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DC GENERATORS

Presented By,

S.BALAMURUGAN
Assistant Professor
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,

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Generator

Mechanical I/p – Electrical O/p

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Classifications of Electrical Machines

Static Machine Dynamic Machine


(Eg. Transformer) (Eg. Motor, Generator)

AC Machine DC Machine

DC Generator DC Motor
Shunt
Self Excited Series
Separately Excited Compound

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Faraday’s First Law of Electromagnetic Induction

When ever a current carrying conductor cuts a


electromagnetic lines of flux an EMF will be induced
across the conductor or vice versa.

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Faraday’s second law of electromagnetic induction

The amount of EMF induced in the conductor is


directly proportional to the rate of change of flux.

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LENZ’S LAW

• Lenz’s Law: The direction of an induced emf is such


that it opposes the change that causes it.

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FLEMING RIGHT HAND RULE(GENERATOR)
It was invented for use in electromagnetism by British scientist
John Ambrose Fleming in the late 19th century.

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CONSTRUCTION OF DC MACHINE

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DC MACHINE CONSTRUCTION FIELD

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POLE CORE

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DC MACHINE FOUR-POLE FIELD

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ARMATURE OF A DC MACHINE

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DETAILS OF THE COMMUTATOR
OF A DC MACHINE

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• The Field of the DC Generator has poles, which
are excited by DC current to produce magnetic
fields.

• In the neutral zone, in the middle between the


poles, commutating poles are placed to reduce
sparking of the commutator. The commutating
poles are supplied by dc current.

• Compensating windings are mounted on the


main poles.

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• The poles are mounted on an iron core that provides a
closed magnetic circuit.

• The generator housing supports the iron core, the brushes


and the bearings.

• The commutator consists of insulated copper segments


mounted on an insulated tube.

• Two brushes are pressed to the commutator to permit


current flow.

• The brushes are placed in the neutral zone, where the


magnetic field is close to zero, to reduce arcing.

• The armature has a ring-shaped laminated iron core with


slots. 16
Elements of an armature windings

A turn – two conductors connected to an end by an end connector


A coil – several turns connected in series
A winding – several coils connected in series
The angle between centers of adjacent poles is 180o (electrical)
180o electrical
= 90o mech

360o electrical
= 180o mech N

S S

N
The angle between centers of adjacent poles is 180o (electrical)

If coil sides are placed 180o electrical apart, the coil is said to be
full-pitch

N
a
a b
180oelec
S S
b

N
The most common ways of connecting coils for armature
windings:

 Lap winding
 Wave winding
 Ends of the coils are connected to the commutator bars
 In DC machines most of the coils are full-pitch.
DC MACHINE CONSTRUCTION

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DC GENERATOR OPERATION

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Voltage build-up of shunt generators

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E.M.F. EQUATION OF A D.C. GENERATOR

Let
Φ = flux/pole in Wb
Z = total number of armature conductors
P = number of poles
A = number of parallel paths = 2 for wave winding= P for lap winding
N = speed of armature in r.p.m.
Eg= e.m.f. of the generator = e.m.f./parallel path
Flux cut by one conductor in one revolution of the armature
dφ = Pφ webers
Time taken to complete one revolution,
dt = 60/N second
• e.m.f generated/conductor = dt = 60/N second

• e.m.f generated/conductor =

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e.m.f generated/conductor =
=
e.m.f. of generator,
Eg= e.m.f. per parallel path

= (e.m.f/conductor)×No. of conductors in
series per parallel path
=

Eg = A=P for lap winding


A = 2 for wave winding

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TYPES OF DC GENERATORS (OR) EXCITATION

1. Separately Excited DC Generators


2. Self Excited DC Generators
a. Series Wound DC Generators
b. Shunt Wound DC Generators
c. Compound Wound DC Generators
I. Long Shunt
i. Cumulative Compound
ii. Differential Compound
II. Short Shunt
i. Cumulative Compound
ii. Differential Compound
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TYPES OF DC GENERATOR

