Networking Basics

© 2009, Velocis Systems

How a LAN Is Built

© 2009, Velocis Systems

Local-Area Network—LAN
• What is a LAN?
– A collection of computers, printers, and other
devices that can communicate with each other
in a small area (< ~ 3000 m)

• What are the components?
– Computers, operating system (OS),
network interface card (NIC), and hubs

• How is a LAN controlled?
– Protocols—Formal descriptions of sets of
rules and conventions that govern how
devices on a network exchange information
Networking Fundamentals

© 2009, Velocis Systems

1-3

Local-Area Networks • LANs are designed to: – Operate within a limited geographic area – Allow multi-access to high-bandwidth media – Control the network privately under local administration – Provide full-time connectivity to local services – Connect physically adjacent devices Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-4 .

Velocis Systems 1-5 .Network Operating System (OS) • Software that allows communicating and sharing of data and network resources • Examples: – Win 2000 – NetWare PC or Workstation Loaded with NOS – Win NT Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

Velocis Systems 1-6 .Network Interface Card • Amplifies electronic signals • Packages data for transmission • Physically connects computer to transmission media (cable) PC or Workstation Loaded with NOS Connector Port Network Interface Card (NIC) Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

200K computers • 1995—Multiple backbones. Velocis Systems 1-7 . tens of thousands of LAN’s. millions of hosts. tens of millions of users Doubling every year! Networking Fundamentals © 2009. 3.1990s—Global Internetworking • 1992—1 major backbone.000 networks. hundreds of regional nets.

which makes introducing changes easier as no other layers are effected. • All OSI Layers are independent from each other. Velocis Systems 1-8 .The OSI Model • OSI Layer is meant for Networking manufacturers and developers to provide them a standard based on which they can make their products. • Ease of Troubleshooting. Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

Velocis Systems .The Layered Model © 2009.

Why a Layered Network Model? 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical Networking Fundamentals • Reduces complexity (one big problem to seven smaller ones) • Facilitates modular engineering • Assures interoperable technology • Accelerates evolution • Simplifies teaching and learning © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-10 .

Devices Function at Layers NIC Card Networking Fundamentals 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical Hub © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-11 .

Host Layers 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport Network 3 Data Link 1 Physical Networking Fundamentals } Host layers: Provide accurate data delivery between computers © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-12 .

Velocis Systems 1-13 .Media Layers 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical Networking Fundamentals } } Host layers: Provide accurate data delivery between computers Media layers: Control physical delivery of messages over the network © 2009.

and terminal emulation) © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-14 . file transfer.Layer Functions 7 Networking Fundamentals Application Provides network services to application processes (such as electronic mail.

Velocis Systems 1-15 .Layer Functions 7 Application Network services to applications 6 Presentation Data representation • Ensures data is readable by receiving system • Format of data • Data structures Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

Velocis Systems 1-16 . and terminates sessions between applications © 2009. manages.Layer Functions 7 Application Network services to applications 6 Presentation Data representation 5 Session Networking Fundamentals Inter-host communication • Establishes.

Velocis Systems 1-17 . and terminates virtual circuits • Fault detection and recovery • Information flow control Networking Fundamentals © 2009.Layer Functions 7 Application Network services to applications 6 Presentation Data representation 5 Session 4 Transport Inter-host communication End-to-end connection reliability • Concerned with data transport issues between hosts • Data transport reliability • Establishes. maintains.

Velocis Systems 1-18 .Layer Functions 7 Application Network services to applications 6 Presentation Data representation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network Inter-host communication End-to-end connection reliability Addresses and best path • Provides connectivity and path selection between two end systems • Domain of routing Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

Layer Functions 7 Application Network services to applications 6 Presentation Data representation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network Addresses and best path 2 Data Link Access to media Inter-host communication End-to-end connection reliability • Physical addressing. network topology. error notification Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-19 .

