GAS COMPRESSOR

GAS COMPRESSOR
NATURAL GAS Compression – NTNU 2010
Compressors used in OIL & GAS Industry
- Emphasis on Centrifugal compressor
Mahender Reddy Billam
Dresser-Rand AS, Kongsberg.
Gas Compressor
Gas Compressor
1 – Compressor in Natural gas production &
transport
2 – Types and Principles
3 - Centrifugal Compressor Selection process
4 – Compressor Components
5 – Latest developments
 Reduce volume of gas
 Increase pressure of gass
 Control pressure in process
What What does does a a Compressor Compressor do do ?
GAS FROM RESERVIOR TO LAND GAS FROM RESERVIOR TO LAND
TYPICAL OIL PLATFORM
TYPICAL OIL PLATFORM
 ON PLATFORM
 - Re-compression – oil production
 - Export compressor (from platform)
 - Gas injection
 Processing plant
 - Export (boosting)
 - Prosessesing (take out water/condensate)
 - cooling circuits
 - Liquification
 Transport
 - Boosting ( long pipeline )
USE IN NATURAL GAS PROCESS
USE IN NATURAL GAS PROCESS
 The compressors are responsible for a large part of
the power demand in the oil and gas production .
 Example: I year 2007 have installed compressor with power
requirmente of over 300000KW.
 Typical recompressor – 2000 kW ( from 500 kW t0 10000 kW)
 Typical export compressor - 25000 kW (often 2 or 3 machines)
 Typical injection compressor - 25000 kW ( ofte 2 machines )
 Typical ”Booster” on land – 25000 to 40000 kW – Many
compressors at same station.
COMPRESSOR IN OIL & GAS
COMPRESSOR IN OIL & GAS
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
 Compressor can drive with both constant speed and variable speed.
 Constant speed give little flexibility, mostly used in prosessindustrien.
 Constant speed electrical motor – typical upto to 5000 kW
 Variable speed electrical motor (ASDS) - typical from 1000 t0 60000
kW
 Gassturbine – variable speed - typical from 1000 to 45000 kW
 Steam turbine - variable speed - typical from 1000 t0 50000 kW
 Traditionally gasturbines are used on platforms because of gas
availability and has advantage on weight and dimension compared to
electrical motor drivers.
DRIVER
DRIVER
COMPRESSOR ON KOLLSNESS
COMPRESSOR ON KOLLSNESS
2 TYPES AND PRINCIPLE
• Compressor Type
• Centrifugal - principle
Compressor Types
• Axial - large flow, low pressure
• Centrifugal - large to medium flow, high presssure
• Helical Screw - low flow, low pressure
• Reciprocating - medium to low flow, high pressure
•Offshore North Sea - large flow, high pressure
Axial Compressor
Centrifugal Compressor
Reciprocating Compressor
Helical Screw Compressor
Basic Principles
• Centrifugal Action
• A Centrifugal Stage
• Energy Conversion
Centrifugal Action
Centrifugal Action
A
B
Velocity Relationship
Exit Path
Low Velocity,
Low Pressure
Gas Inlet
High Velocity,
Higher Pressure
Gas Outlet
Centrifugal Action
Cover Blades
Disk
Impellers Impellers
Impellers
DIFFUSOR
Diffusor
Diffuser converts kinetic energy to pressure energy
From impellers gas flows in to diffuser
How A Centrifugal Works
Centrifugal Stage
Return Bend
Guide Vanes
Return Channel
Return Bend
Impeller
Increases Velocity
Increases Static Pressure
Diffuser
Reduces Velocity
Increases Static Pressure
 IMPELLER
 Transfer energy
-pressure og speed
 DIFFUSOR
 Converts kinetic energy to
pressure
ONE COMPRESSOR TRAIN ONE COMPRESSOR TRAIN


