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In this paper we are going to deal with some

expressions in logic. These expressions have a constant
meaning and they perform logical operations. These
;operations are
'A-Conjunction performed by 'and
'B-Disjunction performed by 'or
'C-Implication performed by 'if…then
'D-Equivalence performed by 'if and only if
'E-negation performed by 'not
These expressions are called ''logical connectives
We are going to discuss 'propositional logic' the
relations between simple sentences joined by any of
these connectors , to find out how the truth value of a
complex proposition is determined by the truth values
of its simple propositions and the connective joining
them; . This can be illustrated as follows
Simple sentence + Simple sentence →↓→ Complex
}sentence }proposition

Connective
*}These relations go in the field of } propositional logic
There are many other connectives in natural languages-2
such as 'but',;so', 'therefore','because',since',after
.'all',moreover','before','as','even though
Linguists are less interested in natural connectives for
.two reasons
linguists are more interested in finding a perfect )1
.artificial language to master the rules of inference
These connectives do not carry a concept, thus cannot )2
be translated into symbols of propositional logic
.Ex. Tom is very handsome. After all he is rich, too
From among the connectives in propositional logic,
we are focused on three. The following are the
connectives and how they are represented by
. symbols

The relation the connective the symbol
A .conjunction and
B. disjunction or
C .implication if…then

These connectives are "truth functional", that is,
.they have constant meaning in logic
Truth table
The truth table of p AND q )also written as p ∧ q or p & q in
logic, p && q in many programming languages, or pq in
electronics):
q p&q
p
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_conjunction T T T
T F F
)Examples: )1) is true only if both )1a F T F

And )1b) are true F F F

)Bill got up and went school )p &q )1)
)1a) Bill got up. )p)
)1b) Bill went to school )q)
.and) can have a variety of meanings)
:Consider these examples
)Ambiguity) )1)
Tom and peter own a car. )Do they have one car or
) each one has his own car
)"and means" and then ") They Order of events )2)
.got married and had a baby
and=conditional truth)3)
If they got married and a baby their parents would
be pleased, put if they had a baby and got married ,
their parents would be upset
.and= causal relation )4)
I dropped the camera and it broke
The implication is false only if the antecedent is true
.and the consequent is false
In other cases it is true. See truth table

)p, q)
p q

F F T
F T T
T F F
T T T
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_implication
Implication is expressed by "if", "if….then", "provided",
"whenever" or "unless" Implication is also known as a
"conditional " .

. *If it is raining ,then it will be wet for example:*
we rarely use implication in English, instead we use the strong*
.corditional

If you mow the lawn ,I'll give you five dollas con ditionals are wed*
for a rariety of purposes such as epistemic conditionals and speech act
: conditionals
If she is divorced, she s been married )1)
. John has left , if you haven't heard )2)
. they can also be used for stylistic reasons )3)
Equivalenceor biconditional is normally expressed by )If
.)and only if – exactly when – only when –only if

Example: Jane is at the party if and only if Matthew is at
.the party
In English )if) can be difficult to distinguish from )if and
only if) for example: the sentence )1) strongly suggest the
:if and only if interpretation. For example
.I will help you if you are too busy to do it yourself )1)
p q (p↔q)
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F T