Velocis Systems 1-20 . data rates Networking Fundamentals Inter-host communication End-to-end connection reliability © 2009. connectors.Layer Functions 7 Application Network services to applications 6 Presentation Data representation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network Addresses and best path 2 Data Link Access to media 1 Physical Binary transmission • Wires. voltages.

Velocis Systems 1-21 .Peer-to-Peer Communications Host A Host B 7 Application Application 6 Presentation Presentation 5 Session Session 4 Transport Segments Transport 3 Network Packets Network 2 Data Link Frames Data Link 1 Physical Bits Physical Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

DNS Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-22 . Telnet. • This is where communication between two users are established. E-mail. FTP.Application Layer • This is where users communicate to the computer. • Examples are WWW. TFTP. • This is a point where user or application interfaces with the protocols to gain access to the network.

decompression are associated with this layer. MPEG etc. Encryption. Velocis Systems 1-23 . Networking Fundamentals © 2009. MIDI.Presentation Layer • Tasks like Translation. • It is mainly responsible for how the data is to be presented to the Application Layer. decryption. • Examples are JPEG. compression.

– Dialog Control •Simplex •Half Duplex •Full Duplex Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-24 .Session Layer – Session Establishment •Establishes a session between two devices before actual transmission of data.

• Full Duplex – Both way at the same time. • Radio transmission is the best example of this. By default all LAN Cards (NICs) work on Half Duplex. Networking Fundamentals © 2009.Session Layer • Simplex – Data travels only one way. Velocis Systems 1-25 . • Half Duplex – Both way but one at a time.

ensures data reliability © 2009.Transport Layer • • • • Networking Fundamentals Segments upper-layer applications (Multiplexing) Establishes an end-to-end connection Sends segments from one end host to another Optionally. Velocis Systems 1-26 .

Transport Layer • Transport Layer never actually transports the data but only prepares for transporting. • Uses Socket to define the services running on a particular node. Velocis Systems 1-27 . UDP work at this layer Networking Fundamentals © 2009. the data is associated with. • Responsible for the following : – Segmentation – End-to-end Communication – Flow Control – Error Control – Multiplexing of Applications • TCP.

Velocis Systems 1-28 .536 • Port address 1-1023 is reserved for specific Services like – WWW - 80 – FTP - 21 – SMTP - 25 • Port Addresses are reserved for standardization purpose . Port Addresses can be 65. • Structure of a socket – IP Address + Port Address • Each service has a unique Port address • Max. Networking Fundamentals © 2009.Socket • Socket is a software component and points to a particular service running on a particular node.

Port Numbers Application Layer Transport Layer Networking Fundamentals F T P T E L N E T S M T P D N S T F T P S N M P R I P 21 23 25 53 69 161 520 TCP UDP Port Numbers © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-29 .

Segmentation • This is a mechanism wherein the data is divided into multiple segments and sent over the network. • Once all segments reach to the destination the received segments have to be sequenced back. Velocis Systems 1-30 . • If one segment is lost the only segment is required to be re-sent and not the entire data. which is also done at this layer. • By doing this different segments can use different links for travelling across the network. Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

• Advantages are: – The segments delivered are acknowledged if received – Any segment not acknowledged are retransmitted – segments are sequenced back upon their arrival – Congestion.Flow Control • Used while connection oriented communication • It helps to have a control on over flow of Buffer. Velocis Systems 1-31 . Overloading and data loss are avoided • To achieve all this it uses the technique of Sliding window or Windowing Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

Velocis Systems 1-32 .Transport Layer— Establishes Connection Sender Receiver Synchronize Negotiate Connection Synchronize Acknowledge Connection Established Data Transfer (Send Segments) Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

End-to-End Communication • Connection Less Transmission – UDP is used – Not reliable – Faster • Connection Oriented Transmission – TCP is used – Reliable – Slower Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-33 .