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Separately Excited DC Generators

If=Vdc/Rf Ia= Il
Eg=Vt+ Ia Ra+Vb
Where,
If = Field Current or Excitation Current in Amps Where,
Vdc = Field Excitation Voltage in Volts Eg = Generated EMF in Volts
Rf = Field Resistance in Ohms Vt = Terminal Voltage in Volts
Ia = Armature Current in Amps
Ra = Armature Resistance in Ohms
Vb = Brush Voltage Drop in Volts 35
Self Excited DC Generators

Series Wound DC Generators Shunt Wound DC Generators

Ia= Ise= Il Ia= Ish+ Il


Eg=Vt+ Ia Ra+Ise Rse+Vb Eg=Vt+ Ia Ra+Vb
Eg=Vt+ Ia (Ra+Rse)+Vb

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Ia= Ish+ Ise (Ise = Il) Ia= Ise

Eg= Vt+ Ia Ra+ Ise Rse+Vb Ia = Ish + Il

Eg=Vt+ Ia Ra+ Ise Rse + Vb


Eg=Vt+ Ia (Ra+ Rse) + Vb
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Characteristics of a Separately Excited D.C.
Generator Open circuit characteristic

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SEPARATELY EXCITED D.C. GENERATOR
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CHARACTERISTIC

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CRITICAL RESISTANCE

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CHARACTERISTICS OF A SHUNT
GENERATOR

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CHARACTERISTICS OF SERIES
GENERATOR

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COMPOUND GENERATOR
CHARACTERISTICS

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ARMATURE REACTION
What is Armature Reaction ?

Armature Reaction in a d.c. machine is


basically the effect of armature produced
flux on the main flux or field flux .
Effects…
• The armature reaction produces the following
two undesirable effects:

1. It demagnetizes or weakens the main flux.

2. It cross-magnetizes or distorts the main flux.


Reduction in main flux per voltage reduces
the generated voltage and torque whereas
distortion of the main-field flux influences
the limits of successful commutation in d.c.
machines.
Explanation…
• To understand this process let us first assume a 2-pole
d.c. machine at no load . At that instant there is no
armature current . So the flux due to mmf produced
by field current in the machine at north pole of the
magnet will flow towards the south pole of the
magnet.
• The net / resultant flux of the system can be taken as
a straight horizontal line OA and can be shown in
phasor as :-

• Also at that instant the Magnetic Neutral Axis


(M.N.A) of the machine will concide with the
Geometrical Neutral Axis (G.N.A) of the machine as
the M.N.A is always perpendicular to the net flux.
• Now when the dc machine is loaded , current flows in
armature windings . This armature current set up
armature flux . With field windings unexcited , the
flux can be shown as vertical lines across armature
conductors .
• The conductors on the left side of the M.N.A will
have current flowing in inside direction whereas on
right side of MNA , the current will flow in outside
direction. The direction of the flux thus produced can
be determined by using Maxwell‘s Right hand Screw
rule.
• The resultant flux of the system is a straight vertical
line OB and can be shown in phasor as :-

• Note that the magnitude of OB will always be less


than OA since the cause of armature flux is field flux
and it is known to us that effect is always less than
cause. Here armature flux is the effect and field flux
is its cause.
• An examination to the above two phasors reveals that
the path of armature flux is perpendicular to the main
field flux.
• In other words, the path of the armature flux crosses
the path of the main field flux. This can be shown in
phasor as :-

• Thus the effect of armature flux on the main field flux


is entirely ‘cross-magnetizing’ and it is for this
reason that the flux produced by armature mmf is also
called as cross-flux.
• When the current flows in both the armature and field
windings, the resultant flux distribution is obtained by
superimposing theses two fluxes. i.e.
• It is observed that the armature flux aids the main
field flux at the lower end of the N-pole and at the
upper end of the S-pole, therefore at these two
poles, the armature flux strengthens the main field
flux.

