ME170

Engineering Drawing Notes B
1. 2D Drawing Principles:
2. Coordinate Dimensioning & Tolerancing
3. ANSI/ISO Tolerance Designation
4. ANSI/ISO Classification of Limits and Fits
5. Surface Properties
6. Economics of Tolerances/Surface properties
7. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)
/rrenr|on ro 0era||
Tre erd|ree(|rd d(aW|rd |s lre spec|l|cal|or lo( lre corporerl o( assero|v ard
|s ar |rpo(larl corl(aclua| docurerl W|lr rarv |eda| |rp||cal|ors. eve(v ||re ard
eve(v correrl |s |rpo(larl.
Pa(l A
Pa(l 8
Pa(l C
Coordinate Dimensioning and
Tolerancing
The The collective collective 574.ess 41 m4/eling, /e1ining an/ /es.7ibing 574.ess 41 m4/eling, /e1ining an/ /es.7ibing
ge4met7i. sizes an/ 1eatu7e 7elati4nshi5s, an/ 574;i/ing all 41 the ge4met7i. sizes an/ 1eatu7e 7elati4nshi5s, an/ 574;i/ing all 41 the
7equi7e/ te.hni.al in147mati4n ne.essa7 t4 574/u.e an/ ins5e.t the 7equi7e/ te.hni.al in147mati4n ne.essa7 t4 574/u.e an/ ins5e.t the
5a7t is .alle/ 5a7t is .alle/ dimensioning and dimensioning and tolerancing tolerancing..
The .u77ent Nati4nal Stan/a7/ 147 /imensi4ning an/ The .u77ent Nati4nal Stan/a7/ 147 /imensi4ning an/ t4le7an.ing t4le7an.ing in in
the Unite/ States is ASME Y14.5M the Unite/ States is ASME Y14.5M - - 1994. 1994.
DRAWN ÌN ACCORDANCE WÌTH ASME Y14.5M - 1994
REMOVE ALL BURRS AND SHARP EDGES
ALL FÌLLETS AND ROUNDS R .06 UNLESS OTHERWÌSE SPECÌFÌED
C||c| re(e lo( ||r| lo AN3l Weos|le |l vou W|sr lo pu(crase A3VE Y11.5 - 2009
ANSI stan/a7/ ANSI stan/a7/ - - ASME Y14.5M ASME Y14.5M
Dimensioning Scheme - deciding what.
where. and how to add dimensions to the drawing
20
Line Types
W Object Lines
W Hidden Lines
W Center Lines
W Phantom Lines
W Dimension Lines
Extension Lines
Leader Lines
W Cutting Plane Line
W Sections - Hatching
W Break Lines
thin
thin
thin
thick
thin
thin
thick
thick
Arrowheads
W A774hea/s a7e use/ as te7minat47s 4n /imensi4n lines. The 54ints 41 the
a774hea/s 4n lea/e7 lines an/ /imensi4n lines must make .4nta.t ith the
1eatu7e 4bie.t line 47 extensi4n lines hi.h 7e57esent the 1eatu7e being
/imensi4ne/. The stan/a7/ size 7ati4 147 all a774hea/s 4n me.hani.al
/7aings is 3:1 (length t4 i/th).
00
R 8.5
1st 1st 2n/ 2n/ 37/ 37/ 4th 4th
O1 the 14u7 /i11e7ent a774hea/ t5es that a7e auth47ize/ b the nati4nal O1 the 14u7 /i11e7ent a774hea/ t5es that a7e auth47ize/ b the nati4nal
stan/a7/, ASME Y14.2M stan/a7/, ASME Y14.2M 1994, a 1ille/ a774hea/ is the highest 57e1e7en.e. 1994, a 1ille/ a774hea/ is the highest 57e1e7en.e.
|rers|ors srou|d oe p|aced ours|oe lre aclua| pa(l oul||re. |rers|ors srou|d rol
oe p|aced W|lr|r lre pa(l oourda(|es ur|ess d(eale( c|a(|lv Wou|d (esu|l.
The7e sh4ul/ be a The7e sh4ul/ be a
;isible ga5 (~1.5 mm) ;isible ga5 (~1.5 mm)
beteen the 4bie.t lines beteen the 4bie.t lines
an/ the beginning 41 an/ the beginning 41
ea.h extensi4n line. ea.h extensi4n line.
Extensi4n lines 4;e7la5 /imensi4n lines (be4n/ the 54int 41 the Extensi4n lines 4;e7la5 /imensi4n lines (be4n/ the 54int 41 the
a774hea/s) b a /istan.e 41 74ughl 2 a774hea/s) b a /istan.e 41 74ughl 2- -3mm 3mm
1.75
1.06
Dimension Lines and Extension Lines
A774s in / /imensi4n in A774s in / /imensi4n in
A774s 4ut / /imensi4n in A774s 4ut / /imensi4n in
