Water Sources and Development

Water sources
Assessment of safe yields
Intake works and pumping stations
Water Sources
• Surface water sources
– Fresh waters
• streams, rivers, and canals
• ponds, lakes and impounding reservoirs
– Sea water (desalinization)
– Rainwater (rainwater harvesting)
– Reclaimed water or recycled water
• Groundwater sources
– Springs (gravity springs, surface springs and artesian springs)
– Subsurface sources (shallow wells, artesian wells and tube wells)
– Deep confined aquifers (deep wells and tube wells)

Water Sources
• Source should have sufficient capacity, should be reliable and
should provide highest quality water
– must meet the water system’s maximum day demand (MDD)
– should able to replenish the depleted fire suppression within 72
hours while supplying the MDD
• Source must reliably meet the projected water demand
– reliability assessment must be based on the years with lowest
– ground water is less dependent on annual weather conditions
unless localized recharge lenses exist
• Assessment of safe water yield from the source and
development of the source for extracting water from a source
Yield Assessment for Streams/Rivers
• River gauge records are used in the safe yield assessment
and storage requirements of the impounding reservoir
– If available for 8 years, then minimum and maximum likely
discharges of the river occurring once in 30 years can be
– If 25 year records are available then the likely maximum and
minimum discharges in 100 years can be statistically obtained
(Maximum discharges are needed for spill way design)
• Positive deficiency (water draft – river runoff) indicates need
for damming the river and storage in impounding reservoir
• Mass diagram is used for finding the impounding reservoir
storage required
– Cumulative runoff and cumulative draft of water are plotted
against time
– Storage capacity of the impounding reservoir is obtained from
the mass curve
-71 -99 -22 18 21 23 21 7 16 -49 -69 18
Unit hydrograph method for assessing
flows in a stream/river
• Hydrograph is flow pattern over time for a stream/river
– Continuous monitoring of flow in the stream can provide a hydrograph
– Can be constructed from rainfall incidence and intensity in the
catchments of the stream
• Water flow in a stream/river depends on
– Area and characteristics of the catchments/basin/watershed
– Rainfall characteristics (intensity and duration, number of rainfall
• Unit hydrograph method can be used for assessing flows in a
– Discharge in the stream over time per unit of excess rainfall in a unit
time in the basin/catchments/watershed of the stream
– good for basins of 25 to 5000 km2 area
– Obtain rainfall data (hytographs) for the basin and find excess rainfall
(rainfall x runoff coefficient)
– Obtain unit hydrograph for the stream, construct direct runoff storm
hydrograph, add base flow and obtain hydrograph for the stream

Rainfall and runoff hydrograph
Baringo curve
Unit Hydrograph
Yield assessment for lakes/ponds
Lakes/ponds are similar to impoundment reservoirs
– Fed by streams, springs and subsurface flows
– Sediment load and weeds can reduce the lake capacity
– Residual volumes may have to be maintained
Water budgeting can help in knowing the water available for the
Dependable yield for a lake or pond depends on
– Lake/pond capacity
– Catchments area of the pond
– Runoff available
– Subsurface flows reaching the lake
– Seepage and evapo-transpiration losses from the pond
Yeild Assessment for Wells
• Groundwater aquifers is obtained through gravity wells,
pressure wells or infiltration galleries
– Water is at atmospheric pressure in the surroundings of and
outside the gravity
– In pressure wells the water is at higher pressure
– Horizontal tunnel constructed through an aquifer normal to the
• Flow of ground water through aquifers is described by
Darcy’s equation
Ki V
V is velocity in m/day
K is coefficient of permeability
I is hydraulic gradient
A is flow cross sectional area
P is porosity of the aquifer
Pumping of water from a gravity well or a pressure well at
constant rate results in the drawdown of water around the well
The flow is considered horizontal and radial
After some time of pumping an equilibrium is established (rate of
replenishment is equal to the rate of pumping)
Flow rate into a gravity well
Flow rate into a partially penetrated well (into aquifer)
Flow rate into a pressure well
Flow rate into an infiltration gallery
Yield test for wells

