# INTRODUCTION

Characteristics of fluids

A fluid may be liquid, vapour or gas. It has no permanent
shape but takes up the shape of a containing vessel or
channel or is shaped by external forces (e.g. the atmosphere).

A fluid consists of atoms/molecules in random motion
(translation) and in continual collision with the surroundings.

Fluids are readily deformable, and flow.

Solids have ‘frozen’ molecules that vibrate and do not
translate. Solids resist change of shape.

A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously
when acted on by a shearing stress of any magnitude.

For a solid, application of a shear stress causes a deformation
which, if modest, is not permanent and solid regains original
position.
Attached
plates
Solid
Characteristics of fluids

For a fluid, continuous deformation takes place with an infinite
number of layers sliding over each other. Deformation
continues until the force is removed.

A fluid is a substance for which a shear stress tends to
produce unlimited deformation.
Fluid
Characteristics of fluids

Dimensions and Units
• Fluid characteristics are described qualitatively in terms of
basic dimensions: length, L, time, T, and mass, M.
• All theoretically derived equations are dimensionally
homogeneous.
• For a quantitative description units are required
• Two system of units will be used:
– International System (SI); m, s, kg, K
– British Gravitational (BG) System; ft, s, lb, ºF or ºR

From a microscopic point of view a fluid is not a continuous
and homogeneous substance.

We take the engineering macroscopic view such that we can
examine a sufficiently large ‘particle’ of fluid to allow the
concept of velocity and density ‘at a point’.

Density is the mass per unit volume, and is a macroscopic
concept. Density at a point is:

Specific volume, specific weight, specific gravity
Properties and characteristics of fluids

=

V
m
v 0
lim ρ

Pressure = (normal force) / area. The pressure at a point is:

In the absence of shear forces (fluid at rest or in uniform
motion) pressure at a point is independent of direction

Pressure is a scalar quantity. Arrows should never be used to
indicate pressure. Arrows are used to indicate the force due
to pressure. Force is a vector quantity.
Properties and characteristics of fluids

=

A
F
p
A 0
lim

Perfect gas law

In this course all gases obey the perfect gas law
Properties and characteristics of fluids
RT p or mRT pV ρ = =

Viscosity

For elastic solids shearing strain is proportional to the
shearing stress

For fluids shearing stress is proportional to the rate of
shearing strain

For Newtonian fluids shearing stress is linearly
proportional to the rate of shearing strain

The study of non-Newtonian fluids is called rheology

Viscosity is very sensitive to temperature

Example 1.5: The velocity distribution for the flow of a Newtonian fluid between two wide,
parallel plates is given by the equation
where V is the mean velocity. The fluid has a viscosity of 0.0r lb·s/ft
2
. When V = 2 ft/s
and h = 0.2 in. determine: (a) the shearing stress acting on the bottom wall, and (b) the
shearing stress acting on a plane parallel to the walls and passing through the centerline
(midplane)
Solution.
Shearing stress
Velocity distribution
(a) Along the bottom wall, y = -h shearing stress
(b) Along the midplane, y = 0 shearing stress
2
3
1
2
V y
u
h
]
| `
·
]
÷
. ,
]
]
du
dy
t µ ·
0
du
dy
·
2
3 du Vy
dy h
·
3 du V
dy h
·
2
bot wall
14.4 lb/ft t ·
midplane
0 t ·

Properties and characteristics of fluids

Compressibility: all fluids are compressible, especially gases.
Most liquids can be regarded as incompressible for most
purposes.
• The bulk modulus of elasticity, E
v
, is a property which is used
to account for compressive effects:

Speed of sound is the velocity at which small disturbances
propagate in a fluid. For ideal gases speed of sound:
v
p
E p
p
| ` o
·
÷
o
. ,
c kRT ·

Vapor pressure is a pressure exerted by a vapour on the fluid
when they are in equilibrium in a closed vessel

Vapor pressure is a function of temperature

A liquid boils when the pressure is reduced to vapor pressure

When the liquid pressure is dropped below the vapor pressure
due to flow phenomena, we call the process cavitation

Cavitation is the formation and subsequent collapse of vapor
bubbles in a flowing fluid
Vapor Pressure

• Liquid, being unable to expand freely, will form an interface with a
second liquid or gas
• This surface phenomenon is due to unbalanced cohesive forces
acting on the liquid molecule on the fluid surface
• The intensity of molecular attraction per unit length along any line in
the surface is called the surface tension coefficient, σ (N/m)
• The value of surface tension decreases as temperature increases
• If the interface is curved, then there is a pressure difference across
the interface, the pressure being higher on the concave side (
drop of fluid, bubble)
• Capillary action in small tubes, which involves a liquid-gas solid
interface, is also caused by surface tension
Surface Tension