A774s in / /imensi4n 4ut A774s in / /imensi4n 4ut
A774s 4ut / /imensi4n 4ut A774s 4ut / /imensi4n 4ut
.56
1.50
.750
.500
Placement of Linear Dimensions
Order of Preference
hen the7e is n4t en4ugh 744m beteen the extensi4n lines t4 a..4mm4/ate hen the7e is n4t en4ugh 744m beteen the extensi4n lines t4 a..4mm4/ate
eithe7 the /imensi4n ;alue 47 the /imensi4n lines the .an be 5la.e/ 4utsi/e eithe7 the /imensi4n ;alue 47 the /imensi4n lines the .an be 5la.e/ 4utsi/e
the extensi4n lines as sh4n in the 14u7th exam5le (use Fli5 A774s in P74E). the extensi4n lines as sh4n in the 14u7th exam5le (use Fli5 A774s in P74E).
Reference Dimension Symbol (X.XXX)
W Reference d|mens|ons are used on
draw|ngs to prov|de support
|nformat|on on|y.
W They are va|ues that have been
der|ved from other d|mens|ons and
therefore shou|d not be used for
ca|cu|at|on, product|on or |nspect|on
of parts.
W The use of reference d|mens|ons on
draw|ngs shou|d be m|n|m|zed.
EXAMPLE
.50
1.000 (.750) .500
1.50
.500
(.750)
.500
#eference Dimensions
4.375
1.50
1.438
1.06
.688
1.000
1.875
.31
.375 (10mm)
inimum S5a.ing
.250 (6mm)
inimum S5a.ing
Sh47te7 (inte7me/iate) /imensi4ns a7e 5la.e/ .l4sest t4 the 4utline 41 the 5a7t, Sh47te7 (inte7me/iate) /imensi4ns a7e 5la.e/ .l4sest t4 the 4utline 41 the 5a7t,
14ll4e/ b /imensi4ns 41 g7eate7 length. Dimensi4ns nea7est the 4bie.t 4utline 14ll4e/ b /imensi4ns 41 g7eate7 length. Dimensi4ns nea7est the 4bie.t 4utline
sh4ul/ be at least .375 in.hes (10 mm) aa 174m the 4bie.t, an/ su..ee/ing sh4ul/ be at least .375 in.hes (10 mm) aa 174m the 4bie.t, an/ su..ee/ing
5a7allel /imensi4n lines sh4ul/ be at least .250 in.hes (6 mm) a5a7t. 5a7allel /imensi4n lines sh4ul/ be at least .250 in.hes (6 mm) a5a7t.
Location of Dimensions
|rers|ors srou|d oe p|aced ours|oe lre aclua| pa(l oul||re
4.375
1.06
.688
1.000
1.875
.31
1.50
1.438
4.375
1.06
.688
1.000
.31
1.50
1.438
Extensi4n lines sh4ul/ n4t .74ss /imensi4n lines i1 a;4i/able Extensi4n lines sh4ul/ n4t .74ss /imensi4n lines i1 a;4i/able
BETTER BETTER
Basic Dimensioning - Good Practice
In-line /imensi4ns .an sha7e
a774hea/s ith .4ntigu4us
/imensi4ns
1.875
1.375
1.375
.65 THRU
.50
.6
.50
x .6 DP
Diameter Dimensions
Holes and cutouts
W henever |t |s pract|ca| to do so, externa| d|ameters are d|mens|oned |n rectangu|ar
[or |ong|tud|na|} v|ews. 6y||ndr|ca| ho|es, s|otted holes, and cutouts that are
|rregu|ar |n shape wou|d norma||y be d|mens|oned |n v|ews where the|r true
geometr|c shape |s shown.
.75
1.5
.00
.5 THRU
Diameter Dimensions
Shafts and Holes
18º 18º
18º
18º
18º
18º
3.50
.875
3X .56
6X .188
Placement with Polar Coordinates
To dimension features on a round or axisymmetric component
#adial Dimensions
To indicate the size of fillets. rounds. and radii
R.56
R.750
R.31
R.31
R14.5
Angular Dimensions:
To indicate the size of angular details appearing as either angular or
linear dimensions.
92Þ
63Þ
or
103
95
50
35 90
erdlr ol Cro(d
or
erdlr ol A(c
2 x 15l
o(
2 x 2 ClAV
Crarle(s
92
º
2 x 45
º
63º
Alte7nate
Times¨ an/ B¨ Smb4l: X
W Tre X svroo| car a|so oe used lo
|rd|cale lre Wo(d 'ov¨. Fo( |rslarce.
Wrer a s|ol lral ras a d|ver W|dlr - a
spec|l|ed |erdlr. o( a crarle( lral ras
ecua| s|des |.12 X .12).
W rer used lo |rp|v lre Wo(d '- a
