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INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
RAMESH KUMAR A
Basics
V, I, and R
Voltage is the amount of energy per charge available to move electrons from one point to another in a circuit and is measured in volts. Current is the rate of charge flow and is measured in amperes. Resistance is the opposition to current and is measured in ohms.
2
Basics
Ohm¶s law The most important fundamental law in electronics is Ohm¶s law, which relates voltage, current, and resistance. Georg Simon Ohm (17871854) formulated the equation that bears his name:
V I! R
at constant temperature
3
Basics
Energy and Power
Power is the rate of doing work. Because it is a rate, a time unit is required. The unit is the joule per second (J/s), which defines a watt (W).
P! W t
In electrical work, the rate energy is dissipated can be determined from any of three forms of the power formula.
P ! I 2R P ! VI V2 P! R
4
Together, the three forms are called Watt¶s law.
Basics
Watt The unit of power. One watt is the power when 1 J of energy is used in 1 s. Kilowatthour A common unit of energy used mainly by utility companies. Amperehour A number determined by multiplying the rating current (A) times the length of time (h) that a battery can deliver that current to a load. Efficiency The ratio of output power to input power of a circuit, usually expressed as a percent.
5
Summary
Series circuits All circuits have three common attributes. These are: 1. A source of voltage. 2. A load. 3. A complete path.
VS + R1 R2
R3
6
Summary
Series circuits
A series circuit is one that has only one current path.
R1
R1 R2 R3
VS R3
R2
VS
R1
R2
R3
VS
7
Summary
Series circuit
VS 12 V
R1
680 ;
R2 1.5 k;
R3
2.2 k;
Tabulating current, resistance, voltage and power is a useful way to summarize parameters in a series circuit. Continuing with the previous example, complete the parameters listed in the Table. I1= 2.74 mA R1= 0.68 k; V1= 1.86 V P1= 5.1 mW I2= 2.74 mA R2= 1.50 k; V2= 4.11 V P2= 11.3 mW I3= 2.74 mA R3= 2.20 k; V3= 6.03 V P3= 16.5 mW IT= 2.74 mA RT= 4.38 k; VS= 12 V PT= 32.9 mW
8
Summary
Voltage sources in series
Voltage sources in series add algebraically. For example, the total voltage of the sources shown is 27 V
V
V
V
9
Summary
Kirchhoff¶s voltage law Kirchhoff¶s voltage law (KVL) is generally stated as: The sum of all the voltage drops around a single closed path in a circuit is equal to the total source voltage in that closed path. KVL applies to all circuits, but you must apply it to only one closed path. In a series circuit, this is (of course) the entire circuit.
10
Summary
Kirchhoff¶s voltage law
VS 12 V
R1
680 ;
R2 1.5 k;
R3
2.2 k;
Notice in the series example given earlier that the sum of the resistor voltages is equal to the source voltage. I1= 2.74 mA R1= 0.68 k; I2= 2.74 mA R2= 1.50 k; I3= 2.74 mA R3= 2.20 k; IT= 2.74 mA RT= 4.38 k; V1= 1.86 V P1= 5.1 mW V2= 4.11 V P2= 11.3 mW V3= 6.03 V P3= 16.5 mW VS= 12 V PT= 32.9 mW
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Summary
Voltage divider rule The voltage drop across any given resistor in a series circuit is equal to the ratio of that resistor to the total resistance, multiplied by source voltage.
S
Assume R1 is twice the size of R2. What is the voltage across R1? 8 V
12
R1 R2
12
Summary
Resistors in parallel
Resistors that are connected to the same two points are said to be in parallel.
A
R1 R2 R3 R4
B
13
Summary
Parallel circuits
A parallel circuit is identified by the fact that it has more than one current path (branch) connected to a common voltage source.
