Sebahat YILMAZ 20118509716
Realia Definition Why Should We Use Realia? How can we decide if materials are appropriate? Using Realia: For Young Learners For Learning Vocabulary/Grammar In a role play With Reading Instruction Implementation Ways to Bring Real Life into the Classroom Activities Involving Realia New Uses For Realia Quick Ideas Virtual Realia Tips& Warnings Advantages of Using Realia Disadvantages of Using Realia Conclusion References
If you‟re thinking the word „realia‟ sounds vaguely Latin, then you‟d be correct. In the TEFL classroom, the word realia means using real items found in everyday life as an aid to teaching English. Using realia helps to make English lessons memorable by creating a link between the objects and the word or phrase they represent. Realia are physical objects that are related to the target culture. Realia refers to objects or items from real life , which are used in the classroom to illustrate and teach vocabulary or to serve as an aid to facilitate language acquisition and production. Realia are objects from real life used in classroom instruction by educators to improve students' understanding of other cultures and real life situations.
language teaching) Actual objects and items which are brought into a classroom as examples or as aids to be talked or written about and used in teaching. (Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics. Richards, Platt, & Platt. 1992. Essex.)
which has a purpose outside of the ESL classroom and can be brought into the classroom. (Realia: Bringing the Real World into the
Classroom.Dickens, Robertson, Hofmann.1995. Victoria, BC.)
of any origin used to illustrate vocabulary and structure in the L2. (CelceMurcia & Hilles, 1988)
objects and the paraphernalia of everyday life. (Zukowski-Faust, 1997)
Realia in EFL terms refers to any real objects we use in the classroom to bring the class to life. (Admin, 2008)
Everyday objects that surround us by relating them to langauge and looking at them in new ways. (Munford , 2008)
They are often more interesting than material from text books and can be on subjects that will really engage the students. mostly because they will have hands-on experience.
. Students will be expected to use real material when they leave your classes. The use of realia brings a welcome change in the class.Why should We use Realia?
learning is the type of learning that students will most effectively acquire. a break from typical class activities like reading and writing.
Inste ad of wondering when and where they might have use for a particular language element.
. they‟ll know the reason. it will create excitement. they will feel more confident in speaking the language with the locals. Students will clearly understand the reason they’re learning a particular ESL component. but with the guidance of someone who speaks fluently and will help them get it right.Why Should We Use Realia?
The unexpectedness of having to suddenly interact with real objects will keep students on their toes. Students have the chance to practice real life situations like using maps and asking for directions in a foreign language. and they’ll have fun. Once they hit the street.
. if you are not sure you can ask them or find out what their interests are. Look at how much new vocabulary and grammar structures are in the materials. If students are to cope with real material. they may have to learn to deal with topics with a lot of alien vocabulary.How can we decide if materials are appropriate?
if the topic matter is appropriate for your students.
maps and voting brochures. menus. newspapers.Searching for Appropriate Realia
One solution for culture-content based EFL teachers is to keep their eyes open for useful realia such as magazines. advertisements.
. adult education pamphlets. Teachers must develop an awareness of what can be utilized in a classroom. This involves both becoming more creative as materials designers and also more sensitive to the target culture and to the culture of the students.
. because they should have developed strategies to cope with unknown vocabulary.Common Realia for Different Levels
• Television timetables • Cinema timetables • Train timetables • Restaurant menus • Postcards (Writing) • Utility bills • Application forms • Classified adverts • Recipes
• Teenage magazines Surveys & teenage issues • Newspaper articles from tabloid newspapers • Instruction manuals • Adverts & flyers
• General newspaper article • Magazine articles • Academic material • At advanced level you can choose nearly anything.
and be motivated to learn. so ask them to move animals onto tables. Bring in fruit. Young children are at the perfect age to learn a language and as visual learners. and children will enjoy their English lessons. TPR & Imperatives
.Using Realia for Young Learners
you are going to teach English to young children. Children love to role-play and enjoy playing games. or around the farmyard. under tables. you should try to tap into their natural creativity. realia is a must. Make up simple stories using toy animals or puppets. vegetables and lots of toys.