If Q, S and T are constants
The equations

Can be written as
Intake Works and Intake Systems
• Intake works: Structures built in a body of water for drawing
water for human use
• Intake system: facilities required to divert and transport water
from a supply source to a shore well or pumping station
– Should reliably deliver adequate quantity of water of the best
available quality
– Relatively simple (a submerged pipe protected by a rack or
screen) for small water supply systems, but extensive and
complicated in case of major water supply systems
– May include
• multitier ports with rack/bar screen and sluice gates
• fine screen and pumping stations
• facilities to store and dose chemicals for water treatment
• transmission conduits
• Careful location of the intake works and their conservative
structural and hydraulic design
Intake Systems: Types
Categories: Exposed intakes and Submerged intakes
• Exposed type
– Towers (integrated with dam)
– Towers (in the lake/reservoir interior)
– Bank well or Shore well
– Floating or movable intake
– Siphon well
• Submerged type
– Plain end pipe or elbow
– Screened inlet crib
– Gravel packed well and Horizontal collection systems
(infiltration wells and galleries)
Lake/reservoir intakes
River/stream and canal intakes
Groundwater (wells, pressure wells, artisan wells)
River/Stream/Canal Intakes
Bank/shore water intake system
Includes wet well with pumps; Port with sluice gate at >0.3 m above the river
bed; A removable bar rack and travelling screen ; Pre-sedimentation facility
(optional); and Chemical (chlorine!) application facilities for treatment at
intake works
• River channel degradation, low water, floods and bed loads can be problems
• Preferred location: deep water, stable channel, consistently high quality
water - Preferably provided on the outside bank of an established river bed

River/Stream/Canal Intakes: Siphon wells
A shore structure receiving river water through a siphon pipe
The siphon pipe inlet may be a submerged concrete crib (at the
bottom) equipped with screens or trash rack
The siphon may simply be an open pipe attached with a screen
Siphon well intake
Intake crib

Vertical collection systems sunk on river banks
Water infiltrates from both bottom and sides –
may have radial porous pipes (jack wells)
Not affected by floods, silt/sand/gravel loads,
and extremely low waters in rivers
Provides improved water quality – water is in
fact mixture of river water and ground water
Well intakes (infiltration wells!)
Infiltration Galleries
• Horizontal tunnels constructed through water bearing strata
for tapping water near rivers, lakes and streams
– The tunnels are masonry or concrete works with weep holes of
50 mm x 100 mm size
• Water yield can be upto 150 m
/m.day – maximum yield
when the gallery is placed at full depth of the aquifer
• Water from infiltration galleries runs to collector wells (a
water proof chamber), dug deeper than the infiltration gallery
– Water is abstracted from here with pumps/hand pumps
• These days infiltration galleries are also used for the
stormwater disposal for recharging the groundwater – here
the infiltration gallery includes
– An upright plastic pipe, capped with simple grates, to convey the
strom water underground
– A horizontal perforated (10% of area) cross-pipe in the aquifer
surrounded by gravel.

Lakes and reservoir intakes
Tower intakes
• An independent structure located at some distance from
shore in the deepest waters or incorporated into the dam -
connected to the top of the dam by a foot bridge
• Multi-tier ports provide flexibility for selective withdrawal of
highest quality water from different depths
• Water from tower is conveyed by gravity to a shore well
pumping station through pipeline or tunnel
– Inlet structure and water pumping are often combined into a
single facility
• Movable wire cloth screens over the intake ports prevent
entry of fish
• Intake pipes, with bell mouth entry and screen, located at
different levels and a common pipe conveying water to a
shore well is also used
• Raw water can be chlorinated in the intake in the intake
facilities to control algae and mussel growth

