Electronic Circuits

in an
Automotive Environment


Herman Casier
AMI Semiconductor Belgium
herman_casier@amis.com
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 2

Outline 1
 Introduction
 Automotive Market and trends
 Characteristics of Electronics in a car
 Automotive Electronics Challenges
 Cost and Time To Market
 Quality and Safety
 Quality requirements
 Safety requirements
 DFMEA
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Outline 2
 High Voltage : the car battery
 History of the car battery
 Why switching over to 42V PowerNet
 Specifications of car-batteries
 Example: lamp-failure detector
 Example: high-side driver
 High Temperature requirements
 Temperature range specification
 Functionality and reliability limits
 Diode leakage currents
 Example: bandgap circuit
 Example: SC-circuit
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Outline 3
 EMC general
 Definition of EMC
 Compliance and pre-compliance tests
 EMC standards
 EMC standards in IC-design
 EME – Electro Magnetic Emission
 1O/150O test method
 EME what happens?
 EME how to cope with?
 Example: digital circuit current peaks
 Example: CANH differential output
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Outline 4
 EMS – Electro Magnetic Susceptibility
 DPI – Direct Power Injection method
 EMS compliance levels
 EMS what happens?
 EMS how to cope with?
 Example: rectification of single ended signal
 Example: rectification of differential signal
 Example: substrate currents in ESD diodes
 Types of substrate currents
 Example: jumper detection
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Outline 5
 Automotive transients (ISO-7637)
(sometimes called Schaffner pulses)
 Transient pulse definitions
 Transient pulses what happens?
 Example: supply & low-side driver
 Example: bandgap circuit
 Acknowledgments
 References
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Trends in automotive
> 1920 + pneumatic systems low high technical skills
+ hydraulic systems low driving skills
> 1950 + electric systems increasing good technical skills
increasing driving skills
> 1980 + electronic systems congestion low technical skills
+ optronic systems starts high driving skills
> 2010 + nanoelectronics congested very low technical skills
+ biotronic systems optimization decreasing driving skills
starts
> 2040 + robotics maximal and no technical skills
+ nanotechnology optimized no driving skills
CAR Technology TRAFFIC DRIVER SKILLS
> 1891 mechanical system very low very high technical skills
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Automotive Electronics
Phase 1: Introduction of Electronics
in non-critical applications
 Driver information and entertainment
e.g. radio,
 Comfort and convenience
e.g. electric windows, wiper/washer, seat heating, central
locking, interior light control …
 Low intelligence electronic systems
 Minor communication between systems
(pushbutton control)
 No impact on engine performance
 No impact on driving & driver skills
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Automotive Electronics
Phase 2: Electronics support critical applications
 Engine optimization:
e.g. efficiency improvement & pollution control
 Active and Passive Safety
e.g. ABS, ESP, airbags, tire pressure, Xenon lamps …
 Driver information and entertainment
e.g. radio-CD-GPS, parking radar, service warnings …
 Comfort, convenience and security:
e.g. airco, cruise control, keyless entry, transponders …
 Increasingly complex and intelligent electronic systems
 Communication between electronic systems within the car
 Full control of engine performance
 No control of driving & driver skills
But reactive correction of driver errors.
 Electronics impact remains within the car
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Automotive Electronics
Phase 3: Electronics control critical applications
 Full Engine control
e.g. start/stop cycles, hybrid vehicles …
 Active and Passive Safety
e.g. X by wire, anti-collision radar, dead-angle radar …
 Driver information and entertainment
e.g. traffic congestion warning, weather and road conditions …
 Comfort and convenience
 Very intelligent and robust electronics
 Communication between internal and external systems
Information exchange with traffic network
 Full control of engine performance
 Control of driving and (decreasing) driving skills
Proactive prevention of dangerous situations inside
and around the car
 Full control of car and immediate surroundings
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Automotive Electronics
Phase 4: Fully Automatic Driver (1
st
generation)
 Traffic network takes control of the macro
movements (upper layers) of the car
 Automatic Driver executes control of the car and
immediate surroundings (lower and physical layers)
ADAM : Automatic Driver for Auto-Mobile
or EVA : Elegant Vehicle Automat
 Driver has become the Passenger for the complete
or at least for most of the journey
 Driver might still be necessary if
ADAM becomes an Anarchistic Driver And Madman
or EVA becomes an Enraged Vehicle Anarchist
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Automotive Drivers
 Safety (FMEA)
 level 1: remains “in-spec” in Harsh environment
 Increasing Complexity
 more functions and more intelligence : makes
the car system more transparant for the driver
 Increasing Accuracy
 More, higher performance sensors : cheapest
sensors require most performance
 Low cost and Time-To-Market (of course)
 Legislation
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Automotive IC’s
HBIMOS (2.0µm) I2T (0.7µm) I3T (0.35µm)
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Technology Evolution
Feature size trend versus year of market introduction
for mainstream CMOS and for 80-100V automotive technologies
2000 2010 1990 1980
0.1
1.0
10
Technology Node
(µm)
BIMOS-7µm
SBIMOS-3µm
HBIMOS-2µm
I
2
T-0.7µm
I
3
T-0.35µm
CMOS
Year of Market Introduction
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Introduction
Top automotive vehicle manufacturers (2000)
(top 14 manufacturers account for 87% of worldwide production)
Source: Automotive News Datacenter - 2001

Suzuki
3,0%
Mitsubishi
2,8%
BMW
1,7%
Others
13,5%
Renault
4,1%
Honda
4,2%
Fiat
4,6%
Nissan
4,4%
Hyundai
4,2%
PSA group
4,7%
GM
14,2%
Ford
12,4%
Toyota
9,9%
VW group
8,6%
Daimler-
Chrysler
7,8%
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Introduction
Automotive electronic
equipment revenue forecast








CAGR = 6.6% (2002–2006)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
2003 2004 2005 2006
B
$
Other Auto
Remote/Keyless Entry
Climate Control unit
Airbags
Dashboard Instr.
Auto Stereo
GPS
ABS
Engine Control units
0
5
10
15
20
25
2003 2004 2005 2006
B
$
Automotive semiconductor
consumption forecast








CAGR = 13.2% (2002–2006)
Source : Dataquest December 2002
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Introduction
Total semiconductor market (US$B)
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Military/Aero (3%)
CAGR=8% (2002-06)
Industrial (7%)
CAGR=12% (2002-06)
Automotive (8%)
CAGR=13% (2002-06)
Consumer (17%)
CAGR=15% (2002-06)
Communications (24%)
CAGR=14% (2002-06)
Data Processing (41%)
CAGR=12% (2002-06)
Source : Dataquest November 2002
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Introduction
Interior Light System
Auto toll Payment
Rain sensor
Dashboard controller
Automated
Cruise Control
Light failure control
Information
Navigation
Entertainment
Head Up Display
Engine:

