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The most important rig components include:
2. Derrick and substructure;
3. Hoisting equipment( hoisting element)
4. Rotary equipment;
5. Mud pumps;
6. And blowout preventers (BOPS).
The drawworks is the key component of the drilling rig. Its complete
tasks in the whole drilling operation: making round trip-tripping in and tripping
out, handling downhole accidents, driving the rotary table to make up and
break out and performing any other auxiliary operation. The drawworks is
furnished with roller bearings and alloy steel shafts.
pressure lubricated chains at both high speed and low speed ends,
ventilated type air-tube clutches are fitted. The brake rim is cooled forcefully
by the circulating water, the rim surface is medium frequency induction
hardened, having the good abrasion resistance and the long service life.
Transmission of the developed power to various parts of the rig is
achieved either mechanically or electrically. In mechanical transmission, the
power developed by each engine is gathered in a single arrangement, termed
the compound. The compound delivers the engines power to draw-works and
rotary table through roller chains and sprockets. In mechanical transmission, rig
pumps are powered by the used of large belts.
In electrical transmission, diesel engines are mounted on the ground
some distance away from the rig and are used to drive large electric generators.
The generators produce electricity that is sent through cables to electric motors
attached directly to draw-works, rotary table and mud pump.
Derrick and substructure
A derrick is a four–side structure of sufficient height and strength to
allow the hoisting (lowering and raising) of equipment in and out of the well,
it also provides a working place for the derrick man during tripping
operations. The substructure provides support for the derrick, draw-works
and drill string.
Hoisting equipments includes
2. Hoisting tackle (tackle systems);
3. Wire line
The draw-work is the hoisting mechanism on the drilling rig
enabling heavy loads to be raised or lowered by means of wire rope
wound on a drum. The draw work also enable the driller, through the
catheads, to makes or break drill pipe, drill collars and others
There are two blocks crown block and traveling block. The
crown block is static and rests at the top of the derrick, the traveling
block move up and down the derrick during making/breaking of
drilling joint’s block has a number of pulleys. The drilling line is
wound a number of times on each block, the end of drilling line
coming out of the crown block clamped to a dead line anchor
underneath the derrick .
• The overall efficiency of power generating systems may be defined as
• where P
is the output power and P
is the input power. The output
power of an engine is generally expressed as a function of the engine
rotary speed, N, and the output torque, T
• where P
is in HP, T is in ft-lbs, and N is in RPM.
• The input power is expressed in terms of the rate of fuel consumption,
, and the fuel heating value, H
• where P
is in HP, Q
is in lb/hr, and H is in BTU/lb.
A drilling rig has three diesel engines for
generating rig power requirement. Determine the
total daily fuel consumption for an average
engine running speed of 900 rpm, average
output torque of 1610 ft-lb and engine efficiency
of 40 %. The heating value of diesel oil is 19000
BTU/lb, and the weight of the diesel is 7.2 ppg.
A Rotary Rig Hoisting System
• The primary function of the hoisting system in rotary drilling is to
hoist the drill and casing strings during drilling and casing
• Its major components consist of the draw-works, crown block,
traveling block, hook, drilling (wire) line and the elevator.
This is a more accurate drawing of the hoisting
system. The drum is located inside the drawworks,
and is the spool that the drill line is wound up on
when raising the traveling block. The crown block
is located at the top of the derrick (the crown) and
the drill line is strung between the crown block and
the traveling block. On the bottom of the traveling
block is the hook, where the drillstring, casing, etc.
is suspended. The end of the drill line that is
wound up on the drawworks is called the fast line,
the other end is attached to the deadline anchor on
one of the derrick legs, and is called the dead line.
Extra drill line is stored on a storage reel.