+ VS
R1
R2
R3
R4
14
Summary
Special case for resistance of two parallel resistors
R1 R2
The resistance of two parallel resistors can be found by either: RT ! 1
1 1 R1 R2
R1 R2 or RT ! R1 R2
15
Summary
Parallel circuit
S
+
R1 680 ;
R2 1.5 k;
R3 2.2 k;
Tabulating current, resistance, voltage and power is a useful way to summarize parameters in a parallel circuit. Continuing with the previous example, complete the parameters listed in the Table. I1= 7.4 mA I2= 3.3 mA I3= 2.3 mA IT= 13.0 mA R1= 0.68 k; V1= 5.0 V P1= 36.8 mW R2= 1.50 k; V2= 5.0 V P2= 16.7 mW R3= 2.20 k; V3= 5.0 V P3= 11.4 mW RT= 386 ; VS= 5.0 V PT= 64.8 mW
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Summary
Kirchhoff¶s current law Kirchhoff¶s current law (KCL) is generally stated as: The sum of the currents entering a node is equal to the sum of the currents leaving the node. Notice in the previous example that the current from the source is equal to the sum of the branch currents. I1= 7.4 mA I2= 3.3 mA I3= 2.3 mA IT= 13.0 mA R1= 0.68 k; V1= 5.0 V P1= 36.8 mW R2= 1.50 k; V2= 5.0 V P2= 16.7 mW R3= 2.20 k; V3= 5.0 V P3= 11.4 mW RT= 386 ; VS= 5.0 V PT= 64.8 mW
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Summary
Current divider
When current enters a node (junction) it divides into currents with values that are inversely proportional to the resistance values. The most widely used formula for the current divider is the tworesistor equation. For resistors R1 and R2,
¨ R2 ¸ ¨ R1 ¸ I1 ! © ¹ I T and I 2 ! © ¹ IT ª R1 R2 º ª R1 R2 º
Notice the subscripts. The resistor in the numerator is not the same as the one for which current is found.
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19
Nodal Method
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Nodal Method
Step 2
± Mark the nodes
21
Nodal Method
Step 3
± Make one node as reference
22
Nodal Method
Step 4
± Assign current flow and polarities
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Nodal MethodEquation
24
Nodal MethodEquation
25
Mesh method
26
Mesh method
Step 2 (Identify the mesh)
27
Mesh method
Step 3 (assign mesh current and label it)
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Mesh method Equation
29
Mesh method
30
Summary
Thevenin¶s theorem Thevenin¶s theorem states that any twoterminal, resistive circuit can be replaced with a simple equivalent circuit when viewed from two output terminals. The equivalent circuit is:
TH
V TH
31
Summary
Thevenin¶s theorem VTH is defined as the open circuit voltage between the two output terminals of a circuit. TH is defined as the total resistance appearing between the two output terminals when all sources have been replaced by their internal resistances.
TH
V TH
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Summary
Thevenin¶s theorem What is the Thevenin voltage for the circuit? 8.76 V What is the Thevenin resistance for the circuit? 7.30 k;
R1 VS
Output terminals
10 k; 27 k;
R2 RL
12 V
68 k;
Remember, the load resistor has no affect on the Thevenin parameters.
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Summary
Maximum power transfer The maximum power is transferred from a source to a load when the load resistance is equal to the internal source resistance.
RS VS + R
The maximum power transfer theorem assumes the source voltage and resistance are fixed.
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Summary
Maximum power transfer
What is the power delivered to the matching load?
RS
The voltage to the load is 5.0 V. The power delivered is
PL ! V ! = 0.5 W RL 50 ;
2
VS + 10 V
50 ; R 50 ;
5.0 V
2
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Summary
Superposition theorem
The superposition theorem is a way to determine currents and voltages in a linear circuit that has multiple sources by taking one source at a time and algebraically summing the results.
1 3
+ 

2
6.8 k;

18
+
36
+
What does the ammeter read for I2? (See next slide for the method and the answer).
2.7 k; VS1 12
I2
6.8 k; VS2
Summary
What does the ammeter read for I2?

R R111
2. 2.7 k ; 2.7 k
+ +
R R333
+ + + 37
Set up a table of pertinent information and solve for each quantity listed: Source 1: Source 2: Both sources
VS1 12 V
6.8 k 6.8 k ; 6.8 k; VS2 S2 + 1.56 mA+ 18 V 18 R222 R 6.8 k 6.8 k ; 6.8 k ;
I222 I
RT(S1)= 6.10 k; I1= 1.97 mA I2= 0.98 mA RT(S2)= 8.73 k; I3= 2.06 mA I2= 0.58 mA I2= 1.56 mA
The total current is the algebraic sum.
Summary
Sine waves
The sinusoidal waveform (sine wave) is the fundamental alternating current (ac) and alternating voltage waveform.
Electrical sine waves are named from the mathematical function with the same shape.
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Summary
Period and frequency
The period and frequency are reciprocals of each other.
1 f ! T
and
T!
1 f
Thus, if you know one, you can easily find the other.
(The 1/x key on your calculator is handy for converting between f and .)
If the period is 50 Qs, the frequency is 0.02 M z = 20 k z.
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Angular measurement
Angular measurements can be made in degrees (o) or radians. The radian (rad) is the angle that is formed when the arc is equal to the radius of a circle. There are 360o or 2T radians in one complete revolution.
