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BUILDING SCIENCE IV

. B A L K H I Z I S M A I L . F S P U , U i T M S A R AW A K .

OBJECTIVES

O B J E C T I V E S

To understand the measurement of sound power, sound intensity and sound pressure. To understand the relationship of those three basic measurement. To calculate sound levels combinations of sound levels. and

INTRODUCTION

• The strength or loudness of a sound depends upon

its energy content and this affects the pressure variations it produces.

• The amplitude of the sound wave, the maximum

displacement of each particle, is greater for stronger sounds.

INTRODUCTION (cont’d)

Amplitude

Loud Tone

+ 0 _

Soft Tone

Time

MEASUREMENT OF SOUND

The strength of the sound is usually measured or described by its energy or pressure. SOUND POWER

SOUND INTENSITY

SOUND PRESSURE

SOUND POWER

SOUND POWER (P) – the rate at which sound

**energy is produced at the source.
**

Unit : watt (W)

a fundamental property of sound source difficult to measure directly max. energy output of a voice is about 1mW typical jet engine produces only several kilowatts

SOUND INTENSITY

SOUND INTENSITY (I) – the sound power distributed over unit area. Unit : watts per square meter (W/m2)

to measure the rate at which energy is received at a given surface the sound that is radiating in all direction will spreads out in the shape of a sphere

**SOUND INTENSITY (cont’d)
**

The intensity is given by, I = P 4 πr 2 Where; P = sound power of the source (W) r = distance from the source (m) I = intensity at distance (W/m2)

SOUND PRESSURE

SOUND PRESSURE (p) – the average variation in atmospheric pressure caused by the sound. Unit : Pascal (Pa)

continuously varying between positive and negative values measured by RMS (root mean square) value – a type of average which has positive values only RMS pressure = 0.707 maximum pressure

TRESHOLDS

The weakest sound that the average human ear can detect is remarkably low and occurs when the membrane in the ear is deflected by a distance less than the diameter of a single atom.

TRESHOLDS OF HEARING

THRESHOLD OF HEARING – the weakest sound the average human ear can detect.

The value varies slightly from person to person

At 100 Hz:

I = 1 x 10-12 W/m2 p = 20 x 10-6 Pa

TRESHOLDS OF PAIN

THRESHOLD OF PAIN – the strongest sound that the human ear can tolerate.

Very strong sounds become painful to ear.

Excessive

mechanism. Very large pressure waves will have harmful physical effects, such as those experienced in an explosion. Approximate values: I = 1 W/m2 OR p = 200 Pa

sound energy will damage the ear

DECIBELS

DECIBEL (dB) – a logarithmic ratio of two quantities.

For practical measurements of sound strength, it is

convenient to use decibel scale based on constant ratios.

**Calculated by the formula: N = 10 log10 (I2/I1) = 10 log10 (p2/p1)
**

Where

N = number of decibels I2 and I1 = two intensities being compared p2 and p1 = two pressure being compared

OR

Sound Sound pressure (Pa) level (dB) 200 20 2 0.2 0.02 140 130 120

**EXAMPLES SOUND LEVELS
**

Typical environment Threshold of pain Aircraft take -off Loud discotheque Noisy factory Heavy lorry High Street corner Vacuum cleaner Normal conversation

110 100

90 80

70 60 50

0.002

40

30

Suburban living room Quiet countryside

0.0002

20 10

0.00002

0

Threshold of hearing

**CALCULATION OF SOUND LEVELS
**

Value

of sound intensity or sound pressure are converted to decibels by comparing them with the standard value of the threshold of hearing.

The

decibels.

SIL and SPL give the same value in

**CALCULATION OF SOUND LEVELS
**

(cont’d)

**Sound Intensity Level (SIL) SIL = 10 log10
**

Where

I I0

I = the intensity of the sound being measured (W/m2) I0 = the intensity of the threshold of hearing taken as 1 x 10-12 W/m2

**CALCULATION OF SOUND LEVELS
**

(cont’d)

Sound Pressure Level (SPL) SPL = 20 log10 p P0

Where p = the RMS pressure of the sound being measured (Pa) p0 = the RMS pressure of the threshold of intensity taken as 20 µPa

EXAMPLE #1

A sound has a pressure of 4.5 x 10-2 Pa when measured under certain conditions. Calculate the sound pressure level of this sound. Threshold of hearing pressure = 20 x 10-6 Pa. p = 4.5 x 10-2 Pa, p0 = 20 x 10-6 Pa, SPL = ?

SOLUTION #1

Using Formula, SPL = 20 log (p1/p2) = 20 log (4.5 x 10-2 / 20 x 10-6) = 20 log 2250 = 20 x 3.3522 = 67.04 SPL = 67 dB#

EXAMPLE #2

Calculate the change in sound level when the intensity of a sound is doubled. Let I = initial intensity, so 2I = final intensity Let L1 = initial sound level, L2 = final sound level

SOLUTION #2

•

GROUP TUTORIAL

1.

A certain sound has an intensity of 3.16 x 10-4 W/m2. Calculate the sound intensity level in decibels if the threshold of hearing reference intensity is 1 x 10-12 W/m2. Calculate the actual pressure of a sound which has the SPL of 72 dB. Threshold of hearing reference pressure is 20 x 10-6 Pa. Calculate the total sound pressure level caused by the combination of sounds with the following SPLs: (a) 85 dB and 87 dB (b) 90 dB, 90 dB and 90 dB

2.

3.

**COMBINATION OF SOUND LEVELS
**

D

If two different sounds arrive at the same time, then the ear is subject to two pressure waves.

D

**Addition of sound levels in decibels does not give the sound level of combined sounds.
**

For example, two jet aircraft each with a SPL of 105 dB do not combine to give a total effect of 210 dB.

D

**COMBINATION OF SOUND LEVELS
**

D

Although decibels cannot be directly added, intensities can be added or the squares of pressures can be added.

OR

I = I1 + I2 p = √(p12 + p22)

EXAMPLE #3

Calculate the total sound level caused by the combination of sound levels of 95 dB and 90 dB. Threshold of hearing intensity = 1 x 10-12 W/m2. Let, I1 I2 I3 = intensity of 95 dB, = intensity of 90 dB and = intensity of combined sounds.

SOLUTION #3

Using; SIL = 10 log10 (I1/I0) = 10 log (I1/I0) = 95/10 = antilog 9.5 = 3.16 x 109 = 3.16 x 109 x 1 x 10-12 = 3.16 x 10-3 W/m2 95 log (I1/I0) (I1/I0) (I1/1 x 10-12) I1 I1

90 log (I2/I0) ( I 2/ I 0) (I2/1 x 10-12) I2 I2 I3 I3 I3

= 10 log (I2/I0) = 90/10 = antilog 9.0 = 1 x 109 = 1 x 109 x 1 x 10-12 = 1 x 10-3 W/m2 = I1 + I 2 = (3.16 x 10-3) + (1 x 10-3) = 4.16 x 10-3 W/m2

Combined SIL

= 10 log (I3/I0) = 10 log (4.16 X 10-3 / 1 X 10-12) = 10 log (4.16 x 109) = 10 x 9.619

Total sound level = 96 dB

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