Water velocity in the port: 0.06 – 0.1 m/sec. (0.15 m/sec. max.) – no free fall
of water is allowed – floating material is not allowed to flow in
Velocity in the intake conduit: 0.46 – 0.61 m/sec. at design flow 0.9 to 1.2
m/sec. at max. flow
Bottom most port: at 1.5 to 2.4 m height from bottom
Number of ports: 1 to 3 and vertical spacing of ports: 3 to 5 m
Parallel intake conduits for facilitating future expansion
Lakes and reservoir intakes:
Submerged intakes
• Constructed in the bed of the lake below the water level
• The intake conduit is usually provided in a submerged
concrete crib, equipped with screens or trash rack
– Screens with air backwash provisions
• The intake conduit conveys water into a shore shaft or
suction well
• Do not obstruct navigation and cost relatively less, but are
not easily accessible for maintenance
Floating intake
• Horizontal centrifugal pumps mounted on a floating
platform anchored to the shore are used
• Artificial holes or pits made in the ground for tapping the
• Shallow wells: 2 to 6 m dia and upto 7 m depth – may be
lined or unlined from inside
– Also known as draw wells, gravity wells, open wells, drag wells
or percolation wells
– Supply limited quantity of water and good for villages,
undeveloped towns and isolated buildings
– Can dry up in summers
– Constructed away from septic tank soak pit systems to avoid
contamination by effluent
• Deep wells (pressure wells/ artesian wells) and Flowing
artesian wells: obtain water from the aquifer below the
impervious layer
• Water could be hard and may be available under pressure
(pressure wells)
Location of Intake Works
Location of an intake is based on many criteria
– Should not be affected by local surface (wastewater) drainages
(should be located upstream of such local drainages)
– Water depth should be the maximum - should be capable of
drawing sufficient water even in the worst conditions
– Silt and sand impacts should be the minimum
– Should be outside the shipping/navigation lines
– Should be at the minimum distance from water treatment
facility and should be easily approachable
– Cost of intake (including O & M costs) should be the lowest
– Site should have scope for future expansion of the water-works
Lakes and reservoirs
– Located in deepest waters or incorporated into the dam
For rivers/streams
– The intake should be protected against flood damage – should
be away from heavy water currents damaging to intake works
– Silt and bed load considerations in locating the intake
md fd
h h
. ent
mS fS
h h
Pump System
Major and minor head losses
85 . 1
17 . 1