Load on Derrick
Force Diagram (free body diagram )
of the blocks and drilling line
systems. The efficiency of the
blocks and drilling line systems can
be measured by
is the output power and P
input power. The output power is defined
is the hook load, and v
traveling block velocity. Similarly, the input
power is given by
is the load in fast line, and v
the fast line speed.
o h tb
P F v =
i fp fp
P F v =
• The magnitude of F
depends on the number of lines strung between
the crown block and the traveling block, and the frictional forces induced
between the contact surfaces of the lines and block sheaves. Utilizing
these equations yields
Efficiency factors accepted in the industry for block and tackle system of various
number of lines are presented in the following table:
It can be easily established that
where N is the number of lines strung between the crown block and
Load on Derrick
• If the load, F
, is being hosted by pulling on the fast line, the
friction in the sheaves is resisting the motion of the fast line.
Therefore, the tension in the dead line, F
The load applied to the derrick, F
, is the sum of the hook load, F
, the tension
in the dead line, F
, and the tension in the fast line, F
d h sp fp
F F F F = + +
d h h
E N E
F F F
N N E N E
= + + =
A rig must hoist a load of 300,000 lbf. The draw-works can provide an
input power to the block and tackle system as high as 500 hp. Eight
lines are strung between the crown block and traveling block. Calculate
1. The static tension in the fast line when upward motion is impending,
2. the maximum hoisting speed,
3. the actual derrick load,
4. the maximum equivalent derrick load,
• The API recommends the use of “ton-mile” concept to evaluate
drilling line . Drilling Ton-Mile is the work of drilling line that is
commonly measured as the cumulative of the load lifted in tons
and the distance lifted or lowered in miles.
• Because of the heavy loads encountered during tripping in-out
and drilling operations, the drilling line wears out especially from
the contact points, i.e., drum and blocks. therefore, drilling
contractors must cut old section and replace with new section of
drilling line at specific period based on ton mile calculation.
( ) ( )
D L D W D M C C
+ + + +
• where D is the hole depth in ft, L
is the length of one stand of pipe in ft,
is the weight per foot of drillpipe in the mud in lb/ft, M is the weight
of block, hook, elevator, etc in lbs, and C
are the difference of
the weight of 540 ft of drill collar and drillpipe in mud in lbs.
• As a rule of thumb,
• 18 ft of drilling line is slipped from the storage reel to the drum after
every 200 ton-miles,
• 72 ft of drilling line should be removed from the drum after every 800
A drilling is on progress at a depth of 5000 ft. Weight of the drillpipe
and drill collar in mud are 16.1 lb and 75 lb, respectively. The length of
one stand of pipe is given as 95 ft. Total weight on the pulley is 15000
lb. Conduct the ton-mile calculation for this system.
Minimum Length of Drilling Line Required
• For practical purposes, the following equation is usually preferred for
estimating the minimum required drilling line:
• where L
is the minimum required drilling line length in ft, L
height of the derrick in ft, N is the number of lines strung, and L
is the length of the rope on the drum in ft.
• Using a 176 ft derrick, 8 number of line strung, 300 ft of rope on drum
at lower pick, estimate the minimum required length of drilling line for
( )( )
wire derrick rope on drum
2 L L N L = + +
FLUID CIRCULATION SYSTEM
The main components of the system include
1) mud pumps/air compressors,
2) high pressure surface connections
4) drill bit
5) return annulus
6) mud pits
7) mud treatment equipment.
The swivel is installed above the Kelly, and its main function is to
prevent the rotary motion of the Kelly from being transferred to the
drilling line. This is achieved by the rotation of the lower half of the
swivel on a set of heavy-duty roller bearings. As the swivel has carry
the entire weight of the drilling strings, it must be ruggedly
constructed and of the same rating as the traveling block.
The swivel also allows mud to be pumped through the Kelly through a
side attachment, described as a gooseneck, a flexible rotary hose,
connects with the swivel through the gooseneck. The rotary hose is
connected through a standpipe and surface lines to the mud pumps.