Injection control

Injection monitor

Oil Level Sensing

Air Flow
Headlight:
Position control
Power control
Failure detection
Brake Pressure


Airbag Sensing &Control
Seat control:
Position/Heating
Key transponder
Door module
Keyless entry

Central locking
Throttle control
Valve Control
E-gas
Suspension control
LED brake light
Compass
Stability Sensing
Power Window Sensor
Backup Sensing
Gearbox: Position control
Where do we find electronics in a car
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Introduction
Electronics are distributed all over the car-body
 Distributed supply used for both power drivers
and low power control systems
direct battery supply for the modules: high-
voltage with large variation
Trend: Battery voltage from 12V  42V
large supply transients due to interferences of
high-power users switching or error condition
(load-dump)
Trend: comparable supply transients, lower load-
dump transient
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Introduction
 Modules, distributed over the car-body have to
comply with stringent EMC and ESD
low EME to other modules and external world
low EMS (high EMI) for externally and internally
generated fields
High ESD and system-ESD requirements
Trend: increasing EMC frequency and EMC field
strength for the module.
Trend: increasing ESD voltages and power
Trend: more integration brings the module border
closer to the chip border : the chip has to comply
with higher EMC field strengths and ESD power.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Introduction
 Modules on all locations in the car, close to
controlled sensors and actuators
large temperature range: - 40 … +150°C ambient
Trend: increasing ambient temperature
 Critical car-functions controlled by electronics
Safety & reliability very important
Trend: increasing safety and reliability
requirements
Communication speed and reliability
Trend: higher speed, lower/fixed latency, higher
reliability and accident proof communications
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Introduction
 Many modules interface with cheap (large
offset, low linearity) and low-power sensors
High accuracy and programmability of sensor
interface: sensitivity, linearization, calibration …
Trend: increasing sensor interface accuracy,
speed and programmability with higher
interference rejection and more intelligence
 SOC-type semiconductors in module
Lower cost mandates single chip
Trend: increasing intelligence requires state-of-
the-art technology with high-voltage (80V), higher
temperature (175°C ambient) and higher
interference rejection (EMC, ESD) capabilities
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Automotive
IC design
Automotive Electronics Challenges
EMC &
Automotive
transients
Cost & TTM
Quality
& Safety
High Voltage
High Temp.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Cost & Time To Market
 The automotive market is very cost driven :
“Bill of Materials” and “Cost of Ownership”
more important than component cost

 Time To Market is quite long : start design
to production is typically 2 … 3 yrs

but Time To Market is in fact “Time to OEM
qualification slot” which is not flexible
 Prestudy, design, redesign : typ 12 … 18 month
 Automotive IC qualification : typ 3 … 4 month
 OEM qualification : typ 6 … 12 month
The start of the OEM qualification is a very
hard deadline
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Outline
Automotive
IC design
EMC &
Automotive
transients
Cost & TTM
Quality
& Safety
High
Voltage
High Temp.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Quality and Safety
 Required reliability ?
 Most cars actually drive less than 10.000hrs
over the cars lifespan of 10 … 15 years
 Most electronics also only functioning during
10.000hrs but some are powered for > 10years
 High reliability requirements : 1ppm
 for production reasons (low infant mortality)
 for safety reasons and long lifetime (failure rate).
 Implications
 Design : 6 sigma approach
 Test: high test coverage (digital and analog),
test at different temperatures
IDDQ, Vstress for early life-time failures
 Packaging : high reliability
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Quality and Safety
 Safety requirements ?
 If a problem affects the performance, the
circuit/module functionality must remain safe
(predictable behavior).
Problems: circuit/system failure, EMC
disturbance, car-crash (within limits) …
 Non-vital functions may become inoperable until
the problem disappears
 Vital parts must remain functional
 Implications
 Fault tolerant system set-up
 Worst Case Design including EMC disturbance
 DFMEA (Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis)
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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DFMEA
What : Failure Mode and Effect Analysis is a
disciplined analysis/method of identifying
potential or known failure modes and providing
follow-up and corrective actions before the first
production run occurs. (D.H. Stamatis)
Why : avoid the natural tendency to underestimate
what can go wrong
 FMEA extends from subcircuit to component to
system and assembly and to service, where each
FMEA is an input for the next level.
 Design FMEA (DFMEA) concerns the component
design level.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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DFMEA
 FMEA does not include prototypes and samples
because up to that point, modifications are part of
the development.
It is good practice though to include DFMEA
already in the prestudy for its large implications
on the final circuit
 In the automotive industry, a standardized form
and procedure has been published by AIAG
 The header is not standardized and contains the
design project references, the DFMEA version
control, team and the authorization signatures.
 The second part includes the mandatory items
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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DFMEA
 Mandatory items for the DFMEA
 Functional block
 Identification number
 Circuit part and Design function
e.g. input CLCK_in, Schmitt-trigger function
 Actual state of the circuit (I)
 Potential failure mode
e.g. no hysteresis or hysteresis in one direction only
 Potential effect of failure
e.g. oscillation of clock signal
 [S] Severity of the failure: rank 1 … 10
e.g. 8 : critical failure: product inoperable

2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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DFMEA
 Mandatory items for the DFMEA (II)
 Actual state of the circuit (II)
 Potential cause of failure
e.g. Metal 1 crack
 [O] likelihood of Occurrence of failure: rank 1 …10
e.g. 5 : medium number of failures likely
 Preventive and Detection methods
e.g. digital test of input does not include hysteresis
 [D] likelihood of Detection of failure: rank 1 … 10
e.g. 7 : low effectiveness of actual detection method
 [RPN] Risk Priority Number: [RPN] = [O] x [S] x [D]
e.g. 280 : high value : corrective action required
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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DFMEA
 Mandatory items for the DFMEA (III)
 Corrective action
 recommended corrective action
e.g. include hysteresis test in test-program
 Responsible Area or Person and Completion Date
e.g. test engineer NN, wk 0324
 Corrected state of the circuit
 Corrective action taken
e.g. testprogram version B1A
 [O] : Revised Occurrence rank e.g. 8 (unchanged)
 [S] : Revised Severity rank e.g. 5 (unchanged)
 [D] : Revised Detection rank
e.g. 1 : effect measured by standard test program
 [RPN] : Revised Risk Priority Number e.g. 40
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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DFMEA example
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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DFMEA example
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Outline
Automotive
IC design
EMC &
Automotive
transients
Cost & TTM
Quality
& Safety
High Voltage
High Temp.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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High Voltage : the car-battery
 Some History
 ~ 1955: 12 Volt battery introduced for cranking
large & high compression V8 engines
 1994: workshops in USA and Europe to define
the architecture for a future automotive
electrical system.
 1995: study at MIT for the optimal system.
 the highest possible DC voltage is best.
 1996: future nominal voltage = 42 Volt
 multiple of low-cost lead-acid battery
 below 60 Volt under all conditions
(60V = shock-hazard protection limit for DC voltages)
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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The car-battery
 March 24, 1997: Daimler-Benz presents the
“Draft Specification of a Dual Voltage
Vehicle electrical Power System 42V/14V”
 is the de-facto standard since it is
supported by the > 50 consortium
members (http://www.mitconsortium.org)
 The name:



42V = 3 X 12 V Lead-Acid Battery
nominal operating voltage of a 12Volt battery is 14 Volt
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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The car-battery
Example of a dual voltage power system 14V/42V
The system can be equipped with two batteries or with one
main battery (14V or 42V) and a smaller backup battery for
safety applications …
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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The car-battery
Forecast of the 42V vehicle share in relation
to the overall vehicle production in Europe
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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The car-battery
Why switching over to 42Volt battery ?
 Electrical power consumption in a car rises
beyond the capabilities of a 12Volt battery.
 Limit for 14V generator power ~ 3kW
 Mean power consumption of a luxury car ~ 1.1kW
(corresponds to ~ 1,5l/100km fuel in urban traffic)
 The required power for all installed applications
in luxury cars already exceeds the generator
capability.
 New applications e.g. ISG (Integrated-Starter-
Generator), X-by-wire, require much higher power
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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The car-battery
Why switching over to 42Volt battery ?
 Alternator efficiency increases from 50% to
75% or more and creates smaller load-dump
pulse (voltage supply pulse when the alternator
runs at full power and the battery is disconnected)
 New power hungry systems possible
 Electro mechanical or hydraulic brakes
 Electric water pumps
 “Stop-start system”: Integrates Starter and
Generator in a single unit (ISG).
 Electromechanical engine valve actuators
 ……
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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The car-battery
Why switching over to 42Volt battery ?
 Most existing systems benefit from 42V
 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning
 Engine cooling (eliminates belts)
 Electromechanic gear shifting
 …..
 Some systems still require 14V
 Incandescent ligtbulbs
 Low-power electronic modules
 Existing high-volume modules because of
redesign, qualification and production costs
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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The car-battery
Specification of the 42V battery

2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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The car-battery
 Other specifications
 Battery reversal: no destruction
- non-continuous, small voltage for 42V
- continuous, full battery voltage for 12V systems
 Short drops: reset may occur
30V  16V / 100msec at 16V / 16V  30V
 Slow increase/decrease: no unexpected behavior
48V  0V @ -3V/min. & 0V  48V @ +3V/min
 Voltage drop test: reset behaves as expected
42V  30V  21V  30V  20.5V  30V  20V
… and so on to … 30V  0.5V  30V  0V.
 Electric modules see this car-battery voltage,
which is further disturbed by conductive
transients (ISO7637) and by ESD pulses.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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The car-battery
Example specification
of the current 12V battery
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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The car-battery
Translation of the 42V battery specification
into an 80V Technology requirement
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Example
Lamp-failure
detector
 Directly connected
to the car-battery
 Sense inputs can
be above or below
VDDA
 V(Rsense)
detection Accuracy
< 10mV
 Output: low voltage
CMOS levels
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Example
Lamp
Switch
Rsense
Fuse Vbatt
ESD
prot.
Schaffner
protection
Comp.
Level
shifter
AV
generator
CMOS
logic
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Example
 Solution based on the low impedance of the source:
the comparator and level shifter extract their supply
from the sensor input.
 ESD protection of the input with automotive-transient
(Schaffner) resistant zener diodes (BV
CES
> 80V)
 Protection for automotive transients (Schaffner) of all
points connected to the car-battery by relative high
value polysilicon resistors.
 Resistors limit current during transient spikes
 Floating resistors can handle positive and negative spikes
 Accuracy not impacted if AI
b
xR
poly
<< 1mV
 Adaptive AV generator
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Example
High-Side Driver for external NDMOS
D D D D
D D D D
D
D
Vcc
Vbatt
Ain
Aout
full swing inverter
D D
D D
D D
D D
D
OSC.
Vcc
Vbatt
OFF ON
external
NDMOS
Cext
LOAD
charge pump with
full swing invertor
ON / OFF level shifters
with slew rate control
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Example
 High-side driver for external NDMOS
 Simple Dixon charge pump
 High voltage diodes
 Tank-voltage controlled by Vcc-regulator
 Uses a full-swing inverter (separate schematic)
 External tank capacitor
 ON / OFF control logic
 Controlled charge and discharge current
 controlled slew rate for minimum EME
 Bleeding resistors for low power and high temp.
 Simplified schematic:
 no protection circuits except Vgs-zener for NDMOS
 no flyback & no important ground-shift between IC
and Load : NDMOS cannot go below substrate
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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Outline
Automotive
IC design
EMC &
Automotive
transients
Cost & TTM
Quality
& Safety
High Voltage
High Temp.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 53

High Temperature
Temperature Range Specifications
 Low temperatures :
 Environment e.g. Nordic countries, Alaska …
 Typical specification: - 50degC … - 40degC
 High temperatures :
 Engine compartiment, brakes, lamps …
e.g. engine switch-off stops cooling and engine
heat distributes. Engine restart however must
work correctly
 Typical specifications for Automotive ICs today :
125 … 150degC ambient with short peaks up to
170 … 200degC. (power devices go higher)
 Requirements are increasing.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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High Temperature Requirements
T4: Temperature extremes in accordance with
SAE J1211 (5…10% of 7000…12000 hours lifetime)

Temperature zones
and % of total operation time
in each temperature zone
Mounting zone Module description
T1 (5%) T2 (20%) T3 (65%) T4 (10%)
Temperate zone, thermally
isolated
- 40 °C 25 °C 60 °C 85 °C
Splash wall - 40 °C 25 °C 90 °C 140 °C
Attached to the engine or
attached to the gearbox
- 40 °C 25 °C 95 °C 150 °C
Engine
Compartiment
Throttle valve, close to the
exhaust
- 40 °C 25 °C 120 °C 205 °C
Locations exposed to heat
sources
- 40 °C 25 °C 90 °C 120 °C
Chassis
Near breaks or hydraulics - 40 °C 25 °C 105 °C 175 °C
Dashboard, hat rack - 40 °C 25 °C 60 °C 110 °C
Cabin
Roof under strong sun
exposure
- 40 °C 25 °C 90 °C 115 °C


