You are on page 1of 31

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC

CONTROLLERS
AND
LADDER LOGIC

Greg Zimmerman
Electrical Engineering
Undergraduate
• Programmable Logic Controllers control most of
the mechanical processes in many areas of
production
• Very simple in operation, complex in design
Overview

1. PLC and Controls History
2. PLC Components
3. Ladder Logic
4. Programming of Ladder Logic
1. PLC and Controls History
• Large amount of work required connecting wires
• Difficulty with changes or replacements
• Difficulty in finding errors; requiring
skillful/experienced work force
• When a problem occurs, hold-up time is indefinite,
usually long
• Too many moving parts
Advantages of PLCs
• Number of wires reduced by
approximately 80%
• Fast and easy error
detection.
• No change in wiring to
change program
• Needs fewer spare parts
• Cheaper when large number
of I/O instruments are
needed
• Less moving parts
• Compact
• Cost effective for
installation/maintenance
2. PLC Components

• Definition
• Components
• PLC Operation
Definition
• A Programmable
controller is a solid
state user
programmable control
system with functions
to control logic,
sequencing, timing,
arithmetic data
manipulation and
counting capabilities.
Components
• CPU
• Memory Areas
• Circuits to input or
output data

• Basically, a big box of
math
Specific Components
• Input Relays (contacts) • Internal Utility Relays

• Output Relays (coils) • Counters

• Data Storage • Timers
PLC Operation
• Continually scans
ladder diagram
• Consists of 3
important steps
Rung Scanning
3. Ladder Logic
• Definition
• Introduction
• Comparison to Relay
Logic
Definition
• One form of drawing
electrical logic
schematics
• Very popular for PLCs
• Originally invented for
use with relays
Comparison to Relay Logic
• First used for
technicians,
electricians &
engineers
• Still first choice for
most technicians,
electricians, etc.
Relay Logic

• Ladder Logic 

• Relay Logic
• “Jog” function added to previous relay circuit
• 1 component added
• 3 wires added
• Two status indicators added
• 6 additional wires
• Most widely used
program
• Shown here as a very
small program
4. Ladder Logic Programming
• Introduction
• Basics – NO/NC Contacts/Coils
• AND & OR Gates
• Timers and Counters
• Building a PLC Ladder Logic
Programming
Introduction
• First PLC programming system used
• Borrowed heavily from relay diagrams plant
electricians already knew
• Each rung solved left to right
Basics
• NO Contact

• NO Coil (Output)

• NC Contact

• NC Coil (Output)
AND Gate
OR Gate
Timers

• Very simple concept,
it times
• 2 basic types, on-
delay and off-delay
• Still sends logic as its
output
Counters
• Counts number of
times a lever is
pulled, a button is
pushed, etc.
• 3 types
• Up Counter
• Down Counter
• Up-Down Counter
Building a PLC/Ladder Logic Program

• To illustrate, will start in relay logic, convert to
ladder logic at end
• Will need to remove/replace some components
• Overload Device Removed
• All components in relay diagram because wires
are run to them
• Is not addressed in ladder logic
• Motor relay is not a physical entity in ladder logic
as in relay logic
• ‘Jog Function’ added
• Usually added for ease in troubleshooting
purposes only.
• Now two ways to run motor – press start, or
press and hold Jog button
• Status Indicators added
• Green for output on
• Red for output off
• Relay Logic converted to Ladder Logic Diagram
• Much fewer hard wired components
• Double Pole Pushbutton for Jog switched to
Single Pole
• Instead of motor relays, PLC just checks state of
motor output
Conclusion
1. Programmable Logic History

3. PLC Components

5. Ladder Logic

7. Ladder Logic Programming