soaoe musr oreoeoe ano lo||ou rne X
sm-o|.
W ll lre sare lealu(e |s (epealed or lre
d(aW|rd |sucr as 8 ro|es ol lre sare
d|arele( ard |r a spec|l|ed palle(r). lre
ruroe( ol l|res lre |rsl(ucl|or app||es
|s ca||ed oul us|rd lre svroo| X.
.1 X 45º
CHAMFER
.375
.56 X 8º SK
8X .50 THRU
Drawing Notes
DRAWN ÌN ACCORDANCE WÌTH ASME Y14.5M - 1994
REMOVE ALL BURRS AND SHARP EDGES
ALL FÌLLETS AND ROUNDS R .06 UNLESS OTHERWÌSE SPECÌFÌED
N4tes sh4ul/ be .4n.ise an/ s5e.i1i.. The sh4ul/ use a557457iate N4tes sh4ul/ be .4n.ise an/ s5e.i1i.. The sh4ul/ use a557457iate
te.hni.al language, an/ be .4m5lete an/ a..u7ate in e;e7 /etail. te.hni.al language, an/ be .4m5lete an/ a..u7ate in e;e7 /etail.
The sh4ul/ be auth47e/ in su.h a a as t4 ha;e The sh4ul/ be auth47e/ in su.h a a as t4 ha;e onlv one possible onlv one possible
interpretation interpretation..
General Notes
Local Notes
4X 8.0 M10 X 1.5
8º CSK 10
1.5 X 45º CHAM
Depth or Deep Symbol*
This smb4l is .u77entl n4t use/ in the ISO stan/a7/. It has been 57454se/. This smb4l is .u77entl n4t use/ in the ISO stan/a7/. It has been 57454se/.
.375
.65
EXAMPLE
.375
.65
#
ASME/ANSI Hole Depth Symbol
W eatures such as b||nd ho|es and
counterbores, 2:st have a depth
ca||ed out to fu||y descr|be the|r
geometry.
Countersink Symbol*
ASME/ANSI Countersink Symbol
W The symbo| denotes a requ|rement for
countersunk ho|es used to recess f|athead
screws. The he|ght of the symbo| |s equa| to
the |etter he|ght on the draw|ng, and the
|nc|uded ang|e |s drawn at 90ª. Note that th|s
symbo| |s not used |n the |80 [|nternat|ona|}
standard.
This smb4l is .u77entl n4t use/ in the ISO stan/a7/. It has been 57454se/. This smb4l is .u77entl n4t use/ in the ISO stan/a7/. It has been 57454se/.
.375
.56 X 90º
EXAMPLE
Counterbore Symbol*
W Th|s symbo| denotes .o:nterbored ho|es used
to recess mach|ne screw heads.
This smb4l is .u77entl n4t use/ in the ISO stan/a7/. It has been 57454se/. This smb4l is .u77entl n4t use/ in the ISO stan/a7/. It has been 57454se/.
EXAMPLE
.375
.56 .31
.56
.31
.375
#
ASME/ANSI Counterbore Symbol
ISO specify metric only:
Note: Use standard screw sizes only
M 16 x 2 - 4h - 5H
ISO metric
designation
Nominal
Diameter
(mm)
Thread
Pitch(mm)
Class of fit
of this thread
(optional)
Class of fit
of mating thread (optional)
American Unified Threads:
3/4 - 10 - UNC - 2A
Nominal
Diameter
(inches)
Threads
per inch
Class of fit (optional)
Thread Series
UNC ÷ Unified Coarse
UNF ÷ Unified Fine
Thread Type (optional)
A÷External
B÷Internal
Screw Threads
M 16 x 2
3/4 - 10 - UNC
Fasteners etc
Many CAD models available on-line from standard catalogs
44/ i/ea t4 use t4 ensu7e that 4u a7e using a 7ea/il a;ailable 1astene7
||ok ro oo ro VoVasrer-arr on||ne s|re
Threads and 8crew asten|ng
a25le
Asse2bly
'A'
'A'
8ect|on 'A'-'A'
3 - H12
hex. 8crews
L|d
ßase
A|ways a '6|earance ho|e' [typ|ca||y screw major 0|a. + 107}
|n at |east one component |n a screw fastened jo|nt.
Threads and 8crew asten|ng |corl.)
'A'
'A'
8ect|on 'A'-'A'
3 ho|es
10.3 x 25 0P
H12x1.75 x 15 0P H|N
E0 8P on 120 P0 ase
0etail
Threads and 8crew asten|ng |corl.)
id
0etail
'A'
'A'
8ect|on 'A'-'A'
3 Holes
12.7 TH#U
EQ SP on 120 PD
Tolerances
25ortant to nterchangeabtv and 5rov8on for re5ace2ent 5art8