Source: A.Blessing, AEC
Workshop Nashville 2004
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
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High temperature limitations
Functionality of on-chip components ?
 Bulk silicon can be used up to ~ 200 … 250degC.
(with appropriate design techniques)
 Below the intrinsic temperature of the lowest doped
regions (~200degC for 100V, ~250degC for 5V techno).
 The MOS transistor remains a transistor,
but with decreasing Vt and decreasing mobility
 increasing sub-threshold leakage
 increasing area
 Diffusion and poly-resistors remain resistors
 Thin oxide capacitors remain capacitors
 Junction diodes remain diodes but the leakage
current goes up drastically.
 SOI can be used up to ~ 250 … 300degC
 GaAs can be used up to ~ 500degC
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 56

High temperature limitations
Reliability of components and package
(most important limitations only)
 Electromigration limits decrease
 use wider metals and more VIAs
 area increase of power devices.
 Diffusion of silicon into aluminum
 using an Al/Si metallization extends the limit
e.g. 1% Si – 99% Al alloy extends this to ~ 500degC.
 Die attach
not important below 200degC.
 use selected epoxies
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 57

High temperature limitations
Reliability of components and package (II)
 Wire bonding: the dominant failure mechanism
 Chemical: inter-metallic growth and void-formation
increases the bondpad/bondwire contact resistance
Very dependent on the type of plastic and the ionic
contamination of the plastic.
 Thermo-mechanical: delamination of bondpad and
bondwire due to stress.
Very dependent on the stress characteristics of
plastic, the type of package and the size of chip.
 Plastic encapsulation: depolymerization of the
epoxy is closely linked to wire bond failure.
New (green) packages are improved
 Low stress (delamination)
 Low ion impurity and ion catching (voids)
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 58

High temperature limitations
Conclusions
 Reliability decreases according to the
Arrhenius-law
reliability typically decreases by 2 for every 10degC
 Wire bonding in a plastic package is the
limiting factor for high temperature operation
current limit in production ~ 150degC for 10.000 hrs.
 Diode leakage currents are the main
limitations in circuit design.
 Affect biasing and matching in low-power circuits
 Can give rise to latch-up
kT E
A
e R T R
÷
· =
0
) (
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 59

Diode Leakage current
 Leakage current mechanisms
 Moderate temperatures: Drift current ~ n
i

leakage current dominated by thermal generation
of electron-hole pairs in the depletion region
 High temperatures : Diffusion current ~ n
i
2

leakage current dominated by minority carrier
generation in the neutral region
 In a single well technology is the PMOS leakage
current (n-well to SP-drain) much lower than the
NMOS leakage current (Epi to SN-drain)
 Higher n-well doping  less minority carriers
 n-well much thinner than epi  less carriers
 Hole mobility lower than electron mobility
 In a twin well is the difference much smaller
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 60

Diode Leakage current
Junction area 4 X 20µm
Epi doping: NA=10e15/cm3
Nwell doping: ND=4x10e16/cm3
(P. de Jong - JSSC-vol 33, dec 1998)
Nwell, 1.2 µm CMOS technology
junction areas shown in the figure
(I. Finvers - JSSC-vol 30, Feb 1995)
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 61

Example : bandgap circuit
 NPN collector-substrate diode:
bad N+/EPI diode, large area :
leakage ~ 50 nA @ 150degC/unit.
E.g. for n=8 & 3.5µA/ NPN branch
 10% error in current matching
without extra transistor.
 6.5% bandgap voltage rise.
 PMOS mirror, Drain/Bulk diodes:
good diode with small area and
balanced leakage  no mismatch
 PMOS bulk/epi diode leakage
subtracted from the PDMOS
current source excess current.
 NDMOS body/drain leakage in
parallel with grounded current
source. Drain/substrate leakage
extracted from supply.
High voltage, low
power bandgap
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 62

Example : SC circuit
Leakage currents:
 OpAmp inputs:
 Gate Tunneling
 Switches:
 Sub-threshold leakage
 Drain/Bulk junction
leakage
 Gate/Drain tunneling
 Impact Ionisation
 GIDL
 Capacitor plate leakage
e.g. C2=2pF, 1nA leakage,
 500µV/µsec CM droop
Switched Capacitor
Circuit: the leakage
sensitive points are
the OpAmp input
nodes in Hold mode.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 63

Outline
Automotive
IC design
EMC &
Automotive
transients
Cost & TTM
Quality
& Safety
High
Voltage
High Temp.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 64

EMC : Definition
Definition (UK Defense Standard 59-41)
“Electro Magnetic Compatibility is the ability of
electrical and electronic equipments, subsystems and
systems to share the electromagnetic spectrum and
perform their desired functions without unacceptable
degradation from or to the specified electromagnetic
environment.”
In other words:
The Electro Magnetic Emission (EME) must be low
enough, not to disturb the environment
The Electro Magnetic Susceptibility (EMS) must be
low enough, not to be disturbed by the environment

2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 65

EMC : Examples
 EMS examples
 Unwanted but not safety critical
 Car-radio, GPS …
 Safety-critical systems
require full in-spec functionality during EMC
 ABS system, airbag system, Motor control …
 EME examples
 Unwanted EME sources
 switching of heavy or inductive loads: lamps, start-
motor, ignition …
 fast switching circuits: digital circuits …
 Wanted EME sources
 mobile phones, CB transmitters, radio stations … :
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 66

EMC : Compliance tests
 Compliance tests have been standardized
between the car-manufacturers, their
suppliers and the government.
Every car must pass these tests before it is
allowed on the road

 Examples:
 Anechoic Chamber
tests (600-700 V/m)

 Environment tests
(radio station)

 ……..
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 67

EMC : Pre-Compliance tests
 The later EMC problems are detected, the more
difficult the identification of the root-cause and the
more limited and expensive the solution.
 At final car qualification level, many modules could
cause the EMC problem and there is no time for a
redesign. The only solution is adding extra shielding
and anti-interference components like chokes, coils,
capacitors, which is very expensive.
 At module qualification level, the PCB layout can be
changed and extra components (chokes, coils, cap’s)
can be added. This has less impact on the bill of
materials but can impact the time to qualification slot.
 It is mandatory to include EMC in all phases of the
development : IC’s, PCB’s, modules and car-layout.
 Pre-compliance tests have been standardized to
enable this at module and at IC level.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 68

