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Electronic Instruments

Disadvantages of PMMC voltmeter Low input impedance: Loading effect Insufficient sensitivity to detect low level signal Approach Utilized electronic devices such as BJT, FET or op amp to solve the above problems Electronic voltmeters Analog instrument Digital instrument

Rm Voltmeter R1 EB Rs Ammeter D Rm Basic PMMC Ohmmeter

AC voltmeter

Electronic voltmeter

RS Ammeter R1

R2

Electronic voltmeter

Basic Electronic voltmeter D


Electronic voltmeter

EB

R1

Electronic voltmeter

Voltmeter

Ohmmeter

AC voltmeter

Loading Effect
R1
100k

5V 10 V

100k

6.7 V

10 V R2
100k

5V

100k

3.3 V V
Vmeas =

100k

100 // 100 10 V = 3.3 V 100 + 100 // 100

Circuit before measurement

Circuit under measurement

100k

6V 10 V

100k

5.2 V

10 V
100k

4V

200k

100k

4.8 V V

1000k

Vmeas =

200 // 100 10 V = 4.0 V 100 + 200 // 100

Vmeas =

1000 // 100 10 V = 4.8 V 100 + 1000 // 100

Loading Effect
Example Find the voltage reading and % error of each reading obtained with a voltmeter on (i) 5 V range, (ii) 10 V range and (iii) 30 V range, if the instrument has a 20 k/V sensitivity, an accuracy 1% of full scale deflection and the meter is connected across Rb

SOLUTION The voltage drop across Rb with output to the voltmeter connection

Ra
45k

50 V Rb
5k

V Rm

Loading Effect

Range (V) 5 10 30

Vb . (V) 4.78 4.88 4.95

Loading error (V) -0.22 -0.12 -0.05

Meter error (V) 0.05 0.1 0.3

Total error (V) 0.27 0.22 0.35

% error 5.36 4.40 6.10

Transistor Voltmeter: Emitter Follower


Basic concept
+
Voltage to be Vin measured

+
IB

Emitter follower
Vin
Ri = Vin IB

VBE

IE = Im Rs Rm

VCC

increase input resistance

reduce output resistance

PMMC

Voltage drop across meter:

Vm = Vin VBE
Im = Vin VBE Rs + Rm IE IB hFE

where VBE is base-emitter voltage ~ 0.7 V for Si Meter current:

Schematic diagram of emitter follower

Transistor base current:

hFE = Transistor current gain (Typical values ~ 100-200

Transistor Voltmeter: Emitter Follower


Circuit input resistance:

Ri =

Vin V hFE in hFE ( Rs + Rm ) IB IE

Example The simple emitter-follower circuit has VCC = 20 V, Rs+Rm = 9.3 k, Im = 1mA at full scale, and transistor hFE = 100 (a) Calculate the meter current when Vin = 10 V (b) Determine the voltmeter input resistance with and without the transistor. SOLUTION +

IB

VBE

IE = Im Rs

VCC

Vin
Ri = Vin IB

Rm

Transistor Voltmeter: Emitter Follower


*The base-emitter voltage drop (VBE) introduces some limitations in using emitter follower as a voltmeter: The circuit cannot measure the input voltage less than 0.6 V a non-proportional deflection: error From the above experiment, if we apply Vin with 5 V, the meter should read half of full scale I.e. Im = 0.5 mA. But, the simple calculation shows that Im = 0.46 mA
+VCC R4

Bridge configuration

Q1
Vin R2 I2 VE1 Rs

V Rm

Q2
VP VE2 R3 I3

R5

Vm = VE1 VE 2
where

VE1 = Vin VBE1 VE 2 = VP VBE 2


Use negative supply also to measure Vin < 0.6 V

R6 -VEE

Zero adjust

PMMC

Practical emitter-follower voltmeter using second transistor Q2 and voltage divider R4, R5 and R6 to eliminate VBE error in Q1