Effect of capillary action in small tubes. (a) Rise of column for a liquid that wets the tube.
(b) Free-body diagram for calculating column height. (c) Depression of column for a
nonwetting liquid.
The height h is governed by the value of the surface tension, σ, tube radius, R, specific
weight of the liquid, γ, and the angle of contact, θ.
2
2 cos
2 cos
R h R
h
R
yr r o u
o u
y
·
·

Example 1.8: Pressures are sometime determined by measuring the height of a column of
liquid in a vertical tube. What diameter of clean glass tubing is required so that the rise of
water at 20ºC in a tube due to capillary action (as opposed to pressure in the tube) is less
than 1.0 mm?
Solution
For water at 20ºC (from Table B.2), σ = 0.0728 N/m and γ = 9.789 kN/m
3
. Since θ ≈ 0º it
follows that for h = 1.0 mm,
And the minimum required tube diameter, D, is
2 cos
h
R
o u
y
·
2 cos
R
h
o u
y
·
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
3 3 3
2 0.0728 N/m 1
0.0149 m
9.789 10 N/m 1.0 mm 10 m/mm
R

· ·
×
2 0.0298 m 29.8 mm D R · · ·

Problem 1.65: A 12-in.-diameter circular plate is placed over a fixed bottom plate with a
0.1-in. gap between the two plates filled with glycerin.
Determine the torque required to rotate
the circular plate slowly at 2 rpm.
Assume that the velocity distribution in
the gap is linear and that the shear
stress on the edge of the rotating plate
is negligible.
Solution
Torque due to shearing stress on plate:
where Thus
and
dT r dA t ·
2 dA rdr r ·
2 dT r rdr t r ·
2
0
2
R
T r dr r t ·
l

Problem 1.65: A 12-in.-diameter circular plate is placed over a fixed bottom plate with a
0.1-in. gap between the two plates filled with glycerin.
Determine the torque required to rotate
the circular plate slowly at 2 rpm.
Assume that the velocity distribution in
the gap is linear and that the shear
stress on the edge of the rotating plate
is negligible.
Solution
Torque due to shearing stress on plate:
Velocity distribution
Searing stress
2
0
2
R
T r dr r t ·
l
du V r
dy
u
ô ô
· ·
du r
dy
u
t µ µ
ô
· ·

Problem 1.65: A 12-in.-diameter circular plate is placed over a fixed bottom plate with a
0.1-in. gap between the two plates filled with glycerin.
Determine the torque required to rotate
the circular plate slowly at 2 rpm.
Assume that the velocity distribution in
the gap is linear and that the shear
stress on the edge of the rotating plate
is negligible.
Solution
Torque due to shearing stress on plate:
Searing stress
Torque
2
0
2
R
T r dr r t ·
l
du r
dy
u
t µ µ
ô
· ·
4
3
0
2 2
4
R
R
T r dr
rµu rµu
ô ô
· ·
l

Problem 1.65: A 12-in.-diameter circular plate is placed over a fixed bottom plate with a
0.1-in. gap between the two plates filled with glycerin.
Determine the torque required to rotate
the circular plate slowly at 2 rpm.
Assume that the velocity distribution in
the gap is linear and that the shear
stress on the edge of the rotating plate
is negligible.
Solution
Torque
( )
4
4 2
lb s rev rad 1 min 6
2 0.0313 2 2
2 ft min rev 60 s 12 ft
0.0772 ft lb
0.1 4
ft 4
12
R
T
r r
rµu
ô
×
| `| `| `| `| `
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
. ,. ,. ,. ,. ,
· · · ×
| `
÷
. ,

END OF LECTURE 

Dimensions Associated with
Common Physical Quantities
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Density of water as a function of temperature
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(a) Deformation of material placed between two parallel plates. (b)
Forces acting on upper plate.
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Behavior of a fluid placed
between two parallel plates
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du
dy
t µ ·

Linear variation of shearing stress with rate
of shearing strain for common fluid
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Variation of shearing stress with rate of shearing strain for
several types of fluids, including common non-Newtonian fluids.
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Dynamic (absolute) viscosity
of some common fluids as a
function of temperature
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Forces acting on one-half of a liquid drop
2
2
2
i e
R p R
p p p
R
r o r
o
· A
A · ·
Pressure drop across the surface of the droplet
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Pressure drop across the surface of the bubble?

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