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On screen: Heading: Work done by a conservative force C For path AB, F h s F For path BC, Total work done along ABC, . F B x . . For path AC,

A

Therefore, work is path independent and also independent of the slope of the inclined plane.

Voiceover:

We know that in the case of one dimensional displacement, a force is always conservative if it is a function of position only. So, the very first common question arises here, what is meant by a conservative force? A conservative force means a force which conserves energy. That is it always keeps the total energy as constant. There will be no loss in energy. Moreover, a conservative force has two important properties: A force is conservative if the work done on a particle moving between any two points is independent of the path taken by the particle. The work done by a conservative force on a particle moving through any closed path is zero.

In the figure shown here, we shift a body in equilibrium from A to C in a gravitational field via path AC or ABC, the work done by the force F for both paths will be same and equal to mgh.

Scene 13

On screen: Heading: Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem

If we consider a system in which a constant force acts over a displacement and does work, then equation of energy will beOr, This relation is known as work-energy theorem.

Voiceover: Let us now think about kinetic energy and work-kinetic theorem. What is the idea behind this concept? Ok first of all, recall the newton second law. It states that force equals mass times acceleration. But, force is a vector whereas work and energy are scalars. Thus, it is easier to solve problems using energy consideration instead of using newton’s law. So, when work is done on a system, there may be changes in the potential and kinetic energies of the system. If we consider a system in which a constant force acts over a displacement and does work, then equation of energy will beOr, This relation is known as work-kinetic energy theorem.

Scene 14

On screen: Proof Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem

We know that ⃗

⃗ and so work can be written as: ∫⃗ ∫⃗

In one-dimensional motion,

t

t

∫

v v v2 v v

∫

Or, Or, Therefore,

∆

This relation is known as Work-kinetic energy theorem.

Voiceover: We know that ⃗ ⃗ and so work can be written as: ∫⃗ ∫⃗

where m is taken outside the integral because it is a constant. Let us consider one-dimensional motion, and then work can be written as: ∫ ∫

Now acceleration is defined as:

t

t

Now, we can substitute the value of a in the above equation of work done.

∫

∫

Or,

v

∫

v v2 v v

Or, Therefore,

∆

This relation is known as Work-kinetic energy theorem.

Scene 15

On screen: Heading: Power

and It is important to note that-

.

i.e. power is equal to scalar product of force with velocity.

Voiceover: By definition, work done by a force does not depend on the time i.e. work is time-independent. The time rate of doing work is defined as power and is given by:

P instantaneous =

**dW W and P . average = dt t
**

dW F ds F v dt dt

It is important to note that- P

i.e. power is equal to scalar product of force with velocity.

Scene 16

On screen: Heading: Work-time graph

Work Slope of work-time graphs gives the instantaneous power; .

Time

Voiceover: Slope of work-time graphs gives the instantaneous power; P instantaneous =

dW . dt

Scene 17

Onscreen: Heading: Power-Time Graph

Power Area under the power-time curve gives the work done as which means: = area under curve. d t Time

P

Voiceover: Area under the power-time curve gives the work done as P dW dt which means :

W Pdt = area under P t curve.

Module 3 Scene 6

On screen: Alternate solution Y

B (a, a)

O (0, 0)

A (a, 0)

X

**Work done in moving a particle from origin to point A on X-axis is:
𝑎**

0 𝑎 0

cos 0 ky
𝑎

0

[

ky]

ky

k × 0 × [𝑥 ]𝑎 0

0

Therefore, work done in moving the particle from origin to point (a, 0) on x-axis is zero.

**Voiceover: Work done in moving from origin to point A on X-axis is:
**

0 0

cos 0 ky

0

[

ky]

ky

k × 0 × [ ]0

0

Therefore, work done in moving the particle from origin to point (a, 0) on x-axis is zero.

Scene 5

On screen: solution Y

B (a, a)

O (0, 0)

A (a, 0)

X

**Now, the work done in moving a particle from point A to point B on Y-axis will be:
𝑎**

a y 𝑎 𝑎 y

y cos 0 y
𝑎

𝑎

[ y k

y

k ]

k

k 𝑥[ 𝑦]𝑎 𝑎

Therefore, total work done in moving the particle from origin to point (a, a) in X-Y plane will be0 k k

**Voiceover: Now, the work done in moving a particle from point A to point B on Y-axis will be:
**

a y y

y cos 0 y y k [

y

k ]

k k [ ]

Therefore, total work done in moving the particle from origin to point (a, a) in X-Y plane will be0 k k

Module 4

Scene 2

On screen:

IIT JEE 1980 The displacement of a particle moving in one dimension, under the action of a constant force is related to the time t by the equation, t Find: 3, where is in metre and t is in second.

(a) The displacement of the particle when its velocity is zero, and (b) The work done by the force in the first 6 seconds.

Voiceover:

Here is a question from Work and Energy – from IIT JEE 1980. The displacement of a particle moving in one dimension, under the action of a constant force is related to the time t by the equation, t 3, where is in metre and t is in second. Find:

(a) The displacement of the particle when its velocity is zero, and (b) The work done by the force in the first 6 seconds.

Scene 3

On screen: solution (a) Given t t t t t 3 3 3 2 t 3

At t

3 s c, the velocity and hence displacement of the particle both are zero.

Voiceover: In the first part of this question, we have to find displacement of the particle when its velocity is zero. To do so, we need velocity as a function of time, because only the instantaneous velocity can show where it is zero. (Refer to Kinematics module). So, velocity t t 3 2 t 3 t t 3

Where displacement as a function of time is given as:

Now, we can easily compute that at t particle both are zero.

3 s c, the velocity and hence displacement of the

Scene 4

On screen: solution (b)

**So, according to work-kinetic energy theorem, we write∆
**

Since, Therefore, 2t 1 2 6

2 f

1 2

2 i

1 2

2 f

2 i

Voiceover:

In the second part of this question, we have to find work done by the force in first 6 sec. So, which one is the best approach to calculate work done. ⃗ ⃗ or directly use work-energy theorem to calculate work done. Either we can use, So, according to work-kinetic energy theorem, we write∆

1 2

2 f

1 2

2 i

1 2

2 f

2 i

Now we can calculate the work done by the force in first 6 sec. To do so, first calculate the initial and final velocity at = 0 and 6 sec, respectively. From part 1, we haveAt t = 0 s, At t = 6 s, 2t 6 6| 6| | 6| 6 ) s 6 6 0 6 s

|2 × 0 |2 × 6 (

Work done by the body in first 6 sec =

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