When ı grow up.
I want to be a doctor. at the end when you are ready…
Like your dream!
. to dress up…. I want to be a rock star..
You are going to tell us what you are and WHY…Have Fun!!!
Choose the things that fit you. I want to be a teacher.
Don‟t be shy .
What are these ways?
.We may use these realia in many other ways.
realia can be used indirectly as a tool for teaching grammar. Remember. items of food and drink are perfect for teaching uncountable and countable nouns.Using Realia
for Learning Vocabulary/Grammar It is unrealistic to bring real objects into your classroom for every single word that you wish to teach and some words will lend themselves better than others to using realia.
. for example.
The pictures are definitely worth a thousand words.Using Realia with Reading Instruction
Bad Kitty Gets a Bath by Nick Bruel Another installment of "Bad Kitty.before beginning the saga.. especially with the expressions on Kitty's face! Examples of Realia: *sponge *brush *towel *stuffed animal (cat) *soap or shampoo *band-aids *"tub" (to serve as bathtub) Suggested Themes: humor inference (using the pictures to have students predict Kitty's feelings) prediction/connections (reading strategies) cats
. The Introduction reminds us of what happens when we have asked Kitty to do things that Kitty did not want to do.such as eat vegetables." Bruel offers us an insightful and hysterical look at how to give a cat a bath....
html Suggested Themes: supply/demand (economics) sharing/respect (character education) bullies
.nationalgeographic.if not available. at first frightened by the strange object.com/animals/mammal s/prairie-dog. substitute with picture of prairie dog *tennis ball *Great web site that includes pictures.. sounds. soon discover how appealing and troublesome its fuzz can be! Examples of Realia: *stuffed animal (prairie dog). video about prairie dogs:http://animals.Using Realia with Reading Instruction
The Great Fuzz Frenzy by Janet Stevens & Susan Stevens A dog drops its tennis ball into a prairie dog hole and the result is a good lesson on supply and demand! Prairie dogs..
Using realia is only limited by your imagination: here are some ideas on how to use realia in your lessons. Use objects in role-plays to make the situation more realistic. Timetables. This could be something as simple as a mobile phone or your train tickets. Use your country‟s flag and a map to show students where you live and to help them learn the names of foreign countries.Using Realia in Role-play
Don‟t stop at using realia to learn vocabulary or grammar. or buying tickets. tickets and pedestrian maps of London are great for practising role-play scenarios such as asking for directions.
and even smell to effectively teach ESL components. However.
. if we bring realia students will be surprised and thrilled and will never forget this lesson. This is what the use of realia in the classroom is all about: the use of real life objects that students can touch. Here are some ways to take full advantage of the possibilities offered by the use of realia in the classroom. feel.Implementation
Ways To Bring Real Life Into The Classroom We may teach a subject with flashcards or picture.
Simply bring a children‟s tea complete with tea cups. or expressions related to ordering or serving tea. please. biscuits. coffee. spoons. or any meal in a home setting. or as time allows. sugar bowl. For the following dialogue: . .What would you like? . etc.. teapot and/or coffee pot. . and have students practice offering and serving each other coffee or tea.Would you like some tea? .I‟d like some coffee. thank you.Ways To Bring Real Life Into The Classroom
5 o’clock tea
This is by far the best way to teach table manners. You can make it as simple or as complete as you wish. creamer..No.Just black coffee. saucers.With milk and sugar? . requests.
. fork. or napkin. while the other students order their meals.Ways To Bring Real Life Into The Classroom
Eating out Obtain or Design and print out a menu with the food you'd like to teach including starters.
Students may ask the waiter for a missing item like a spoon. main courses. Then have students switch roles. Have one student play the role of waiter and take orders.
“these”. balls etc… Place them on or under desks. location. and around the classroom. books. and “those”. or take turns asking each other where their own personal items are. pencils.Ways To Bring Real Life Into The Classroom
Location. as the perspective of having items near and far from you clearly illustrates the differences between the demonstrative pronouns. location!
teach prepositions of place take common classroom objects like pens. then have students simply tell you where each item is. “that”.