V is velocity (m/s)
L is length of pipe (m)
is frictional head loss
R is hydraulic radius
K is conversion factor (value is 0.849 for SI units)
C is roughness coefficient
Hazen-williams equation
f h
f is coefficient of friction
L is length of pipe (m)
d is diameter of pipe (m)
V is mean velocity (m/s)
g is acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)
Darcy-weisbach equation
K h
Minor head losses
Typical values of K for various fittings and appurtenances
can be obtained from standard text books and reference
works on hydraulics
1 / f
= -2 log [ 2.51 / (Re f
) + (k / d
) / 3.72 ]
f = D'Arcy-Weisbach friction coefficient
Re = Reynolds Number
k = roughness of duct, pipe or tube surface (m)
= hydraulic diameter (m)
= 4 A / p
= hydraulic diameter (m)
A = area section of the duct (m
p = wetted perimeter of the duct (m)
Re = ρ u d
/ μ
= u d
/ ν
ρ = density (kg/m
= hydraulic diameter (m)
u = velocity (m/s)
μ = dynamic viscosity (Ns/m
ν = kinematic viscosity (m
Friction coefficient and Reynolds number
Minor Losses
K= minor loss coefficient
v = flow velocity (m/s)
= head loss (m)
g = acceleration of gravity (m/s
The minor losses in components depends primarily on the geometrical
construction of the component and the impact the construction has on
the fluid flow due to change in velocity and cross flow fluid
Equivalent Length (minor loss converted to a length equivalent)
K h
Analysis of pump systems
Conducted to
– Select the most suitable pumping unit(s)
– Define operating point(s) of the pump(s)
Involves calculating the system head – capacity curves for the pumping
system and using these in conjunction with the head-capacity
curves of the available pumps
System head – capacity curve
– Graphical representation of the system head
– Developed by ploting total dynamic head over a range of flows from
zero to the maximum expected value
Pump head – capacity curve (pump characteristic curves)
– Illustrate relationship between head, capacity, efficiency and break
horse power over a wide range of possible operating conditions
Operating point:
– Plot pump head-capacity curve on the system head-capacity curve
– Intersection point of these two curves is operating point
Analysis of pump systems
A pumping station can have 2 or more pumps operating either
individually or parallel and discharging into a common header
– Booster pumps are often added to the header
Analysis of pumps in parallel
– Draw system head-capacity curves while omitting the friction losses
– Obtain modified pump head-capacity curves from the actual head-
capacity curves for all the pumps through subtracting frictional head
– Obtain a combined pump head-capacity curve through addition of the
capacities of the modified head-capacity curves, and use it to find the
operating point
– Find the capacity contributed by each of the pumps at the operating
head - efficiency and break horse power for the pumps can also be
– Find total dynamic head at which each of the pumps will operate by
going vertically from the modified head-capacity curve to the actually
head–capacity curve
Analysis of pump systems
• In a multiple parallel pump system, as more and more
pumps go into operation, head of a individual pump
increases and discharge decreases
– Further, each of the pumps will be operating at different
operating points (operating range)
– Efforts should be made to ensure that each of the pumps
operates within 60 to 120% of the BEP (best efficiency point)
• Pumps in series are used to increase the head
– Combined head-capacity curve for pumps is obtained by adding
heads of pumps at the same capacity
– In case of a booster pump on the header fed by 2 or more
parallel pumps, combined head-capacity curve is obtained by
adding the booster pump head to the modified head of the
parallel pumps at a given capacity

Pumping stations
Pumping stations have wet well (and dry well!), pumps and drives,
electrical power control panels, header and other piping with
necessary fittings
– Overhead crane, aisle space, seepage water pump and access to
pumps and drives
Four types
• Pumping stations with only wet well and no dry well, and using
submersible (non-clog) pumps
– Provisions are made for removing the pumps for repair and
maintenance without person entering the wet well
– Pumps are hoisted out on guide rails
– Submersible grinder pumps may replace non-clog pumps (solid
matter is grounded to facilitate sewage pumping)
• Pumping stations with only wet well and no dry well and pumps
located at ground level
– Pumps may be self-priming type or primed by small vacuum
Pumping stations
• Pumping stations with both wet well and factory built dry
well (cylindrical steel chamber installed underground next
to the wet well)
– Non-clog pumps with drives mounted on the pump top are used
– Dry well have cylindrical access tube
• Pumping stations with both wet well and built in place dry
– Good for larger capacity installations
– Pumps are installed at the bottom of the dry well
Traditional pumping stations had both wet well and dry well
– Smaller foot print, availability of submersible non-clog pumps,
reduced health and safety concerns discourage their use
Pumps: Centrifugal
• Impeller rotates liquid at high velocity and build up velocity
head - at the impeller periphery the liquid is directed into a
volute with increasing cross sectional area – here the velocity
head is converted into pressure head
• Based on the liquid flow path centrifugal pumps are radial
flow, axial flow and mixed flow types
– Radial flow type: liquid enters the impeller at the hub and flows
radially to periphery - head is developed primarily by the action of
centrifugal force
– Axial flow (propeller pumps): flow enters axially and also discharged
nearly axially - lifting action of the vanes is primarily responsible for
head development
– Mixed flow: flow enters axially and discharged in both axial and radial
directions - head is developed partly by centrifugal force and partly by
the lift of the vanes

Open screw pump
• Has a U shaped channel into which a rotating screw fits tightly and
the channel is angled at 45 and liquid is screwed from low to higher level
• All bearings are outside the liquid and there is no liquid leakage
• Extensively used in
– Wastewater plants for moving contaminated water
– Irrigation channels for lifting large volumes of water
Hydraulic ram

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