EMC : Pre-Compliance tests
 Pre-compliance tests agreed between car-
manufacturer and module-supplier or between
module-manufacturer and IC supplier.
 PRO: module and IC manufacturers make
portable designs
 CON: tendency to end up with a chain of
over-specification
 Of the many EMC standards, 3 standards are
particularly important for IC’s.
 IEC 61967 for EME measurements
(150kHz – 1GHz, narrow-band EME)
 IEC 62132 for EMS measurements
(150kHz – 1GHz, narrow-band EMS)
 ISO 7637 for Automotive transients
(EMS for power supply line disturbances)
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 69

EME standard: IEC 61967
 IEC 61967 : Integrated circuits – Measurement
of electromagnetic emissions 150kHz to 1GHz.
 Part 1: General conditions and definitions
 Radiated emission measurements
 Part 2: TEM-cell (Transversal Electromagnetic cell)
 Part 3: Surface scan method
 Conducted emission measurements
 Part 4: 1 Ohm/150 Ohm method
 Part 5: Workbench Faraday Cage method (WBFC)
 Part 6: Magnetic probe method
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 70

EMS standard: IEC 62132
 IEC 62132 : Integrated circuits – Measurement
of electromagnetic immunity 150kHz to 1GHz.
 Part 1: General conditions and definitions
 Radiated immunity measurements
 Part 2: TEM-cell (Transversal Electromagnetic cell)
 Conducted immunity measurements
 Part 3: Bulk current Injection method (BCI)
 Part 4: Direct RF Power Injection method (DPI)
 Part 5: Workbench Faraday Cage method (WBFC)
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 71

Transients standard: ISO 7637
 ISO 7637 : Road vehicles – Electrical
disturbance by conduction and coupling
 Part 0: General and Definitions
 Part 1: Passenger cars and light commercial
vehicles with nominal 12 V supply voltage –
Electrical transient conduction along supply lines
only
 Part 2: Commercial vehicles with nominal 24 V
supply voltage – Electrical transient conduction
along supply lines only
 Part 3: Passenger cars and light commercial
vehicles with nominal 12 V supply voltage and
Commercial vehicles with nominal 24 V supply
voltage – Electrical transient transmission by
capacitive and inductive coupling via lines other
than the supply lines.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 72

EMC standards in design
 How to include EMC in the IC development flow
 EMC deals with electromagnetic fields.
 EM noise generator emits EM-energy, wanted or
unwanted.
 EM noise receiver susceptible to this EM-energy
 The coupling channel conducts EM-energy from
the noise-generator to the noise-receiver via
radiation or conduction.
EM-noise
generator
EM-noise
receiver
radiation
conduction
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 73

EMC standards in design
 EM-fields are not compatible with the SPICE
based simulation environment of IC-design,
which is “electrical only”.
 At the IC level, EM-fields can be modeled by
Electrical fields only since the dimensions on
the chip and in the package are much smaller
than the wave length of the EMC signals
e.g. in air : λ = 30 cm @ 1GHz >> chip dimensions
 On-chip current loops are very inefficient
antennas for electromagnetic emission and
susceptibility. (“rule of thumb”, L < λ / 20).
 The variations are quasi-stationary and a Low-
Frequency modeling with L, R and C is adequate.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 74

EMC standards in design
 Radiated emission and susceptibility is not the
major problem for IC’s.
 Conducted emission and susceptibility to the
efficient antennas on the PCB and the cable
harness is the important problem.
 Two EMC conductive methods, compatible with
simulation, have been standardized.
 IEC 61967-4 (1O / 150O method)
 IEC 62132-4 (DPI – Direct Power Injection)
Note that ISO 7637 (Schaffner) is compatible
 These methods model conducted EMC between
IC and PCB, not the EM-field. Generated EM-fields
are function of module and wiring layouts.
 Limit setting for these methods is based on the
accumulated experience of the chip and module
manufacturers
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 75

EMC standards in design
 System level test
 Radiated
susceptibility
 TEM cell tests
ISO11452 –3
 Shielded chamber
tests ISO11452 –2
 Conducted
susceptibility
 ISO 7637–1
 Conducted and
radiated emission
CISPR25
 Etc…
 IC level tests :
empirical validation
and theoretical analysis
 Susceptibility
 Like IEC 62132-4
(Direct Power
Injection)
 Like ISO 7637-1
(Conductive
transient pulses)
 Emission
 Like IEC 61967-4
(1 Ohm/150 Ohm
method)
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 76

Outline
Automotive
IC design
EME & EMS
&
Automotive
transients
Cost & TTM
Quality
& Safety
High
Voltage
High Temp.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 77

EME 1O / 150O test
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 78

EME 1O / 150O test
 1O method measures the RF sum current in a
single ground pin (RF current probe).
This measures the RF return current from the
various current loops (emitting antennas) of
the PCB.
 150O method measures the RF voltage at a
single or at multiple output pins, which are
connected to long PCB traces or wiring
harness. (150O is the characteristic impedance of
wiring harnesses in a vehicle).
Various measurement configurations are used
for different types of outputs.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 79

Standard EM-field graph
emission limit
example:
H-12-n-O
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 80

EME what happens
 EME is generated by HF currents in external
loops, which act as antennas.
 Sources of the HF currents
 Switching of core digital logic: glue logic, µcore, DSP,
memory, clock drivers …
 synchronous logic generates large and sharp
current peaks with large HF content
 Activity of the analog core circuit
 does not generate large current peaks
 Switching of the digital I/O pins
 fast and large current peaks directly to the PCB
 High power output drivers
 large current peaks to the PCB and wiring harness.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 81

EME how to cope with
Internal measures
 Limit the switching power to the external
 Use low power circuits & circuit techniques
- low power flip-flop, memory …
- architecture with different clock domains
- lower or adaptive supply voltage
- ….
Note: gated clocks are not efficient for EME if
modes exist where all gates are open.
 Use a more advanced technology
 Use on-chip capacitors
EME (HF) looks at switching power spectrum,
low-power digital looks at mean dissipated power.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 82

EME how to cope with
 Shape the current peaks to the external
 Slow down the switching edges
- MS-FF and 2phase clock
- asynchronous logic
- controlled edges for I/O or power driver
- ….
External and Chip-layout measures
 Differential output signals e.g. CAN, LVDS …
twisted-pair like lines generate less EME and are
less susceptible to EME
 VDD and VSS close to each other
- differential signals (see above)
- external decoupling easier and more efficient
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 83