. Also for teaching “this”.
Have students bring one family photo each and describe family members.Ways To Bring Real Life Into The Classroom Tell me about your family
family photos are great for not only learning about relationships but also physical descriptions.
. Students may also take turns asking classmates questions.
. and what a better way for them to learn items of clothing and colors than put them on and strut around the classroom to show off their unique style? Adult learners can also model the clothing they‟re wearing.Ways To Bring Real Life Into The Classroom Let’s have a fashion show
Children love to play dress up.
and typical games like bobbing for apples. and Christmas offer unique learning opportunities. To teach students about Halloween. Thanksgiving. costume contest.
. Give your students the chance to experience the holidays and not just read about them. Special holidays likeHalloween. plan a celebration complete with pumpkin carving. Students should learn about cultural elements as well.Ways To Bring Real Life Into The Classroom Celebrate the holidays
Learning English is not only about learning to speak in a foreign language.
. You may also conduct job interviews using real life interview questions.Ways To Bring Real Life Into The Classroom
The Job Interview
you have students who will be applying for jobs in English? Try to get your hands on some real job applications and have students practice filling them out in class. not only teach them the vocabulary they should know. give students the boost of confidence they need.
and pick and use necessary realia for your roleplay. One person from each group comes and picks an envelope.Role Play Time
in groups of 4-5.
. There should be a total of 4 groups. Read the instructions. You have 5 minutes to complete it.
train or bus tickets. Get students to ask you about the items to gather information about you. ask students to do the same and bring in some bits and bobs they have for their classmates to ask
. Stick them on a piece of card or on a cork board. purse and around the house such as used cinema or concert tickets. As a follow up. cards you‟ve received. shopping receipts etc. passport photos.Activities Involving Realia
About me Gather some bits and pieces that you have in your bag.
You could say they are all suspects from a crime and they have to decide who did it. Put students into groups and ask them to have a good look at the objects and to decide who they belong to. etc. shop receipts. or simply create the characters to use in a role play.
. buttons. postcards. photos.Activities Involving Realia
Identity envelopes Get three or four envelopes and fill them with bits and bobs you find around the house such as foreign currency. They should be able to build up the identity of a character from the objects.
glass jars. tins. You could make this into a team race by giving each team the mission of collecting all the items for their container one by one.Activities Involving Realia
(Depending on the recycling facilities in your country you will need to adapt the task accordingly) For this you just need a bag of rubbish (clean items out first) that you are about to recycle like tetrabriks. cereal boxes. Draw a picture of each of the possible containers and get students to come and choose an item and tell the class where they‟d put it to recycle it and why. Ask students what all the objects are and which container they‟d put them in to recycle them. old newspapers etc.
. You could then use the recyclable material to make a poster with your students about recycling.
Luckily there are some random items on the island they can use to help them survive. At the end.
. a plastic bag. a clothes peg. a packet of dental floss. some swimming goggles. listen to each group‟s ideas and vote on which group you think would survive the longest. a wooden spoon. a corkscrew. elastic bands etc. Reveal the items one by one and elicit vocabulary.Activities Involving Realia
Island survival Bring in a selection of items such as a coat hanger. Then tell students they have ten minutes to think about how they are going to use the items to help them survive. Put the students into groups and tell them they have been ship wrecked on a desert island with their group.
. with one hand on each handle. Hold the scissors pointing up. open the scissors slightly then snap them shut. not right. Now say the first sentence. read the second sentence: 'I have seen that film three times'. keeping the right hand still. 'I have just had lunch'. Note: The upright blade represents the present and the moving blade represents time moving between the past and present. from their left to right. As you are facing the class. By moving the blades you can show that all three sentences have the connection between past and present in common. to represent the three times. For the last sentence. but this time stop the blade three times on the way. you should move your left hand. Open the blades by moving the left hand up. Specific Grammar Points Scissors and the Present Perfect Tense
Write three sentences representing different uses of the present perfect tense on the board. so that the students will see the 'past' blade moving toward the present. so the class can see.New Uses for Realia
1. 'I have lived in London all my life'. even though the last sentence is dealing with a very short time ago. slowly closing the blades with your right hand. Open the scissors as before.