• Negative acknowledgement means data is lost no further data is sent till positive acknowledgement is received. Velocis Systems 1-34 . • Positive acknowledgement means data has been received. • Eg.Connection Oriented Protocol • These protocols relies on Acknowledgement. • It is slow but Reliable. TCP and SPX Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

Velocis Systems 1-35 .Transport Layer— Reliability with Windowing Send 1 Sender • Window Size = 1 Receive 1 Ack 2 Receive 2 Ack 3 Send 2 Receiver • Window Size = 3 Sender Send 1 Send 2 Send 3 Receive 1 Receive 2 Receive 3 Ack 4 Receiver Send 4 Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

Velocis Systems 1-36 .Transport Layer— An Acknowledgement Technique Sender 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Receiver 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Send 1 Send 2 Send 3 Ack 4 Send 4 Send 5 Send 6 Ack 5 Send 5 Networking Fundamentals Ack 7 © 2009.

Connection Less Protocol • They do not provide acknowledgement neither sequence numbers. Velocis Systems 1-37 . UDP Networking Fundamentals © 2009. • It is faster but not reliable • Eg.

Network Layer • It is responsible for communicating Networks • It recognizes Networks with the help of Network Addresses – Network Address is a logical address like IP Address – It is common for a group of computers • It works only with Network IDs and has got nothing to do with host Ids. Velocis Systems 1-38 . • Router works at this layer. • Path determination or Routing is performed at this layer. Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

Velocis Systems 1-39 .Network Layer: Path Determination Which Which Path? Path? • Layer 3 functions to find the best path through the internetwork Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

Network Layer: Communicate Path 5 2 4 9 6 8 10 1 3 11 7 • Addresses represent the path of media connections Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-40 .

0c00.0) Node 0000. Velocis Systems 1-41 .6e25 © 2009.48 Novell IPX Example Network Networking Fundamentals 1aceb0b.0.2. 8.Protocol Addressing Variations General Example Network Node 1 1 TCP/IP Example Network Host 10.0. (Mask 255.

Network Layer Protocol Operations X Y C C A A • Each router provides its services to support upper layer functions Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-42 .

Routed Versus Routing Protocol • Routed protocol used between routers to direct user traffic Examples: IP. IPX. IGRP. Velocis Systems 1-43 . OSPF Networking Fundamentals © 2009. AppleTalk • Routing protocol used only between routers to maintain routing tables Examples: RIP.

Static Versus Dynamic Routes
Static Route
Uses a protocol route that a network
administrator enters into the router

Dynamic Route
Uses a route that a network protocol
adjusts automatically for topology or
traffic changes

Networking Fundamentals

© 2009, Velocis Systems

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Static Route Example

A
A

Point-to-point or
circuit-switched
connection

Only a single network
connection with no need
for routing updates

• Fixed route to address reflects
administrator’s knowledge
Networking Fundamentals

B
B
“Stub” network

© 2009, Velocis Systems

1-45

Adapting to Topology Change

A
A

B
B

D
D

C
C

• Can an alternate route substitute
for a failed route?
Networking Fundamentals

© 2009, Velocis Systems

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Velocis Systems 1-47 .Adapting to Topology Change A A B B X D D Networking Fundamentals C C © 2009.

Adapting to Topology Change A A B B X D D C C • Can an alternate route substitute for a failed route? Yes—With dynamic routing enabled Yes Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-48 .

• It formats the messages into Data Frames • Adds a customized header containing Source and Destination hardware address • This layer works with Frames This layer is logically divided in two sub-layers: LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Networking Fundamentals © 2009. • It translates data from Network Layer into bits for the Physical layer to transmit.Data Link Layer • It uniquely identifies each device in the Network. Velocis Systems 1-49 .

DATA LINK LAYER • FUNCTIONS OF ETHERNET 1) Arbitration: CSMA/CD algorithm 2) Addressing: 6 byte-long MAC address 3) Error detection: FCS in Ethernet trailer 4) Identify the type of packet inside the frame Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-50 .

troubleshooting occurs at this layer. • At this layer DCE & DTE are identified – DCE (Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment) • Located at Service Provider’s side – DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) • The attached device at customer’ Place – HUBs & REPEATERS are working at this layer. • This layer communicates directly with actual communication media. © 2009. • Transmits data in the form of bits. • Networking Fundamentals Max.Physical Layer • Electrical and Mechanical settings are provided at this layer. Velocis Systems 1-51 .