1.0 0.8
R
0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
R
0
T
4
T
2
3T 4
T
5T 4
3T 2
7T 4
2T
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Angular measurement
Because there are 2T radians in one complete revolution and 360o in a revolution, the conversion between radians and degrees is easy to write. To find the number of radians, given the number of degrees:
rad ! 2T rad v degrees 360r
To find the number of degrees, given the radians:
deg ! 360r v rad 2T rad
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Sine wave equation
Instantaneous values of a wave are shown as v or i. The equation for the instantaneous voltage (v) of a sine wave is
v ! V p sin U
where Vp = Peak voltage U= Angle in rad or degrees If the peak voltage is 25 V, the instantaneous voltage at 50 degrees is 19.2 V
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Phase shift
The phase of a sine wave is an angular measurement that specifies the position of a sine wave relative to a reference. To show that a sine wave is shifted to the left or right of this reference, a term is added to the equation given previously.
v ! VP sin s J
U
where J = Phase shift
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Phase shift
Reference 40 30 Voltage (V) 20 10 0 0r 45r 90r
Example of a wave that lags the reference «and the equation has a negative phase shift
P eak voltage
v = 30 V sin (U 45o)
135r 180r 225r 270r 315r 360r 405r
20 30  40
Notice that a lagging sine wave is below the axis at 0o
Angle (r)
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Summary
The Basic Capacitor
Capacitors are one of the fundamental passive components. In its most basic form, it is composed of two conductive plates separated by an insulating dielectric. The ability to store charge is the definition of capacitance.
Conductors Dielectric
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Summary
The Basic Capacitor
VS VS
Dielec tric
The charging process« Sourcecharged Initiallyremoved Fully uncharged Charging
Lead s
+ + + ++ ++ + + + + ++ ++ + + + ++ ++ + + + + ++ A + A AA + +
++ + + + + +
Pla tes
Elec trons B B BB
A capacitor with stored charge can act as a temporary battery.
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Capacitance
Capacitance is the ratio of charge to voltage
Q C! V
Rearranging, the amount of charge on a capacitor is determined by the size of the capacitor (C) and the voltage (V). Q ! CV If a 22 QF capacitor is connected to a 10 V source, the charge is 220 QC
47
Summary
Series capacitors
When capacitors are connected in series, the total capacitance is smaller than the smallest one. The general equation for capacitors in series is
CT ! 1 1 1 1 1 ... C1 C2 C3 CT
1 1 1 C1 C2
The total capacitance of two capacitors is
CT !
«or you can use the productoversum rule
48
Summary
Parallel capacitors
When capacitors are connected in parallel, the total capacitance is the sum of the individual capacitors. The general equation for capacitors in parallel is
CT ! C1 C2 C3 ...Cn
If a 0.001 QF capacitor is connected in parallel with an 800 pF capacitor, the total capacitance is 1800 pF
C1 0.001 µF
C2 800 pF
49
Summary
Vfi
l
The RC time constant
When a capacitor is charged through a series resistor and dc source, the charging curve is exponential.
R C
t ( ) C cit r c r i lt
Ii
iti l
t (b) C r i c rr t
50
Summary
The RC time constant
When a capacitor is discharged through a resistor, the discharge curve is also an exponential. (Note that the current is negative.)
R C
t
Vi
iti l
t
( )
it r i
r i
lt
Ii
iti l
( )
i
r i
rr
t
51
Summary
Universal exponential curves
Specific values for current and voltage can be read from a universal curve. For an RC circuit, the time constant is
100% 95% 86% 80% Percent of final value 98% 99%
Rising exponential
63% 60%
40%
! RC
37%
Falling exponential
20% 14% 5% 0 0 1X 2% 1% 5X
2X 3X 4X Number of time constants
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Summary
Universal exponential curves
The universal curves can be applied to general formulas for the voltage (or current) curves for RC circuits. The general voltage formula is v =VF (Vi VF)et/RC
VF = final value of voltage Vi = initial value of voltage v = instantaneous value of voltage The final capacitor voltage is greater than the initial voltage when the capacitor is charging, or less that the initial voltage when it is discharging.
53
Summary
Capacitive reactance
Capacitive reactance is the opposition to ac by a capacitor. The equation for capacitive reactance is
1 XC ! 2 fC
The reactance of a 0.047 QF capacitor when a frequency of 15 k z is applied is 226 ;
54
Summary
Capacitive phase shift
When a sine wave is applied to a capacitor, there is a phase shift between voltage and current such that current always leads the voltage by 90o.
