Craniofacial Development &


Yani Corvianindya Rahayu

Perkembangan kepala & leher

Minggu ke 4 pembentukan cranial (head) & cervical (neck) kira2 ½ panjang embrio .

muscle and some epithelial tissue) and endoderm (forming some epithelial. . mesoderm (forming all connective. Neuroectoderm forms the neural tube (eventually becoming the brain and spinal cord) and neural crest. tissue) • Akhir mgg ke 3  ectoderm differentiates into neuroectoderm and epidermis. • These specialized layers of cells are ectoderm (forming all nerve and some epithelial tissue).3 mgg IU • Sel-sel berdiferensiasi dalam 3 germ layers.


.• neural crest cells and lateral plate mesoderm membentuk pharyngeal arches  bakal pembentukan rongga mulut & digestive system.

• neural crest cells and lateral plate mesoderm membentuk tulang rahang dan lower face (viscerocranium) .• Mesoderm migrasi ke perifer mulai mgg ke 5 lateral plate mesoderm • Neural crest cells. produksi tulang cranial (neurocranium) diantara pharyngeal arches.

Tanda panah menunjukkan arah tujuan sel neural crest ke skeletal & jar ikat .

Neural crest membentuk tulang fasial (kuning) & cranial (pink) .

pembentukan palatum antara prominence maksila & mandibula .

• Pembentukn palatum sekunder pada prominen maksila .

• Pembentukan palatum primer pada prominen medial nasal .

CLEFT PALATE (palatoschisis) • Kegagalan fusi prosesus lateral palatina • Uvula split • Menghubungkan rongga mulut dengan nasal .

unilateral complete & bilateral complete .CLEFT LIP (Cheiloshisis) • Celah pada bibir yang berlanjut ke daerah nasal • Unilateral incomplete.



2 tipe proses ossifikasi: endochondral ossification.. and intramembranous ossification. .


a ratio which. .Skull development • Tulang tengkorak tumbuh pesat smpai usia 7 th • The neonate face at birth is comprises only approximately one-eighth of the total cranium. by adulthood becomes one-half.


Cranial sutures are various facial sutures  points of skull growth and expansion .

Craniosysostosis • a disorder that involves premature fusion of the cranial vault sutures pertumbuhan abnormal & adisproposional tulang kranium .


• This type of craniosynostosis has a genetic basis and is often familial. .syndromic craniosynostosis • fusion of sutures is combined with other systemic abnormalities. such as hearing loss or polysyndactyly.

Tongue Lymphatic Malformation .

Skull malformation The Inca practiced ritual skull malformation by wrapping the heads of babies of the nobility to create other-worldly shapes that reinforced their special status. .

Craniofacial malformation caused by hidrocephalus .

Baby girl born with lymphatic malformation .



structural or numerical anomalies 3.Craniofacial disorders 1. specific inheritance pattern .gene mutations and chromosomal 2.

Critical stages during development cell division and implantation occur and are vital for future development 1/2 and 2/3 of all human conceptions do not develop successfully to term (Chromosomal errors ) spontaneously aborted congenital defect .

and maternal disease . chemicals and physical agents. drugs or pharmaceuticals.8 minggu IU • pathogenesis congenital malformations • embryo is more susceptible to teratogens that produce congenital malformations • Teratogens (environmental agents) : infectious agents.2 .

9 mgg – birth (fetus) • growth and differentiation of organs continues • Major structural defects are less likely to occur • environmental factors. and maternal disease can alter normal development . vascular disruptions. including mechanical forces. drugs.

from the beginning of week three to the end of pregnancy and beyond. • The brain and skeleton are always sensitive. .• Different organs have different critical periods • day 15 through to day 60 of gestation is critical for many human organs.

Deformations • mechanical forces. alterations in joint mobility. intrauterine constraint. nerve palsies • contraction of the cervical muscle  altered head position. and lack of fetal movement • defects during the last trimester • Extrinsic forcesdistortion of facial structures. joint dislocations. . abnormal positioning of the extremities and head.

Disruptions • destruction of normally developed tissues or organs • birth defects associated with rupture of the amnion • fibrous tissue made to repair the amnion-that adheres to the developing individual and can lead to circulatory compromise and further necrosis later in development. .

defects in tooth development. lip fails to close. .Malformations • are intrinsic defects in the developing human that result in localised abnormalities during the development of organs and body parts • Major malformations are those that interfere with normal function • Minor malformationsoften have only cosmetic implications • the cleft palate. and incomplete growth of the nostrils.

Terima kasih selamat belajar .