Highway Bridge Structures

Bridge
 is

a structure built to span physical obstacles such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle.

Slab on Stringer
A

type of bridge composed of a deck resting on a set of primary members.  Also known as Slab-onGirder.

A typical single span slab-on-stringer bridge site and its representative components.

Legend
1. 2. !. #. %. '. (. *. ,.

Deck and Overpass tringer "earing $edestal &ooting $iles )nderpass +mbankment -ive -oading

t is the roadway. similar to a floor. surface of a bridge.1.    . or the pedestrian walkway. Dec  is a flat surface capable of supporting weight. .

1.  railway or similar structure that crosses over another road or railway. . !verpass  a bridge. road.

. Stringer   a longitudinal  bridge  girder for supporting part  of a deck or  railroad track  between bents  or piers.".

Bearing a component of a bridge which typically connects the bridge piers  to the bridge deck.  is .#.

.$. %edestal A short column on an abutment or pier which directly supports a superstructure primary member.

 .&. 'ooting A concrete support  under a foundation that rests in solid ground and is wider than the  structure supported.

%iles a long column of timber. concrete. .(. or steel that is driven into the ground to provide a foundation for a vertical load.

. especially a section of road that passes under another road. *nderpass A passage underneath something.).

  . .+.mban ment A long artificial mound of stone or earth/ built to hold back water or to support a road or as protection.

variable weight added to the dead load or intrinsic weight of a structure or vehicle. Live Loading A moving.-. .

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Superstructure  0he part of a building or other structure above the foundation. .

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t is the top layer of a road that carries the traffic..  . .earing sur/ace  0he wearing surface 1course2 is that portion of the deck cross section which resists traffic wear.

Dec  0he deck is the physical e3tension of the roadway across the obstruction to be bridged. .

%rimary 0ember  $rimary members distribute loads longitudinally and are usually designed principally to resist fle3ure and shear. .  "eam type primary members such as this are also called stringers or girders.

 .Secondary 0embers econdary members are bracing between primary members designed to resist cross4sectional deformation of the superstructure frame and help distribute part of the vertical load between stringers.

.Substructure  0he substructure consists of all elements re5uired to support the superstructure and overpass roadway.

Abutments  Abutments are earth4retaining structures which support the superstructure and overpass roadway at the beginning and end of a bridge. .

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.%iers  $iers are structures which support the superstructure at intermediate points between the end supports 1abutments2.

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and accommodate movements between the superstructure and the substructure. .Bearings  "earings are mechanical systems which transmit the vertical and hori6ontal loads of the superstructure to the substructure.

%edestal A pedestal is a short column on an abutment or pier under a bearing which directly supports a superstructure primary member. .

. is the primary component of the abutment acting as a retaining structure at each approach. sometimes called the stem.Bac wall A backwall.

. .ingwall A wingwall is a side wall to the abutment backwall or stem designed to assist in confining earth behind the abutment.

'ooting  As bearings transfer the superstructure loads to the substructure. . so in turn do the abutment and pier footings transfer loads from the substructure to the subsoil or piles.

 A footing supported by soil without piles is called a spread footing. . A footing supported by piles. like the one in previous figure is known as a pile cap.

. which e3tend down from the footing to a stronger soil layer or to bedrock. support is obtained through the use of piles.%iles  7hen the soil under a footing cannot provide ade5uate support for the substructure 1in terms of bearing capacity. or settlement2. overall stability.

Sheeting  .n cofferdams or shallow e3cavation. the vertical planks which are driven into the ground to act as temporary retaining walls permitting e3cavation are known as sheeting. .

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. guardrail2. .g.Appurtenances  is any part of the bridge or bridge site which is not a ma8or structural component yet serves some purpose in the overall functionality of the structure 1e.

  ..mban ment A long artificial mound of stone or earth/ built to hold back water or to support a road or as protection.

*nderdrain  is a drainage system made of perforated pipe or other suitable conduit that transports runoff away from the structure and into appropriate drainage channels 1either natural or man4made2. .

.Approach  0he section of overpass roadway which leads up to and away from the bridge abutments is called the approach or approach roadway.

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 is .1ra//ic Barriers a protective device 9used to shield motorists from obstacles or slope located along either side of roadway:. they are usually called bridge railings.  On bridges.

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0O specifies an absolute minimum of 1# ft 1#.0iscellaneous 1erms  2ertical clearance is the minimum distance between the structure and the underpass. AA . .2( m2 and a design clearance of 1' ft 1#.** m2.

. Load 3ating is an analysis of a structure to compute the ma3imum allowable loads that can be carried across a bridge.

. Dead Load is a permanent loads placed on a structure before the concrete slab hardens.

. sidewalks.2. . bridge railing. wearing surface.g. etc. Superimposed dead loads are permanent loads placed on the structure after the concrete has hardened 1e.  Superimposed dead loads are generally considered part of total dead loads.

pedestrians. etc. such as vehicles. . wind. Live Loads are temporary loads placed on the structure.

. Sheeted %it is a temporary bo3 structure with only four sides which can be used as an earth support system in e3cavation for substructure foundations.

. <onstruction that occurs in phases. usually to permit the flow of traffic through a construction site. is called staged construction.  An e3ample would be a bridge replacement pro8ect where half of the structure is removed and replaced while traffic continues over the remaining portion of the structure.

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