• Likewise, the armature flux weakens the main field


flux at Upper end of the N-pole and at lower end of
the S-pole.
• Now, if there is no magnetic saturation, then the
amount of strengthening and weakening of the main
field flux are equal and the resultant flux per pole
remains unaltered from its no load value.

• Actually, the magnetic saturation does occurs and as a


consequence, the strengthening effect is less as
compared to the weakening effect and the resultant
flux is decreased from its no-load value. This is called
‘Demagnetizing effect of armature reaction’
• So when the machine is run loaded , M.N.A will shift
from G.N.A of the machine .

• The resultant shift is completely dependent on the


magnitude of armature current.

• Thus, greater the value of armature current , greater is


the shift of MNA from GNA .
• It may therefore be stated from the above that net
effect of armature flux on the main field flux is:-

1. To distort the main field flux thereby causing


non-uniform distribution of flux under the main
poles.
2. To shift the MNA in the direction of the rotation
for a generator and against the direction of
rotation for a motor.
3. To reduce the main field flux from its no-load
value due to magnetic saturation.
Methods to reduce Armature Reaction
• There are various methods of reducing the armature
reaction, some of them are:-

1. Compensate Windings

2. Interpoles or copoles
Compensating Windings
• The compensating windings consist of a series
of coils embedded in slots in the pole faces.

• These coils are connected in series with the


armature in such a way that the current in them
flows in opposite direction to that flowing in
armature conductors directly below the pole
shoes.
• The series-connected compensating windings
produce a magnetic field, which varies directly
with armature current.

• As the compensating windings are wound to


produce a field that opposes the magnetic field
of the armature, they tend to cancel the effects
of the armature magnetic field.
Interpoles
• Another way to reduce the effects of armature
reaction is to place small auxiliary poles
called "interpoles" between the main field
poles.

• Interpoles have a few turns of large wire and


are connected in series with the armature.
• Interpoles are wound and placed so that each
interpole has the same magnetic polarity as the
main pole ahead of it, in the direction of rotation.

• The field generated by the interpoles produces the


same effect as the compensating winding. This
field, in effect, cancels the armature reaction for
all values of load current.
Commutation-Methods
to improve Commutation
Commutation
• The voltage generated in the armature, placed in a
rotating magnetic field, of a DC generator is
alternating in nature.

• The commutation in DC machine or more specifically


commutation in DC generator is the process in which
generated alternating current in the armature
winding of a dc machine is converted into direct
current after going through the commutator and the
stationary brushes.

• Again in DC Motor, the input DC is to be converted in


alternating form in armature and that is also done
through commutation in DC motor.
• This transformation of current from the rotating
armature of a dc machine to the stationary brushes
needs to maintain continuously moving contact
between the commutator segments and the brushes.

• When the armature starts to rotate, then the coils


situated under one pole (let it be N pole) rotates
between a positive brush and its consecutive negative
brush and the current flows through this coil is in a
direction inward to the commutator segments.

• Then the coil is short circuited with the help of a


brush for a very short fraction of time(1⁄500 sec).

• It is called commutation period.


• After this short-circuit time the armature coils
rotates under S pole and rotates between a
negative brush and its succeeding positive
brush.
• Then the direction of become is reversed which
is in the away from the commutator segments.
• This phenomena of the reversal of current is
termed as commutation process. We get direct
current from the brush terminal.
• The commutation is called ideal if the
commutation process or the reversal of current
is completed by the end of the short circuit time
or the commutation period.
• If the reversal of current is completed during the
short circuit time then there is sparking occurs
at the brush contacts and the commutator
surface is damaged due to overheating and the
machine is called poorly commutated.
Physical Concept of Commutation in DC Machine