Transistor Voltmeter: Emitter Follower


At the condition of Vin = 0, Vp should be set to give zero meter reading, Vm = 0. Therefore, the potentiometer R5 is for the zero adjust. If transistors Q1 and Q2 are identical, VBE1 = VBE2

Vm = VE1 VE 2 = Vin VBE1 (V p VBE 2 ) = Vin V p


At Vin = 0 -> Vm = 0, give Vp = 0 Consequently, if Vp is set properly, Vm will be the same as Vin Example An emitter-follower voltmeter circuit as shown in the previous picture has R2 = R3 = 3.9 k and supply with 12 V. Calculate the meter circuit voltage when Vin = 1 V and when Vin = 0.5 V. Assume, both transistors have VBE = 0.7 V SOLUTION when Vin = 1 V

when Vin = 0.5 V

Voltage Range Changing: Input Attenuator


Input The input attenuator accurately divides the voltage to Range Switch be measured before it is applied to the input transistor. Calculation shows that the input voltage Vin is always 1 V when the maximum input is applied on any range
Vin
To meter

800k

Ra
5V

1V

Voltage to be measured

100k E 60k

Rb
10V

Rc
25V

Example On the 5 V range:

40k

Rd

Vin = 5 V = 5 V =1 V

Rb + Rc + Rd Ra + Rb + Rc + Rd 100 k + 60 k + 40 k 800 k + 100 k + 60 k + 40 k

The measurement point always sees a constant input resistance of 1 M

FET Input Voltmeter


The addition of FET at the input gives higher input resistance than can be achieved with a bipolar transistor
Input attenuator FET input stage Emitter follower

+VCC 800k Ra
5V 1V

R4 EG VG S VS I2 R2

100k E 60k

Rb
10V

Q1
Rs+Rm

Q2
VP R3 I3

R5

Rc
25V

R6 -VEE

40k

Rd

PMMC

A FET Input Voltmeter


Vm = VE1 VE 2

where VE1 = EG VGS VBE1

VE 2 = VP VBE 2

In general, it is not simple to calculate VGS, for simplicity, we assume that VGS will be given.

FET Input Voltmeter


Example Determine the meter reading for the FET input voltmeter in the previous figure, when E = 7.5 V and the meter is set to its 10 V range. The FET gate-source voltage is 5 V, VP = 5 V, Rs+Rm = 1 k and Im = 1 mA at full scale SOLUTION On the 10 V range:

Input attenuator

FET input stage

Emitter follower

+VCC 800k Ra
5V 1V

R4 EG VG S VS I2 R2

100k E 60k

Rb
10V

Q1
Rs+Rm

Q2
VP R3 I3

R5

Rc
25V

R6 -VEE

40k

Rd

Operational Amplifier Voltmeter


Op-Amp Amplifier Voltmeter
Non-inverting amplifier meter circuit

Vout = (1 +

R4 )E R3

+VCC

The voltage gain


I4

+
E

-VEE IB

Av = (1 +
R4 Vout Rs+Rm

R4 ) R3

I3

Selection of R3 and R4
R3

E R3 = I3

and

R4 =

Vout E I3

The non-inverting amplifier gives a very high input impedance and very low output impedance. Therefore, the loading effect can be neglected. Furthermore, it can provide gain with enabling to measure low level input voltage.

Operational Amplifier Voltmeter


Example Design an op-amp Voltmeter circuit which can measure a maximum input of 20 mV. The op-amp input current is 0.2 A, and the meter circuit has Im = 100 A FSD and Rm = 10 k. Determine suitable resistance values for R3 and R4 SOLUTION To neglect the effect of IB, the condition of I4 >> IB must be satisfied. The rule of thumb suggested I4 should be at least 100 times greater than IB Select I4 = 1000 x IB = 1000 x 0.2 A = 0.2 mA meter
circuit