Velocis Systems .DOD MODEL © 2009.

The DoD Model • The Process / Application Layer • The Host-to-Host Layer • The Internet Layer • The Network Access Layer Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-53 .

The DoD & OSI DoD Model OSI Model Application Application Presentation Session Host-to-Host Internet Transport Network Data Link Network Access Networking Fundamentals Physical © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-54 .

Velocis Systems .Ethernet © 2009.

• Ethernet uses Data Link Layer and Physical Layer Specification • It uses something called Networking Fundamentals CSMA/CD © 2009.Introduction • Ethernet is a methodology for accessing a media • It allows all hosts on a network to share the same bandwidth of a link. • It is popular because : – It is easy to implement & Troubleshoot – It is easy to add new technologies like Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet to existing infrastructure. Velocis Systems 1-56 .

Ethernet Operation A Networking Fundamentals B C D © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-57 .

Ethernet Operation A B C D D Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-58 .

Ethernet Operation A B D Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Networking Fundamentals C D B and C Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-59 .

Velocis Systems 1-60 .Ethernet LANs: How do they work? • Multiple workstations are connected to a “segment” • Each station has to take turns sending traffic • All stations listen to all traffic on their segment • Stations can only send data (Ethernet Frames) when no one else is sending Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

1111 • Every workstation has a Network Interface Card (NIC) • Every NIC has a unique MAC address • Stations use MAC addresses to send Ethernet Frames to a specific station © 2009.321a Networking Fundamentals 0000.1018.Ethernet LANs: MAC Addresses 0000.0c12.3456 0000.0c12. Velocis Systems 1-61 .

3456 Frame To: 0000. Velocis Systems 1-62 .1018.0c12.0c12.3456 0000.321a Networking Fundamentals 0000. but ignore the frames that are not addressed to their MAC address © 2009.Ethernet LANs: Unicast Frames 0000.1111 • Ethernet frames contain the MAC address of the station that the frame was sent to • These are called “unicast” frames • All stations receive the Ethernet frame.0c12.

321a Networking Fundamentals • Some Ethernet frames are sent to all stations • These are called “broadcast” frames • All stations process this frame 0000.1111 © 2009.1018. Velocis Systems 1-63 .FFFF.FFFF 0000.0c12.0c12.3456 Frame To: FFFF.Ethernet LANs: Broadcast Frames 0000.

0c12.Ethernet LANs: Broadcast Frames 0000.1018.3456 Frame To: FFFF.FFFF 0000.0c12.FFFF.321a Networking Fundamentals • Some Ethernet frames are sent to all stations • These are called “broadcast” frames • All stations process this frame 0000.1111 © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-64 .

Ethernet Collisions Collision! Packe Frame Packe Frame t t Frame Packet Frame Packet • Sometimes stations transmit simultaneously • Two frames on the same segment collide • Collisions require each station to wait and resend Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-65 .

Ethernet Reliability A B C D A B C D Figure 1 Figure 2 Collision Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-66 .

Ethernet Reliability A B C D Collision A JAM Networking Fundamentals B JAM JAM D C JAM JAM JAM © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-67 .

Ethernet Reliability A B C D Collision A JAM B JAM JAM C JAM D JAM JAM • Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-68 .

Velocis Systems 1-69 .CSMA/CD • CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detect. • If it is free the request is sent otherwise it waits. Networking Fundamentals © 2009. • It is used by all NICs in Ethernet Networking • In this method all NICs first sense whether the cable is free or not.

Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-70 .3 Ethernet specifications • It uses only one wire pair for signals running in both direction. • Half Duplex typically 10base T is 50-60 % efficient.Half Duplex Ethernet • It is defined in 802. (In CISCO views) • In a large 10 base T network you only get 3 to 4 MBPS at most. • CSMA/CD is used to prevent collision.