VC
0 90
o
I
0
55
Summary
Power in a capacitor
Energy is stored by the capacitor during a portion of the ac cycle and returned to the source during another portion of the cycle. Voltage and current are always 90o out of phase. For this reason, no true power is dissipated by a capacitor, because stored energy is returned to the circuit. The rate at which a capacitor stores or returns energy is called reactive power. The unit for reactive power is the VAR (voltampere reactive).
56
Summary
Sinusoidal response of RC circuits
When both resistance and capacitance are in a series circuit, the phase angle between the applied voltage and total current is between 0r and 90r, depending on the values of resistance and reactance.
VR V R lead VS R VS I I leads V S
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VC V C lags V S
C
Summary
Impedance of series RC circuits
In a series RC circuit, the total impedance is the phasor sum of R and XC.
R is plotted along the positive xaxis. XC is plotted along the negative yaxis.
¨X ¸ U ! tan 1 © C ¹ ª R º
R
U U
R XC Z Z
Z is the diagonal XC
It is convenient to reposition the phasors into the impedance triangle.
58
Summary
Analysis of series RC circuits
Ohm¶s law is applied to series RC circuits using Z, V, and I.
V ! IZ I! V Z Z! V I
Because I is the same everywhere in a series circuit, you can obtain the voltages across different components by multiplying the impedance of that component by the current as shown in the following example.
59
Summary
Sinusoidal response of parallel RC circuits
For parallel circuits, it is useful to introduce two new quantities (susceptance and admittance) and to review conductance.
Conductance is the reciprocal of resistance. Capacitive susceptance is the reciprocal of capacitive reactance.
1 G! R
1 BC ! XC 1
Admittance is the reciprocal of impedance. Y !
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Summary
Sinusoidal response of parallel RC circuits
In a parallel RC circuit, the admittance phasor is the sum of the conductance and capacitive susceptance phasors. The magnitude can be expressed as Y ! G 2 BC 2 From the diagram, the phase angle is U ! tan 1 ©
BC Y VS G BC
U
¨ BC ¸ ¹ G º ª
G
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Summary
Analysis of parallel RC circuits
Ohm¶s law is applied to parallel RC circuits using Y, V, and I.
I V! Y I I ! VY Y ! V
Because V is the same across all components in a parallel circuit, you can obtain the current in a given component by simply multiplying the admittance of the component by the voltage as illustrated in the following example.
62
Summary
Power factor The power factor is the relationship between the apparent power in voltamperes and true power in watts. Voltamperes multiplied by the power factor equals true power. Power factor is defined mathematically as PF = cos U The power factor can vary from 0 for a purely reactive circuit to 1 for a purely resistive circuit.
63
Summary
Apparent power Apparent power consists of two components; a true power component, that does the work, and a reactive power component, that is simply power shuttled back and forth between source and load. Some components such as transformers, motors, and generators are rated in VA rather than watts.
Ptrue (W)
U
Pa (VA)
Pr (VAR)
64
Summary
The Basic Inductor
When a length of wire is formed into a coil., it becomes a basic inductor. When there is current in the inductor, a threedimensional magnetic field is created. A change in current causes the magnetic S N field to change. This in turn induces a voltage across the inductor that opposes the original change in current.
65
Summary
The amount of voltage induced in a coil is directly proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic field with respect to the coil.
66
Summary
When the current through a coil changes and an induced voltage is created as a result of the changing magnetic field, the direction of the induced voltage is such that it always opposes the change in the current.
67
Summary
Lenz¶s law
A basic circuit to demonstrate Lenz¶s law is shown. Initially, the SW is open and there is a small current in the circuit through L and R1.
L SW R1
+
VS
R2
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Summary
Lenz¶s law
SW closes and immediately a voltage appears across L that tends to oppose any change in current.
L + VS +
+
SW
R1
R2
Initially, the meter reads same current as before the switch was closed.
69
Summary
Lenz¶s law
After a time, the current stabilizes at a higher level (due to I2) as the voltage decays across the coil.
L SW R1
+
VS
+
R2
Later, the meter reads a higher current because of the load change.
70
Summary
Practical inductors
In addition to inductance, actual inductors have winding resistance (RW) due to the resistance of the wire and winding capacitance (CW) between turns. An equivalent circuit for a practical inductor CW including these effects is shown:
Notice that the winding resistance is in series with the coil and the winding capacitance is in parallel with both.
