FEM ANALYSIS

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Thermal Analysis

Steady-State Thermal Analysis

Chapter Overview Training Manual

Simulation will be covered:

– Geometry and Elements

– Contact and Types of Supported Assemblies

– Environment, including Loads and Supports

– Solving Models

– Results and Postprocessing

applicable to ANSYS DesignSpace Entra licenses and

above, except for an ANSYS Structural license.

– Some options discussed in this chapter may require more

advanced licenses, but these are noted accordingly.

– It is assumed that the user has reviewed Chapters 1-3 prior to

this chapter. (Chapters 4-5 are optional)

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

Basics of Steady-State Heat Transfer Training Manual

the temperatures {T} are solved for in the matrix below:

K T T QT

This results in the following assumptions:

– No transient effects are considered in a steady-state analysis

– [K] can be constant or a function of temperature

• Temperature-dependent thermal conductivity can be input for each

material property

– {Q} can be constant or a function of temperature

• Temperature-dependent film coefficients can be input for

convective boundary conditions

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

Basics of Steady-State Heat Transfer Training Manual

– This means that the thermal analysis Simulation solves for is a

conduction-based equation.

• Heat flow within a solid (Fourier’s Law) is the basis of [K]

• Heat flux, heat flow rate, and convection are treated as boundary

conditions on the system {Q}

• No radiation is currently considered

• No time-dependent effects are currently considered

– Heat transfer analysis is different from CFD (Computational

Fluid Dynamics)

• Convection is treated as a simple boundary condition, although

temperature-dependent film coefficients are possible.

• If a conjugate heat transfer/fluid problem needs to be analyzed,

one must use ANSYS CFD tools instead.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

Physics Filters Training Manual

thermal analyses in Simulation, it is useful to point out that

if a thermal-only solution is to be performed, the Physics

Filter can be useful to filter the GUI.

– Under “View menu > Physics Filter,” unselect the “Structural”

option. Now, the available options in the Simulation GUI will

only reflect thermal analyses.

– This applies to options in the

“Environment” and “Solution”

levels only.

– If a thermal-stress simulation is to

be performed, do not turn off any

physics filters since both structural

and thermal options may be required.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

A. Geometry Training Manual

Simulation may be used.

– Solid, surface, and line bodies are supported by all products

which support thermal analyses.

• For surface bodies, thickness must be input in the Details view of

the Geometry branch

• The cross-section and orientation of line bodies is defined within

DesignModeler and is imported into Simulation automatically.

Although the cross-section and orientation is defined, this

information is meant for structural analyses, and the actual

thermal link element will have an ‘effective’ cross-section based on

the input properties.

• No heat flux or vector heat flux output is available with line bodies.

Only temperature results are available for line bodies.

– The “Point Mass” feature is not applicable in thermal analyses

• Point Mass is described in Chapter 4, Linear Structural Analysis.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Geometry Training Manual

shell and line bodies:

– For shell bodies, through-thickness temperature gradients are

not considered. A shell body should be used for thin

structures when it can be safe to assume temperatures on top

and bottom of surface are the same.

• Temperature variation will still be considered across the surface,

just not through the thickness, which is not explicitly modeled.

– For line bodies, thickness variation in the cross-section is not

considered. A line body should be used for beam- or truss-like

structures, where the temperature can be assumed to be

constant across the cross-section.

• Temperature variation will still be considered along the line body,

just not through the cross-section, which is not explicitly modeled.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Material Properties Training Manual

– Material input is under the “Engineering Data” tab, and material

assignment is per part under the “Geometry” branch

– Thermal Conductivity is

input under the Engineering

Data tab.

Temperature-dependent

thermal conductivity can

be input as a table.

– Other material input

is not used in thermal.

result in a nonlinear solution. This is because the temperatures are

solved for, but the materials are dependent on the temperatures, so

ANSYS License Availability it is not linear.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

B. Assemblies – Solid Body Contact Training Manual

are automatically created between the solid bodies.

– Surface-to-surface contact allows non-matching meshes at

boundaries between solid parts

– Contact enables heat transfer between parts in an assembly

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Model shown is from a sample Inventor assembly. 6-9

Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Assemblies – Contact Region Training Manual

are used for each contact region.

– One side of the contact region is comprised of “contact”

face(s), the other side of the region is made of “target” face(s).

– Heat flow is allowed between contact and target faces (based

on the contact normal direction)

• When one side is the contact and the other side is the target, this

is called asymmetric contact. On the other hand, if both sides are

made to be contact & target, this is called symmetric contact.