Full Duplex • Full Duplex Ethernet uses two pairs of wires. Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-71 . • There is no collision in Full Duplex • Full Duplex is suppose to offer 100% efficiency in both direction • Means you can get 20 MBPS in 10 MBPS or 200 MBPS in Fast Ethernet running Full Duplex.

24 bits 24 bits Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) (Assigned by IEEE) Vender Assigned Ethernet Addressing using MAC Addresses Networking Fundamentals © 2009.Ethernet Addressing • Ethernet Addressing uses MAC Address – MAC addresses are burned on every NIC – It is a 48-bit address – It is written in the same format even if different LAN Technologies are used. Velocis Systems 1-72 .

Velocis Systems 1-73 . and ease of installation – Supports virtually all network protocols – Xerox initiated.3 which increases speeds to 1000 Mbps. cost.Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 • Benefits and background – Ethernet is the most popular physical layer LAN technology because it strikes a good balance between speed. or 1 Gbps Networking Fundamentals © 2009. then joined by DEC & Intel in 1980 • Revisions of Ethernet specification – Fast Ethernet raises speed from 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps – Gigabit Ethernet is an extension of IEEE 802.

Given by Xerox in early 1970’s. IEEE made it standard as 802. Intel & Xerox (DIX). Velocis Systems 1-74 .LAN FUNDAMENTALS Ethernet It is a LAN protocol. Three companies modified it as E (II) DEC.3 Header of Ethernet 8bytes 6byts 6byts 2 byts variable 4byts Flag Networking Fundamentals DA SA TYPE DATA FCS © 2009.

3 # Bytes 8 6 6 Preamble Dest add Source add 0000.802.2. Velocis Systems 1-75 .xxxx Vendor assigned 2 Length Variable Data 4 FCS Ethernet II uses “Type” here and does not use 802.0C IEEE assigned xx. MAC Address Networking Fundamentals © 2009.MAC SUB-LAYER MAC Layer .

Networking Fundamentals © 2009.Preamble • It allows the receiving devices to lock the incoming bit stream. Velocis Systems 1-76 . • The Peamble is used to indicate to the receiving station that the data portion of the message will follow.

Networking Fundamentals © 2009.Destination Address (DA) • DA is used by receiving stations to determine if an incoming packet is addressed to a particular node. Velocis Systems 1-77 .

Source Address (SA) • SA is a 48 bit MAC Address supplied by the transmitting device. Velocis Systems 1-78 . • Broadcast and Multicast address formats are illegal within the SA fields. Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

• 802. Velocis Systems 1-79 .2 can identify upper-layer protocol and must be used with 802.3 frame.3 uses length field where as Ethernet frame uses type field to identify the network layer protocol.Length or Type Field • 802. Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

• The size can vary from 46-1500 bytes. Velocis Systems 1-80 . Networking Fundamentals © 2009.Data • This is the packet sent down to the Data Link Layer from the Network layer.

Frame Check Sequence (FCS) • FCS is a field at the end of the frame that is used to store the cyclic redundancy check. Velocis Systems 1-81 . Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

Velocis Systems .ETHERNET CABLING © 2009.

Network Cabling • Media connecting network components – NIC cards take turns transmitting on the cable • Three primary types of cabling – Twisted-pair (or copper) – Coaxial cable – Fiber-optic cable Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-83 .

Twisted-Pair (UTP and STP) STP only: Shielded Insulation to Reduce EMI Twisted-Pair Outer Jacket Speed and throughput: 10/100 Mbps Relative cost: Least costly Color-Coded Plastic Insulation RJ-45 Connector Media and connector size: Small Maximum cable length: Networking Fundamentals 100 m © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-84 .