RW
L
71
Summary
Types of inductors
There are a variety of inductors, depending on the amount of inductance required and the application. Some, with fine wires, are encapsulated and may appear like a resistor. Common symbols for inductors (coils) are
Air core
Iron core
Ferrite core
Variable
72
Summary
Factors affecting inductance
Four factors affect the amount of inductance for a coil. The equation for the inductance of a coil is
N 2Q A L! l
where L = inductance in henries = number of turns of wire Q = permeability in /m (same as Wb/Atm) l = coil length on meters
73
Summary
Series inductors
When inductors are connected in series, the total inductance is the sum of the individual inductors. The general equation for inductors in series is
LT ! L1 L2 L3 ...Ln
If a 1.5 m inductor is connected in series with an 680 Q inductor, the total inductance is 2.18 m
L1 1.5 m
L2 680 Q
74
Summary
Parallel inductors
When inductors are connected in parallel, the total inductance is smaller than the smallest one. The general equation for inductors in parallel is
LT ! 1 1 1 1 1 ... L1 L2 L3 LT
The total inductance of two inductors is
LT ! 1 1 1 L1 L2
«or you can use the productoversum rule.
75
Summary
Inductors in dc circuits
When an inductor is connected in series with a resistor and dc source, the current change is exponential.
R L
Vinitial
t 0 Inductor voltage after switch closure
Ifinal
0 Current after switch closure
t
76
Summary
Inductors in dc circuits
When an inductor is connected in series with a resistor and dc source, the current change is exponential.
R L
Vinitial
t 0 Inductor voltage after switch closure
Ifinal
0 Current after switch closure
t
77
Summary
Inductive reactance
Inductive reactance is the opposition to ac by an inductor. The equation for inductive reactance is
X L ! 2 fL
The reactance of a 33 QH inductor when a frequency of 550 kHz is applied is 114 ;
78
Summary
Inductive phase shift
When a sine wave is applied to an inductor, there is a phase shift between voltage and current such that voltage always leads the current by 90o.
VL 0 90r
I 0
79
Power in an inductor
True Power: Ideally, inductors do not dissipate power. However, a small amount of power is dissipated in winding resistance given by the equation: Ptrue = (Irms)2RW Reactive Power: Reactive power is a measure of the rate at which the inductor stores and returns energy. One form of the reactive power equation is: Pr=VrmsIrms The unit for reactive power is the VAR.
80
Summary
Sinusoidal response of RL circuits
When both resistance and inductance are in a series circuit, the phase angle between the applied voltage and total current is between 0r and 90r, depending on the values of resistance and reactance.
VR V R lags V S VL V L lead s VS
R
VS I I lags V S
L
81
Summary
Impedance of series RL circuits
In a series RL circuit, the total impedance is the phasor sum of R and XL.
R is plotted along the positive xaxis. XL is plotted along the positive yaxis.
¨X ¸ U ! tan 1 © L ¹ ª R º
Z is the diagonal XL
U
Z
Z XL
R
U
R
It is convenient to reposition the phasors into the impedance triangle.
82
Summary
Analysis of series RL circuits
Ohm¶s law is applied to series RL circuits using quantities of Z, V, and I.
V ! IZ V I! Z V Z! I
Because I is the same everywhere in a series circuit, you can obtain the voltage phasors by simply multiplying the impedance phasors by the current.
83
Summary
Sinusoidal response of parallel RL circuits
For parallel circuits, it is useful to review conductance, susceptance and admittance, introduced in Chapter 10.
Conductance is the reciprocal of resistance. Inductive susceptance is the reciprocal of inductive reactance.
1 G! R
1 BL ! XL 1
Admittance is the reciprocal of impedance. Y !
84
Summary
Sinusoidal response of parallel RL circuits
In a parallel RL circuit, the admittance phasor is the sum of the conductance and inductive susceptance phasors. The magnitude of the susceptance is Y ! G 2 BL 2 The magnitude of the phase angle is U ! tan 1 ¨ ©
G
BL ¸ ¹ ªGº
VS
G
BL BL Y
85
Summary
Sinusoidal response of parallel RL circuits
Some important points to notice are: G is plotted along the positive xaxis. BL is plotted along the negative yaxis.
¨B ¸ U ! tan 1 © L ¹ ªG º
Y is the diagonal
G
VS
G
BL BL Y
86
Summary
SeriesParallel RL circuits
Seriesparallel RL circuits are combinations of both series and parallel elements. The solution of these circuits is similar to resistive combinational circuits but you need to combine reactive elements using phasors. The components in the R2 R1 yellow box are in series and Z1 Z2 those in the green box are L2 L1 also in series.
2 Z1 ! R12 X L1 and 2 Z 2 ! R22 X L 2
The two boxes are in parallel. You can find the branch currents by applying Ohm¶s law to the source voltage and the branch impedance.
87