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TWI Training & Examination Services
Course Reference WIS 5
Course notes section reference 15
CSWIP 3.1 Welding Inspection
Cutting Processes
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A jet of pure oxygen reacts with iron, that has been preheated to
its ignition point, to produce the oxide Fe
3
O
4
by exothermic
reaction.This oxide is then blown through the material by the
velocity of the oxygen stream
Different types of fuel gases may be used for the pre-heating
flame in oxy fuel gas cutting: i.e. acetylene, hydrogen,
propane. etc
By adding iron powder to the flame we are able to cut most
metals - Iron Powder Injection
The high intensity of heat and rapid cooling will cause
hardening in low alloy and medium/high C steels they are
thus pre-heated to avoid the hardening effect
Oxyfuel Gas Cutting Process
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The cutting torch
Neutral cutting flame
Neutral cutting flame with
oxygen cutting stream
Oxyfuel Gas Cutting Process
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Oxyfuel gas cutting equipment
Torch-mix cutting
torch
fuel and oxygen for
preheat flame are mixed
within the torch
can be injector type (for
pressure less than 14
kPa) or medium
pressure type
Handle
Universal
pressure
mixer
Mixed
preheat
gases
Tip nut
Cutting tip
Fuel gas
inlet
Preheat
fuel gas
valve
Oxygen
inlet
Preheat
oxygen
valve
Cutting
oxygen
lever
Cutting oxygen
Torch head
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Oxyfuel gas cutting equipment
Tip mix cutting
torch
fuel and oxygen
for preheat flames
are mixed in the
tip of the torch
Cutting
oxygen
Three tube
design
Cutting
oxygen
lever
Preheat
oxygen
Preheat
fuel gas
Preheat
valves
Handle
Tip nut
Tip mix
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Oxyfuel gas cutting related terms
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Oxyfuel gas cutting quality
Good cut - sharp top edge, fine and even drag lines,
little oxide and a sharp bottom edge
Cut too fast -
pronounced break in the
drag line, irregular cut
edge
Cut too slow - top edge is melted,
deep groves in the lower portion,
heavy scaling, rough bottom edge
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Oxyfuel gas cutting quality
Good cut - sharp top edge, fine and even drag lines,
little oxide and a sharp bottom edge
Preheat flame too high - top
edge is melted, irregular cut,
excess of adherent dross
Preheat flame too low - deep
groves in the lower part of the cut
face
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Oxyfuel gas cutting quality
Good cut - sharp top edge, fine and even drag lines,
little oxide and a sharp bottom edge
Irregular travel speed - uneven space
between drag lines, irregular bottom
with adherent oxide
Nozzle is too high above the
works - excessive melting of the
top edge, much oxide
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Mechanised oxyfuel cutting
can use portable carriages or gantry type machines
high productivity
accurate cutting for complicate shapes
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Mechanised oxyfuel cutting
Cutting and bevelling
head
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OFW/C advantages/disadvantages
Disadvantages:
1) High skill factor
2) Wide HAZ
4) Slow process
5) Limited range of
consumables
3) Safety issues
Advantages:
1) No need for power supply
portable
3) Low equipment cost
4) Can cut carbon and low
alloy steels
5) Good on thin materials
2) Versatile: preheat,
brazing, surfacing, repair,
straightening
6) Not suitable for reactive &
refractory metals
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Plasma cutting
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Plasma cutting
no need to promote
oxidation no preheat
works by melting and blowing
and/or vaporisation
gases: air, Ar, N
2
, O
2
, mix of Ar
+ H
2
, N
2
+ H
2

air plasma promotes
oxidation increased speed
but special electrodes need
shielding gas - optional
applications: stainless steels,
aluminium and thin sheet
carbon steel
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Plasma arc modes
used for cutting and
joining non-conductive
workpiece
workpiece is not in the
arc circuit
heat is obtained from
plasma jet only
low energy
concentration
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Plasma cutting
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Arc Air Gouging
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Arc-air gouging features
Operate ONLY on DCEP
Special gouging copper
coated carbon electrode
Can be used on carbon
and low alloy steels,
austenitic stainless steels
and non-ferrous materials
Requires CLEAN/DRY
compressed air supply
Provides fast rate of metal removal
Can remove complex shape defects
After gouging, grinding of carbured layer is mandatory
Gouging doesnt require a qualified welder!