EME how to cope with
 EME of the module is the result of the current
peaks generated by the IC times the
efficiency of the emitting antennas of the PCB
and wiring harness.
 The current peaks simulated or measured with
the 1O / 150O method do not predict the correct
value of the emission but give a good relative
indication. A correlation with the actual
measured EME of the module is required.
 Each manufacturer specifies his own limits
for the emission as simulated or measured
by the IEC 61967-4 1O / 150O method.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 84

Example
 In the example, spectra of
different current pulses are
evaluated. The current
pulses are simplified.
 Simulated spectra
 Reference current pulse in existing technology.
100mA outgoing pulse  100mV in 1O probe
 Distributed pulse: amp. / 2, freq. x 2
 HF spectrum remains, LF spectrum changes
 Pulse with slower edges & same power: amp. / 2
 HF spectrum lower, LF spectrum remains
 Same logic in newer technology (2 generations):
power / 2, amp. X 1, width / 2, slopes x 2
 HF spectrum higher, LF spectrum lower
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 85

Example
Spectrum of different pulses
r
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

s
p
e
c
t
r
u
m






(
1
0
0
m
V
,




5
.
0
n
s
e
c
,




1
M
H
z
)





[

E

-

4

-

c

]


d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
e
d

p
u
l
s
e










(


5
0
m
V
,




5
.
0
n
s
e
c
,




2
M
H
z
)





[

E

-

4

-

c

]


s
l
o
w
e
r

p
u
l
s
e

s
l
o
p
e
s





(


5
0
m
V
,


1
0
.
0
n
s
e
c
,




1
M
H
z
)





[

E

-

5

-

e

]


n
e
w

t
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y












(
1
0
0
m
V
,




2
.
5
n
s
e
c
,




1
M
H
z
)





[

F

-

4

-

b

]

reference spectrum
& distributed pulse
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 86

Example
CANH differential and single ended output
(for the given pulse mismatch)
Frequency / Hertz
0
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
60
66
72
78
84
10
5
2 3 4 5 6 8 10
6
2 3 4 5 6 8 10
7
2 3 4 5 6 8 10
8
2 3 4 5 6 8 10
9
Hz
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
K
L
M
N
O
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
1
8
1
9
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
k
l
m
n
o
p
q
r
s
t
u
v
w
y
z
f
dBµV
V
CANH – differential output [ F – 7 – h ]
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 87

Outline
Automotive
IC design
EME & EMS
& Automotive
transients
Cost & TTM
Quality
& Safety
High
Voltage
High Temp.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 88

EMS DPI test
Measurement set-up
The measurement set-up uses a power source
 For Zin(DUT) > 200O, the power source can be
replaced by a voltage source.
 For Zin(DUT) < 50O, the power source is better
replaced by a current source (Norton equivalent)
Note that Zin(DUT) is frequency and signal dependent
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 89

EMS DPI test
Simulation models
Simulation model for Zin > 200O
Guideline for amplitude A
V
A
V
= 22V @ 5W DPI (level 1)
A
V
= 7V @ 0.5W DPI (level 2)
A
V
= 2.2V @ 50mW DPI (level 3)
Simulation model for Zin < 50O
Guideline for amplitude A
I




P
inj
: required immunity level
|
.
|

\
|
+ O
· O
=
Zin 50
Zin 50
P A
inj I
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 90

EMS compliance levels
 Not all I/O pins of the IC are connected to the
wiring harness and unprotected.
 Level 1: direct connection to the environment
 Level 2: direct connection to the environment but
some external low-pass filtering is available.
e.g. signal conditioning input stages, direct
sensor interfaces …
 Level 3: No direct connection of the I/O to the
environment.
e.g. interface chips connected to sensor chips in
the same module, A/D converter input stages …
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 91

EMS compliance levels
EMS caused malfunction is not always detrimental
Class A: all functions of a device/system perform
within the specification limits during and after the
exposure to the disturbance.
Class B: some functions can go temporarily beyond
the specification limits during the exposure. The
system recovers automatically after the exposure.
Class C: some functions can go temporarily beyond
the specification limits during the exposure. The
system does not recover automatically but requires
operator intervention or system reset.
Class D: degradation or loss of function, which is not
self-recoverable due to damage of the IC or loss of
data.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 92

EMS what happens
The incident high-frequency electro-magnetic
power is partially absorbed in the IC and
causes disturbances in different ways:
1) Large HF voltages into a high-impedance node
2) Large HF currents into a low-impedance node
3) Large HF power into a node, which switches
from high-impedance to low-impedance at
device limits, at protection voltages or at
frequency breakpoints.
 Rectification/pumping, Parasitic devices/currents
and Power dissipation are the three important
disturbing effects of EMS
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 93

EMS what happens
1) Large HF voltages into a high-impedance node
 Medium power dissipation e.g. 9% of DPI for 1kO
 Linear large signal behavior of components and
structures in the signal path  no effect
 Non-linear behavior of components and structures in
the signal path  rectification effects (pumping) on
capacitors in the signal path. : important disturbance
on a chip e.g. bias pumping
 Capacitive coupling input devices into the substrate
e.g. large driver in the OFF state, ESD structures
 substrate currents and substrate bounce :
important effect for latch-up, pumping …
 Capacitive coupling to adjacent devices or structures
e.g. Cm = 100fF gives | Zm | = 10 kO at 159MHz
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 94

EMS what happens
2) Large HF currents into a low-impedance node
 Large power dissipation e.g. 83% of DPI for 10O :
Important effect on chip.
 Linear large current behavior of components and
structures in the current path  no effect
 Non-linear large current behavior of components and
structures in the current path  rectification effects
(pumping) in the signal path: important disturbing
effect on a chip.
 Inductive coupling to adjacent devices or structures :
only important for bondwires and leadframe
e.g. 100mA @ 159MHz gives ~ 750mV in an adjacent,
open wire.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 95

EMS what happens
3) Large HF power into a node, which switches
from high-impedance to low-impedance
e.g. at device limits or at protection voltages
or at frequency breakpoints
 Combines high voltage and large currents
 Large power dissipation in clipping devices or
protection structures  Important effect
 clipping activates parasitic devices & current paths
 large current peaks in the supply lines or other
pins generates EME in other loops on the PCB.
 large current peaks in the substrate through
parasitic devices  important effect
e.g. latch-up, substrate coupling …
 Nature of the signal path can change with frequency
 important effect, difficult to cope with.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 96

EMS how to cope with
 Guidelines
 Use good large signal and HF models
 Include all parasitic components of the devices
(internal and external)
 Design, simulate and layout with all parasitics
 Avoid rectification : make circuits symmetrical
 Differential circuit topologies and layout
 Limit voltage input range of sensitive devices
such that they do not go in non-linear behavior or
in degradation conditions.
 Limit frequency input range of sensitive devices :
band-limited signals
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 97