It is impossible to make parts to an exact size. The tolerance. or accuracy
required. will depend on the function of the part and the particular feature being
dimensioned. Therefore. the range of permissible size. or tolerance. must be
specified for all dimensions on a drawing. by the designer/draftsperson.
Nominal Size: is the size used for general identification. not the exact size.
Actual Size: is the measured dimension. A shaft of nominal diameter 10 mm may
be measured to be an actual size of 9.975 mm.
General Tolerances:
In ISO 2etrc. general tolerances are specified in a note. usually in the title block.
typically of the form: "General tolerances ÷.25 unless otherwise stated".
In Eng8h Unt8 . the decimal place indicates the general tolerance given in the
title block notes. typically:
Fractions ÷ ÷1/16. .X ÷ ÷.03. .XX ÷ ÷.01. .XXX ÷ ÷.005. .XXXX ÷ ÷0.0005.
Note: Fractions and this type of general tolerancing is not permissible in ISO
metric standards.
Specific Tolerances indicate a special situation that cannot be covered by the
general tolerance.
Specific tolerances are placed on the drawing with the dimension and have
traditionally been expressed in a number of ways:
Specific Tolerances
40
+0.05
- 0.03
40.01
+0.04
40.05
39.97
atera 1oerance Unatera 1oerance L2t D2en8on8
Limits are the maximum and minimum sizes permitted by the the
tolerance. All of the above methods show that the dimension has:
a Lower Limit ÷ 39.97 mm
an Upper Limit ÷ 40.05 mm
a Tolerance ÷ 0.08 mm
Manufacturing must ensure that the dimensions are kept within the limits
specified. Design must not over specify as tolerances have an exponential
affect on cost.
-
Limits and Fits
1. Clearance Fits
The largest permitted shaft diameter is smaller than
the diameter of the smallest hole
Min.
Hole
Max.
Hole
h0LE
8hAT
Vax.
C|ea(arce
V|r.
C|ea(arce
Min.
Shaft
Max.
Shaft
2. Interference Fits
The minimum
permitted diameter
of the shaft is larger
than the maximum
diameter of the hole
3. Transition Fits
The diameter of the
largest allowable
hole is greater than
that of the smallest
shaft. but the
smallest hole is
smaller than the
largest shaft
Min.
Hole
Max.
Hole
h0LE
8hAT
Vax.
lrle(le(erce
V|r.
lrle(le(erce
Min.
Shaft
Max.
Shaft
Min.
Hole
Max.
Hole
h0LE
8hAT
lrle(le(erce
o( c|ea(arce
Min.
Shaft
Max.
Shaft
Standard Limits and Fits -- ANSI
RC 1 Close sliding fits are intended for the accurate location of parts which must assemble without perceptible play.
RC Sliding fits are intended for accurate location, but with greater maximum clearance than class RC 1. Parts made to
this fit move and turn easily but are not intended to run freely, and in the larger sizes may seize with small
temperature changes.
RC 3 Precision running fits are about the closest fits which can be expected to run freely, and are intended for precision
work at slow speeds and light journal pressures, but are not suitable where appreciable temperature differences
are likely to be encountered.
RC 4 Close running fits are intended chiefly for running fits on accurate machinery with moderate surface speeds and
journal pressures, where accurate location and minimum play are desired.
RC 5
RC 6
Basic hole system. Limits are in thousandths of an inch.
Class RC 1
L
i
m
i
t
s

