Petra Christian University Module

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Petra Christian University Module

© All Rights Reserved

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Petra Christian University

1

Torsion on structural systems may be classified into :

1. STATICALLY DETERMINATE TORSION ( = Equilibrium Torsion)

2. STATICALLY INDETERMINATE TORSION ( = Compatibility Torsion)

P P

P A

2

By changing the rigid connection

B P

at point B into a simply supported

end, this system would become

a statically determinate structure.

P A

into a free end, this system would

be a statically determinate structure.

3

• Centre portion of a solid beam can be neglected.

• Torsion is resisted through a constant shear flow q (force per unit length

of wall centerline) acting around the centerline of the tube. For

equilibrium:

T = 2 Ao q = 2 Ao t … (1) 4

Rearranging Eq. (1)

T

q = t = … (2)

2 Ao

Where:

= shear stress, assumed uniform, across wall thickness

t = wall thickness

T = applied torque

Ao = area enclosed within the tube centerline 5

When concrete beam is subjected to a torsional moment causing principal

tension larger than (√fc’)/3, diagonal cracks spiral around the beam. Then

the tube is idealized as space truss.

Compression truss → concrete compression diagonal

6

Shear force V2 is equal to the shear flow q times the height of the wall y0.

Stirrups are designed to yield when the maximum torque is reached. The

number of stirrups intersected is a function of the stirrups spacing s and

the horizontal projection y0 cot of the inclined surface.

From vertical equilibrium:

At fyv

V2 = s yo cot …(3)

constant over the height of

the wall,

T

V2 = q y0 = y …(4)

2 A0 0

Substituting for V2 in Eqs (3) and (4),

2 A0 At fyv

T= cot … (5)

s 7

Horizontal component

equal to:

Ni = Vi cot

Internally, it is assumed that the longitudinal steel yields when the maximum

torque is reached. Summing the internal and external forces in the chords of

all the space truss walls results in:

T T

Alifyi = Alfyl = Ni = Vicot = qyicot = yi cot = cot yi

2A0 2A0

Where Alfyl is the yield force in all longitudinal reinforcement required for

torsion. Rearranging the above equation,

2 A0Alfyl

T = 2 (x + y ) cot … (6)

0 0

8

Torsion can be neglected if the factored torque Tu is less than Tcr/4,

where Tcr is the cracking torque. The cracking torque corresponds to a

principal tensile stress of (√fc’)/3. Prior to cracking, thickness of the tube

wall “t” and the area enclosed by the wall centerline “Ao” are related to the

uncracked section geometry on the following assumptions:

3Acp

t = 4p … (7)

cp

2Acp

A0 = 3 … (8)

(Before cracking)

Where: Acp = area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-

section, including the void of hollow cross-sections, mm2.

pcp = outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm.

A0 = area within centerline of the thin-wall tube, mm2. 9

Substituting for t from Eq.(7), A0 from Eq.(8), and taking = (√fc’)/3 in

Eq.(1), the cracking torque for nonprestressed members can be derived:

1 Acp2

Tcr = √fc’ … (9)

3 pcp

√fc’ Acp2

For nonprestressed members Tu < pcp … (10)

12

SNI 2002 – 13.6.(1(a))

10

The design torsional strength should be equal to or greater than required

torsional strength:

2 A0 At fyv

Tn = s cot … SNI 2002 – 13.6.(3(6))

Aoh = area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed

transverse torsional reinforcement.

= angle of compression diagonal. (45° for nonprestressed)

Substituting for T from Eq.(5) into Eq.(6) and replacing 2 (xo + yo) with ph

(perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional 11

reinforcement), the longitudinal reinforcement required to resist torsion

is computed as a function of the transverse

reinforcement:

At fyv

Al = ph cot2 … SNI 2002 –

s fyl

13.6.(3(7))

crushing of the concrete compression struts,

SNI code prescribes an upper limit for the

maximum stress due to shear and torsion.

In solid sections, stresses due to shear act over the full width of the

section, while stresses due to torsion are assumed resisted by a thin-

walled tube. Thus, SNI specifies an elliptical interaction between stresses

due to shear and those due to torsion as follows:

2 2

Vu Tu ph Vc

bw d + ≤ + 8 √fc’ … SNI 2002 –

1.7 Aoh2 bw d 12

13.6(3(1)a))

Usually, a member subject to torsion will also be simultaneously subjected to

shear. The minimum area of stirrups for shear and torsion is computed from:

75 √fc’ bw s

(Av + 2 At) = … SNI 2002 – 13.6.(4(5))

1200 fyv

1 bw s

And not less than:

3 fyv

Al,min = - ph … SNI 2002 – 13.6.(4(5))

12 fvl s fyl

13

• Spacing of stirrups must not exceed the smaller of ph/8 and 300 mm. …

SNI 2002 – 13.6.(6(1))

• The longitudinal reinforcement required for torsion must be distributed

around the perimeter of the closed stirrups, at a maximum spacing of

300 mm.

• There should be at least one longitudinal bar or tendon in each corner

of the stirrups to help transmit the forces from the compression struts to

the transverse reinforcement.

• To avoid buckling of the longitudinal reinforcement due to the transverse

component of the compression struts, the longitudinal reinforcement

must have a diameter not less than 1/24 of the stirrup spacing, but not

less than 10 mm.

