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Consumer Learning Process

• Learning occurs intentionally (problem solving
process) as well as un-intentionally.
• learning and memory theories are useful in
understanding that how consumers wants and
motives are acquired and how their tastes are
developed, how frequently we are going to repeat
our advertising , how visuals ,symbols ,sounds
and other techniques can facilitates in regarding
• Can be defined as relatively permanent change on behavior
occurring as a result of experience. (experience may be of
purchase and consumption)
Types of learned behaviors
1. Physical behavior
– We learn many physical behaviors to respond to a situation e.g. learn to
walk , talk , interact with others,
– Consumers learn certain physical activity through the process of
modeling, in which they mimic the behavior of other individual such as
1. Symbolic Learning and problem Solving
– Traffic signs , McDonald's Golden arches, slogans etc. and also the
cognitive process.
1. Affective Learning
– Human learn to value certain elements of their environment and dislike
others. As a result they develop certain favorable and unfavorable
attitudes towards some product which depends upon their wants needs
and goals .
4 Elements of learning
• Motives
– Motives arouse individuals and as a result they respond. This arousal
function is essential because it activates the energy needed to engage in
learning activity.
– By achieving the goal ,the arousal reduces, but have a greater tendency to
occur again, that is why marketers put their product in a way that when
relevant consumer motive arouse their products are their to satisfy the
– This result that consumer will learn a connection b/w the product and
motive .
• Cues
– Capable of providing direction i.e. it influences the manner in which
respond to motive.e.g. hungry man is guided by restaurant signs or aroma
of food.
• Response
– Mental or physical activity in reaction to a stimulus satiation.
• Reinforcement
– Anything that follows the response and increase the tendency of response
to reoccur in a similar situation.
Two theories of understanding
• Behavioral learning theory.
– Based on the fact that learning occurs through
the connection b/w an external stimuli and
response (S-R).
• Cognitive learning theory.
– Based on the fact that learning is more
complex and involved certain mental
psychological processes those are motivation,
perception, attitude ,and integration processes.
Behavioral learning theory.
• Two approaches of the theory
1. Classical conditioning
2. Operant conditioning
• Classical conditioning
• Says that learning is an associative process with
an already existing relationship b/w a stimuli and
response. e.g. of food and salivation that is not
taught rather it already exists. or we can say food
is unconditional stimuli and so as unconditional
response salivation.
• Unconditional stimuli unconditional

• Food salivation

• Conditional stimuli conditional

• Bell salivation
• Unconditional stimuli Unconditional
Family gathering/
• Outdoor Activity Fun and

• Conditional Stimuli Conditional Response

• Lipton tea Fun and
Considerations while applying the
1. Contiguity : unconditional and conditional
stimuli must be close enough in time and
2. Repetition: the more often the
unconditional and conditional stumble
occur together the stronger the
Operant conditioning
• The individual must actively operate or act on
some aspect of environment for learning to
ossur.Also called instrumental conditioning.
• Is that learner or consumer will discover the
appropriate response that will be reinforced.
i.e. instead of dog put a pigeon in the box .

• Button = conditional stimuli
• Food = positive reinforcement
unconditional stimuli
Distinction b/w theories
1. Involve an already 1. No previous stimuli
established response –response relation
to another stimuli 2. The outcome is
2. The outcome is not dependent on
dependant on learner’s action
consumers actions 3. Influences changes
3. Influences and in goal –oriented
change the opinions behavior.
Environmental influences on
consumer behavior
• Culture
– That includes knowledge , belief, art,morals,law,
customs, and any other capabilities and habits
acquired by man as a member of society. every
thing that is socially learned and shared by the
members of society.
• Characteristics of culture
• Culture is learned
– From one generation to an other
• Culture is socially shared
– American culture in our society / TV programs etc.
• Culture are similar but diff.
– e.g. calendar / education/ family/ music/ gestures/ housing
• Is persistent
– Cultural elements are handed down from generation to
generations cant escape ur cultural heritage
• Is adaptive
– But in spite of resistance culture is changing gradually rate of
change varies.
• Organized as well as integrated.
– Tends to form a consistent and integrated as a whole.
• Subculture
• Marketers can distinguish more homogeneous
groups subgroups within the heterogeneous
national society. Sindhi / Punjabi/ pathan etc.
– Race , nationality, religion
• Social class
• Social class Vs Status
– Both can be of same social class but diff. in status
• Reference/ social groups
• What role u are playing in the group
Cognitive learning theory
• Goals leads to purposive behavior
which leads to insight and then to goal