Non-inverting amplifier

+VCC

At full scale: Im = 100 A

+
E

-VEE IB

I4

R4

Vout

Rs+Rm

I3

R3

Operational Amplifier Voltmeter


Op-Amp Amplifier Voltmeter: voltage to current converter
+VCC

Since I3 >> IB, therefore Im= I3 Meter current

+
EB

I m = I3 = Vm =

-VEE

Im Rs+Rm

E R3

Meter voltage

Rm E R3

IB I3

if Rm > R3, voltage E is amplified by the ratio of Rm/R3


R3

VR3

Current Measurement with Electronic Voltmeter


Electronic voltmeter

+VC
C

+ -VEE E Rs+Rm

R3

+
I

RS

Ammeter terminals

An electronic voltmeter can be used for current measurement by measuring the voltage drop across a shunt (Rs). The instrument scale is calibrated to indicate current.

Electronic Ohmmeter: Series Connection


standard resistor 1M 100k range switch

R1
A + Electronic
voltmeter
(1.5 V range)

R1 1k
100

EB 1.5V

Rx = 0

Rx =

10

Rx

Ohmmeter scale for electronic instrument

Series Ohmmeter for electronic instrument At Rx = or open circuit, the voltmeter indicate full scale defection (E = 1.5 V) and Rx = 0 or shorted circuit, since E = 0, no defection is observed. At other values of resistance, the battery voltage EB is potentially divided across R1 and Rx, given by

E = EB

Rx R1 + Rx

Suppose that R1 is set to 1 k 1 k E = 1.5 V = 0.75 V (50% defection) 1 k + 1 k Thus if Rx = R1, half scale will be indicated

M s c ete al r f e u

ll

Electronic Ohmmeter: Series Connection


Example For the electronic ohmmeter in the Figure, determine the resistance scale marking at 1/3 and 2/3 of full scale
standard resistor 1M 100k range switch

SOLUTION From Rearrange, give us


A + -

E = EB
Rx =

Rx R1 + Rx
R1 EB E 1

R1 1k
100

EB 1.5V

10

Rx

Electronic voltmeter
(1.5 V range)

At 1/3 FSD; E = EB/3

Rx =
M s c ete al r f e u ll

R1 R = 1 EB 3 1 2 EB R1 = 2 R1 EB 3 1 2 EB

R1/2 R1 2R1 Rx = 0

At 2/3 FSD; E = 2EB/3

Rx =

Rx =

Electronic Ohmmeter: Parallel Connection


+
R1 4k

At Rx = or open circuit,

E = EB
A + -

R2 R1 + R2 1.33 k = 1.5 V 4 k + 1.33 k

6V
R2 1.33k

= 6 V

Rx

Electronic voltmeter
(1.5 V range)

Therefore, this circuit give FSD, when Rx = When, Rx = 0 , E = 0 V, therefore, the meter gives no defection.

Shunt Ohmmeter for electronic instrument

At any value of Rx

E = EB

R2 || Rx R1 + R2 || Rx

So, the meter indicates half-scale when Rx = R1|| R2

AC Electronic Voltmeter
Principle
Most ac measurements are made with ac-to-dc converter, which produce a dc current/voltage proportional to the ac input being measured

Vin

ac to dc converter

dc meter

Classification:
Average responding periodic signal only Peak responding any signal RMS responding (True rms meter)

AC Electronic Voltmeter
The scale on ac voltmeters are ordinarily calibrated in rms volts

Average responding meter


Form factor is the ratio of the rms value to the average value of the wave form

Vin

ac to dc converter

dc meter

Vrms Form Factor = Vaverage

It should be noted that the rms value is calculated from Vin, while the average value is calculated from the output of ac-dc converter.