Mud pumps are used to circulate huge quantities of drilling
mud down many thousands of feet of drilling strings through small
nozzles size of the drilling bit. The pump must, therefore, produce
pressure to overcome the frictional or drag forces to move drilling
mud. Mud pumps are available in two types:
Pumps in common use today are duplex or triplex pumps depending on whether
they consist of two or three cylinder (liners ) respectively.
• Pumps which move fluid on the
forward stroke only are called single-
• Those which move fluid on both
forward and backward strokes are
• In common field usage, the terms
cycle and stroke often are used to
refer to one complete pump
• The theoretical volume of fluid being displaced by the pump having
liners can be easily formulated from the figure shown above, and
is given by
• for single-acting pumps, and
t L s c
V D L N
t L r s c
V D D L N
• for double-acting pumps where V
is the volume of fluid displaced,
is the liner diameter, D
is the rod diameter, L
is the piston
stroke (length stroke), and N
is the number of cylinders where for
duplex pumps and for triplex pumps.
• The volumetric efficiency of the pump can be defined as
• where V
is the actual fluid displaced by the pump or the pump
factor and Q’s refer the volume of fluid displaced per unit time.
• For a given pump delivery pressure, P, at a corresponding flow
rate, Q, the hydraulic power of the pump is given by
• where H
is the pump hydraulic horsepower in HP, P is in psi,
and Q is in gpm.
A double-acting duplex pump, 2.5in rod, 20in stroke, is to be
operated at 60 strokes/min. For drilling down to 10000 ft. The
maximum available pump hydraulic horsepower is 1360 HP with
an efficiency of 90%. For optimum hydraulics, the pump delivery
pressure is recommended to be 3423psi. Determine the liner
size to be used.
2. 10. 2012
Quiz 1: A single-acting pump, 2.5in rod, 20in stroke, is to be operated
at 60 strokes/min. For drilling down to 10000 ft. The maximum
available pump hydraulic horsepower is 1360 HP with an efficiency
of 90%. For optimum hydraulics, the pump delivery pressure is
recommended to be 3423psi. Determine the liner size to be used.
Quiz 2: Determine the fuel consumption for the mentioned above
H.W: As engineer PLS, sketch the drilling site construction plan
discussing all the quality assurance issues.
• The rotary system includes all of the rig components which are used
to achieve bit rotation.
• These are Swivel, Rotary table and rotary bushing, Kelly ,And Kelly
bushing drive, drillpipe, drill collar.
Rotary table and master bushing: The main function of the rotary
table is to transfer rotary motion through a master bushing to Kelly ,
to drilling strings and eventually , to the drill bit. Rotation of drill bit
is necessary for rock breakage and in turn for making hole. Besides
transferring rotation to the Kelly, the master bushing also acts as a
seat for slips.
Slips: are wedge-shaped devices, lined with tooth –like gripping
elements,. They are needed to hold the drilling string suspended in
the hole when adding or breaking joints of the drilling strings.
Power required fore the rotation of the table is transmitted from the
main rig engines through a chain drive from the compound , as in
mechanical rigs or rotary table is independently powered through a
cable connected to a motor attached to the rotary table.
The Kelly has hexagonal or square shape, and its main function is to
transfer motion to the drilling string when the Kelly bushing is
engaged with the master rotary bushing. The Kelly also as a medium
for transporting mud down to the drilling string and to the bit. During
tripping the Kelly rests in a side hole, called a rathole
The drilling string consists of
1. drill pipe;
2. drill collars
4. Drill bit.
The drill pipe serves as a medium for the transmission of rotary
motion to the bit and also acts as a passage for mud.
Drill collars are heavy-duty pipes with large weight on the bit
during drilling operation. The remainder is used to keep the drill pipe
in tension , thereby avoiding buckling of the pipes.
Accessories normally include: HWDP, stabilizers and shock subs.
HWDP is used to ensure that the drill pipe is always kept in tension. a
stabilizer is a special tool with an outside diameter OD close the hole
diameter. The main function of a stabilizer to prevent buckling
(bending) of drill collars and to control the drilling string direction.
