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# INTRODUCTION

Characteristics of fluids

•

A fluid may be liquid, vapour or gas. It has no permanent

shape but takes up the shape of a containing vessel or

channel or is shaped by external forces (e.g. the atmosphere).

•

A fluid consists of atoms/molecules in random motion

(translation) and in continual collision with the surroundings.

•

Fluids are readily deformable, and flow.

•

Solids have ‘frozen’ molecules that vibrate and do not

translate. Solids resist change of shape.

•

A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously

when acted on by a shearing stress of any magnitude.

•

For a solid, application of a shear stress causes a deformation

which, if modest, is not permanent and solid regains original

position.

Attached

plates

Solid

Characteristics of fluids

•

For a fluid, continuous deformation takes place with an infinite

number of layers sliding over each other. Deformation

continues until the force is removed.

•

A fluid is a substance for which a shear stress tends to

produce unlimited deformation.

Fluid

Characteristics of fluids

Dimensions and Units

• Fluid characteristics are described qualitatively in terms of

basic dimensions: length, L, time, T, and mass, M.

• All theoretically derived equations are dimensionally

homogeneous.

• For a quantitative description units are required

• Two system of units will be used:

– International System (SI); m, s, kg, K

– British Gravitational (BG) System; ft, s, lb, ºF or ºR

•

From a microscopic point of view a fluid is not a continuous

and homogeneous substance.

•

We take the engineering macroscopic view such that we can

examine a sufficiently large ‘particle’ of fluid to allow the

concept of velocity and density ‘at a point’.

•

Density is the mass per unit volume, and is a macroscopic

concept. Density at a point is:

•

Specific volume, specific weight, specific gravity

Properties and characteristics of fluids

=

→

V

m

v 0

lim ρ

•

Pressure = (normal force) / area. The pressure at a point is:

•

In the absence of shear forces (fluid at rest or in uniform

motion) pressure at a point is independent of direction

•

Pressure is a scalar quantity. Arrows should never be used to

indicate pressure. Arrows are used to indicate the force due

to pressure. Force is a vector quantity.

Properties and characteristics of fluids

=

→

A

F

p

A 0

lim

•

Perfect gas law

–

In this course all gases obey the perfect gas law

Properties and characteristics of fluids

RT p or mRT pV ρ = =

Viscosity

•

For elastic solids shearing strain is proportional to the

shearing stress

•

For fluids shearing stress is proportional to the rate of

shearing strain

•

For Newtonian fluids shearing stress is linearly

proportional to the rate of shearing strain

•

The study of non-Newtonian fluids is called rheology

•

Viscosity is very sensitive to temperature

Example 1.5: The velocity distribution for the flow of a Newtonian fluid between two wide,

parallel plates is given by the equation

where V is the mean velocity. The fluid has a viscosity of 0.0r lb·s/ft

2

. When V = 2 ft/s

and h = 0.2 in. determine: (a) the shearing stress acting on the bottom wall, and (b) the

shearing stress acting on a plane parallel to the walls and passing through the centerline

(midplane)

Solution.

Shearing stress

Velocity distribution

(a) Along the bottom wall, y = -h shearing stress

(b) Along the midplane, y = 0 shearing stress

2

3

1

2

V y

u

h

]

| `

·

]

÷

. ,

]

]

du

dy

t µ ·

0

du

dy

·

2

3 du Vy

dy h

·

3 du V

dy h

·

2

bot wall

14.4 lb/ft t ·

midplane

0 t ·

Properties and characteristics of fluids

•

Compressibility: all fluids are compressible, especially gases.

Most liquids can be regarded as incompressible for most

purposes.

• The bulk modulus of elasticity, E

v

, is a property which is used

to account for compressive effects:

•

Speed of sound is the velocity at which small disturbances

propagate in a fluid. For ideal gases speed of sound:

v

p

E p

p

| ` o

·

÷

o

. ,

c kRT ·

•

Vapor pressure is a pressure exerted by a vapour on the fluid

when they are in equilibrium in a closed vessel

•

Vapor pressure is a function of temperature

•

A liquid boils when the pressure is reduced to vapor pressure

•

When the liquid pressure is dropped below the vapor pressure

due to flow phenomena, we call the process cavitation

•

Cavitation is the formation and subsequent collapse of vapor

bubbles in a flowing fluid

Vapor Pressure

• Liquid, being unable to expand freely, will form an interface with a

second liquid or gas

• This surface phenomenon is due to unbalanced cohesive forces

acting on the liquid molecule on the fluid surface

• The intensity of molecular attraction per unit length along any line in

the surface is called the surface tension coefficient, σ (N/m)

• The value of surface tension decreases as temperature increases

• If the interface is curved, then there is a pressure difference across

the interface, the pressure being higher on the concave side (

drop of fluid, bubble)

• Capillary action in small tubes, which involves a liquid-gas solid

interface, is also caused by surface tension

Surface Tension

Effect of capillary action in small tubes. (a) Rise of column for a liquid that wets the tube.