Velocis Systems 1-85 .Coaxial Cable OuterJacket Braided Copper Shielding Plastic Insulation Copper Conductor BNC Connector Speed and throughput: 10/100 Mbps Relative cost: More than UTP. but still low Media and connector size: Medium Maximum cable length: 200/500 m Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

UPPER LAYER PROTOCOLS © 2009. Velocis Systems .

TCP/IP Protocol • The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suit was created by the Department of Defense (DoD). Networking Fundamentals © 2009. • The Internet Protocol can be used to communicate across any set of interconnected networks. Velocis Systems 1-87 . • The TCP/IP protocol stack maps closely to the OSI model in the lower layers. • TCP/IP supports both LAN and WAN communications.

Velocis Systems 1-88 . the network layer corresponds to the TCP/IP Internet layer.Internet Layer Overview Application Transport Internet Data-Link Internet Protocol (IP) Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Physical • In the OSI reference model. Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

Velocis Systems 1-89 . • IP is not concerned with the content of the datagrams.Internet Protocol • Provides connectionless. • It looks for a way to move the datagrams to their destination. best effort delivery routing of datagrams. Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

Velocis Systems 1-90 .IP Datagram Bit 1 0 Version (4) Bit 15 Bit 16 Header Length (4) Type of Service (8) Identification (16) Time-to-Live (8) Protocol (8) Bit 31 Total Length (16) Flags (3) Fragment Offset (13) Header Checksum (16) 20 Bytes Source IP Address (32) Destination IP Address (32) Options (0 or 32 if Any) Data (Varies if Any) Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

in increments.IP Datagram • Version – Currently used IP version • Header Length – Datagram header length • TOS – Level of importance assigned by a particular upper-layer protocol • Total Length. to zero • Protocol – It indicates which upper-layer protocol receives incoming packets • Header Checksum – Calculated checksum of the header to check its integrity • Source IP Address – Sending node IP Address • Destination IP Address – Receiving node IP Address • Options – It allows IP to support various options like security Networking Fundamentals © 2009.Length of packet in bytes including Data and Header • Identification – Identifies current datagram (Sequence Number) • Flags – Specifies whether the packet can be fragmented or not • Fragment Offset – Used to piece together datagram fragments •TTL – It maintains a counter that gradually decreases. Velocis Systems 1-91 .

Protocol Field Transport Layer UDP TCP 6 Internet Layer 17 Protocol Numbers IP • Determines destination upper-layer protocol Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-92 .

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) • ARP works at Internet Layer of DoD Model • It is used to resolve MAC address with the help of a known IP address. • All resolved MAC addresses are maintained in ARP cache table. which is maintained. • To send a datagram this ARP cache table is checked and if not found then a broadcast is sent along with the IP address. • Machine with that IP address responds and the MAC address is cached. Velocis Systems 1-93 . Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

16.2 IP: 172.16.3.1 172. Velocis Systems 1-94 .2.16.3.2 = ??? Networking Fundamentals © 2009.Address Resolution Protocol I need the Ethernet address of 176.16.3. 172.3.

1 172.3. The message is for me.16.2 = ??? Networking Fundamentals © 2009.Address Resolution Protocol I need the Ethernet address of 176.3.3.16. 172.2 IP: 172. Velocis Systems 1-95 .2.16. Here is my Ethernet address.3.16. I heard that broadcast.

16.2 IP: 172.3.16.1111 Networking Fundamentals © 2009.2. Velocis Systems 1-96 .3. 172.2 Ethernet: 0800.3.3. The message is for me. Here is my Ethernet address.2 = ??? IP: 172.Address Resolution Protocol I need the Ethernet address of 176. I heard that broadcast.16.0020.3.1 172.16.16.

The message is for me.16.16.Address Resolution Protocol I need the Ethernet address of 176. Here is my Ethernet address.3. I heard that broadcast. Velocis Systems 1-97 .3.3.16.3.16.2 IP: 172.1111 Map IP Networking Fundamentals Ethernet © 2009. 172.2.3.0020.2 Ethernet: 0800.2 = ??? IP: 172.16.1 172.