Stabilizers: are run between drill collars and drill bit.
A shock sub is included in bottomhole assembly to absorb shocks
when he bit bounces off hard formations, thereby protecting the
drilling strings and surface equipment from damaging effects of bit
the drill bit is the main component of the drilling strings and is
used to cut the rock for the purpose of making hole. Drilling bit can
have one cutting head , as in diamond and polycrystalline diamond
Well Control System
• The primary function of the well control system is to prevent the uncontrolled
flow of formation fluids from the wellbore.
• The system requirements are to permit:
shutting in the well at the surface,
controlling the removal of formation fluids from the wellbore,
pumping higher density mud into the hole,
stripping the drillpipe into or out of the hole.
• The basic components of the well control system are the following:
Blow out preventer stack (BOP)
Flow and choke line fittings
Kill lines and connections
Mud and gas handling
A blowout can be defined as an
uncontrolled influx of formation
fluid which has sufficient pressure
to cause damage to rig equipment
and injury to rig personnel.
Blowout preventers ( BOPs)
are devices placed on top of the
well to provide a line of defense
against possible well kicks which
may produced dangerously high
pressures within the annulus of the
The number, size and rating of BOPs used will depend on the
depth of the well and the maximum anticipated formation pressures. In
general, there are two types of BOP: annular and ram types.
A well kick is an unwanted flow of formation fluids into the
wellbore hole which may develop into a blowout.
Blowout preventers are valves that can be closed any time a well kick
Blowout preventers are of three types
1. Annular preventers are manufactured to close around any size
or shape of pipe run in the hole and are normally closed when the well
is threatened by a kick.
2. Pipe rams.
3. Blind and shear rams. Blind rams are designed to close the bore
when no drilling string or casing is present. A shear ram is a type of blind
ram which has the ability to cut pipe and pack off an open hole.
Annular BOPS are designed to shut off around any size and shape of
equipment run through the hole. Thus, annular preventers can close
around drill pipe, drill collars and casing, and can also pack off open
hole. Annular preventer are, therefore, the wells master valve and is
normally closed first in the event of a well kick.
The main components of an annular preventer include:
a ring of reinforced synthetic rubber having a high tensile strength.
Annular preventers can only be closed hydraulically by directing fluid
under pressure to the operating cylinder through the closing
Pipe rams are designed to close around a particular size of drillpipe,
tubing or casing. The pack off is provided by two steel ram blocks
containing semi-circular opening with each ram being fitted with a
two piece rubber seal.
The semi-circular openings can seal around the outside diameter of
the drillpipe, tubing drill collar, Kelly or casing, depending on the size
of the rams chosen. Pipe rams are designed to center the pipe in the
hole before providing a complete pack off. Pipe rams can be closed
manually or hydraulically to seal off the annular space below them.
Hydraulically –operated pipe rams can be closed from the drillers
console on the rig floor or remotely from a position on the ground
some distance away from the rig floor.
The increased pressure energizes the packer rubbers, allowing them
to flow around the pipe and provide a complete pack-off. Most pipe
rams can be closed by hydraulic pressure in the range 500-5000psi.
Pipe rams are designed to be changed easily and have the
ability to direct hole pressures to the back of the preventer, to
maintain the seal in the event of hydraulic pressure loss.
Blind rams are similar to pipe rams. Except that packers are
replaced by ones that have no cutouts in the rubber. They are
designed to seal off the bore when no drilling string or casing is
Shear rams are a type of blind ram that can cut the pipe and
seal off the open hole. Most shear rams require 3000 psi to cut pipe.
The BOPs control system
The main components of the control system include:
an accumulator bank;
a fluid reservoir; and
a manifold for directing the fluid to the preventer.
An accumulator is a high –pressure cylinder containing nitrogen gas
and hydraulic fluid.
Data Acquisition and Monitoring
• The parameters which are of prime concern are the following:
Mud density, temperature, salinity and flow properties
Mud tank level
Weight on bit
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