o
f

C
l
e
a
r
a
n
c
e Standard
Limits
Hole
H5
Shaft
g4
Class RC
L
i
m
i
t
s

o
f

C
l
e
a
r
a
n
c
e Standard
Limits
Hole
H6
Shaft
g5
Class RC 3
L
i
m
i
t
s

o
f

C
l
e
a
r
a
n
c
e Standard
Limits
Hole
H7
Shaft
f6
Class RC 4
L
i
m
i
t
s

o
f

C
l
e
a
r
a
n
c
e Standard
Limits
Hole
H8
Shaft
f7
Class RC 5
L
i
m
i
t
s

o
f

C
l
e
a
r
a
n
c
e Standard
Limits
Hole
H8
Shaft
e7
Class RC 6
L
i
m
i
t
s

o
f

C
l
e
a
r
a
n
c
e Standard
Limits
Hole
H9
Shaft
e8
Medium running fits are intended for higher running speeds, or heavy journal pressures, or both.
Nominal
Size Range
in
Ìnches
0 - 0.1 0.1 + 0. - 0.1 0.1 + 0.5 - 0.1 0.3 + 0.4 - 0.3 0.3 + 0.6 - 0.3 0.6 + 0.6 - 0.6 0.6 + 1.0 - 0.6
0.45 - 0 - 0.5 0.55 - 0 - 0.3 0.95 - 0 - 0.55 1.3 - 0 - 0.7 1.6 - 0 - 1.0 . - 0 - 1.
0.1 - 0.4 0.15 + 0. - 0.15 0.15 + 0.3 - 0.15 0.4 + 0.5 - 0.4 0.4 + 0.7 - 0.4 0.8 + 0.7 - 0.8 0.8 + 1. - 0.8
0.5 - 0 - 0.3 0.65 - 0 - 0.35 1.1 - 0 - 0.7 1.6 - 0 - 0.9 .0 - 0 - 1.3 .7 - 0 - 1.5
0.4 - 0.40 0. + 0.5 - 0. 0. + 0.4 - 0. 0.5 + 0.6 - 0.5 0.5 + 0.9 - 0.5 1.0 + 0.9 - 1.0 1.0 + 1.4 - 1.0
0.6 - 0 - 0.35 0.85 - 0 - 0.45 1.5 - 0 - 0.9 .0 - 0 - 1.1 .5 - 0 - 1.6 3.3 - 0 - 1.9
0.40 - 0.71 0.5 + 0.3 - 0.5 0.5 + 0.4 - 0.5 0.6 + 0.7 - 0.6 0.6 + 1.0 - 0.6 1. + 1.0 - 1. 1. + 1.6 - 1.
0.75 - 0 - 0.45 0.95 - 0 - 0.55 1.7 - 0 - 1.0 .3 - 0 - 1.3 .9 - 0 - 1.9 3.8 - 0 - .
0.71 - 1.19 0.3 + 0.4 - 0.3 0.3 + 0.5 - 0.3 0.8 + 0.8 - 0.8 0.8 + 1. - 0.8 1.6 + 1. - 1.6 1.6 + .0 - 1.6
0.95 - 0 - 0.55 1. - 0 - 0.7 .1 - 0 - 1.3 .8 - 0 - 1.6 3.6 - 0 - .4 4.8 - 0 - .8
1.19 - 1.97
1.97 - 3.15
Extract fro2 1abe of Cearance Ft8
ISO Tolerance Designation
The ISO system provides for:
W 21 types of holes (standard tolerances) designated by
uppercase letters A. B. C. D. E....etc. and
W 21 types of shafts designated by the lower case letters a. b.
c. d. e...etc.
These letters define the position of the tolerance zone
relative to the nominal size. To each of these types of hole
or shaft are applied 16 grades of tolerance. designated by
numbers IT1 to IT16 - the "Fundamental Tolerances":
ITn ÷ (0.45 x 3 D +0.001 D) Pn
where D is the mean of the range of diameters and Pn is
the progression:1. 1.6. 2.5. 4.0. 6.0. 10. 16. 25......etc. which
makes each tolerance grade approximately 60º of its
predecessor.
For Example:
Experience has shown that the dimensional accuracy of
manufactured parts is approximately proportional to the
cube root of the size of the part.
Example:
A hole is specified as: 30 H7
The H class of holes has limits of . i.e. all tolerances
start at the nominal size and go positive by the amount
designated by the IT number.
IT7 for diameters ranging 30- 50 mm:
+ x
+ 0
Tolerance for IT7 ÷ (0.45 x 3 40 +0.001x 40) 16 ÷ 0.025 mm
Written on a drawing as 30 H7
0.025
0
7a5hi.al illust7ati4n 41 ISO stan/a7/ 1its
H4le Se7ies H h4le Stan/a7/
Selection of Fits and the
ISO Hole Basis system
From the above it will be realized that there are a very large number of
combinations of hole deviation and tolerance with shaft deviation and
tolerance. However. a given manufacturing organization will require a
number of different types of fit ranging from tight drive fits to light running
fits for bearings etc. Such a series of fits may be obtained using one of two
standard systems:
The Shaft Basis System:
For a given nominal size a series of fits is arranged for a given nominal size
using a standard shaft and varying the limits on the hole.
The Hole Basis System:
For a given nominal size. the limits on the hole are kept constant. and a series
of fits are obtained by only varying the limits on the shaft.
The HOLE SYSTEM is commonly used because holes are more difficult to
produce to a given size and are more difficult to inspect. The H series (lower
limit at nominal. 0.00) is typically used and standard tooling (e.g. H7 reamers)
and gauges are common for this standard.
ISO Standard "Hole Basis"
Clearance Fits
Type of Fit Hole Shaft
Loose #unning Fits. Suitable 147 l44se 5ulles
an/ the l44se7 1astene7 1its he7e 17ee/4m 41
assembl is 41 57ime im547tan.e
H11 .11
Free #unning Fit. he7e a..u7a. is n4t
essential, but g44/ 147 la7ge tem5e7atu7e
;a7iati4n, high 7unning s5ee/s, hea; i4u7nal
57essu7es
H9 /10
Close #unning Fit. Suitable 147 lub7i.ate/
bea7ing, g7eate7 a..u7a., a..u7ate l4.ati4n,
he7e n4 substantial tem5e7atu7e /i11e7en.e is
en.4unte7e/.
H8 17
Sliding Fits. Suitable 147 57e.isi4n l4.ati4n 1its.
Sha1ts a7e ex5ensi;e t4 manu1a.tu7e sin.e the
.lea7an.es a7e small an/ the a7e n4t
7e.4mmen/e/ 147 7unning 1its ex.e5t in
57e.isi4n equi5ment he7e the sha1t l4a/ings
a7e ;e7 light.
H7 g6
Locational Clearance Fits. P74;i/es snug 1it
147 l4.ating stati4na7 5a7ts; but .an be 17eel
assemble/ an/ /isassemble/.
H7 h6
ISO Standard "Hole Basis¨
Transition Fits
Type of Fit
Locational Transition Fits. 147 a..u7ate
l4.ati4n, a .4m574mise beteen .lea7an.e an/
inte71e7en.e
Push Fits. T7ansiti4n 1its a;e7aging little 47 n4
.lea7an.e an/ a7e 7e.4mmen/e/ 147 l4.ati4n 1its
he7e a slight inte71e7an.e .an be t4le7ate/ 147
the 5u754se, 147 exam5le, 41 eliminating ;ib7ati4n.
Hole Shaft
H7 k6
H7 n6
ISO Standard "Hole Basis"
Interference Fits
Type of Fit
Press Fit. Suitable as the stan/a7/ 57ess 1it int4
1e774us, i.e. steel, .ast i74n et.., assemblies.
Drive Fit Suitable as 57ess 1its in
mate7ial 41 l4 m4/ulus 41 elasti.it su.h as
light all4s.
Hole Shaft
H7 56
H7 s6
N4minal Sizes T4le7an.e T4le7an.e T4le7an.e T4le7an.e T4le7an.e T4le7an.e
O;e7 T4 H11 .11 H9 /10 H9 e9 H8 17 H7 g6 H7 h6
mm

