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The passage that leads the molten metal into the mould cavity.

The mould cavity should be completely filled with molten metal in the minimum time. .REQUISITES The molten metal should enter the mould cavity with minimum turbulence so that there is no erosion of mould walls and core surfaces. By providing a proper skimming action the entry of loose sand oxides and slag should be prevented from entering the mould cavity. The casting should be possible with minimum quantity of metal in gates and risers. The pouring process should be practical and economical.



•The molten metal is brought from the surface in the ladle and poured into the pouring basin.•It is a tunnel shaped opening made in the top of the mould. •The basin size should be substantially large and should be made near the edge of the moulding box so as to fill the mould quickly. POURING BASIN •A proper design of the pouring basin decides the rate of molten metal entry and allows the metal to flow inside the sprue smoothly and prevents turbulence. •It must be deep enough to reduce vortex formation and keep the pouring basin full during the entire pouring operation to compensate metal .

rectangular or square A round section sprue offers the lowest resistance to flow of metal and has minimum surface exposed to cooling .SPRUE A channel through the cope and connecting the pouring basin with the runner May be circular.

RUNNER Passage through which molten metal is carried from sprue base to several gates around the cavity through the passage known as runner .

They are placed where they can be easily removed without any damage to the casting. .GATES The branches from the runner to various mould cavities are called gates.

TYPES OF GATES Top Gates The molten metal is poured from the riser of the casting Since it flows directly into the mould should be hard and strong enough to resist erosion by the dropping metal A pool of molten metal is produced at the bottom and is kept in agitated state until the mould is filled. .

•There is low consumption of additional metal. •Top gates themselves may be made to serve as risers. •The dropping molten metal stream erodes the solid surface. •Top gating is not suitable for lighter metals .ADVANTAGES •All the metal enters the casting from the top so the hottest metal remains in this region. LIMITATIONS •Splashing of molten metal associated with its stream increases the chances of oxidation.

BOTTOM GATES ‣Prepared in the drag of the mould ‣The molten metal enters from the bottom of the casting. ‣The molten metal fills rapidly the bottom portion of the mould cavity and rises steadily in the mould and across the cores. . ‣Keeps turbulence at minimum. ‣Usually employed for large sized steel castings.

Thus. . •it is difficult to place the riser near the gate entrance where the material is the hottest.directional solidification is difficult to achieve.LIMITATIONS OF BOTTOM GATES •The metal continues to lose its heat as it raises in the molten cavity.

dirt etc . ๏Provision of gate at the parting line allows the use of devices that can trap slag.the same level as the parting line. ๏It enters in a direction horizontal to the casting.PARTING LINE SIDE GATE ๏The molten metal enters the mould cavity from the side of the mould.

RISER A hole cut in the cope to permit the molten metal to rise above the highest point in the casting after the mould cavity is filled up. Provides a visual check to ensure filling up the mould. .

PURPOSE Ejection of steam. Acts as a feeder to feed molten metal into the main casting to compensate for shrinking during solidification .gas and air from the mould cavity while filling the mould with molten metal.