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THE

ELEMENTS
OF
TEACHING
AND
LEARNING
THE LEARNER
Qualities of a Learner
A. Learners are embodied spirits.

Body – experiences sensations and


feels pain and pleasure

Soul - principle of spirtual acts, source of


intellectual abstraction , self-reflection and
free rational volition

“ Every child is a potential genius”


B. Learners are equipped with both cognitive
faculties which include the five senses,
imagination, intellect and memory and
appetitive faculties which, meanwhile,
include feelings and emotions.
C. Learners differ from each other because of
two major factors: heredity and
environment.
D. Inrelation to their environment, learners may
differ in prior knowledge because of their
socio – economic and cultural backgrounds
E. Learners possess various forms of
intelligence
F. Learners differ in interests, hobbies and
habits.
G. Learners have differences in their learning and thinking styles.
G. Learners learn effectively when differential development
within and across physical, intellectual, emotional, and social
domains is taken into account.

adulthood
Adolescence
Childhood
THE TEACHER
“Teachers are duly licensed
professionals who possesses dignity and
reputation with high moral values as well as
technical and professional competence in
the practice of their noble profession, and
they strictly adhere to, observe, and
practice this set of ethical and moral
principles, standards, and values”

Code of Ethics for Professional


Teachers, 1997
PROFESSIONAL ATTRIBUTES

Mastery of the Subject Matter

Knowledge of Learners’ Psychology


Expertise in Pedagogical
Practices/Instructional Strategies

Ability to Use Educational


Technologies

Capacity for Continuous


Professional Growth and
Development
PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES

Enthusiasm

Optimism

Passion

Fairness and Impartiality

Honesty and Sincerity

Creativity and Innovativeness


OTHER ROLES

Second Parent

Manager

Assessor

Role Model

Motivator

Facilitator of Learning
THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
PHYSICAL
ENVIRONMENT
This variable talks about the physical
features, with all the furniture and educational
resources, of a learning place. This includes
size, shape, and color/wall paint of the room
itself; the bulletin boards and frames and
chalkboards; the arrangement of bookshelves,
tables, chairs and desks; the ventilation and
lighting equipments and positions; as well as
supporting resources for sanitation,
cleanliness and orderliness.
INTELLECTUAL
CLIMATE

The quality of the learning


interactions and patterns of behavior
that encourages students to think
critically and creatively and
challenges them to grow and develop
refers to the intellectual climate
inside a classroom.
SOCIAL CLIMATE
The social climate inside a learning place
refers to the quality of the social relationship
existing between teachers and students. The
social climate inside a classroom can be
autocratic, laizzez – faire or democratic.
EMOTIONAL CLIMATE

This pertains to the quality of the


emotion and mental health related
interactions and behavior inside the
classroom
STEPS IN ACHIEVING
SUITABLE CLASSROOM
ENVIRONMENT :
1. Formulate class policies
2. Establish trust in the classroom
3. Connect
4. Embrace Diversity
5. Be kind
6. Don’t allow bullying
SYSTEMS APPROACH TO
INSTRUCTION
SYSTEM DEFINED:

“A system is the set of interrelated and interdependent


elements”

“A regularly interacting or independent group of items


forming a unified whole.”

“A system is an orderly arrangement of elements, which


works in a particular way; it can be a living organism or a
cosmic phenomenon.”
Systems Approach to Instruction
(teaching) is a method, a technique, that
help a teacher to identify the necessary
components and procedures of the
teaching process and to analyze each of
these components and procedures to
better understand, control and improve the
structure and functioning of the system,
the instruction, itself, in view of effective
realization of instructional objectives.
Identify intendes
learning outcomes
and objectives

Analyze the results Choose appropriate


and refine the instructional methods
process and strategies

Choose appropriate
Evaluate outcomes materials, facilities,
and media

Implement the
instruction