• All types of Hardware can be used as a DHCP server.DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) • The DHCP server dynamically assigns IP address to hosts. even a Cisco Router. • Following information is provided by DHCP while host registers for an IP address: • IP Address – Subnet mask – Domain name – Default gateway (router) – DNS Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-98 .

Internet Control Message
Protocol
• ICMP messages are carried in IP datagrams and used to send
error and control messages.
Application
Transport

1

ICMP
Internet

Destination
Unreachable
Echo (Ping)
Other

Data-Link
Physical

Networking Fundamentals

© 2009, Velocis Systems

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ICMP Ping

Networking Fundamentals

© 2009, Velocis Systems

1-100

Transport Layer Overview

Application
Transport
Internet

Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP)

ConnectionOriented

User Datagram
Protocol (UDP)

Connectionless

Data-Link
Physical

Networking Fundamentals

© 2009, Velocis Systems

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Velocis Systems 1-102 .TCP Segment Format Bit 0 Bit 15 Bit 16 Source Port (16) Bit 31 Destination Port (16) Sequence Number (32) Acknowledgment Number (32) Header Length (4) Reserved (6) Code Bits (6) Checksum (16) 20 Bytes Window (16) Urgent (16) Options (0 or 32 if Any) Data (Varies) Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

Velocis Systems 1-103 .TCP Segment Format • Source port – Number of the calling port • Destination Port – Number of the called port • Sequence Number – Number used to ensure correct sequencing of the arriving data • Acknowledgement Number – Next expected TCP octet • Header Length – Length of the TCP header • Reserved – Set to zero • Code Bits – Control Functions (setup and termination of a session) • Window – Number of octets that the sender is willing to accept • Checksum – Calculated checksum of the header and data fields • Urgent Pointer – Indication of the end of the urgent data • Options – One option currently defined (maximum TCP segment size) • Data – Upper layer protocol data Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

ACK 2 (seq = 300 ack = 101 ctl = syn.ack) © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-104 .TCP Three-Way Handshake/Open Connection Host A 1 Send SYN (seq = 100 ctl = SYN) SYN Received 3 Established (seq = 101 ack = 301 ctl = ack) Networking Fundamentals Host B SYN Received Send SYN.

to listen to a particular services. • But no checking for segment delivery is provided. Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-105 . • TCP and UDP uses Port no. • UDP is also responsible for transmitting messages.UDP (User Datagram Protocol) • A connectionless and unacknowledged protocol.

Velocis Systems 1-106 .UDP Segment Format Bit 1 0 Bit 15 Bit 16 Source Port (16) Bit 31 Destination Port (16) Length (16) 8 Bytes Checksum (16) Data (if Any) • No sequence or acknowledgment fields Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

UDP Segment Format
• Source port – Number of the calling port
• Destination Port – Number of the called port
• Length – Number of bytes, including header and data
• Checksum – Calculated checksum of the header and data
fields
• Data – Upper layer protocol data

Networking Fundamentals

© 2009, Velocis Systems

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WAN Basics

© 2009, Velocis Systems

WAN Overview

Service
Provider

• WANs connect sites
• Connection requirements vary depending on
user requirements and cost
Networking Fundamentals

© 2009, Velocis Systems

1-109

such as telephone companies. Velocis Systems 1-110 .What is a WAN? A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area and often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers. Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

side of the communication facility. Velocis Systems 1-111 . • End of the WAN provider’s. DCE DTE S DTE Networking Fundamentals DCE Modem CSU/DSU S S S S S DCE DTE © 2009. • DCE is responsible for clocking.Serial Implementation of DTE versus DCE Data Terminal Equipment Data Communications Equipment End of the user’s device on the WAN link.

35 X. Velocis Systems 1-112 .WAN Terminating Equipment Physical Cable Types Router To Corporate Network WAN Provider (Carrier) Network EIA/TIA-232 V.21 HSSI Modem Usually on the Customer’s Premises DTE Data Terminal Equipment The Customer’s Equipment Networking Fundamentals DCE Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment The Service Providers Equipment © 2009.