'think' can be both. Specific Grammar Points
A Corkscrew. (NB some verbs e. Get volunteer students to do the same. Compare this to the opening of a wine bottle.1. Hold a corkscrew in one hand and a bottle opener in the other.g. so you may need a tool that does both!)
. Explain that when you open a beer bottle the bottle is either open or closed. a Bottle Opener. corkscrew for action verb). i. as the screw is pushed in and pulled out. This is a process which you can see.e. it is in one state or the other. Say a verb and hold up the appropriate instrument (bottle opener for state verb. Action and State Verbs The different ways of opening wine and beer bottles can be related to state and action verbs.
Specific Grammar Points
A Pencil Sharpener and Reduced Relatives Clauses Again. metaphor can make the unfamiliar more familiar.
. Explain that by taking out the two words. The metaphor of a pencil sharpener works like this: you cut off something to make the pencil sharper and more efficient. and sharper.1. you make the sentence better. Students may not be familiar with reduced relatives such as 'The man (who was) killed in the accident was my neighbour' where the words in brackets can be omitted. more economical. as a native speaker would.
. Cross the ends in front of you. over again.1. behind the knot. Pull the knot up. Then over. then down. through the knot. Show the students how to tie a tie. then up. then under again. then pull the smaller end under. 'Put the tie round your neck. Specific Grammar Points
A Tie and Prepositions.
A Whistle and a Pronunciation Drill Write the vocabulary that you want to practise on the board.
. Now use the whistle to demonstrate which word you want the students to repeat by blowing the syllable pattern. You need a variety of word lengths and syllable patterns for this. blow 'long short short' to elicit 'confident' and 'short short long short' for 'population'.g. Mark the stressed syllable(s).2. e.
2. When the students can remember it. Now conduct the drill. Looking at the board. marking the stressed syllables. go to the back of the class. beat the stressed syllables with the ruler while the students take their cue from you. Practise the sentence. Drills
A Ruler and a Drill Use a ruler or any similar object to 'conduct' a drill as follows: Write a sentence on the board. and ask them to turn and face you. using the ruler as a baton.
Put another sentence in the bottle. The point here is to get students to listen and focus on word order. letting one word out at a time. one word per student. students repeat the sentence one word at a time. Now open the bottle and let the sentence out one word at a time. Drills
An Empty Bottle and a Drill Say a sentence into a bottle. Then let students fill the bottle in the same way.
. and tell students to pass the bottle round the class.2. Screw the lid on and tell the class that the sentence is in the bottle. that is.
Say a group of six students are talking about 'holidays'. Put students in groups. ensuring everyone gets an equal chance to contribute. and give one student the.
. who control conversations by the use of the microphone. Free Speaking Activities
Discussion and a Microphone This is suggested by television programme hosts. the person with the microphone can move around the group giving different people the chance to speak.3.
who should continue on the same subject. Give one student a tennis ball. Put students in pairs facing each other. as in doubles tennis. 15 love.3. e. and keep the score as in tennis. before returning the ball to someone on the other team. 'foul' throws and dropped balls.
.g. They should keep the conversation moving swiftly. They should be about 1 meter apart. Free Speaking Activities
Tennis Balls and Conversation A tennis match can be a metaphor for a conversation. You can have a referee to penalise slow turns. He starts talking about a subject then throws the ball to someone on the other team.
The teaching aids you need may be closer than you think. Have look around the staffroom. or finding a language related use of an object are two ways of using realia in class. but sometimes we need to think about the best ways to use an object.New Uses for Realia
aids are all around us. 'Mapping' the use of an object onto a language point.
to introduce winter/winter activities. gloves. and plan events. Use diaries.
. Teaching business English? Make use of mobile phones to create realistic telephone conversations. to schedule meetings. scarf.Quick Ideas
along a hat.