3 – Centrifugal Compressor Selection process
GAS COMPRESSOR
GAS COMPRESSOR
Selection Process
Selection Process
 Inputs required for centrifugal compressor selection
 Typically Know:
 Ts inlet
 Ps inlet
 Pd outlet
 Flow (Q)
 gas composition
 Driver type (Gas Turbine, Steam Turbine, Motor)
Selection Process
Selection Process
 Selection Process
 Aerodynamic Selection and Optimization
• Impeller Requirements (including Stress)
 Mechanical Design
• Coupling size
• Bearing and Seal sizes
 Rotordynamic Design
• Could reselect coupling, bearings, seals
COURTESY OF BILL FORSTHOFFER
Polytropic Work (Head)
Polytropic Work (Head)
avg s
m
s
d
Z T R
m
P
P
Head × × ×
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
| |
q
k k
m
/ ) 1 ( ÷
=
Basic Thermodynamic Equations Basic Thermodynamic Equations
z = compressibility
R = Universal Gas Constant
(1545.3/Mw)
Mw = Mole Weight
k = Isentropic Exponent (Cp/Cv)
C
p
= Specific Heat at constant
pressure
C
v
= Specific Heat at constant
volume
Redlich Kwong equation used to calculate
compressibility(z)
Concepts used in Rotor Dynamics:
• Basic principles of vibrations
• Knowledge of how a fluid film bearing works
• Influence of bearings on the dynamics of the machine
• Influence of labyrinth and damper seals on the dynamics of the machine
x
y
z
Torsional vibrations
Axial vibrations
Lateral vibrations
Some Rotor dynamic terminology: Some Rotor dynamic terminology:
Some Rotor dynamic terminology: Some Rotor dynamic terminology:
• Rotor: rotating element consisting of shaft, impellers/disks, shrunk-on
components like sleeves, balance piston, etc.
• Bearings: Journal bearings support the rotor in the lateral direction.
(Thrust bearings support the axial load of the rotor while in operation.)
Some Rotor dynamic terminology (Contd.): Some Rotor dynamic terminology (Contd.):
• Stability: The stability of a system is defined as the “reaction” to any
external perturbation. (more on this later)
• Critical speed: Is a natural frequency with an ‘active enough’
response that the natural frequency should be designed around. (more
on this later)
• Natural frequency: Frequency at which the system vibrates. The
frequency of vibration of a system (e.g. rotor-bearing system) with
damping is called the damped natural frequency.
•Ring of a bell or a tuning fork.
Compressor Control
Compressor Control
Recycle Valve
Recycle Valve
Recycle Increases Suction Flow
Surge!
Surge!
Flow
P
o
l
y
t
r
o
p
i
c

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
SURGE LINE
COMPRESSOR
DESIGN POINT
100% Speed
105% Speed
90% Speed
4 – Centrifugal Compressor components
GAS COMPRESSOR
GAS COMPRESSOR
Rotor Assembly
Thrust
Rotor
Impellers
Balance
Piston
Seal
Area
Shaft
Bearing
Journals
Impeller
Spacers
Drive
Coupling
Mount
Compressor Internals
• Diaphragms
• Inlet/Discharge Walls
• Interstage Seals
STRAIGHT THROUGH FLOW STRAIGHT THROUGH FLOW
De De- -ethaniser ethaniser- -D10R5S D10R5S
Gas seals
bearing
Thrust
Bearing
Gas seal
Balance piston
bearing
 Compressor
 Lube oil system
 Gasseal system – gas or oil
 Gear and Couplings
 Driver - el. motor, gasturbine, steam turbine
 Foundation skid
 Prosess- anti-surge valve, scrubber and cooler
 Instrumentation and control system
KOMPRESSOR ACESSORIES
KOMPRESSOR ACESSORIES
-
-
COMPONENTS
COMPONENTS
 3 point support BASEPLATE 3 point support BASEPLATE
((wit h wit h central box central box beam beam))
REMOVABLE
LIFTING LUG
A.V.M
(anti vibration mount)
DRIP PAN
CONNECTION
4 – Centrifugal Compressor latest develoments
GAS COMPRESSOR
GAS COMPRESSOR
 Compact integral Motor driven compressor
Latest Developments
Latest Developments
 Compact integral Motor driven compressor
- High speed Electrical motors
- No gearbox
- Magnetic bearings that eliminate
need for oil lubrication
- Reduced footprint
- digital controls instead of analog controls
- Emission-free design
Latest Developments
Latest Developments
Latest Developments
Latest Developments
Integrated Compression System(ICS)
DATUM I Compressor package
Latest Developments
Latest Developments
Integrated Compression System(ICS)
 The DATUM I system provides an efficient and compact method of gas-liquid separation
that uses centrifugal forces to separate gas, oil and water from the flow. The separation
process protects the compression flow-path from potential damage by removing free liquids
from the gas stream which can cause subsequent fouling during the compression process.
 DATUM I can be used for upstrem, midstream and downsteam compression. Also for
subsea compression.
 By incorporating Dresser-Rand’s proprietary centrifugal separation technology inside the
compressor case, the DATUM I system efficiently separates liquid from the gas stream.
 Dresser-Rand’s proprietary centrifugal separation technology; a high-speed, close-coupled,
gas-cooled motor; magnetic bearing rotor system; dedicated unit controls; process coolers,
valves, instrumentation and interconnecting piping—all packaged in a compact module
design.

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