

Calculate mean, standard deviation & coefficient of skewness & comment on the result.

Illustration 18. You are given the following data pertaining to kilowatt hours of consumed by 100 persons in Delhi: Consumption (in K-watt hours) 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 No. Users: 6 25 36 20 13

Calculate: i) Arithmetic mean, ii) Standard deviation & iii) coefficient of skewness.

Illustration 23. Calculate pearsons measure of skewness on the basis of mean, mode & standard deviation, from the following data: Class-Interval 14-15 15-16 16-17 17-18 18-19 19-20 20-21 21-22 Frequency 35 40 48 100 125 87 43 22

Problem 17. (a) How do measures of central tendency. Dispersion, skewness & Kurtosis help in analyzing a frequency distribution? Wage (Rs.) 2000-2200 2200-2400 2400-2600 2600-2800 2800-3000 3000-3200 3200-3400 3400-3600 No. of persons 12 18 35 42 50 45 30 8

Problem 43. The following table gives the distribution of monthly wages of 500 workers in a factory: Monthly Wage (Rs. hundred) 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 No. of workers 10 25 145 220 70 30

Compute karl pearsons & Bowlevs oefficient of skewness. Interpret your values. Problem 45. Calculate Age :
1

&

from the following distribution & interpret the result: 50-55 55-60 60-65 16 7 2

## 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 45-50 2 8 18 27 25

Frequency:

Correlation
Illustration 2. Find correlation coefficient between the sale & expenses from the data given below: Firms Sale (Rs. La.): Expenses (Rs.La.): : 1 50 11 2 50 13 3 55 14 4 60 16 5 65 16 6 65 15 7 65 15 8 60 14 9 60 13 10 50 13

Problem 11. Find Karl Pearsons coefficient of correlation from the following index number & interpret it: Wages : 100 101 99 103 99 102 97 104 95 99 02 97 95 98 94 96 90 96 91

Cost of living: 98

Problem 30. The following data relate to the price & supplies of a commodity during a period of eight year: Price (Rs. /Kg) Supply (100 Kg) :10 :30 12 35 18 45 16 44 15 42 19 48 18 47 17 46

Calculate the coefficient of correlation between the two series. Problem 39. The following data show the marks of 10 students in mathematics & statistics in an examination: Marks in math: 45 70 70 65 40 30 95 90 40 40 60 50 80 75 80 85 50 60

Marks in Statistics: 35 90

Find Karl Pearsons coefficient of correlation & its probable error. Problem 46. Calculate the coefficient of correlation from the following data: X Y : : 100 30 200 50 300 60 400 80 500 100 600 110 700 130

Regression
Illustration 6. The following data relate to advertising expenditure (in lakh of rupees) & their corresponding sales (in Cores of rupees): Advertising expenditure Sales : : 10 14 12 17 15 23 23 25 20 21

Illustration 24. The following figure relate to length of service & income of the employees of an organization: Length of service (year) Income (Rs. Hundred) : : 7 11 5 7 3 2 2 5 6 8 4 6 8 10

Illustration 26. In trying to evaluate the effectiveness in its advertising camping, a firm compiled the following information: Year Length of service (year) Income (Rs. Hundred) : : : 5.0 2001 12 5.6 2002 15 5.8 2003 15 7.0 2004 23 7.2 2005 24 8.8 2006 38 9.2 2007 42 9.5 2008 48

Problem 11. The following data give the hardness (X) & tensile strength (Y) of 7 samples of metal in certain units. Fond the liner regression equation of Y on X. X Y : : 146 75 152 78 158 77 164 89 170 82 176 85 182 86

Problem 46. An industrial engineer collected the following data on experience & performance rating of 8 operators: Operators Experience (year) Performance Rating : : : 1 16 87 2 12 88 3 18 89 4 4 68 5 3 78 6 10 80 7 5 75 8 12 83

Calculate the regression line of performance ratings on experience & estimate the probable performance if an operator has 10 years experience.