Peak responding meter


Form factor is the ratio of the peak value to the rms value of the wave form

Crest Factor =

V peak Vrms

Average-Responding Meter
In this type of instrument, the ac signal is rectified and then fed to a dc millimeter. In the meter instrument, the rectified current is averaged either by a filter or by the ballistic characteristics of the meter to produce a steady deflection of the meter pointer.
+ E
Input waveform

+VDD1

+
output waveform

+ E
Input waveform

+VDD1

output waveform

+ Vout Vm -

Vout

Vm -

Conventional half-wave rectifier


For the positive cycle,

precision rectifier
For the positive cycle, Vout = Vm = E For the negative cycle,

Vout = E

Vm = E VD
where VD = cut-in voltage ~0.6-0.7 for Si

Vout = 0

For the negative cycle,

Vout = E Vm = 0

Since Diode D1 is revered bias, no current flow through meter

Therefore, the voltage drop in the forward bias can be compensated by this configuration

Average-Responding Meter

V2 Vin

V1

V2
V1

Vin

Average-Responding Voltmeter
Voltage to current converter
precision rectifier

precision rectifier

C1 R1

+VCC

+ -VEE

+ VF D1 Rs+Rm
meter current

C1 R1

+VCC

D1 Im

D3 Rs+Rm
meter current

+ -VEE

D2
R3

D4 R3

Half-wave rectifier Meter peak current


Ip = Ep R3

Full-wave rectifier Meter peak current


Ip = Ep R3

Average meter current I = 1 I = 0.318I av p p

Average meter current I av =

I p = 0.637I p

Average-Responding Voltmeter
Example The half-wave rectifier electronic voltmeter circuit uses a meter with a FSD current of 1 mA. The meter a coil resistance is 1.2 k. Calculate the value of R3 that will give meter full-scale pointer deflection when the ac input voltage is 100 mV (rms). Also determine the meter deflection when the input is 50 mV. SOLUTION at FSD, the average meter current is 1 mA
precision rectifier

C1 R1

+VCC

+ -VEE

+ VF D1 Rs+Rm
meter current

R3

Peak-Responding Voltmeter
The primary difference between the peak-responding voltmeter and the averageresponding voltmeter is the use of a storage capacitor with the rectifying diode.
dc amplifier

VD~0.7V Vin C + VC R Vin C R


the input impedance of the dc amp

Charge cycle

Discharge cycle

In the first positive cycle: VC tracks Vin with the difference of VD, until Vin reaches its peak value. After this point, diode is reversed bias and the circuit keeps VC at Vp VD. The effect of discharging through R will be minimized if its value is large enough to yield that RC >> T.

Peak-Responding Voltmeter

VC tracks Vin VC

Vin

RMS-Responding Voltmeter
Suitable for: low duty-cycle pulse trains voltages of undetermined waveform

RMS value definition: Mathematic


Vin

Vrms

1 2 = v (t )dt T 0

Vout

RMS value definition: Physical


rms voltage is equivalent to a dc voltage which generates the same amount of heat power in a resistive load that the ac voltage does.
Millivoltmeter

TC output (mV)

Temp. rise Vrms


Thermocouple

Non-linear Difficult to calibrate scale

heating wire

Temp(oC)

RMS-Responding Voltmeter
Null-balance technique: non-linear cancellation Compare the heating power generated by input voltage to the heating power generated the dc amplifier
Measuring thermocouple

+
ac input voltage

ac Amplifier +

dc Amplifier

Balancing thermocouple

Feedback current

Vin

Heater & TC

+ -

Vout

Heater & TC

Negative Feedback
VT1

Vin

Heater & TC

+ -

Ve

Vout

VT2

Heater & TC

Vout = Ve = A (VT 1 VT 2 )
Let, VT1 = k Vin and VT2 = k Vout where k is proportional constant of the heater and TC in the system. Note that k may depend on the level of the input signal

Vout = A ( kVin kVout ) Vout Ak = Vin 1 + Ak


If A is large

Vout Vin

If the amplifier gain is very large, Vout is equal to Vin, this means that the dc voltage output is therefore equal to the effective, or rms value of the input voltage