It benefits especially those international teachers who are less mobile or unable to collect their own materials. It is a collection of linguistic and nonlinguistic authentic materials which have been compiled. and posted on WWW server.Virtual Realia
Virtual realia: (in language teaching) digitized objects and items from the target culture which are brought into the classroom as examples or aids and used to stimulate spoken or written language production. scanned.
Can virtual realia still be considered realia? The larger question regarding authenticity of which realia is a part paints a confused and contradictory picture at best. is that authenticity is a relative matter and that different aspects of it can be present in varying degrees (Taylor. What does seem clear. however. 1994).
. it's just a digitized image of the item. Foreign language practitioners do accept modifications of realia items such as the lamination of authentic materials onto a card (Zukowski-Faust. 1997). Wood (1980) even presents the postage stamp as a cultural artifact that may be easily photographed and enlarged to facilitate its use and discussion in class.Virtual Realia
But virtual realia isn't really the object at all.
There must be : a purpose of the language and content. accordance with level. If you‟re using clothing. rather than wait until the last minute to go shopping for them. Purchase all the necessary supplies beforehand. age .
. complexity. Make all photocopies necessary or cut flashcards. students interests and needs. Organize these into envelopes. quality rather than quantity. pack them into a bag the night before.Tips & Warnings
your materials and supplies before the lesson.
as recognition of an object is immediate and so cuts out the need for lengthy explanations and drawing funny pictures on the board. It is possible to use realia to teach almost any subject.
. Using realia stimulates the mind. Realia saves time. and is one way of encouraging creativity by involving the senses. the use of realia is only limited by your imagination.The Advantages of Using Realia
As English teachers. and the chances of your students remembering the new words you have taught them increases. Realia breathes life into new vocabulary. Elicitation becomes much easier and holding up the object with a raised eyebrow will usually result in the desired word being spoken.
The Advantages of Using Realia
Using realia in the EFL class proves a positive and rewarding experience since it makes lessons more interesting and enjoyable is a link between language learning and sociocultural learning brings EFL classes nearer to the English speaking countries helps students to discover and process new input is a good complement to the usual reading materials
Advantages of Using Realia
Accessible Relevant Visually interesting
and captures the attention of the learner Provides a focus away from the written word or the 1:1 interaction – it‟s like a „third person‟ that can be spoken about (without consideration to feelings.
. social conventions etc) Useful to help your students grasp the cultural differences or learn practical skills.
objects may not support a cultural distinction. Spending too much time in one activity with real objects in the class.
. Activities with real objects might lose the class path.
You will have probably realized by now that including realia in the classroom involves a great deal of preparation in some cases. yes. Absolutely! And your student‟s faces will be living proof. Is it really worth you time? The answer is.
Harmer.com/2011/05/13/business-englishrealia/ http://busyteacher. Penny Ur. Center for applied linguistics.com/browse/realia http://www. 1987. 1988 Grammar Practice Activities. Teaching Foreign Languages with Realia and other Authentic Materials.org/ http://dictionary. ISBN 978-1-4058-5311-8. Jeremy.
http://authenticteaching. Eric. CATS: The IATEFL Young Learners SIG
Simon Mumford. Washington.ehow.com/how_4549705_use-realia-esl-lessons.wordpress. 177. Using Creative Thinking to Find New Uses for Realia. Autumn 2004 Publication . Pearson Longman ELT. pp. Jean-Pierre Berwald.html
. Cambridge University Press.reference. Izmir University of Economics Turkey. The Practice of English Language Teaching with DVD (4th Edition) (Longman Handbooks for Language Teachers).
html http://www.jamesabela.org.stephenhenryconsulting.ht ml http://www.uk/advanced/realia.wikipedia.com/tag/realia/ http://www.co.com/weblog/archives/00 0228.org/Articles/Smith-Realia.blogspot.uk/languageassistant/teaching-tips/realia http://www.org/wiki/Realia_(education) http://iteslj.html
.usingenglish.php http://www.com/ http://en.org/libraries/tfl/key_terms.com/letter/dr_ lozanov.teachingenglish.html http://oupeltglobalblog.References
As a post activity or to spend last 5 minutes in an enjoyable way. we may listen and sing a song with our microphone.