Serial Transmission • WAN Serial connectors use serial transmission – Serial transmission uses one bit at time over a single channel. – Connector at the other end of the cable will depend on your service provider or end device requirements. • Cisco Routers use a proprietary 60 pin serial connector. Velocis Systems 1-113 . Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

Velocis Systems . Inc. 2009. © Cisco Systems.LAN/WAN Devices © 1999.

LAN/WAN Devices • Hubs • Bridges • Switches • Routers Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-115 .

no forwarding intelligence Networking Fundamentals © 2009. sometimes referred to as a multiport repeater.Hub • Device that serves as the center of a star topology network. Velocis Systems 1-116 .

Hubs 123 126 124 127 Hub 125 Data • • • • • Networking Fundamentals Data 128 Amplifies signals Propagates signals through the network Does not filter data packets based on destination No path determination or switching Used as network concentration point © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-117 .

Hubs Operate at Physical layer Physical A B C D • All devices in the same collision domain • All devices in the same broadcast domain • Devices share the same bandwidth Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-118 .

Hubs: One Collision Domain • More end stations means more collisions • CSMA/CD is used Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-119 .

Bridge • Device that connects and passes packets between two network segments. • More intelligent than hub—analyzes incoming packets and forwards (or filters) them based on addressing information. Velocis Systems 1-120 . Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

Bridge Example 123 126 Bridge 124 127 Hub Hub 125 Segment 1 128 Corporate Intranet Segment 2 • More intelligent than a hub—can analyze incoming packets and forward (or filter) them based on addressing information • Collects and passes packets between two network segments • Maintains address tables Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-121 .

• Build and maintain address tables called content-addressable memory (CAM).Switches • Use bridging technology to forward traffic between ports. Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-122 . • Provide full dedicated data transmission rate between two stations that are directly connected to the switch ports.

Switching—“Dedicated” Media Workstation 10-Mbps UTP Cable “Dedicated” 31 Switch 32 35 100 Mbps 33 34 100 Mbps 36 Corporate Intranet • Uses bridging technology to forward traffic (i. and can filter) • Provides full dedicated transmission rate between stations that are connected to switch ports • Used in both local-area and in wide-area networking Networking Fundamentals © 2009.e. maintains address tables. Velocis Systems 1-123 .

Velocis Systems 1-124 .Switches and Bridges Operate at Data Link Layer Data Link 1 2 3 4 OR 1 2 • Each segment has its own collision domain • All segments are in the same broadcast domain Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

Velocis Systems 1-125 .Switches Switch Memory • Each segment has its own collision domain • Broadcasts are forwarded to all segments Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

Velocis Systems 1-126 .Routers •• Interconnect Interconnect LANs LANs and and WANs WANs •• Provide Provide path path determination determination using using metrics metrics •• Forward Forward packets packets from from one one network network to to another another •• Control Control broadcasts broadcasts to to the the network network Networking Fundamentals © 2009.

) 1.0 4.3 E0 2.2 1.1 1.3 E0 4.Network Layer Functions (cont.2 Routing Table NET INT Metric 1 S0 1 2 S0 0 4 E0 0 • Logical addressing allows for hierarchical network • Configuration required • Uses configured information to identify paths to networks Networking Fundamentals © 2009.2 S0 S0 Routing Table NET INT Metric 1 E0 0 2 S0 0 4 S0 1 4.1 2.0 1. Velocis Systems 1-127 .1 4.

Routers: Operate at the Network Layer • Broadcast control • Optimal path determination • Traffic management • Logical addressing • Connects to WAN services Networking Fundamentals © 2009. Velocis Systems 1-128 .

Velocis Systems 1-129 .Network Device Domains Hub Bridge Switch Router Collision Domains: 1 4 Broadcast Domains: 1 Networking Fundamentals 1 4 4 1 4 © 2009.