• For the explanation of commutation process, let us


consider a dc machine having an armature wound
with ring winding. Let us also consider that the width
of the commutator bar is equal to the width of the
brush and current flowing through the conductor is
IC.
• Let the commutator is moving from left to right. Then
the brush will move from right to left.
• At the first position, the brush is connected the
commutator bar b (as shown in fig 1). Then the total
current conducted by the commutator bar b into the
brush is 2IC.
• When the armature starts to move right, then the
brush comes to contact of bar a.
• Then the armature current flows through two paths
and through the bars a and b (as shown in fig 2). The
total current (2IC) collected by the brush remain same.
• As the contact area of the bar a with the brush
increases and the contact area of the bar b decreases,
the current flow through the bars increases and
decreases simultaneously.
• When the contact area become same for both the
commutator bar then same current flows through both
the bars (as shown in fig 3).
• When the brush contact area with the bar b decreases
further, then the current flowing through the coil B
changes its direction and starts to flow counter-
clockwise (as shown in fig 4).
• When the brush totally comes under the bar a (as
shown in fig 5) and disconnected with the bar b then
current IC flows through the coil B in the counter-
clockwise direction and the short circuit is removed.
• In this process the reversal of current or the process of
commutation is done.
Methods to improve commutation
• To make the commutation satisfactory we have to
make sure that the current flowing through the coil
completely reversed during the commutation period
attains its full value.
• There are two main methods of improving
commutation. These are
• Resistance commutation
• E.M.F. commutation
Resistance Commutation
 In this method of commutation we use high electrical
resistance brushes for getting spark less commutation.
 This can be obtained by replacing low resistance copper
brushes with high resistance carbon brushes.
 We can clearly see from the picture that the current IC
from the coil C may reach to the brush in two ways in
the commutation period. One path is direct through the
commutator segment b and to the brush and the 2nd
path is first through the short-circuit coil B and then
through the commutator segment a and to the brush.
When the brush resistance is low, then the current IC
from coil C will follow the shortest path, i.e. the 1st path
as its electrical resistance is comparatively low because
it is shorter than the 2nd path.
• When high resistance brushes are used, then as the
brush moves towards the commutator segments, the
contact area of the brush and the segment b decreases
and contact area with the segment a increases.
• Now, as the electrical resistance is inversely
proportional to the contact area of then resistance Rb
will increase and Ra will decrease as the brush moves.
• Then the current will prefer the 2nd path to reach to
the brush.
• Thus by this method of improving commutation, the
quick reversal of current will occur in the desired
direction.
• ρ is the resistivity of the conductor.
• l is the length of the conductor.
• A is the cross-section of the conductor (here is
this description it is used as contact area).
EMF Commutation
• The main reason of the delay of the current reversing
time in the short circuit coil during commutation
period is the inductive property of the coil. In this
type of commutation, the reactance voltage produced
by the coil due to its inductive property, is neutralized
by producing a reversing emf in the short circuit coil
during commutation period.
• Reactance voltage: The voltage rise in the short
circuit coil due to inductive property of the coil,
which opposes the current reversal in it during the
commutation period, is called the reactance voltage.
• We can produce reversing emf in two ways

1.By brush shifting.


2.By using inter-poles or commutating poles.
Brush Shifting Method of Commutation
• In this method of improving commutation the brushes are
shifted forward direction for the DC generator and in
backward direction for the motor for producing the
sufficient reversing emf for eliminating the reactance
voltage.
• When the brushes are given the forward or backward lead
then it brings the short circuit coil under the influence of
the next pole which is of the opposite polarity.
• Then the sides of the coil will cut the necessary flux form
the main poles of opposite polarity for producing the
sufficient reversing emf. This method is rarely used
because for best result, with every variation of load, the
brushes have to be shifted.
Method Of Using Inter-Pole
• In this method of commutation some small poles are
fixed to the yoke and placed between the main poles.
• These poles are called inter-poles. Their polarity is
same as the main poles situated next to it for the
generator and for the motor the polarity is same as
the main pole situated before it.
• The inter-poles induce an emf in the short circuit coil
during the commutation period which opposes
reactance voltage and give spark-less commutation.