EMS how to cope with
 Make circuits robust for rectification
 Design for high CMRR & PSRR
 Keep internal node impedances low
 Keep sensitive nodes on-chip
 Avoid / control parasitic devices and currents
 Use protection devices that clip beyond the
required EMS injection levels
 Make protection levels symmetrical
with respect to the signal
 Minimize substrate currents
 Collect substrate currents in controlled points
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 98

Example
Rectification
LF: both the NMOS/OpAmp circuit
and the LP-filter follow the
input variations
 Iout is correct
MF: the NMOS/OpAmp circuit follows
Vin and conducts a linear current
in the PMOS diode. Vgs
PMOS
(Id) is
non-linear and the LP-Filter
output voltage is the mean of the
rectified Vgs
PMOS
(pumping)
 Iout decreases
HF: the NMOS/OpAmp becomes a
Source follower which rectifies
the input current, The rectified
current is largely linearized in the
PMOS diode before the LP-filter.
 Iout returns to correct value
LF: below LP-filter & OpAmp GBW
MF: between LP-filter & OpAmp GBW
HF: above LP-filter & OpAmp GBW
Note: at high DPI voltages, the ESD and
NMOS diodes can also rectify the
current (below OpAmp GBW)
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 99

Example
Current source error (filtered)
as function of the DPI source
voltage and frequency
100k 1M 10M
99%
90%
0%
50%
80%
95%
98%
frequency Vin
(Hz)
Iout (% of Iout without DPI source)
0.5 Vin
1.0 Vin
1.5 Vin
2.0 Vin
3.0 Vin
Vin: DPI source voltage (arbitrary units)
20 30 40 50 60 70
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Time/µsec
Iout (%)
Vin : 500kHz – 1.0*Aref
Vin : 500kHz – 1.5*Aref
Effect of rectification on the
output current (pumping)
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 100

Example
Rectification in a differential comparator
Emitter follower rectification due to large Ccs of current
source  replace current source by resistor
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 101

Example
Further EMS improvement
Input Attenuator
 large improvement (LF & HF)
also for LF & HF signals beyond
the supply voltages
 reduced sensitivity
Input Filter
 large improvement (only HF)
also for HF signals beyond
the supply voltages
 no sensitivity reduction
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 102

Example
Effect of the EMS improvements
100
10
1
1M 10M 100M 1G
EMI
DPI source strength
(relative units)
frequency
(Hz)
1
2
3
5
4
(1) original circuit with
current source
(2) current source
replaced by resistor
(3) with input attenuator
(4) with input filter
(5) with input attenuator
and input filter
The EMI value in the
graph is the maximum
value of the DPI source
strength for which the
comparator gain > 2
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 103

Example
Parasitic currents & substrate currents
Example: substrate currents in an ESD protection structure
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 104

Types of Substrate Current
 Three important types of substrate current
 Substrate currents, injected into the substrate by a
PNP transistor where the substrate is the collector, by
diode breakdown, by impact ionization …
 Effect: substrate biasing, which can activate
other parasitic transistors or cause latch-up.
 Substrate currents, extracted from the substrate by a
forward biased diode. This diode becomes a lateral
NPN with any other neighboring N-region as collector.
 Effect: extraction of currents from other distant
N-regions (up to millimeters distance).
 Capacitive currents due to junction or oxide
capacitors, coupled to the substrate.
 Effect: substrate biasing (bounce) & capacitive
coupling to other junctions or oxide capacitors
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 105

Example
Problem: for the input strapped to ground, the output toggles
from low to high for low EM injection
Cause: substrate current extraction from the NMOS drain
during negative pulses overrides the bias current
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 106

Example
Solution: new ESD protection circuit without substrate NPN,
back-to-back zener diodes and shielding of the NMOS gate.
Vin
Vcc
Vbat
Vbias
Vout
back-to-back
ESD zener diodes
ESD protection
for positive and
negative battery
voltages
Schmitt trigger
with shielded
NMOS-gate
regulator
large current
pull-up Isub
DPI Source
LP-filter
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 107

Outline

Automotive
IC design
EMC &
Automotive
transients
Cost & TTM
Quality
& Safety
High
Voltage
High Temp.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 108

Automotive transients
Standard test pulse 2
Interruption of the current in an
inductor in series with the device
under test
(ISO 7637, part1)
Standard test pulse 1
Disconnection of a supply from an
inductive load, while the device
under test remains in parallel with
the inductive load
(ISO 7637, part1)
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 109

Automotive transients
Standard test pulses 3a and 3b
These pulses simulate transient, occurring as a result of
switching processes. They are influenced by distributed
capacitances and inductance of the wiring harness.
(ISO 7637, part1)
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 110

Automotive transients
Standard test pulse 5
LOAD DUMP:
This happens when the battery is
disconnected while it is being
charged by the alternator.
(ISO 7637, part1)
Standard test pulse 4
BATTERY VOLTAGE DROP: During
motor start, the battery is
overloaded and the voltage drops,
especially in cold weather.
(ISO 7637, part1)
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 111

Automotive transients
For alternators
with autoprotection
Standard test pulses 5 : LOAD DUMP clamped
Load dump amplitude depends on alternator speed and field
excitation. Load dump duration depends on the time constant of the
field excitation circuit and the amplitude.
Today most alternators have an internal protection against load
dump surge. The 6 zener diodes clamp above 24Volt.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 112

Automotive transients
.
Standard test pulse 7
Simulates the decrease of the
magnetic field of the alternator
when the engine stops.
(ISO 7637, part1)
Standard test pulse 6
This disturbance occurs when the
ignition current is interrupted.
(ISO 7637, part1)
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 113



Test pulses
(ISO 7637, part1)
Test levels
(values agreed to between car manufacturer
and supplier)
Pulse
type
Series
resistance
Impulse
duration
I II II IV
1 10 O 2 ms -25V -50V -75V -100V
2 10 O 50 µs +25V +25V +75V +100V
3a
3b
50 O 0.1 µs -40V
+25V
-75V
+50V
-110V
+75V
-150V
+100V
4

10 O up to 20
sec
9V
(12V -3V)
7V
(12V-5V)
6V
(12V-6V)
5V
(12V-7V)
5
1O

up to
400ms
+35V +50V +80V +120V

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

Automotive transients
The customer has to define the “Level of Test”
according the needs of his application.
Typical requirement today: Level IV, except Load dump: Level II - III.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 114

