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Formulae, equations

and amounts of
substance
Be able to calculate number of elementary particles in an element
Explain what an isotope is
Recall types of bonding in compounds
Calculate relative atomic mass
Calculate number of moles

Mass number A= protons + neutrons


Atomic number Z = protons
Number of neutrons=A-Z

Task
1. An atom has atomic number 26 and mass number 56.
How many protons, neutrons and electrons is has?
2.Work out the number of protons for the following
elements:
Sodium, nickel, fluorine, calcium

Isotopes atoms of the same element that have same


number of protons and electrons, but different number
of neutrons
99.985% - hydrogen-1
0.015% - hydrogen-2
Hydrogen-3 unstable

Types of bonding ionic


Ionic bonding exists between metals and non-metals,
atoms lose or gain electrons to complete their outer
shell
Properties strong, high melting point, dissolve in
water, solution conducts electricity
Examples: sodium
chloride, magnesium
hydroxide, etc.
Dot-andcross
diagram

Types of bonding covalent


Covalent bonding exists between two non-metals,
atoms share electrons to achieve full outer shells
Properties weaker than covalent, low melting point,
conduct electricity

Dot-andcross
diagram

Task
1) Draw dot-and-cross diagrams for magnesium chloride
and hydrochloric acid.

Ionic equations
aq aqueous solution
s solid
g gas
l liquid
Molecular equations show
The complete formula of every substance
When ionic substances dissolve in water,
Ionic equations are more useful

Spectator ions
Sometimes ions appear in exactly the same way on
each side of equation, ions like this are called spectator
ions and can be left out of equation

Task
Write balanced chemical equations:
1. Zinc +oxygen zinc oxide
2. Potassium +water hydrogen and potassium
hydroxide
.When solutions of potassium chloride and silver nitrate
are mixed, a precipitate of silver chloride forms. Write a
molecular and an ionic equation for this reaction.

Relative atomic mass


Mass of all atoms is compared to a standard atom the carbon-12 isotope.
RAM Ar
The relative atomic mass of an element is defined as an average mass of its
isotopes compared with the mass of the carbon 12 isotope.
RAM is taking into account all isotopes of an element

35
37

Dont have to
write these
units in exam

Practice

DIRECTIONS: For the following problems,


show your work! Be thorough.
1. Naturally occurring europium (Eu)
consists of two isotopes was a mass of
151 and 153. Europium-151 has an
abundance of 48.03% and Europium-153
has an abundance of 51.97%. What is
the atomic mass of europium?

Relative molecular mass


Mr relative formula mass, sum of all masses of all
elements in a compound.
Mr of NaCl = ArNa + ArCl
Amount of substance is measured in moles
One mole of a substance contains 6.02 x 1023
atoms

Avogadro constant
The number of atoms in exactly 12g of carbon 12