14

START

Calculate : Tu, Vu 3

yes

Tu < f’c(Acp2/pcp)/12

no

The influence of

Torsion is Calculate : Vc Calculate : Tn≥Tu

neglected. using SNI eq.(46) using SNI eq.(64)

The Section is

Choose the Ø of stirrup Choose the Ø of stirrup

designed as

and find Av/s and find At/s

Shear

consideration

alone Combined shear and torsion:

At/s + Av/(2s)

Finish

Find: stirrup spacing, s

1 15

1

Check s(max)

s(max)=ph/8 or 300 mm s(max)=d/2 or 300 mm

yes

s > s(max) ? Use s ≈ s(max)

no

Check minimum stirrup area

(Av+2At) using SNI eq.(66)

yes

(Av+2At) < Atotal,min ? Use Atotal,min

no

Determine stirrups layout

2

16

2

3

compression struts? the section

using SNI eq.(61)

no

Calculate longitudinal torsion

reinforcement, Al using SNI eq.(65)

yes

Al < Al,min Use Al = Al,min

no

Finish

17

- Precast Spandrel Beam Design for Combined

Shear and Torsion

400x400

P/C cols

3 m x 600 mm

Double tee (typ)

18 m

400x400

P/C cols

9m 9m 9m 9m

shear and torsion. Roof members are simply supported on spandrel ledge.

Spandrel beams are connected to columns to transfer torsion. 18

Design criteria:

Live load = 1.44 kN/m2 fc’ = 35 MPa

Dead load = 3.06 kN/m2 fy = 400 MPa

factored loading Mu, Vu, Tu for spandrel beam.

400

275

75 600 TT

800

200

150

19

Dead load:

Superimposed = 3.06 x (18)/2 = 27.54 kN/m’

Spandrel = [(0.4 x 0.8) + (0.2 x 0.15)] x 24 kN/m3 = 8.4 kN/m’

Total = 35.94 kN/m’

63.86 x 92

At center of span, Mu = = 646.58 kNm

8

End shear Vu = (63.86) (9)/2 = 287.37 kN

= 200 + 75 = 275 mm 20

End torsional moment Tu = 53.78 (9)/2 (0.275) = 66.55 kNm

Critical section for shear for torsion is at distance “d” from face of

support. Assume d ≈ 0.9 (800) ≈ 720 mm.

Therefore, critical section is at 720 + 200 = 920 mm from column

centerline.

At critical section: [(4500 – 920) = 3580 mm from midspan]

Vu = 287.34 (3580/4500) = 228.59 kN

Tu = 66.55 (3580/4500) = 52.94 kNm

Torsion may be neglected if:

√fc’ Acp2

Tu < pcp

12

Acp = (400) (800) + (150) (200) = 350,000 mm2

pcp = 2 (400 + 800) + 2 (150) = 2700 mm 21

0.75 √35 350,0002

52.94 <

12 2700

52.94 < 16.04 kNm → Torsion must be considered

310

3. Determine required area of stirrups for torsion

Tn ≥ Tu Centerline

of stirrups

where : Tn = 2 Ao At fyv cot / s

710

Ao = 0.85 Aoh

= 0.85 [ (310) (710) + (150) (110) ]

110

= 201,110 mm2

150

For nonprestressed concrete use = 45°

At Tu

s = 2 Ao fyv cot

52,940,000

= = 0.439 mm2/mm/1 leg

2 (0.75) (201,110) (400) (1) 22

4. Calculate required area of stirrups for shear

Vc = √fc’ bw d / 6 = √35 (400) (720) / 6 = 283,972 N

Vs = Vu/ - Vc = 228,590 / (0.75) – 283,972 = 20,815 N

Av Vs 20,815

s = fyv d = = 0.072 mm 2/mm/2 legs

(400) (720)

5. Determine combined shear and torsion stirrups requirements

At Av

s + 2s = 0.439 + 0.072 / 2 = 0.475 mm 2/mm/1 leg

310

of stirrups

78.54 710

s = = 165 mm → use Ø10 – 160 mm

0.475

110

6. Check maximum stirrup spacing

For Torsion: spacing must not exceed ph/8 or 300 mm 150

ph / 8 = 2,340 / 8 = 293 mm 23

For shear: spacing must not exceed d/2 or 300 mm

d/2 = 720 / 2 = 360 mm

1 bw s 1 (400) (290)

( Av + 2 At) = = = 96.67 mm2

3 fyv 3 400

Area provided = 2 (78.54) = 157 mm2 O.K.

s (critical)

Critical section (3580)

s (max)

Column midspan

160

centerline = (3580) = 1975 mm

290

920 3580

≈ 2000 mm

24

Critical section

Column midspan

centerline

Ø10-160 Ø10-160 Ø10-290

2

Vu Tu ph 2 Vc 2

bw d + 1.7 Aoh2 ≤ bw d + √fc’

3

228,590 2

(52,940,000) (2,340) 2 283,972 2

+ ≤ (0.75) + √35

(400) (720) 1.7 (236,600)2 (400) (720) 3

25

10. Calculate longitudinal torsion reinforcement

At fyv

Al = s ph cot2 = (0.439 ) (2,340) 400 (1) = 1,027 mm2

fyl 400

Check minimum area of longitudinal reinforcement

5 √fc’ Acp At fyv

Al,min = - s ph

12 fyl fyl

At bw 400

s must not be less than = = 0.167 mm 2/mm

6 fyv (6) (400)

(5) √35 (350,000)

Al,min = - (0.439) (2,340) 400 = 1,130 mm2

(12) (400) 400 (Governs)

around the perimeter of the closed stirrups, at a maximum spacing of

300 mm. The longitudinal bars should be inside the stirrups. There

should be at least one longitudinal bar in each corner of the stirrups.

26

Select 10 bars.

Use Table 5.3.e CUR IV to determine required flexural reinforcement.

Mu 646.58

= = 3,118 → = 0.0104

bd2

(0.4) (0.72) 2

As’ = 0.5 (2,995) = 1,498 mm2 → use 4D22

4D22

5D12 5D12

5D28

27

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