However, the designation of which side is contact or target is

unimportant in thermal analysis.

• By default, Simulation uses symmetric

contact for solid assemblies.

• For ANSYS Professional licenses

and above, the user may change to

asymmetric contact, as desired.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Assemblies – Contact Region Training Manual

region in the contact normal direction

– No heat spreading is considered in the contact/target interface

• Heat spreading is considered within shell or solid elements at the

contact or target surfaces because of Fourier’s Law

• Heat flow within the contact region is in the contact normal

direction only

• This means that, regardless of the definition of the contact region,

heat flows only if a target element is present in the normal

direction

In the figure on the left, the solid

green double-arrows indicate

heat flow within the contact

region. Heat flow only occurs if a

target surface is normal to a

contact surface.

The light, dotted green arrows

indicate that no heat transfer will

occur between parts.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Assemblies – Contact Region Training Manual

– The contact “Type” is meant for structural applications

– If the parts are initially in contact, heat transfer will occur

between the parts. If the parts are initially out of contact, the

parts will not transfer heat between each other.

– Based on the contact type, whether heat will be transferred

between contact and target surfaces is outlined below:

Heat Transfer Between Parts in Contact Region?

Contact Type

Initially Touching Inside Pinball Region Outside Pinball Region

Bonded Yes Yes No

No Separation Yes Yes No

Rough Yes No No

Frictionless Yes No No

relatively small value to accommodate small gaps which may

present in the model. The pinball region will be discussed

next.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Assemblies – Contact Region Training Manual

visualized in ANSYS Professional

licenses and above.

– If the target nodes lie within the pinball region

and the contact is bonded or no separation,

then heat transfer will occur (solid green lines)

– Otherwise, no heat transfer will occur between

nodes (dotted green lines)

Pinball Radius

gap between the two parts is

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Assemblies – Thermal Conductance Training Manual

defined between parts of an assembly

– The amount of heat flow between two parts is defined by the

contact heat flux q:

is the temperature of the corresponding target “node” located

in the contact normal direction.

– By default, TCC is set to a relatively ‘high’ value, based on the

largest material conductivity defined in the model KXX and the

diagonal of the overall geometry bounding box ASMDIAG.

This essentially provides ‘perfect’ conductance between parts.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Assemblies – Thermal Conductance Training Manual

that no temperature drop is assumed at the interface.

• One may want to include finite thermal conductance instead

– Two surfaces (at different temperatures) in contact experience

a temperature drop across the interface. The drop is due to

imperfect contact between the two surfaces. The imperfect

contact, and hence the finite contact conductance, can be

influenced by many factors such as:

• surface flatness

• surface finish

• oxides

• entrapped fluids DT

• contact pressure

• surface temperature

T

• use of conductive grease

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Assemblies – Thermal Conductance Training Manual

define a finite thermal contact conductance (TCC) if the

Pure Penalty or Augmented Lagrange Formulation is used.

– The thermal contact conductance per unit area is input for

each contact region in the Details view, as shown below.

– If thermal contact resistance is known, invert this value and

divide by the contacting area to obtain TCC value.

– When this is done, there will now be a temperature drop

between the contact and target surfaces for a contact region.

at “Program Chosen,” near-

perfect thermal contact

conductance will be defined.

The user can change this to

“Manual” to input finite thermal

contact conductance instead,

which is the same as including

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Assemblies – Thermal Conductance Training Manual

not need to account for a ‘double’

thermal contact resistance.

– Input values as normal

thermal contact conductance.

– In this case, no thermal contact

conductance is used nor defined because

‘contact’ is related via constraint

equations.

– The contact “node” and corresponding

target “node” will have the same

temperature because of perfect contact

conductance.

Do not use “Normal Lagrange”

formulation for thermal analyses. If

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Assemblies – Surface Body Contact Training Manual

assemblies of shells and solids are supported

– Allows for more complex modeling of assemblies, taking

advantage of the benefits of shells, when applicable

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Assemblies – Surface Body Contact Training Manual

– For contact including shell faces or solid

edges, only bonded or no separation

behavior is allowed.

– For contact involving shell edges, only

bonded behavior using MPC formulation is

allowed.

• For MPC-based bonded contact, user can set

the search direction (the way in which the

multi-point constraints are written) as either

the target normal or pinball region.

• If a gap exists (as is often the case with

shell assemblies), the pinball region can be

used for the search direction to detect

contact beyond a gap.

• MPC results in perfect contact conductance

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Assemblies – Spot Weld Training Manual

at discrete points for heat transfer

– Spotweld definition is done in the CAD software. Currently,

only DesignModeler and Unigraphics define spotwelds in a

manner that Simulation supports.