mm
3
0.001 mm
60
0
0.001 mm
-60
-120
0.001 mm
25
0
0.001 mm
-20
0
0.001 mm
25
0
0.001 mm
-14
-39
0.001 mm
14
0
0.001 mm
-6
-16
0.001 mm
10
-
0.001 mm
-2
-8
0.001 mm
10
0
0.001 mm
-6
0
3 6
75
0
-70
-145
30
0
-30
-78
30
0
-20
-50
18
0
-10
-22
12
0
-4
-12
12
0
-8
0
6 10
90
0
-80
-170
36
0
-40
-98
36
0
-25
-61
22
0
-13
-28
15
0
-5
-14
15
0
-9
0
10 18
110
0
-95
-205
43
0
-50
-120
43
0
-32
-75
27
0
-16
-34
18
0
-6
-17
18
0
-11
0
18 30
130
0
-110
-240
52
0
-65
-149
52
0
-40
-92
33
0
-20
-41
21
0
-7
-20
21
0
-13
0
30 40
160
0
-120
-280 62 -80 62 -50 39 -25 25 -9 25 -16
40 50
160
0
-130
-290
0 -180 0 -112 0 -50 0 -25 0 0
50 65
190
0
-130
-330 74 -100 76 -60 46 -30 30 -12 30 -19
65 80
190
0
-150
-340
0 -220 0 -134 0 -60 0 -34 0 0
80 100
220
0
-170
-390 87 -120 87 -72 54 -36 35 -12 35 -22
100 120
220
0
-180
-400
0 -260 0 -159 0 -71 0 -34 0 0
120 140
250
0
-200
-450
140 160
250
0
-210
-460
100
0
-145
-305
100
0
-84
-185
63
0
-43
-83
40
0
-14
-39
40
0
-25
0
160 180
250
0
-230
-480
180 200
290
0
-240
-530
200 225
290
0
-260
-550
115
0
-170
-355
115
0
-100
-215
-72
0
-50
-96
46
0
-15
-44
46
0
-29
0
225 250
290
0
-280
-570
250 280
320
0
-300
-620 130 -190 130 -190 130 -110 81 -96 52 -17
280 315
320
0
-330
-650
0 -400 0 -400 0 -240 0 -108 0 -49
315 355
360
0
-360
-720 140 -210 140 -135 89 -62 57 -18 57 -36
355 400
360
0
-400
-760
0 -440 0 -265 0 -119 0 -54 0 0
400 450
400
0
-440
840 155 -230 155 -135 97 -68 63 -20 63 -40
450 500
400
0
-480
-850
0 -480 0 -290 0 -131 0 -60 0 0
ISO Clearance Fits
N4minal Sizes T4le7an.e
O;e7 T4 H7 k6 H7 n6
mm