(b) Free-body diagram for calculating column height. (c) Depression of column for a

nonwetting liquid.

The height h is governed by the value of the surface tension, σ, tube radius, R, specific

weight of the liquid, γ, and the angle of contact, θ.

2

2 cos

2 cos

R h R

h

R

yr r o u

o u

y

·

·

Example 1.8: Pressures are sometime determined by measuring the height of a column of

liquid in a vertical tube. What diameter of clean glass tubing is required so that the rise of

water at 20ºC in a tube due to capillary action (as opposed to pressure in the tube) is less

than 1.0 mm?

Solution

For water at 20ºC (from Table B.2), σ = 0.0728 N/m and γ = 9.789 kN/m

3

. Since θ ≈ 0º it

follows that for h = 1.0 mm,

And the minimum required tube diameter, D, is

2 cos

h

R

o u

y

·

2 cos

R

h

o u

y

·

( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

3 3 3

2 0.0728 N/m 1

0.0149 m

9.789 10 N/m 1.0 mm 10 m/mm

R

· ·

×

2 0.0298 m 29.8 mm D R · · ·

Problem 1.65: A 12-in.-diameter circular plate is placed over a fixed bottom plate with a

0.1-in. gap between the two plates filled with glycerin.

Determine the torque required to rotate

the circular plate slowly at 2 rpm.

Assume that the velocity distribution in

the gap is linear and that the shear

stress on the edge of the rotating plate

is negligible.

Solution

Torque due to shearing stress on plate:

where Thus

and

dT r dA t ·

2 dA rdr r ·

2 dT r rdr t r ·

2

0

2

R

T r dr r t ·

l

Problem 1.65: A 12-in.-diameter circular plate is placed over a fixed bottom plate with a

0.1-in. gap between the two plates filled with glycerin.

Determine the torque required to rotate

the circular plate slowly at 2 rpm.

Assume that the velocity distribution in

the gap is linear and that the shear

stress on the edge of the rotating plate

is negligible.

Solution

Torque due to shearing stress on plate:

Velocity distribution

Searing stress

2

0

2

R

T r dr r t ·

l

du V r

dy

u

ô ô

· ·

du r

dy

u

t µ µ

ô

· ·

Problem 1.65: A 12-in.-diameter circular plate is placed over a fixed bottom plate with a

0.1-in. gap between the two plates filled with glycerin.

Determine the torque required to rotate

the circular plate slowly at 2 rpm.

Assume that the velocity distribution in

the gap is linear and that the shear

stress on the edge of the rotating plate

is negligible.

Solution

Torque due to shearing stress on plate:

Searing stress

Torque

2

0

2

R

T r dr r t ·

l

du r

dy

u

t µ µ

ô

· ·

4

3

0

2 2

4

R

R

T r dr

rµu rµu

ô ô

· ·

l

Problem 1.65: A 12-in.-diameter circular plate is placed over a fixed bottom plate with a

0.1-in. gap between the two plates filled with glycerin.

Determine the torque required to rotate

the circular plate slowly at 2 rpm.

Assume that the velocity distribution in

the gap is linear and that the shear

stress on the edge of the rotating plate

is negligible.

Solution

Torque

( )

4

4 2

lb s rev rad 1 min 6

2 0.0313 2 2

2 ft min rev 60 s 12 ft

0.0772 ft lb

0.1 4

ft 4

12

R

T

r r

rµu

ô

×

| `| `| `| `| `

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

. ,. ,. ,. ,. ,

· · · ×

| `

÷

. ,

END OF LECTURE

Dimensions Associated with

Common Physical Quantities

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Density of water as a function of temperature

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(a) Deformation of material placed between two parallel plates. (b)

Forces acting on upper plate.

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Behavior of a fluid placed

between two parallel plates

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du

dy

t µ ·

Linear variation of shearing stress with rate

of shearing strain for common fluid

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Variation of shearing stress with rate of shearing strain for

several types of fluids, including common non-Newtonian fluids.

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Dynamic (absolute) viscosity

of some common fluids as a

function of temperature

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Forces acting on one-half of a liquid drop

2

2

2

i e

R p R

p p p

R

r o r

o

· A

A · ·

Pressure drop across the surface of the droplet

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Pressure drop across the surface of the bubble?

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