Transients – What happens
 Automotive transients (ISO-7637-1): electrical
transient conduction along the supply lines only.
 other IC pins indirectly connected to supply
via load devices (outputs) or sensors (inputs)
 ISO-7637-1 describes two types of pulses
 Pulse 4 defines the minimum battery voltage.
Note: battery voltage = module supply voltage.
Internal IC supply voltage = module supply
– reverse battery diode
– module supply regulator
– internal supply regulator of the chip.
 Pulses 1, 2, 3a, 3b, 5, 6 and 7 describe high voltage,
high power transient disturbances on the supply line.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 115

Transients – what happens
The high voltage, very high power transient
disturbances can cause excessive substrate
currents and power dissipation in the IC if
they exceed the voltage capability of the chip.
The IC can only survive if:
 Transient peak voltages blocked
e.g. high-voltage techno or lower level transient spec
 Transient voltages externally limited
e.g. static with zener diodes (clamped load dump)
e.g. dynamic limitation with RC (all other pulses)
e.g. reverse battery protection diode
 Peak currents internally or externally limited
e.g. series impedance of load or sensor or external R
e.g. low impedance output dynamically switched-off
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 116

Automotive transients – example
Typical input supply
protection
 reverse bias diode
 RC-filter (pulses 1, 2, 3a, 3b)

Low-side NDMOS driver
with ± 100V input range
 NDMOS with reverse
voltage diode (PNP)
 NDMOS drive logic with
slope control
 Clamp circuit to prevent
lateral NPN activation
during fast negative pulses
below ground
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 117

Automotive transients – example
Bandgap with improved tolerance for
substrate currents and temperature
Transient or EMC induced
substrate current extraction
and high temperature leakage
currents from all N/Sub diodes.
(NPN collectors, PMOS N-well,
NMOS S/D diffusions)
Transient or EMC induced current
injection into the substrate,
connected to AGND.
Capacitive coupling through all
N/Sub diode capacitors
 No direct effect on the most
sensitive bandgap circuits:
bipolar PTAT and OpAmp input
stage.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 118

Automotive
IC design
EMC &
Automotive
transients
Cost & TTM
Quality
& Safety
High
Voltage
High Temp.
Fully compliant
Automotive
IC design
Result
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 119

Result
Combination of Silicon
and Design Technology
for Automotive Applications
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 120

Ackowledgments

This work would not have been possible
without the cooperation and dedication of
many colleagues at AMI Semiconductor.
I would like to thank in particular:
Michel De Mey, Aarnout Wieers,
Geert Vandensande, Hans Gugg-
Schweiger, Eddy Blansaer, Luc Dhaeze,
Koen Geirnaert, Herve Branquart
and many others.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 121

References – 1
 P. Thoma, “Risks for the automotive industry with regard to the market shift in world-
wide semiconductor demand (in German)”, VDI Berichte nr. 1287, pp 1-12, 12
September 1996.
 “Potential Failure Mode and Effect analysis (FMEA)”, 3th edition, April 2001,
Chrysler Corporation, ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation.
 IEC 61967-4, “Integrated Circuits – Measurement of Electromagnetic Emissions –
150 kHz to 1 GHz, Part 4: Measurement of Conducted Emission, 1Ohm/150Ohm
Method”.
 IEC 62132-4, “Integrated Circuits – Measurement of Electromagnetic Immunity –
150 kHz to 1 GHz, Part 4: Direct RF Power Injection Method”.
 ISO 7637-1 , ISO 7637-2, Road Vehicles – Electrical Disturbance by Conduction
and Coupling, vehicles with nominal 12V (part 1) and 24V (part 2) supply voltages –
Electrical transient conduction along supply lines only.
 J. Kassakian, “Challenges of the New 42Volt Architecture and Progress on its
International Acceptance”, VDI Berichte nr. 1415, pp. 21-35, 08 October 1998
 Hans-Dieter Hartmann, “Standardisation of the 42V PowerNet - History, Current
Status, Future Action”, HDT conference "42V-PowerNet: The first Solutions",
Villach, Austria, September 28-29, 1999

2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 122

References - 2
 K. Ehlers, “The effect of the 3-litre car on the architecture of the automotive
electrical system“, 5.98, http://www.sci-worx.com → Partner → Forum
Bordnetzarchitektur
 Ivars G. Finvers, J. W. Haslett, F.N. Trofimenkoff, “A High Temperature Precision
Amplifier”, IEEE Journal of Solid-state Circuits, vol. 30, pp 120-128, February 1995.
 Paul C. de Jong, “Smart Sensor systems for High-Temperature Applications”, PhD
dissertation, T.U. Delft, the Netherlands, November 1998.
 Paul C. de Jong, Gerard C. M. Meijer, Arthur H. M. van Roermond, “A 300°C
Dynamic-Feedback Instrumentation Amplifier”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
vol. 33, pp. 1999-2009, December 1998.
 “High Temperature Electronics”, edited by F.Patrick McCluskey, Richard
Grzybowski, Thomas Podlesak, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1997, ISBN 0-
8493-9623-9
 W. Wondrak, A. Dehbi, G. Umbach, A. Blessing, R. Getto, F. P. Pesl and W. Unger,
“Passive Components for High Temperatures: Application Potential and
Technological Challenges” AEC Reliability Workshop, Nashville 2004
 Ron Schmitt, “Understanding Electromagnetic Fields and Antenna Radiation takes
(almost) no Math”, EDN magazine, March 2, 2000, pp 77-88.
2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment
slide: 123

References - 3
 Wolfgang Horn, Heinz Zitta, “A Robust Smart Power Bandgap Reference Circuit for
Use in an Automotive Environment”, IEEE Journal of Solid-state Circuits, vol. 37, pp
949-952, July 2002.
 M. De Mey, “Robustness in Analog Design”, Proceedings of the 12
th
Workshop on
the Advances in Analogue Circuit Design, AACD 2003, 15-17 April 2003, Graz
Austria
 B. Deutschmann, “Improvement of System Robustness through EMC Optimization”,
Proceedings of the 12
th
Workshop on the Advances in Analogue Circuit Design,
AACD 2003, 15-17 April 2003, Graz Austria
 D. Temmen, “Noise rejection of clocked interference sources (in German)”, VDI
Berichte nr. 1646, pp. 599-618, 27 September 2001
 Robert J. Widlar, “Controlling Substrate Currents in Junction-Isolated IC’s”, IEEE
Journal of Solid-state Circuits, vol. 26, pp 1090-1097, August 1991.
 Bruno Murari, “Power Integrated Circuits, Problems, Tradeoffs and Solutions”, IEEE
Journal of solid-state Circuits, vol 13, pp 307-319, June 1978

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