mm
3
0.001 mm
10
0
0.001 mm
6
0
0.001 mm
10
0
0.001 mm
10
4
3 6
12
0
9
1
12
0
16
8
6 10
15
0
10
1
15
0
19
10
10 18
18
0
12
1
18
0
23
12
18 30
21
0
15
2
21
0
23
15
30 40
25 18 25 33
40 50
0 2 0 17
50 65
30 21 30 39
65 80
0 2 0 20
80 100
35 25 35 45
100 120
0 3 0 23
120 140
140 160
40
0
28
3
40
0
52
27
160 180
180 200
200 225
46
0
33
4
46
0
60
34
225 250
250 280
52 -32 52 36
280 315
0 - 0 4
315 355
57 40 57 73
355 400
0 4 0 37
400 450
63 45 63 80
450 500
0 5 0 40
ISO
Transition
Fits
N4minal Sizes T4le7an.e T4le7an.e
O;e7 T4 H7 56 H7 s6
mm

mm
3
0.001 mm
10
0
0.001 mm
12
6
0.001 mm
10
0
0.001 mm
20
14
3 6
12
0
20
12
12
0
27
19
6 10
15
0
24
15
15
0
32
23
10 18
18
0
29
18
18
0
39
28
18 30
21
0
35
22
21
0
48
35
30 40
25 42 25 59
40 50
0 26 0 43
50 65
30 51
30
0
72
53
65 80
0 32 30
0
78
59
80 100
35 59
35
0
93
78
100 120
0 37 35
0
101
79
120 140
40
0
117
92
140 160
40
0
68
43
40
0
125
100
160 180
40
0
133
108
180 200
46
0
151
122
200 225
46
0
79
50
46
0
159
130
225 250
46
0
169
140
250 280
52 88
52
0
198
158
280 315
0 56 52
0
202
170
315 355
57 98
57
0
226
190
355 400
0 62 57
0
244
208
400 450
63 108
63
0
272
232
450 500
0 68 63
0
292
252
ISO
Interference
Fits
|anged 8|ntered
ßronze P|a|n
ßear|ng
http://www.McMasterCarr.com
0n-||ne |nteract|ve 6ata|ogs
http://www.skf.com/portal/skf/home/products?maincatalogue÷1&lang÷en&newlink÷1
Tolerance Calculation - 'Worst Case Method'
for correct fit in all cases. if manufactured to specification
3rall |r ro|e
3rall lo|e
Te(r|ro|odv
Allowance
The minimum all4able /i11e7en.e beteen mating
5a7ts:

All4an.e ÷ Smallest H4le Size - La7gest Sha1t Size

Clearance
The maximum all4able /i11e7en.e beteen mating
5a7ts:

lea7an.e ÷ La7gest H4le Size - Smallest Sha1t Size

The 'Tolerance Build-up Problem'
he7e the .4mbine/ /imensi4n 41 se;e7al mating
5a7ts 7esults in an una..e5table .4n/iti4n: gene7all
n4n-1un.ti4nal (e.g. 74tating 47 sli/ing a.ti4n
im5ai7e/), 47 5a7ts ill n4t assemble, 47 aestheti.all
una..e5table (e.g. in.4nsistent ga5s a74un/ .a7 /447s)
Shaft in Hole Example
Lid on Box Example
1. All4an.e ÷ Smallest H4le Size (A) La7gest Sha1t Size (B)
2. lea7an.e ÷ La7gest H4le Size (A) Smallest Sha1t Size (B)
A
A
B
B
I1 /imensi4n ith t4le7an.e is 10
0.125
- 0.125
La7gest 1eatu7e size ÷ 10.125
Smallest 1eatu7e size ÷ 9.875
Worst Case Tolerancing
Tolerance Calculation - Tensioner Assy. Example
Axial lea7an.e
b /esign must be
S.25 but ~0.01
A
B
X
·0.25
76
+.25
+.16
76
+.15
+0
1. All4an.e ÷ Smallest H4le Size (76.16) La7gest Sha1t Size (76.15) ÷ 0.01
2. lea7an.e ÷ La7gest H4le Size (76.25) Smallest Sha1t Size (76.00) ÷ 0.25
Worst Case Tolerancing:
Axial lea7an.e b
Design must be
÷~ 0.01 but ÷· 0.25
Basic Surface Texture Symbol
With #oughness Value
(Typically #
a
µm or µ¨)
0.4
Material #emoval by Machining
With Machining Allowance
2
Harden ÷ HDN - may see symbol
Heat Treat ÷ H/T
#ockwell ÷ H#C. H#A etc or #
a
or #
c
Brinell ÷ BNL
hardness
8urface |n|sh
h0N to ô5 hR6 0.125 0P 0.4
8urface Propert|es -
Texture and hardness
6omparat|ve Roughness Va|ues
Roughness Ra Typ|ca| Processes
25 µm [1000 µ"} la2e C:tting
12.5 µm [500µ"} $awing, sand cast|ng,
ô.3 µm [250µ"} forging, shap|ng, p|an|ng
3.2 µm [125µ"} Ro:gh 2a.hining, m||||ng, rough turn|ng, dr||||ng, and
d|e cast|ng
1.ô µm [ô3µ"} Ma.hining, turn|ng, m||||ng, d|e and |nvestment
cast|ng, |nject|on mo|d|ng, and stamp|ng
0.8 µm [32µ"} Crinding, f|ne turn|ng & m||||ng, ream|ng, hon|ng,
|nject|on mo|d|ng, stamp|ng, |nvestment cast|ng
0.4 µm [1ôµ"} 0ia2ond 7:rning, Cr|nd|ng, |app|ng, hon|ng
0.2 µm [8µ"} a55ing, hon|ng, po||sh|ng
0.1 µm [4µ"} $:5erfinishing, po||sh|ng, |app|ng
8ome 6ommon 8tee|, hardness and 8urface |n|sh
8pecs.
Co22on $teel $5e.s: [10xx ser|es: xx = 7 carbon}
H||d stee| [|ow carbon = up to 30 7}: Low cost genera| purpose app||cat|ons, typ.
harden|ng not requ|red
Hed|um 6arbon [up to ô07}: requ|r|ng h|gher strength; e.g. gears, ax|es, con-rods etc.
h|gh 6arbon [> ô07}: h|gh wear, h|gh strength; e.g. cutt|ng too|s, spr|ngs etc.
Cro:nd earing $haft a25les:
Ceneral P:r5ose
10ô0: 8urface h0N to 55 hR6 0.125 mm deep m|n.; 0.4 µm [1ô µ"}
303 8ta|n|ess: [natura| surface hardness 5 hR6 }; 0.4µm [1ô µ"}
etter inish, onger ife
1020: 6ase h0N to ô5 hR6 0.25 mm deep m|n.; 0.2µm [8 µ"}
440 8ta|n|ess: [natura| c|rca 15 hR6}; 0.2µm [8 µ"}
1020
1040,
10ô0
1080
Co22on
7y5es
6 20-10
10
20
20
÷
3
÷
el/ 4n a774 si/e
el/ 4n 4the7 si/e
el/ all A74un/
Length
Pit.h
6
30-50
6
el/ 6mm 1illet
el/ this si/e 4nl
6
el/ 6mm 1illet
el/ b4th si/es
÷
÷
Specifying Welds on Drawings
i/th 41 el/

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