– Spotwelds can also be created in Simulation manually, but

only at discrete vertices.

DesignSpace Entra

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DesignModeler x

Pro/ENGINEER

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Inventor

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Mechanical Desktop

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

C. Loads Training Manual

– Heat Loads:

• These loads pump heat into the system.

• Heat loads can be input as a known heat flow rate or heat flow rate

per unit area or unit volume.

– Adiabatic Condition:

• This is the naturally-occurring boundary condition, where there is

not heat flow through the surface.

– Thermal Boundary Conditions:

• These boundary conditions act as heat sources or heat sinks with

a known temperature condition.

• These can be either a prescribed temperature or a convection

boundary condition with a known bulk temperature.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Heat Loads Training Manual

• Heat Flow:

– A heat flow rate can be applied to a vertex, edge, or surface.

The load gets distributed for multiple selections.

– Heat flow has units of energy/time (i.e., power).

• Heat Flux:

– A heat flux can be applied to surfaces only.

– Heat flux has units of energy/time/area (i.e., power/area)

– An internal heat generation rate can be applied to bodies only.

– Heat generation has units of energy/time/volume

A positive value for heat load will add energy to the system.

Also, if multiple loads are present, the effect is cumulative.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Adiabatic Conditions Training Manual

• Perfectly Insulated:

– Perfectly insulated condition is applied to surfaces

– Can be thought of as a zero heat flow rate loading

– This is actually the naturally-occurring condition in thermal

analyses, when no load is applied.

• Usually, one does not need to apply a perfectly insulated condition

on surfaces since that is the natural behavior for a regular surface.

• Hence, this loading is meant to be used as a way to remove

loading on specified surfaces. For example, it may be easier for a

user to apply heat flux or convection on all surfaces, then use the

perfectly insulated condition to selectively ‘remove’ the loading on

some surfaces (such as those in contact with other parts).

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Thermal Boundary Conditions Training Manual

Thermal boundary conditions present a known local or

‘remote’ temperature condition.

• At least one type of thermal boundary condition must be present.

Otherwise, the steady-state temperature will be infinite if only heat

is pumped into a system!

• Also, Given Temperature or Convection load should not be applied

on surfaces that already have another heat load or thermal

boundary condition applied to it.

– If applied on an entity which also has a heat load, the

temperature boundary condition will override.

– Perfect insulation will override thermal boundary conditions.

• Given Temperature:

– This imposes a temperature on vertices, edges, or surfaces.

– Temperature is the degree of freedom solved for, but this fixes

the temperature on selected entities to a given value.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Thermal Boundary Conditions Training Manual

• Convection:

– Applied to surfaces only.

– Convection relates a ‘ambient temperature’ with the surface

q hATsurface Tambient

temperature:

h, the surface area A, and the difference in the surface

temperature Tsurface & ambient temperature Tbulk.

– Meant to provide a simplified way of accounting for heat

transport from a fluid. “h” and “Tbulk” are user-input values.

– The film coefficient h can be constant or input from a file (next)

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Thermal Boundary Conditions Training Manual

– If film coefficient h is input from a file, this can be a constant

or temperature-dependent value h(T).

• Define a convection boundary condition under the Environment

branch and define the Type to be “Temperature-Dependent”. Next,

select “New Convection…” for the Correlation. The “Engineering

Data” tab will open and the Coefficient Type can then be defined

for the new convection load.

• Determine what temperature is used for h(T) first, for temperature-

dependent film coefficients. Temperature can be:

– Average film temperature

T=(Tsurface+Tbulk)/2

– Surface temperature

T= Tsurface

– Bulk temperature

T= Tbulk

– Difference of surface and

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x

bulk temperatures Select the temperature-

dependency from the March 29, 2005

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Thermal Boundary Conditions Training Manual

• After the type of temperature-dependency is selected, the user

may input the film coefficients and temperatures in a table. The

values are plotted on a graph, as shown below.

If any temperature-dependent

convection load is applied, this

will result in a nonlinear solution

since the surface temperature is

solved for, but the film coefficient

h is based on a function of the

surface temperature.

The only exception is if the film

coefficient h is based on a

function of the bulk temperature

only. In Simulation, the bulk

Right mouse click on the table temperature is constant and input

to add or delete values. by the user, so this load will not

be nonlinear.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Thermal Boundary Conditions Training Manual

• The convection data can also be imported from a file.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Thermal Loads Summary Training Manual

analogy of structural and thermal analyses:

Structural Thermal

Natural Condition No external force Perfectly Insulated

(No heat flow rate)

Boundary Direct Given Displacement Given Temperature

Conditions Indirect Convection

Load Direct Force Heat Flow

Per Area Pressure Heat Flux

Per Volume Thermal Expansion Internal Heat Generation

Inertial Loads Acceleration

– There are some types of loads that do not have any analogy

• There is no thermal equivalent for inertial loads such as rotational

velocity or acceleration

• The analogy of convective boundary condition is a ‘foundation

stiffness’ support in structural terms, similar to a grounded spring

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

D. Solution Options Training Manual

– The ANSYS database can be saved if “Save

ANSYS db” is set

• Useful if you want to open a database in ANSYS

– Two solvers are available in Simulation

• The default solver is automatically chosen and

does not usually need to be changed.

• The “Iterative” solver can be efficient for solving

large models whereas the “Direct” solver is a

robust solver and handles any situation.

• The ability to change the default solver is under

“Tools > Options… > Simulation: Solution

> Solver Type”

– The “Weak Springs” and “Large Deflection”

options are meant for structural analyses only,

so they can be ignored for a thermal analysis.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Solution Options Training Manual

• For a regular thermal analysis, the “Analysis Type”

will be set to “Static Thermal.” If structural

supports and results are present, then the

analysis type will be “Thermal Stress.”

• A nonlinear solution will be required if

temperature-dependent (a) material properties or

(b) convection film coefficients are present. This

means that several internal iterations will be run

to achieve heat equilibrium.

• The solver working directory is where scratch files

are saved during the solution of the equations.

By default, the TEMP directory of your Windows

system environment variable is used, although this

can be changed in “Tools > Options… >

Simulation: Solution > Solver Working Directory”.

– Any solver messages which appear after

solution can be checked afterwards under

ANSYS License

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Availability

x “Solver Messages”

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Solving the Model Training Manual

click on the “Solve” button on the Standard Toolbar

– By default, two processors (if present) will be used for parallel

processing. To change this, use “Tools > Options… >

Simulation: Solution > Number of Processors to Use”

– Recall that if a “Solution Information” branch is requested, the

details of the solution output can be examined.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Solving the Model Training Manual

support(s) and request structural results, then solve the

model.

– Structural loads are optional but can also be added.

– Simulation will know that a thermal-stress analysis is to be

performed (under Details view of the Solution branch). The

following will be performed automatically:

• A steady-state thermal analysis will be performed

• The temperature field will be mapped back onto the structural

model

• A structural analysis will be performed

– See Chapter 4 for details on Structural Analyses

– Simulation automates this type of coupled-field solution, so

the user does not have to worry about the above details.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

E. Results and Postprocessing Training Manual

– Temperature

– Heat Flux

– “Reaction” Heat Flow Rate

but they can be requested afterwards, too.

– If you solve a model then request results afterwards, click on

the “Solve” button , and the results will be retrieved. A

new solution is not required for retrieving output of a solved

model.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Temperature Training Manual

– Temperature is the degree of freedom solved for,

and it is the most basic output request.

– Temperature is a scalar quantity and, therefore,

has no direction associated with it.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Heat Flux Training Manual

– Heat flux q is defined as

q KXX T

and is related to the thermal gradient T. The heat flux output

has three components and can aid the user in seeing how the

heat is flowing.

– The magnitude plotted as contours: “Total Heat Flux”

– The magnitude & direction as vectors: “Vector Heat Flux”

• Recall that wireframe is best for viewing vectors

– Components of heat flux

can be requested with

“Directional Heat Flux”

and can be mapped on

any coordinate system.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Reaction Heat Flow Rate Training Manual

Temperature or Convection boundary condition

– Recall that both given temperature and convection supply a

known temperature, either directly or indirectly. Hence, this

acts as a heat source/sink, and the amount of heat flowing in

(positive) or out (negative) of the support can be output.

– For each individual Given Temperature or

Convection load, the Reaction heat flow rate

is printed in the Details view after a solution.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

… Reaction Heat Flow Rate Training Manual

tabular summary of reaction heat flow rates.

– If a thermal support shares a vertex, edge, or surface with

another thermal support or load, the reported reaction heat

flow rate may be incorrect. This is due to the fact that the

underlying mesh will have multiple supports applied to the

same nodes. The solution will still be valid, but the reported

values may not be accurate because of this.

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Steady-State Thermal Analysis

F. Workshop 6 Training Manual

• Goal:

– Analyze the pump housing shown below for its heat transfer

characteristics.

Inventory #002215

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